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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

The most general definition of an audit is an evaluation of a person, organization, system, process, project or product. Audits are performed to ascertain the validity and reliability of information, and also provide an assessment of a system's internal control. Auditing is therefore a part of some quality control. The goal is to minimize any error, hence making information valid and reliable. Audits are mainly associated with gaining information about financial systems and the financial records of a company or a business. It is performed by competent, independent and objective person or persons, known as auditors or accountants, who then issue a report on the results of the audit. It simply provides assurance for third parties or external users that such statements present 'fairly' a company's financial condition and results of operations. This report deals with the audit report of kirloskar industries limited.

PROJECT TITLE The title of the project is A STUDY ON AUDIT REPORT OF KIRLOSKAR INDUSTRIES LIMITED. The study is made with special reference to Kirloskar industries limited.

LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Origin of term : The term audit is derived from the Latin term audire mean to hear. In early days, an auditor used to listing to the account read out by the accountant in order to check them. 2. Ancient origin : Auditing is as old as accounting. It was in use in all ancient countries such as Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Rome, U.K., and India. The Vedas,Ramayana, Mahabharata contain references to accounting and auditing. Arthashasastra by Kautilya gives detailed rules for accounting and auditing of public finances. The Mauryas, the Guptas and the Mughals had developed and accounting and auditing system to control state finances. Thus, basically, accounting and auditing had their origin in the need for the government to control the income and expenditure of the state and the army. The original object of auditing was to detect and prevent errors and frauds. 3. Compulsory audits of companies: With increasing number of companies, the companies acts in different countries began providing for compulsory audit of accounts of companies. Thus U.K. audit of accounts of limited companies became compulsory in 1900. In India, the companies act, 1913 made audit of company accounts compulsory. With increase in size of companies, the object of audit also shifted to ascertaining whether the accounts were
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true and fair rather than true and correct. Thus, the emphasis was not arithmetical accuracy but on fair representation of financial affairs. 4. Development of accounting and auditing standard: The international accounting standards committee and the accounting standards board of institute of chartered accountant of India have developed standard accounting and auditing practices to guide the accountants and auditor in their day-to-day work. 5. Computer technology: The latest development in auditing pertains to the use of computers in accounting as well as auditing. Really, auditing has come a long way from hearing the accounts in the ancient day to using computers to examine computerized accounts of today. Definition of auditing: Various persons such as the owners, shareholders, investors, creditors, lenders, government etc. use the final account of business concern for different purposes. All these users need to be sure that the final accounts prepared by the management are reliable. An auditor is an independent expert who examines the accounts of a business concern and reports whether the final accounts are reliable or not. Different authorities have defined auditing as follows. Mautz define the auditing as auditing is concerned with the verification of accounting data, with determining the accuracy and reliability of accounting statement and reports.

International auditing guidelines defines the auditing as auditing is an independent examination of financial information of any entity with a view to expressing an opinion thereon.

Objective of the Study To measure the overall performance of Audit Department in Kirloskar industries limited. To study the functions and roles of Audit Department in Kirloskar industries limited.

Scope of the study:

The Audit report study will help to know the performance of Kirloskar industries limited & it also help the management can emphasize on their weaker areas for improvement.

Limitation:

The present study has got all the limitation of case study method.

PRESENTATION OF THE STUDY The present study is arranged as follows: Chapter 1: Introduction gives an introduction to the title and to the report. Chapter 2: Chapter 3: Chapter 4: Chapter 5: Deals with Company Profile. Deals with Audit Procedure & Practice. Deals with the Analysis of Financial Statement Finding, Suggestion & Conclusion.
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CHAPTER II

COMPANY PROFILE

COMPANY PROFILE

Kirloskar Group

Type Industry Founded

Private Conglomerate 1903

Headquarters Pune, Maharastra, India Area served Key people Products Worldwide Sanjay Kirloskar, (Chairman &MD) Pumps, engines, compressors, chillers, valves, pig iron, construction transmissions automobiles through a joint venture with Toyota infrastructure, pumping projects, bridges & flyovers, submarine, pipelines, construction

The Kirloskar group origins were small but significant. In the year 1903, Sri, Laxmanrao Kashinath Kirloskar opened a bicycle shop in the state Karnataka in south India. From this modest venture has grown the Kirloskar group of more than 15 manufacturing company with an annual turnover exceeding 116 millions pounds string and engineering field in India. A Kirloskar product includes pumps, farm

machineries, machine tools, diesel engines, electrical machinery a wide variety forgings electric switchgears and tractors. The vast Kirloskar group is the result of
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industrial Vision of Shri. L.K.Kirloskar, many overseas factories are Located in the West Germany Philippines, Malaysia and Kenya.

THE FIRST KIRLOSKAR GROUP COMPANY:

Kirloskar Brothers Limited (KBL) - the first Kirloskar venture at Kirloskarvadi was to become the base for all of the Kirloskar Group's subsequent enterprises. It began as the only Indian company with its own standard products - the fodder cutter and the iron plough, which competed with the British products.

KBL also manufactured groundnut shellers, sugarcane crushers and pumps, which were to usher in a new economic order in the Indian industry. To power these machines, diesel engines, coal gas generators and electric motors were developed at Kirloskarvadi. In a display of great versatility, KBL then shifted its focus to fluid handling and control. As India's largest manufacturer of pumps and valves, and also the group's flagship company, KBL lends its strength and expertise to every new venture of the Kirloskar Group. PLAYING A PART IN THE WAR: The intensified boycott of the British goods and the approaching World War threatened to stop imports of machine tools into India. The Kirloskar, with characteristic foresight began making machine tools. This paradigm shift of sorts, from farm implements to machine tools, created a new company - The Mysore

Kirloskar Limited. This company, situated in Harihar, benefited greatly from the patronage of yet another Raja - the Maharaja of Mysore. In the first month of production, Mysore Kirloskar sold all of manufactured seven lathes. The new generation -Innovation, creation, traditionz From colonialism to independence: An important change, for the country, and for one of its premier industrial houses, the Kirloskar Group. The altered political climate of the 1940s heralded the end of the princely patronage for enterprise. The policy shifts and changes in authority were the order of the day. This marked a turning point for the group. Shantanurao Kirloskar, the eldest son of the founder travelled to Pune to initiate a new aspect of the group's activities - diesel engines. His experience of trying to secure the land for his factory in Pune was quite different from his father's in Kirloskarvadi. There was no benevolent ruler here to bestow acres gratis. Shantanurao had to face the tangle of red tape and public resistance to acquisition of land for industrial purposes. Finally, after arguing that factories have a longer life than human beings Shantanurao Kirloskar won a place for Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. (KOEL), twelve months after signing an agreement of collaboration with Associated British Oil Engines Export Ltd. of UK. This collaboration, incidentally, was the first of its kind between an Indian and a foreign company, and signified a bridging of the technological gap between east and west.

The KOEL factory was incorporated in 1946, and soon after that gave India her first vertical high-speed engine. Brijlal Sarda, who reported its satisfactory running for over 4 decades, bought this first engine! TO ELECTRIC MOTORS & PNEUMATICS: The making of the electrical motor. This was the second of Laxmanrao Kirloskar's long cherished dreams, the first being the making of an engine. This task was brought to completion by Ravi Kirloskar, his youngest son, in 1946. Way back then, the authorities whom Ravi Kirloskar had approached for land were astonished by the request for 25 acres. Today, Kirloskar Electric Company Limited (KECL) has four plants occupying several times that acreage. The setting up of KECL and other Kirloskar companies saw a major role being played by Nanasaheb Gurjar, a lawyer who made industry his sole area of operation. Though the development of air compressors was an established activity at Kirloskarvadi, a full-fledged plant to manufacture the
KECL's logo in the 40's

same was set up at Pune in 1958, under the eventual

management of Shreekant Kirloskar, Shantanurao's youngest son. In collaboration with Broom and Wade of England, Kirloskar Pneumatic Company Limited began the manufacture of air compressors and pneumatic tools. THE KIRLOSKAR GROUP OF COMPANIES: 1) Kirloskar Brothers Limited (KBL): It becomes the only India Company with its own standard products the folder cutter and the iron plough, which competed with the British product. Established in year
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1988 and incorporated in 1920 is the acknowledge. Leader in fluid handling and largest manufacturing and exporter of pumps in India. It has acquired SPP, VK in Nov 2003 consisting at three plants in UK, USA and Africa manufacturing fire fighting pumps, water and sewage pumps. 2) Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. (KOEL): It is incorporated in 1946. It has six plants with 2828 employees, manufacturing Diesel engines, Generating sets, Engine bearing and values. 3) Kirloskar Pneumatic Company Limited (KPCL): It is incorporated in 1957, KPCL is Indias leading name in manufacturing of reciprocating compressors, screw and centrifugal compressors, tractor gears, gearboxes, refrigeration projects. 4) Kirloskar Ferrous Industries Limited (KFIL): It was incorporated in the year 1992 with 2 plants manufacturing Grey iron casting and Pig iron with 1259 employees. 5) Kirloskar Copeland Limited (KPC): It established in 1966 and incorporated in 1993. 6) Kirloskar Ebara Pumps Limited (KEPL): It was established on 13th Jan 1988 as a joint venture promoted by KBL and EC with a mission to equipments like process pumps, steam engines, fans etc. Required for critical application in Hydrocarbon Processing industries and for power projects. 7) Kirloskar Chillers Pvt. Ltd.
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It was incorporated in the year 1996. It has a single plant producing centrifugal chillers, screw chillers, reciprocating chillers 8) Kirloskar Middle East F2E: Established in 1997. Kirloskar group of companies has been exporting their products to various in Middle East Africa and other markets in South East Asia for more than 3 decades. KMEF caters to its markets and customers through network of more than 50 outlets.

THE KIRLOSKAR GROUP OF COMPANIES

Company Holding

Public listed company

Majority holding companies

Minority holding companies

1) Kirloskar Brothers Ltd 2) Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. 3) Kirloskar Pneumatics Ltd. 4) Kirloskar Ferrous Industries Ltd.

1) Kirloskar Ebara Ltd 2) Kirloskar Copeland Ltd. 3) SPP Pumps, UK

1) Kirloskar Toyoto, Textice machinary 2) Toyota Kirloskar Moters Ltd. 3) Dinso Kirloskar Industries 4) Toyota Gosai Kirloskar Ltd. 5) Steel and logistic center 6) Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts

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Achievements
The groups two largest companies, Kirloskar Brothers Limited and Kirloskar Oil Engines Limited, own many patents. Kirloskar Brothers Ltd created the worlds largest irrigation project which was commissioned in March 2007 The Sardar Sarovar Damproject for the Gujarat Government. This was done for Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam, and on 14 March 2008 commissioned the worlds second largest water supply system with the worlds highest head in Andhra Pradesh. Kirloskar Brothers is associated with India's nuclear program and has made canned motor pumps for pumping heavy water which are deployed at Indian Nuclear Power Plants. Kirloskar Brothers Limited is also a supplier of FM UL certified pumps along with its subsidiary SPP Pumps (UK). It was the first Indian company to get FM certification for its valves. Kirloskar Brothers has a presence is numerous countries including Egypt. Kirloskar Brothers is also one of the first pump companies to have an all women operated and managed manufacturing plant at Coimbatore. which is the second largest metropolitan city of state Tamil Nadu in India. The company was one of the country's top ten wealth creators in 2007.

Dynamic people of KIL


Mr. Atul C. Kirloskar (Chairman) Mr. Sanjay C. Kirloskar Mr. R. V. Gumaste (Managing Director) BOARD OF DIRECTORS
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Mr. Anil N. Alawani Mr. Nihal G. Kulkarn Ms. Gauri A. Kirloskar Mr. Shrikrishna N. Inamdar Mr. Anant R. Sathe Mr. Vijay K. Bajhal COMPANY SECRETARY Mrs. Ashwini V. Mali AUDITORS M/s G. D. Apte & Co., Chartered Accountants BANKERS State Bank of India Bank of Maharashtra Andhra Bank UTI Bank Ltd ICICI Bank Ltd IDBI Bank Ltd ING Vysya Bank Ltd HDFC Bank Ltd
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CHAPTER III AUDIT PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES

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Audit procedures and practices


A company is said to be an artificial person created by law having a separate legal entity distinct from its shareholders. It cannot be directly managed by its owners, i.e., shareholders, because they are very large in number having small holding and also scattered over a wide area. As such, the management and control of the affairs of the company is done by other persons generally known as directors. Hence, it becomes essential for a company to appoint an independent and qualified person, i.e., an auditor, to verily and certify the truth and fairness of the financial statements. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AUDITING: 1) Integrity, objectivity and independence: The auditor should be honest and sincere in his audit work. He must be fair and objective. He should also be independent. 2) Confidentiality: The auditor should keep the information obtained during audit, confidential. He should not disclose such information to any third party. He should, keep his eyes and ears open but his mouth shut. 3) Skill and competence: The auditor should have adequate training, experience and competence in Auditing. He should have a professional qualification (i.e. be a Chartered Accountant) and practical experience. He should be aware of recent developments in the field of auditing such as statement of ICAI, changes in company law, decisions of courts etc.
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4) Working papers: The auditor should maintain working papers of important matters to prove that audit was conducted with due care according to the basic principles. 5) Planning: The auditor should plan his audit work. He should prepare an audit programmed to complete the audit efficiently and in time. 6) Audit evidence: The report of the auditor should be base on evidence obtained in the course of audit. The evidence may be obtained through vouching of transactions, verification of assets and liabilities, ratio analysis etc. 7) Evaluation of accounting system and internal control: The auditor should ensure that the accounting system is adequate. He should see that all the transaction have been properly recorded. He should study and evaluate the internal controls. 8) Opinion and report: The auditor should arrive at his opinion on the account based on the audit evidence and submit his report. The opinion may be unqualified, qualified or adverse. The audit reportshould clearly express his opinion. Law should require the content and form of audit report

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QUALIFICATIONS AUDITOR :

AND

DISQUALIFICATIONS

OF

COMPANY

1. Auditors qualifications : According to section-226 of Companies Act, person or firm having the following qualification can be appointed as an auditor : (1) Person who is the member of Institute of Chartered Accountant. (2) Any firm whose all the partners are serving as chartered accountants in India. (3) A person holding a certificate under the restricted auditors certificate (part B. state) rules, 1956 can be appointed as an auditor. 2. Disqualifications of an auditor : According to section-226(3) of Companies Act, the following person cannot be appointed as an auditor : (1) Any registered institute. e.g. Company; (2) Any salaried officer or employee of the company (3) Officer of the company, partner of an employee or any person who is serving there; (4) A person who is indebted to the company for an amount exceeding Rs.1,000 or who has provided any security in connection with the indebtedness of any third person (party) to the company for an amount exceeding Rs.1000 cannot be appointed as an auditor.

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(5) According to section-226(4) of Companies Act, if a person is disqualified with relation to either a holding company or its sub - Sidiary Company, he shall be disqualified for being an auditor of the first company. If an auditor becomes the subject to any of the disqualification mentioned above, after his appointment, he shall be deemed to have left his rank (position) as an auditor.Besides provisions of Companies Act, auditor can be disqualified according to the disqualifications shown in section-8 of Charter Accountants Act,1949. GENERAL CONSIDERATION IN COMPANY AUDIT 1. True and fair view: True and fair view in auditing means that the financial statements are free from material misstatements and faithfully represent the financial performance and position of the entity - Although the expression of true and fair view is not strictly defined in the accounting literature, we may derive the following general conclusions as to its meaning: True suggests that the financial statements are factually correct and have been prepared according to applicable reporting framework such as the IFRS and they do not contain any material misstatements that may mislead the users. Misstatements may result from material errors or omissions of transactions & balances in the financial statements. Fair implies that the financial statements present the information faithfully without any element of bias and they reflect the economic substance of transactions rather than just their legal form. -Preparation of true and fair financial statements has been expressly recognized as one of the responsibilities of the directors of companies in the corporate law of several countries such as in the Companies Act 2006 in the UK. Auditors must therefore consider whether directors have fulfilled their responsibility for the preparation of true and fair financial statements when
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providing an audit opinion. Company law of certain jurisdictions require the auditors to expressly state in their audit report whether in their opinion the financial statements present a true and fair view of the financial performance and position of the entity. 2. Accounting Policies: The specific policies and procedures used by a company to prepare its financial statements. These include any methods, measurement systems and procedures for presenting disclosures. Accounting policies differ from accounting principles in that the principles are the rules and the policies are a company's way of adhering to the rules. Accounting principles are lenient at times, so the policies of a company can be very important. Looking into a specific company's accounting policies can signal whether management is conservative or aggressive when reporting earnings. This should be taken into account by investors when reviewing earnings reports. Also, outside accountants that are hired to review a company's financial statements should check the company's policies to ensure they conform to accounting principles. 3. Internal control: Internal control is under the Board of Director's responsibility. Internal control's function is, for example, to ensure the efciency and protability of oper ations, the reliability of information, and adhering to rules and regulations. Internal control is a part of day-to-day management and company administration. An essential part of internal control is the Internal Audit, which operates as a separate unit under the CEO and reports its observations to the Board of Directors. The Internal Audit supports the Group's management in directing operations by inspecting
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and evaluating the efciency of business operations, risk management and internal control, and by producing information and recommendations to enhance efciency. Internal Audit also inspects the processes of business operations and nancial reporting. Internal Audit's directive has been approved by Stockmann's Board of Directors. The operations of the Internal Audit are guided by being risk-focused and emphasising the development of business operations. 4. Audit Approach: The Audit Approach is a risk analysis methodology that focuses on the combined impact of the environment in which a client operates, the client's management information and financial results, and the effectiveness of the client's internal controls. It is based on a thorough, up-to-date understanding of the client's business and industry, which is obtained through a comprehensive analysis of the external and internal operating environments. It enables us to design an audit programme that includes the most effective and efficient combination of test responsive to a client's unique circumstances. In addition, it provides a uniform method for developing and documenting the basis for the audit programme. The Audit Approach enables us to plan our effort to be proportionate to the risk of material error in specific accounts and transactions. This provides the basis for planning the minimum effort necessary to limit audit risk in each area to a low level. As a result, every audit procedure has a specific purpose that is related to the company's particular situation nothing is "routine" and hence potentially unnecessary. By following this approach we can avoid over auditing and under auditing, and we can distribute our audit work more evenly throughout the year.

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MATERIALITY AND AUDIT RISK Professional standards require us to consider materiality and audit risk when planning the nature, timing and extent of our audit procedures, and when evaluating the results of those procedures. Materiality is determined at two levels during the initial planning stage : 1. An overall level as relates to the accounts taken as a whole planning materiality; and 2. An individual balance or class of transactions level tolerable error. Audit risk is defined as the risk that an auditor may unknowingly fail to modify his or her opinion on accounts that are materially misstated. We address materiality and audit risk at an overall level to help us develop an audit strategy that will provide sufficient evidence to enable us to evaluate whether the accounts are materially misstated. At the account balance or class of transactions level, audit risk is the product of the risks that : 1. Factors in a company's internal or external operating environment, before considering the functioning of internal controls, will lead to a material error inherent risk; 2. A material error will not prevented or detected on a timely basis by the system of internal control control risk; and 3. The auditor's procedures will fail to detect a material error not detected by the system of internal control detection risk.

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The Audit Approach provides a methodology for relating these risk concepts to materiality and correlating them to the nature, timing, and extent of our audit procedures. This is accomplished through the Specific Risk Analysis and the Preliminary Audit Approach.

OBJECTIVES AND STANDARDS A companys internal accountants are primarily responsible for preparing financial statements. In contrast, the purpose of the auditor is to express an opinion on the assertions of management found in financial statements. The auditor arrives at an objective opinion by systematically obtaining and evaluating evidence in conformity with professional auditing standards. Audits increase the reliability of financial information and consequently improve the efficiency of capital markets. Auditing standards require that all audits be conducted by persons having adequate technical training. This includes formal education, field experience, and continuing professional training. SPECIFIC PROVISIONS AS REGARDS ACCOUNTS IN THE COMPANIES ACT, 1956 The provisions in the matter of books of account which a company is required to maintain are contained in section 209 of the Companies Act, 1956. They are briefly summarised below: (1) Every company shall maintain at its registered office proper books of account with regard to:

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(a)All sums of money received and expended by the company and the matters in respect of which the receipts and expenditure take place; (b) All sales and purchases of goods by the company; (c) The assets and liabilities of the company; and (d) In case, it is a company engaged in production, processing, manufacturing or mining activities, particulars relating to utilisation of material or labour or other items of cost, provided there is such a requirement by the Central Government in respect of the class of companies to which it belongs. N.B. - It is permissible, however, for all or any of the books of account may be kept at such place in India as the Board of directors may decide but, when a decision in this regard is taken, the company shall file with the Registrar of Companies a notice giving full address of the other place. (2) When a company has a branch office, whether in or outside India, to comply with the aforementioned provisions, the company must maintain proper books of account relating to transactions effected at the branch office, also arrange to obtain from the branch proper summarised returns, at intervals of not more than three months, for being kept at the registered office or the other place. (3) For the purposes of sub-sections (1) and (2), proper books of account shall not be deemed to be kept with respect to the matters specified therein : (a) if there are not kept such books as are necessary to give a true and fair view of the state of affairs of the company or branch office, as the case may be, and to explain its transactions; and

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(b) if such books are not kept on accrual basis and according to the double entry system of accounting. (4) The books of account and other books and papers shall be open to inspection by any director during business hours. 4A) The books of account together with vouchers relevant to any entry made therein for a period of not less than eight years immediately preceding the current year shall be preserved by the company in goodorder. (5) If any of the persons referred to in sub-section (6), fails to take reasonable steps to secure compliance with the requirements of law aforementioned or by a wilful act causes any default by the company, he shall be punishable for each offence with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or a fine which may extend to ` 10000 or with both. But he may be relieved from such a liability if he can show that he has reasonable ground to believe that a competent and responsible person was charged with the duty of seeing that these requirements were complied with and he was in a position to discharge that duty. (6) Where the company has a managing director or manager, such managing director or manager and all officers and other employees of the company; and where the company has neither a managing director nor manager, every director of the company. (7) If a person, not being a person referred to in the foregoing paragraph, who has been charged with the duty of seeing that requirements of law in regard to the books of account is complied with, makes a default in doing so, he shall, in respect of each offence, be punishable with a fine which may extend to ` 10,000.

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AUDIT OF PAYMENT Managerial Remuneration The term remuneration covers the following types of expenditure incurred by the company for its Director or his family Rent free accommodation; Any benefit or amenity in respect of accommodation free of charge; Any other benefit or amenity free of charge at a concessional rate; Any personal obligation; and Insurance on the life of, or to provide any pension, annuity or gratuity for, any of the director or his /her spouse or child.But the definition is inclusive one. It covers every amount that the company pays or spends for or for the benefit of a Director, in whatever form and by whatever name. Applicability: Section 198 and 309 deals with the provisions relating to managerial remuneration. The term managerial remuneration mentioned in section 198 and 309 covers the remuneration of all Directors and also its manager. It is applicable to all public companies and private company which is a subsidiary of public company. Provisions of the above mentioned section are not applicable on government companies (within the meaning of section 619 of the Act). Ceiling on Managerial Remuneration: Section 198(1) lays down 11% of net profits of the company computed in the manner as laid down in section 349 and 350 as the overall ceiling on the total remuneration of the company. While computing the net profits the remuneration of the Directors shall
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not be deducted from the gross profits. The above mentioned limit shall be exclusive of sitting fees payable to the directors in terms of section 309 (2). Purchase of Goods: Cash purchases should be verified by reference to cash memos or receipted invoices by suppliers. Payments made against credit purchases should be vouched with the receipts issued by the suppliers and the credit to their accounts on the basis of invoices entered in the Purchases Day book. There must be also evidence of the goods having been received through an entry in the Goods Inward Books or stock ledger. It is necessary, however, to make a distinction between a payment for goods and an advance against supplies to be made in future; the latter should be classified as advance recoverable in cash or in kind or for value to be received. Since the amount shown as an advance paid against goods may be only a camouflage for assistance to a party, it is necessary for the auditor to confirm that the advance was paid pursuant to a normal trade practice and supplies were, subsequently, received with a reasonable period of the advance. Remuneration paid to Directors: The following points must be considered while vouching the directors remuneration in case of a public company and private company which is a subsidiary of a public company(i) Examine the Entitlement: The directors are not automatically entitled to remuneration. It is paid either according to the term of articles of association or in accordance with a resolution of the general meeting. (ii) Examine Adherence to Legal Provisions: The auditor should examine adherence torelevant sections of the Act such as -

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and (4) which deals with manner of payment of managerial remuneration. payment of listing fees.

Schedule XIII to the Act that has laid down conditions for payment of remuneration for companies having profits those having no profits or inadequate profits and companies having negative effective capital.

PERSONAL EXPENSES MEET BY DIRECTOR 1) AUTORIZATION: check article of association, service contract ,minutes of general meeting to check authorization of such payment 2) S.227(1A): ensure and enquire that personal expenses are not camouflaged in any other item as contemplated under section 227(1a) 3) Supporting documents: check the documents to examine the payment reimbursement 4) CARO 2003: chek the compliance with requirements of CARO 2033 DIRECTOR COMMISION 1)A/A: see the article of association of company and note the rules regarding the payment of commission 2) Agreement : examine the terms and condition of the agreement to find out the rate of commission payable
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3) Compliance: check section 198 and 309 also see calculation as per section 349,350 and 351 of the act 4) Calculation :vouch calculation of commission paid and verify with receipt DIVIDENDS:The return on investment in share is called dividend. It is the part of the profit earned by the company. Dividend rate approved in the general meeting by the shareholders. DUTIES OF AUDITOR RELATING TO DIVIDENDS:Following are the important duties of the auditor: 1. Rules Of Company:The auditor should check the rules of a company. He should examine that articles of association and companies ordinance allow the management to propose dividends out of revenue profits. 2. Rate Of Dividend :The auditor should check that rate of dividend must not be above the rate of profit. It should also not exceed the market rate. 3. Reasonable Profit :The auditor should check that amount of revenue profits is reasonable. If it is not reasonable then dividend should not be paid. 4. Account :Dividend amount is payable with in the days. The auditor should check that dividend account is opened in the bank or not. The amount equal to dividend must be
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deposited. 5. Tax :It is also the duty of the auditor that he should check the tax payable or dividend is paid to the Govt. or not ? The payment of tax is a legal formality. 6. Not Collected :Sometimes shareholders fail to collect the amount from the banks. The auditor should check such amount because it is stated in the balance sheet as liability. 7. Profit & Loss Account :The profit and loss appropriation account must be checked by the auditor. He should note the amount of dividend recorded in it. 8. Account Statement :The auditor examines that amount of dividend paid and due prepares reconciliation statement of dividend account. He should make detailed checking in case of discrepancy. The errors can be detected. 9. Warrant :To register the shareholder management issues dividend warrants. Such amount can be claimed by the shareholders from the bank. The auditor should check these warrants has been issued or not?

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CONSIDERATIONS IN INITIAL AUDITS The auditor should undertake the following activities before starting an initial audit: Perform procedures regarding the acceptance of the client relationship and the specific audit engagement; and Communicate with the predecessor auditor in situations in which there has been a change of auditors in accordance with AU sec. 315, Communications Between Predecessor and Successor Auditors. The purpose and objective of planning the audit are the same for an initial audit or a recurring audit engagement. However, for an initial audit, the auditor should determine the additional planning activities necessary to establish an appropriate audit strategy and audit plan, including determining the audit procedures necessary to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence regarding the opening balances. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF COMPANY AUDIT (i) Verification of the constitution and powers - A company can function within the limits prescribed by the documents on the basis of which it has been registered. It raises its capital from the public on certain conditions, specified in the Prospectus. Before commencing business, to purchase a property or to have subscription to its capital underwritten on this account, it is essential that the auditor, prior to starting the audit of a company, shall examine: (a) The Memorandum of Association. (b) The Articles of Association.

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(c) Contracts entered into with vendors and other persons relating to purchase of property, payment of commission, etc. A company cannot enter into a contract before it has been registered. What is more, a public company cannot commence business until the certificate of commencement of business has been granted to it by the Registrar of Companies. It is, therefore, the duty of the auditor to take into account, while examining the transaction entered into by the company, the dates when these were entered into for confirming the validity. With a view to carrying out the audit effectively, it is necessary that the auditor should know the authority structure of the company. Under Section 291 of the Act, the Board of Directors of a company are entitled to exercise all such powers, and to do all such acts and things, as the company is authorised to do. However, the Board shall not exercise any power or do any act or thing which is directed or required by any legislation (including the Companies Act) or by the memorandum or articles of the company, to be exercised or done by the company, in general meeting. Section 292 specifies six types of decisions that can be taken by the Board of Directors only in Boards meetings. These relate to : (i) making calls on partly paid shares. (ii) issue of debentures, (iii) borrowing monies otherwise than on debentures, (iv) investing the funds of the company, and (v) making loans. The transaction barring the first three can be delegated to any of the following:
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(a) a committee of directors, (b) managing director, (c) manager, (d) any other principal officer of the company, or (e) principal officer of the branch office, in relation to the branch. Apart from the above, a number of other functions are also carried out by the Board. A few of such functions are stated herein by way of examples : (a) Adopting of accounts before the same submitted to the auditor for their reportSection 215. (b) Appointment of the first auditors and filling of casual vacancy - Section 224. (c) Investment in shares of companies within the limits specified in Section 372A. (d) Entering into contracts with persons who are directors of the company or related to or associated with the directors as are specified in Section 297 of the Act. Some of the matters which only the shareholders can sanction at a general meeting : (a) Appointment and fixation of remuneration of auditors in the annual general meeting -Section 224. (b) Declaration of dividends - Regulation 85, Table A. (c) Appointment of relatives of directors etc. to an office or place of profit in the company under Section 314 of the Act.

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(d) Sale, lease or a disposal of the whole of the companys undertaking or a substantial part of it and donations above a certain limits [Section 293(1)]. (ii) Matters which require sanction of the Central Government: Loans to directors by a company other than a banking or a finance company (Section 295). For verifying the foregoing transactions and others authorized by the directors or shareholders, the auditor should refer to the minutes of the meeting at which these have been considered. Further, for judging the validity or otherwise of section accorded, the relevant provision of law must be referred to. A few such instances are given below: (a) Appointment of Directors (Section 256). (b) Disqualifications of Directors (Section 274). (c) Conduct of Board Meeting (Sections 285-290). (d) General powers of Board (Section 291). (e) Powers which the Board must exercise only at a meeting (Section 292). (f) Restriction on powers of the Board regarding disposal of the undertaking or part of it etc. (Section 293). (g) Prohibitions and restrictions regarding political contributions (Section 293A). (h) Power of Board and other persons to make contributions to the National Defence Fund, etc. (Section 293B). (i) Restriction on advancing loans to Directors, etc. (Section 295).
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(j)

Restriction on a Director or his relative, a firm in which a director or relative is a

partner; or any other partner of the firm or a private company of which such a director is a member or director to enter into a contract of sale or purchase of goods except with the sanction of the Board of Directors (Section 297). (k) Restriction on an interested director in participating in or voting at Boards proceedings (Section 300). (l) Disclosure of interest by directors (Section 299). (m) Register of contracts, Companies or firms in which directors are inspected (Section 301) (n) Remuneration of directors (Section 309). (o) Restraint on a directors holding offices or places of profit (Section 314). (p) Restraint on payment of compensation for loss of office to a director (Sections 318 to 321). (q) Restriction on loans, etc., to companies under the same management (Section 370). (r) Regulation of inter-corporate loans and investments (Section 372A). AUDIT OF LIABILITIES Liabilities reorganization is the concession items made by a creditor in accordance with the agreement made with a debtor in financial difficulty or rules of the court. There are four major forms of liabilities reorganization:

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To confirm whether the date of liabilities reorganization is accurately defined. The fair market price of assets varies from date to date, the amount of liabilities payable with interest also varies from each other. Consequently, the profits and losses of liabilities reorganization and the relevant records of assets and liabilities recognized in different dates vary from each other. In addition, the date of liabilities reorganization is also the basis for defining the accounting period. No matter when the assets transactions were conducted, the reorganization date should be the accounting cut-off date. Auditors, in carrying out auditing, shall obtain the asset reorganization agreement files in the first place to identify the date of reorganization. They should then review the accounting information to check whether the valuation of the assets and liabilities are based on the reorganization date and the accounting information prepared are within the corresponding accounting period. To check whether the accounting of the liabilities reorganization is proper. Major tool of such auditing is to examine on a sample basis the accounting vouchers of liabilities reorganization. These vouchers are verified against relevant agreement to make sure (1) relevant assets, liabilities and capital items are consistent with the agreement,- (2) proper accounting items have been applied and (3) accurate amounts have been recorded. Special attention shall be paid to see if the capital received and the capital reserve have been classified accurately, if the bad debt provision of the creditor has been written off and if contingent expenditures have been given due consideration? To check whether the calculation and recognition of the profits and losses of liabilities reorganization has been conducted in accordance with relevant requirements. Review of the calculation of the profits and losses of liabilities reorganization is done through consulting and examining such information as the reorganization agreement, information provided by intermediary institutions and market information, the book
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value of debtor's liabilities, book value of assets, fair value of assets, fair value of shareholder's equity, future payables, the creditor's net credit value, future receivables. The calculation of the profits and losses of the enterprise is then reviewed to make sure data has been applied correctly and correct calculation has been conducted. Special attention shall be paid to see if the fair market value of assets, shareholder's equity and the amount of contingent liabilities have been accurately defined on proper basis and, whether the accounting period of the profits and losses is appropriate. To audit whether the disclosure of reorganization is sufficient. Accounting standards require that liabilities reorganization be disclosed in the footnotes of the financial statements at the end of an accounting period, explaining the contents and impact of the reorganization. Such disclosure aims to make the user of financial statements better informed of the financial condition of the enterprise. The user of the financial statements will not be able to understand the full impact of the reorganization on the assets and liabilities, profits and losses of the enterprise, nor can they study the value for money of the enterprise correctly if the disclosure is not properly made. It is therefore necessary to observe carefully if complete disclosure has been made by the enterprise through examining the disclosure of the process of liabilities reorganization.

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CHAPTER IV

AUDIT REPORT & FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

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Auditors report & Financial Analysis of Kirloskar Industries

Report on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying Financial Statements of Kirloskar Industries Limited (the Company), which comprise the Balance Sheet as at 31st March 2013, the Statement of Profit & Loss and Cash Flow Statement for the year then ended and a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory information.

Management's responsibility for the Financial Statements

Management is responsible for the preparation of these Financial Statements that give a true and fair view of the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of the Company in accordance with the accounting standards referred to in Sub-Section (3C) of Section 211 of the Companies Act, 1956, (the Act). This responsibility includes the design, implementation and maintenance of internal control relevant to the preparation and presentation of the Financial Statements that give a true and fair view and are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error. Auditor's Responsibility Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these Financial Statements based on our audit. We conducted our audit in accordance with the Standards on Auditing issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. Those standards require that we comply with ethical requirements and plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable

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assurance about whether the Financial Statements are free from material misstatement. An audit involves performing procedures to obtain audit evidence about the amounts and disclosures in the Financial Statements. The procedures selected depend on the auditor's judgement, including the assessment of the risks of material misstatement of the Financial Statements, whether due to fraud or error. In making those risk assessments, the auditor considers internal control relevant to the company's preparation and fair presentation of the Financial Statements in order to design audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances. An audit also includes evaluating the appropriateness of accounting policies used and the reasonableness of the accounting estimates made by the management as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the Financial Statements. We believe that the audit evidence we have obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for our audit opinion. Opinion In our opinion and to the best of our information and according to the explanations given to us, the Financial Statements give the information required by the Act in the manner so required and give a true and fair view in conformity with the accounting principles generally accepted in India: a. In the case of the Balance Sheet, of the state of affairs of the Company as at 31st March 2013; b. In the case of the Statement of Profit and Loss, of the profit for the year ended on that date; and

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c.

In the case of the Cash Flow Statement, of the cash flows for the year ended on that date.

Report on other legal and regulatory requirements

1. As required by the Companies (Auditor's Report) Order, 2003 (the Order) issued by the Central Government of India in terms of sub-section (4A) of Section 227 of the Act, we give in the Annexure a statement on the matters specified in paragraphs 4 and 5 of the Order.

2. As required by Section 227 (3) of the Act, we report that:

a. We have obtained all the information and explanations which to the best of our knowledge and belief were necessary for the purpose of our audit. b. In our opinion, proper books of account as required by law have been kept by the Company so far as appears from our examination of those books. c. The Balance Sheet, Statement of Profit and Loss and Cash Flow Statement dealt with by this report are in agreement with the books of account. d. In our opinion, the Balance Sheet, Statement of Profit and Loss and Cash Flow Statement comply with the accounting standards referred to in Sub-Section (3C) of Section 211 of the Companies Act, 1956. e. On the basis of written representations received from the directors as on 31st March 2013 and taken on record by the Board of Directors, none of the directors is disqualified as on 31st March 2013, from being appointed as a Director in terms of clause (g) of Sub-Section (1) of Section 274 of the Companies Act, 1956.
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CERTIFICATE BY THE AUDITORS ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TO THE MEMBERS OF KIRLOSKAR INDUSTRIES LIMITED We have examined the compliance of conditions of Corporate Governance by Kirloskar Industries Limited ('the Company'), for the year ended 31 March 2013, as stipulated in Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement of the Company with Stock Exchange(s) in India. The compliance of conditions of Corporate Governance is the responsibility of the Company's management. Our examination was limited to procedures and implementation thereof, adopted by the Company for ensuring the compliance of the conditions of Corporate Governance. It is neither an audit nor an expression of opinion on the Financial Statements of the Company. In our opinion and to the best of our information and in accordance with the explanations given to us, we certify that the Company has complied with the conditions of Corporate Governance as stipulated in the above mentioned Listing Agreement. We further state that such compliance is neither an assurance as to the future viability of the Company nor the efficiency or effectiveness with which the management has conducted the affairs of the Company.

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ANALYSIS OF ACCOUNTS AND AUDIT OF KIRLOSKAR INDUSTRIES LIMITED 1. The Company has maintained proper records showing full particulars including quantitative details and situation of fixed assets. 2. All fixed assets have not been physically verified by the Management during the year but as explained to us, there is a phased programme of verification of fixed assets over a period of three years, which in our opinion, is reasonable having regard to the size of the Company and the nature of its assets. No material discrepancies were noticed on such verification during the year. 3. There was no disposal of substantial part of fixed assets during the year. 4. Considering the nature of the inventories [Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) and Voluntary Carbon Units (VCUs)] of the Company, the provisions of clause 4(ii) of the Order are not applicable to the Company. 5. According to the information and explanations given to us, the Company has not granted/ taken any loans secured or unsecured to/ from companies, firms or other parties covered in the register maintained under Section 301 of the Act. 6. According to the information and explanations provided by the Management, we are of the opinion that the particulars of contracts or arrangements referred to in Section 301 of the Act that need to be entered into the register maintained under Section 301 have been so entered.

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7. In our opinion and according to the information and explanations given to us, the transactions made in pursuance of such contracts or arrangements exceeding value of Rupees five lacs in respect of any party during the year have been made at prices which are reasonable having regard to the prevailing market prices at the relevant time. 8. The Company has not accepted deposits from the public within the meaning of Sections 58A and 58AA of the Act. 9. In our opinion, the Company has an internal audit system commensurate with the size and nature of its business. 10. We have broadly reviewed the books of account maintained by the Company pursuant to the Rules made by the Central Government for the maintenance of the cost records under Section 209 (1)(d) of the Act and are of the opinion that prima facie, the prescribed accounts and records have been made and maintained. We have not, however, made a detailed examination of the records with a view to determine whether they are accurate or complete. 11. The Company is generally regular in depositing with appropriate authorities undisputed statutory dues including provident fund, investor education and protection fund, income-tax, sales-tax, wealth-tax, cess and other material statutory dues applicable to it. According to the information and explanations given to us and from the records of the Company, there were no undisputed statutory dues as at the last day of the Financial Year which were outstanding for a period of more than six months from the date they became payable. We have been explained that no dues in respect of Employees State Insurance, Custom Duty, Excise duty or cess arose during the year.
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12. According to the information and explanations given to us and records of the Company, there are no dues in respect of income tax, sales tax, wealth tax, service tax, custom duty, excise duty and cess which have not been deposited on account of any dispute. 13. According to explanations given to us, the Company has not given any guarantee for loans taken by others from bank or financial institutions during the year. 14. The Company has not taken any term loans during the year. 15. On the basis of an overall examination of the balance sheet of the Company, in our opinion and according to the information and explanations given to us, there are no funds raised on a short- term basis which have been used for long-term investment. 16. The Company has not made any allotment of shares during the year. 17. The Company has not issued any debentures during the year. 18. The Company has not raised money by public issues during the year. 19. Based upon the audit procedures performed for the purpose of reporting the true and fair view of the Financial Statements and as per the information and explanations given by the management, we report that no fraud on or by the Company has been noticed or reported during the course of our audit.

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION

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Conclusion

Every Company registered under Companies Act 1956, need to do its audit every year, which is known as statutory audit..During the company audit, the auditor discusses his observations with those charged with governance, such as the audit committee of the company, before finalising the report. The auditor should be firm in his opinion, and exercise his independence at this level. This part of the audit is critical, and calls for resilience on the part of the auditor. An audit report, being a public document, should be drafted skilfully. The code of conduct prohibits an auditor from divulging any information received by him in the course of his professional assignment, unless legally required so to do. Therefore, the auditor shouldn't hesitate to take the help of a legal expert on whether to include certain comments in his report. And atlast he submit the reports with adverse , modified or with qualified opnion. This study has given a information of how really a big organization works by facing so many hurdles. As it is a pig iron plant it totally covered by the risks & company is successfully overcoming the problems.

The culture in KIL is very cordial and the atmosphere of the workforce is also very good which contributed to the study a lot.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Websites:
1. http://www.kirloskar.com/ 2. http://www.kfil.com/ 3. www.icai.com 4. http://www.icai.org/ 5. www.google.co.in

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