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1.

1 OVERVIEW
Since the Egyptians and Mesopotamians first successful efforts to control the flow of
water thousands of years ago, a rich history of hydraulics has evolved. Sec. 1.2 contains a
brief description of some ancient hydraulic structures that are found around the world.
During the 20th century, many new developments have occurred in both theoretical and
applied hydraulics. A number of handbooks and textbooks on hydraulics have been pub-
lished, as indicated in Fig. 1.1. From the viewpoint of hydraulic design, however, only
manuals, reports, monographs, and the like have been published, mostly by government
agencies. Unfortunately, many aspects of hydraulic design have never been published as
a compendium. This Hydraulic Design Handbook is the first effort devoted to producing
a comprehensive handbook for hydraulic design. The book covers many aspects of
hydraulic design, with step-by-step procedures outlined and illustrated by sample design
problems.
1.2 ANCIENT HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES
1.2.1 A Time Perspective
Although humans are newcomers to earth, their achievements have been enormous. It was
only during the Holocene epoch (10,000 years ago) that agriculture developed (keep in
mind that the earth and the solar system originated 4,600 million years ago). Humans have
spent most of their history as hunters and food-gatherers. Only in the past 9,000 to 10,000
years have humans discovered how to raise crops and tame animals. Such changes prob-
ably occurred first in the hills to the north of present-day Iraq and Syria. The remains of
the prehistoric irrigation works in Mesopotamia and Egypt still exist. Table 1.1 presents a
chronology of knowledge about water.
Figure 1.2 illustrates the chronology and locations of various civilizations ranging
from India to Western Europe. This figure, from O. Neugebaurs book titled The Exact
Sciences in Antiquity, illustrates the Hellenistic period the era of ancient science,
during which a form of science developed that spread later from Europe to India.
This ancient science was dominant until the creation of modern science dominant in
Isaac Newtons time.
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1
Larry W. Mays
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Arizona State University
Tempe, Arizona
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Source: HYDRAULIC DESIGN HANDBOOK
1.2 Chapter One
FIGURE 1.1 A selected list of books on hydraulics published between 1900 to 1980.
Abbotts Computational Hydraulics (1980)
Fischer et al., Mixing in Inland and
Coastal Waters (1979)
Grafs Hydraulics of Sediment Transport
(1971)
Streeter and Wylies Hydraulic Transients
(1967)
U.S. Geological Surveys Roughness
Characteristics of Natural Channels (1967)
Hendersons Open-Channel Flow (1966)
Daily and Harlemans Fluid Dynamics
(1966)
Linsley and Franzinis Elements of
Hydraulic Engineering (1964)
Leliavskys River and Canal Hydraulics
(1965)
Morris and Wiggerts Applied Hydraulics
in Engineering (1963)
USBR Design of Small Dams (1960)
1960
1950
Chows Open-Channel Hydraulics (1959)
U.S. Bureau of Reclamations Hydraulic
Design of Stilling Basin and Energy
Dissipators (1958)
Stokers Water Waves (1957)
Parmakiams Waterhammer Analysis
(1955)
Leliavskys An Introduction to Fluvial
Hydraulics (1955)
Addisons Treastise on Applied
Hydraulics (1954) Kings Handbook of Hydraulics (1954)
U.S. Bureau of Reclamations Hydraulic
Laboratory Practice (1953)
Richs Hydraulic Transients (1951)
Rouses Engineering Hydraulics (1950)
Freeze and Cherrys Groundwater (1979)
1970
1980
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INTRODUCTION
Introduction 1.3
FIGURE 1.1 (Continued)
Allens Scale Models in Hydraulic
Engineering (1947)
Woodward and Poseys Hydraulics of
Steady Flow in Open Channels (1941)
ASCEs Hydraulic Models (1942)
Davis and Sorersens Handbook of
Applied Hydraulics (1942)
Rouses Fluid Mechanics for Hydraulic
Engineers (1938)
Daughertys Hydraulics (1937)
Muskats The Flow of Homogeneous
Fluids Through Porous Media (1937)
Bakhmeteffs The Mechanics of Turbulent
Flow (1936)
1930
Bakhmeteffs Hydraulics of Open
Channels (1932)
Schoder and Dawsons Hydraulics (1927)
Le Contes Hydraulics (1926)
Hoyt and Grovers River Discharge
(1916)
Hoskinss A TextBook on Hydraulics
(1911)
1910
1900
Merrimans Treatise on Hydraulics (1904)
1940
1920
1950
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INTRODUCTION
1.2.2 Irrigation Systems
1.2.2.1 Egypt and Mesopotamia. In ancient Egypt, the construction of canals was a major
endeavor of the Pharaohs beginning in Scorpios time. Among the first duties of provincial
governors was the digging and repair of canals, which were used to flood large tracts of land
while the Nile was flowing high. The land was checkerboarded with small basins defined by
a system of dikes. Problems associated with the uncertainty of the Niles flows were recog-
nized. During high flows, the dikes were washed away and villages were flooded, drowning
thousands of people. During low flows, the land was dry and no crops could grow. In areas
where fields were too high to receive water directly from the canals, water was drawn from
the canals or from the Nile by a swape or shaduf (Fig. 1.3), which consisted of a bucket on
the end of a cord hung from the long end of a pivoted boom that was counterweighted at the
short end (de Camp, 1963). Canals continued to be built in Egypt throughout the centuries.
The Sumerians in southern Mesopotamia built city walls and temples and dug canals
that were the worlds first engineering works. It also is of interest that these people, fought
over water rights from the beginning of recorded history. Irrigation was vital to
Mesopotamia, Greek for the land between the (Tigris and Euphrates) rivers. An ancient
Babylonian curse was, May your canal be filled with sand (de Camp, 1963), and even
their ancient laws dealt with canals and water rights. The following quotation from
approximately the sixth century B.C., illustrates such a law (de Camp, 1963):
The gentleman who opened his wall for irrigation purposes, but did not make
his dyke strong and hence caused a flood and inundated a field adjoining his,
shall give grain to the owner of the field on the basis of those adjoining.
Because the Tigris and Euphrates carried several times more silt per unit volume of water
than the Nile did, flooding problems were more serious in Mesopotamia than in Egypt. As
a result the rivers in Mesopotamia rose faster and changed course more often.
1.4 Chapter One
TABLE 1.1 Chronology of Knowledge About Water
Prehistorical period Springs
3rd 2nd millennium B.C. Cisterns
3rd millennium B.C. Dams
3 millennium B.C. Wells
Probably very early

Reuse of excrement as fertilizer


2nd millennium B.C. Gravity flow supply pipes or channels and drains, pressure
pipes (subsequently forgotten)
8th-6th c. B.C. Long-distance water supply lines with tunnels and bridges,
as well as intervention in and harnessing of karst water
systems
6th c. B.C. at the latest Public as well as private bathing facilities, consisting of:
bathtubs or showers, footbaths, washbasins, latrines or
toilets, laundry and dishwashing facilities
6th c. B.C. at the latest Use of definitely two and probably three qualities of water:
potable, subpotable, and nonpotable, including irrigation
using storm runoff, probably combined with waste waters
6th-3rd c. B.C. Pressure pipes and siphon systems
*Indicates an element discovered, probably forgotten, and rediscovered later.

Indicates an educated guess.


Source: Crouch, 1993.
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INTRODUCTION
Introduction 1.5
FIGURE 1.2 Chronology and location of different civilizations ranging from India to Western Europe.
(Neugebauer, 1993)
The irrigation systems in both Mesopotamia and the Egyptian Delta were of the basin
type, opened by digging a gap in the embankment and closed by placing mud back into
the gap. (See Fig. 1.4 for a comparison of the irrigation works in Upper Egypt and in
Mesopotamia.) Water was hoisted using the swape, Mesopotamian laws required farmers
to keep their basins and feeder canals in repair; they also required everyone else to wield
hoes and shovels when the rivers flooded or when new canals were required or old ones
needed repair (de Camp, 1963). Some canals may have been used for 1,000 years before
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INTRODUCTION
1.6 Chapter One
FIGURE 1.3 Shadufs of the Amarna period, from the tomb of Nefer-Hotep at Thebes.
Note irrigation of date palms and other orchard trees and the apparent tank or pool (lower
right). The water pattern in the lowest margin suggests lifting out of an irrigation canal.
(Davies, 1933, pls. 46 and 47). Figure as presented in Butzer (1976).
they were abandoned and others were built. Even today, 4,000 to 5,000 years later, the
embankments of the abandoned canals remain. In fact, these canal systems supported a
larger population than lives there today. Over the centuries, Mesopotamian agriculture
began to decline because of the salty alluvial soil. In 1258, the Mongols conquered
Mesopotamia and destroyed its irrigation systems.
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INTRODUCTION
Introduction 1.7
FIGURE 1.4 Comparative irrigation networks in Upper Egypt and Mesopotamia. A. Example of linear,
basin irrigation in Sohag province, ca. AD 1850. B. Example of radial canalization system in the lower
Nasharawan region southeast of Baghdad, Abbasid (A.D. 8831150). Modified from R. M. Adams (1965,
(Fig. 9) Same scale as Egyptian counterpart) C. Detail of field canal layout in B. (Simplified from R. M.
Adams, 1965, Fig. 10). Figure as presented in Butzer (1976).
The Assyrians also developed extensive pubic works. When Sargon II invaded Armenia
in 714 B.C., he discovered the gant (Arabic) or kariz (Persian), a system of tunnels used
to bring water from an underground source in the hills down to the foothills (Fig. 1.5).
Sargon destroyed the system in Armenia but brought the concept back to Assyria. Over the
centuries, this method of irrigation spread across the Near East into North Africa and is
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INTRODUCTION
still used. Sargons son Sennacherib also developed waterworks by damming the Tebitu
River and using a canal to bring water to Nineveh, where the water could be used for irri-
gation without the need for hoisting devices. During high water in the spring, overflows
were handled by a municipal canebrake that was built to develop marshes used as game
preserves for deer, wild boar, and birds. When this system was outgrown, a new canal 30
mi long was built, with an aqueduct that had a layer of concrete or mortar under the upper
layer of stone to prevent leakage.
1.2.2.2 Prehistoric Mexico. During the earliest years of canal irrigation in Mexico,
the technology changed little (Fig. 1.6) and the method of flooding tended to be hap-
hazard. The technological achievements were relatively primitive until about 600 or
500 B.C., and few of the early systems remain. Whereas the earlier systems were con-
structed of loosely piled rocks, the later ones consisted of storage dams constructed of
blocks that were mortared together. Some spillways were improved, and floodgates
were used in some spillways. (Some dams could be classified as arch dams.) The
canals were modified to an extent during this time: Different cross-sectional areas were
1.8 Chapter One
FIGURE 1.5 Details of the gant system. (Biswas, 1970).
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INTRODUCTION
Introduction 1.9
FIGURE 1.6 Regional chronology and dates of developments in various aspects of canal irrigation
technology in Mexico. (Doolittle, 1990)
used, some were lined with stone slabs, and the water for irrigation of crops was more
carefully controlled.
Between 550 and 200 B.C., the irrigation-related features and the entire canal systems
were significantly improved. The channelization of stream beds, the excavation of canals,
and the construction of dams were probably the most significant improvements. However,
the technology stopped improving after 200 B.C., and no significant developments
occurred for approximately 500 years. Around 300 A.D., a few new improvements were
initiated, but the technology remained essentially the same through the classic period
(A.D., 200 800/1000) and early postclassical period (A.D. 800/10001300). Figure 1.7 is
a map of fossilized canals in the Tehuacan Valley in Mexico.
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INTRODUCTION
1.2.2.3 North America. The canal irrigation systems in the Hohokam and Chaco
regions stand out as two major prehistoric developments in the American Southwest
(Crown and Judge, 1991). The two systems expanded over broad geographic areas of sim-
ilar size (the Hohokam in Arizona and the Chacoans in New Mexico). Although they were
developed at similar times, they apparently functioned independently. Because the two
systems evolved in different environments, their infrastructures also differed considerably.
The Hohokam Indians inhabited the lower Salt and Gila River valleys near Phoenix,
Arizona. Although the Indians of Arizona began limited farming nearly 3000 years ago,
construction of the Hohokam irrigation systems probably did not begin until the first few
centuries A.D. Who originated the idea of irrigation in Arizona, whether the technology
was developed locally or it was introduced from Mexico, is unknown. Figure 1.8 illus-
trates the extensive system in the Phoenix area, and Fig. 1.9 provides a schematic of the
details of its major components.
In approximately 1450 A.D., the Hohokam culture declined, possibly for a combination
of reasons: flooding in the 1080s, hydrologic degradation in the early 1100s, and the
recruitment of laborers by surrounding populations. The major flood in 1358 ultimately
destroyed the canal networks, resulting in movement of the people. Among the Pima
Indians, who were the successors of the Hohokam Indians, use of canals was either
limited or absent. Although the prehistoric people who lived outside the area of Hohokam
1.10 Chapter One
FIGURE 1.7 Map of fossilized canals on the Llano de la Taza in the Tehuacan Valley.
(Woodbury and Neely, 1972, as presented in Doolittle, 1990)
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INTRODUCTION
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1.11
INTRODUCTION
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1.12 Chapter One
FIGURE 1.9 Schematic representation of the major components of a Hohokam
irrigation system in the Phoenix Basin. (Masse, 1991)
culture also constructed irrigation systems, none approached the grand scale of the
Hohokam systems.
In the ninth century, the Anasazi people of northwestern New Mexico developed a
cultural phenomenon, the remains of which currently consist of more than 2400
archaeological sites and nine towns, each containing hundreds of rooms, along a 9-mi
stretch. The Chacoan irrigation system is situated in the San Juan Basin in northwest-
ern New Mexico. The basin has limited surface water, most of it discharge from
ephemeral washes and arroyos. Figure 1.10 illustrates the method of collecting and
diverting runoff throughout Chaco Canyon. The water collected from the side canyon
that drained from the top of the upper mesa was diverted into a canal by either an earth-
en or a masonry dam near the mouth of the side canyon (Vivian, 1990). These canals
averaged 4.5 m in width and 1.4 m in depth; some were lined with stone slabs and oth-
ers were bordered by masonry walls. The canals ended at a masonry head gate, where
water was then diverted to the fields in small ditches or to overflow ponds and small
reservoirs.
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INTRODUCTION
Introduction 1.13
1.2.3 Dams
The Sadd-el-Kafara dam in Egypt, situated on the eastern bank of the Nile near Heluan
approximately 30 km south of Cairo, in the Wadi Garawi, has been referred to as the worlds
oldest large dam (Garbrecht, 1985). The explorer and geographer George Schweinfurth
rediscovered this dam in 1885, and it has been described in a number of publications since
that time (see Garbrecht, 1985). It was built between 2950 and 2690 B.C. Although the Jass
drinking-water reservoir in Jordon and the diversion dams on the Kasakh River in Russia are
probably older, they are much smaller than the Sadd-el-Kafara (Dam of the Pagans).
It is unlikely that the Sadd-el-Kafara dam was built to supply water for drinking or irri-
gation because the dam lies too far from the alabaster quarries situated upstream to have
supplied the labor force with drinking water. Furthermore, there is a vast supply of water
and fertile land in the nearby Nile valley. The apparent purpose of the dam was to protect
installations in the lower wadi and the Nile valley from frequent, sudden floods. The dam
was destroyed during construction by a flood; consequently, it was never completed. To
date, the dams abutments still exist.
FIGURE 1.10 Hypothetical reconstruction of the Rincon4 North water
control system in Chaco Canyon. Similar systems were located at the
mouths of all northern side conyons in the lower 15 m of Chaco Canyon.
(Adapted by Ron Beckwith from Vivian, 1974, Fig. 9.4)
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INTRODUCTION
The dam had an impervious core consisting of rubble, gravel, and weathered materi-
al. On both the upstream and downstream sides, the core was bordered by sections of
rockfill that supported and protected the core. The diameter of the stones ranged from 0.1
to 0.6 m. One remarkable construction feature is the facing of the section of rockfill
where parts of the facing on the upstream side are still well preserved. The dam had an
approximate crest length of 348 ft and a base length of 265 ft and was built straight
across the wadi at a suitably narrow point, with a maximum height of 32 ft above the
valley bed. See Smith (1971) and Upton (1975) for more on dams.
Dam building in the Americas began in the pre-Colombian period in the civilizations
of Central and South America: the Aztecs in Mexico, the Mayans in Guatemala and
Yucatan, and the Incas in Peru. Where as old-world civilizations developed in the valleys
of the big rivers, the Nile River, the Euphrates and the Tigris Rivers, the Indus River, and
the Yellow River, most of the early civilizations in the New World were not river civiliza-
tions. In South America, the civilizations appeared in the semiarid highlands and the arid
coastal valleys traversed by small rivers. In Central America, the Mayans, the Aztecs, and
the predecessors of the Aztecs were not river civilizations.
The Mayans did not practice irrigation; however, they did provide efficient water
supplies to several of their large cities. They developed the artificial well (cenote), the under-
ground cistern (chultun), and the large open reservoir (aguado). The Mayans failure to
develop irrigation may have accelerated their decline. In the Yucatan, the aguados are still
found in some places, but the cenote was the major source of water for drinking and bathing.
1.2.4 Urban Water Supply and Drainage Systems
Knossos, approximately 5 km from Herakleion, the modern capital of Crete, was among
the most ancient and unique cities of the Aegean and Europe. The city was first inhabited
shortly after 6000 B.C. and, within 3000 years, it had became the largest Neolithic
Settlement in the Aegean (Neolithic age, circa 57002800 B.C). During the Bronze age
(circa 28001100 B.C.), the Minoan civilization developed and reached its culmination as
the first Greek cultural miracle of the Aegean world.
The Minoan civilization has been subdivided into four periods: the prepalatial period
(28001900 B.C.), the protopalatial period (19001200 B.C.), the neopalatial period
(17001400 B.C.), and the postpalatial period (14001100 B.C.). During the prepalatial
period, a settlement at Knossos; was leveled to erect a palace. Little is known about the
old palace because it was destroyed in approximately 1700 B.C. A new palace was con-
structed on leveled fill from the old palace. During the neopalatial period, Knossos was at
the height of its splendor. The city covered an area of 75,000 to 125,000 m
2
and had a pop-
ulation estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands.
The irrigation and drainage systems at Knossos were most interesting. An aqueduct
supplied water through tubular conduits from the Kounavoi and Archanes regions and
branched out into the city and the palace. Figure 1.11 shows the type of pressure conduits
used within the palace for water distribution. The drainage system consisted of two sepa-
rate conduits: one to collect the sewage and the other to collect rain water (Fig. 1.12).
Unfortunately, the Mycenean palace was destroyed by an earthquake and fire in approxi-
mately 1450 B.C., as were all the palatial cities of Crete.
Anatolia, also called Asia Minor, which is part of the Republic of Turkey, has been the
crossroads of many civilizations during the past 10,000 years. During the last 4000 years,
going back to the Hittite period (2000200 B.C.) many remains of ancient urban water-
supply systems have been found, including pipes, canals, tunnels, inverted siphons, aque-
ducts, reservoirs, cisterns, and dams. (see Ozis, 1987 and Ozis and Harmancioglu, 1979).
1.14 Chapter One
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INTRODUCTION
Introduction 1.15
FIGURE 1.11 Water distribution pipe in Knossos, Crete. (Photograph by L.W. Mays)
FIGURE 1.12 Urban drainage system in Knossos, Crete. (Photograph by L.W. Mays)
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INTRODUCTION
An example of one such city is Ephesus, which was founded during the 10th century
B.C. as an Ionian city out of the Temple of Artemis. In the sixth century B.C., the city set-
tled near the temple, and subsequently was reestablished at its present site, where it devel-
oped further during the Roman period. Water was supplied to Ephesus from springs at dif-
ferent sites. Cisterns also supplied well water to the city. Water for the great fountain, built
between 4 and 14 A.D., was diverted by a small dam at Marnss and was conveyed to the
city by a system 6 km long consisting of one large and two small clay pipe lines. Figure
1.13 shows the type of clay pipes used at Ephesus to distribute water.
1.16 Chapter One
FIGURE 1.13 Water distribution pipe in Ephesus, Turkey. (Photograph by
L. W. Mays)
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INTRODUCTION
The latrine, or public toilet shown in Fig. 1.14, was built in the first century A.D. at
Ephesus. The toilets were placed side by side with no partitions. In the middle was a
square pond, and the floors were paved with mosaics.
The Great Theatre at Ephesus, the citys largest and most impressive building, had a
seating capacity for 24,000 people. Built in the Hellenistic period, the theatre was not only
a monumental masterpiece but during the early days of Christianity, one major con-
frontation between Artemis and Christ took place there. Of notable interest from a water-
resources viewpoint is the theatres intricate drainage system. Figure 1.15 shows a
drainage channel in the floor of the theatre.
Public baths also were a unique feature in ancient cities: for example, the Skolactica
baths in Ephesus had a salon and central heating; a hot bath (caldarium), a warm bath
(tepidarium), and a cold bath (frigidarium); and a dressing room (apodyterium). In the
second century A.D., the first building had three floors. In the fourth century, a woman
named Skolacticia modified the baths, making them accessible to hundreds of people.
There were public rooms and private rooms, and people who wished to could stay for
many days. Hot water was provided by a furnace and a large boiler.
Perge is another ancient city in Anatolia that had a unique urban water infrastructure.
The photographs in Fig. 1.16 illustrate the Majestic Fountain (nymphaion), which con-
sisted of a wide basin and a richly decorated architectural facade. Because of its architec-
ture and statues, the fountain was one of Perges most magnificent edifices. A water chan-
nel ran along the middle, dividing each street and bringing life and coolness to the city.
The baths of Perge were magnificent. The first photograph in Fig. 1.17 shows one of the
baths of Perge; the second photograph illustrates the storage of water under the floor to
keep the water warm. Like the baths in other ancient cities in Anatolia, the baths of Perge
had a caldarium, a tepidarium, and a frigidarium.
Introduction 1.17
FIGURE 1.14 A latrine, or public toilet, built at Ephesus, Turkey, in the first century B.C.
(Photograph by L. W. Mays)
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INTRODUCTION
The early Romans devoted much of their time to useful public works projects, includ-
ing roads, harbor works, aqueducts, temples, forums, town halls, arenas, baths, and sew-
ers. The prosperous early Roman bourgeois typically had a 12room house, with a square
hole in the roof to let rain in and a cistern beneath the roof to store the water. Although
the Romans built many aqueducts, they were not the first to do so. King Sennacherio built
aqueducts, as did the Phoenicians and the Helenes. The Romans and Helenes needed
extensive aqueduct systems for their fountains, baths, and gardens. They also realized that
1.18 Chapter One
FIGURE 1.15 A drainage channel on the floor of the Great Theater at Ephesus,
Turkey. (Photograph by L. W. Mays)
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INTRODUCTION
Introduction 1.19
FIGURE 1.16 Two views of the Majestic Fountain (nymphaion) in Perge, Anatolia, Turkey.
(Photographs by L. W. Mays)
water transported from springs was better for their health than river water and that spring
water did not need to be lifted to street level as did river water. Roman aqueducts were
built on elevated structures to provide the needed slope for water flow. Knowledge of pipe
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INTRODUCTION
1.20 Chapter One
FIGURE 1.17A View of the baths at Perge, Anatolia, Turkey. (Photographs by
L.W. Mays)
makingusing bronze, lead, wood, tile, and concretewas in its infancy, and the difficulty
of making strong large pipes was a hinderance. Most Roman piping was made of lead, and
even the Romans recognized that water transported by lead pipes was a health hazard.
The source of water for a typical Roman water supply system was a spring or a dug
well, which usually was equipped with a bucket elevator to raise the water. If the well
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INTRODUCTION
water was clear and of sufficient quantity, it was conveyed to the city by aqueduct. Also,
water from several sources was collected in a reservoir, then conveyed by an aqueduct or
a pressure conduit to a distributing reservoir (castellum). Three pipes conveyed the water:
one to pools and fountains, one to the public baths for public revenue, and one to private
houses for revenue to maintain the aqueducts (Rouse and Ince, 1957). Figures 1.18 and
1.19 illustrate the layout of the major aqueducts of ancient Rome. Figure 1.20 shows the
Roman aqueduct in Segovia, Spain, which is probably among the most interesting of
Roman remains in the world. This aqueduct, built during the second half of the first cen-
tury A.D. or the early years of the second century, has a maximum height of 78.9 m. See
Van Deman (1934) for more details on Roman aqueducts.
Irrigation was not a major concern because of the terrain and the intermittent rivers.
However, the Romans did, drain marshes to obtain more farmland and to eliminate the bad
air, or harmful spirits, rising from the marshes because they believed it caused disease
(de Camp, 1963). The disease-carrying mechanism was not the air, (or spirits) but the
malaria-carrying mosquito. Empedocles, the leading statesman of Acragas in Sicily dur-
ing the Persian War in the fifth century B.C., drained the local marshes of Selinus to
improve the peoples health (de Camp, 1963).
The fall of the Roman Empire extended over a 1000-year period of transition called
the Dark Ages during which the concepts of science related to water resources probably
retrogressed. After the fall of the Roman Empire, clean water, sanitation, and public health
declined in Europe. Historical accounts tell of incredibly unsanitary conditions: polluted
water, human and animal wastes in the streets, and water thrown out of windows onto
passersby. As a result, various epidemics ravaged Europe. During the same period, the
Islamic cultures on the periphery of Europe religiously mandated high levels of personal
hygiene, highly developed water supplies, and adequate sanitation systems. For furthen
reading see Needham (1959) Payne (1959), Reynolds (1970) Robbins (1946), Sarton
(1952-59) and Wittfogel (1956).
Introduction 1.21
FIGURE 1.17B View of the baths at Perge, Anatolia, Turkey. (Photographs by L.W. Mays)
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INTRODUCTION
1.22 Chapter One
FIGURE 1.19 The area of Spes Vetus showing the courses of the major aqueducts entering the
city above ground. (From R. Lanciani, Forma Urbis Romae), as presented in Evans (1993).
FIGURE 1.18 Termini of the major aqueducts in ancient Rome. (Evans, 1993)
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INTRODUCTION
1.3 DEVELOPMENT OF HYDRAULICS
The historical development of hydraulics as a modern science has been described by
Biswas (1970), Rouse (1976), and Rouse and Ince (1963). More recently, the book titled,
The Science of Water (Levi, 1995) presents an excellent history of the foundation of
modern hydraulics. The reader is referred to these excellent books for details on the devel-
opment of hydraulics.
1.4 FEDERAL POLICIES AFFECTING HYDRAULIC DESIGN
Federal legislation contains policies that can affect the design of various types of
hydraulic structures. These policies are listed in Appendix 1.A, where they are categorized
into the following sections: environment, health, historic and archeological preservation,
and land and water usage. The appendix also lists the abbreviations used in the policies,
(adapted from AASHTO, 1991).
1.5 CONVENTIONAL HYDRAULIC DESIGN PROCESS
Conventional procedures for hydraulic design are basically iterative trial-and-error proce-
dures. The effectiveness of conventional procedures depends on an engineers intuition,
experience, skill, and knowledge of hydraulic systems. Therefore, conventional procedures
are closely related to the human element, a factor that could lead to inefficient results for the
design and analysis of complex systems. Conventional procedures are typically based on
Introduction 1.23
FIGURE 1.20 Roman aqueduct in Segovia, Spain. (Photograph by L.W. Mays)
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INTRODUCTION
using simulation models in a process of trial and error to arrive at an optimal solution. Figure
1.21 presents a depiction of the conventional procedure for design and analysis. For exam-
ple, determining a least-cost pumping scheme for an aquifer dewatering problem would
require one to select the required pump sizes and the site where the aquifer would be dewa-
tered. Using a trial set of pump sizes and sites, a groundwater simulation model is solved to
determine whether the water levels are lower than desired. If the pumping scheme (pump
size and site) does not satisfy the water levels, then a new pumping scheme is selected and
simulated. This iterative process is continued, each time to determine the cost of the scheme.
Optimization eliminates the trial-and-error process of changing a design and resimu-
lating it with each new change. Instead, an optimization model automatically changes the
design parameters. An optimization procedure has mathematical expressions that describe
1.24 Chapter One
Data collection to describe system
Estimate initial design of system
Analyze system design using
simulation
Check results of simulation
to check performance
Compute cost or benefits
Change design
Is design
satisfactory?
Are costs or
benefits ok?
Yes
Yes
No
No
Stop
FIGURE 1.21 Conventional procedure for hydraulic design and analysis. (Mays and Tung, 1992)
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INTRODUCTION
the system and its response to the system inputs for various design parameters. These
mathematical expressions are constraints in the optimization model. In addition, con-
straints are used to define the limits of the design variables, and the performance of the
design is evaluated through an objective function, which could be used to minimize costs.
An advantage of the conventional process is that engineers use their experience and
intuition to make conceptual changes in the system or to change or add specifications. The
conventional procedure can lead to nonoptimal or uneconomical designs and operation poli-
cies. Also, the conventional procedure can be extremely time consuming. An optimization
procedure requires the engineer to identify the design variables explicitly, the objective func-
tion of the measure of performance to be optimized, and the constraints for the system. In
contrast to the decision-making process in the conventional procedure, the optimization pro-
cedure is more organized because a mathematical approach is used to make decisions. Refer
to Mays and Tung (1992) for more detail.
1.6 ROLE OF ECONOMICS IN HYDRAULIC DESIGN
1.6.1 Engineering Economic Analysis
Engineering economic analysis is an evaluation process that can be used to compare alter-
native hydraulic designs and then apply a discounting technique to select the best alterna-
tive. To perform this analysis, the engineer must understand several basic concepts, such
as equivalence of kind, equivalence of time, and discounting factors.
One first step in economic analysis is to find a common unit of value, such as mone-
tary units. Through the use of common value units, alternatives of rather diverse kinds can
be evaluated. The monetary evaluation of alternatives generally occurs over a number of
years. Each monetary value must be identified by amount and time. Because the time
value of money results from the willingness of people to pay interest for the use of money,
money at different times cannot be directly combined or compared; first, it must be made
equivalent through the use of discount factors, which convert a monetary value at one date
to an equivalent value at another date.
Discount factors are described using the following notations: i is the annual interest
rate, n is the number of years, P is the present amount of money, F is the future amount
of money, and A is the annual amount of money. Consider an amount of money P that is
to be invested for n years at an interest rate of i percent. The future sum F at the end of n
years is determined from the following progression:
Amount at beginning Plus Amount at
Period of year interest end of year
Year 1 P iP (1+i)P
Year 2 (1+i)P iP(1+i) (1+i)
2
P
Year 3 (1+i)
2
P iP(1+i)
2
(1+i)
3
P

Year n (1+i)
n1
P iP(1+i)
n1
(1+i)
n
P
The future sum is then
F P(1 i)
n
(1.1)
and the single-payment compound amount factor is
Introduction 1.25
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INTRODUCTION

F
P

(1 i)
n

F
P

, i%, n

(1.2)
This factor defines the number of dollars that accumulate after n years for each dollar
initially invested at an interest rate of i percent. The single-payment present worth factor
(P/F, i%, n) is simply the reciprocal of the single-payment compound amount factor.
Table 1.2 summarizes the various discount factors.
Uniform annual series factors are used for equivalence between present (P) and annu-
al (A) monetary amounts or between future (F) and annual (A) monetary amounts.
Consider the amount of money A that must be invested annually (at the end of each year)
to accumulate F at the end of n years. Because the last value of A in the nth year is with-
drawn immediately on deposit, it accumulates no interest. The future value F is
F A (1 i)A (1 i)
2
A (1 i)
n1
A (1.3)
1.26 Chapter One
TABLE 1.2 Summary of Discounting Factors
Type of Discount Factor Symbol Given* Find Factor
Single-payment factors:
Compound-amount factor

F
P

, i%, n

P F (1 i)
n
Present-worth factor

P
F

, i%, n

F P

(1
1
i)
n

Uniform annual
series factors:
Sinking-fund factor

A
F

, i%, n

F A

(1 i
i
)
n
1

Capital-recovery factor

A
P

, i%, n

P A

(1
i(

1
i)
n
i

)
n
1

Series compound-amount

A
F

, i%, n

A F

(1 i
i
)
n
1

factor
Series present-worth factor

P
A

, i%, n

A P

(1
i

(1
i

)
n
i

)
n
1

Uniform gradient series


factors:
Uniform gradient series

G
P

,i%,n

G P
present-worth factor
*The discount factors represent the amount of dollars for the given amounts of $1 for for P, F, A and G.
Source: Mays and Tung, 1992.
(1 i)
n 1
(1 ni i)

i
2
(1 i)
n
A A A A A
A A A A A
A A A A A
A A A A A
G2
G
3
G
(
n
-
1
)
G
P G = $1
P A = $1
P F = $1
P = $1
F = $1
A = $1 F
P = $1 F
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INTRODUCTION
Multiply Eq. (1.3) by (1 i); then subtract Eq. (1.3) from the result to obtain the uni-
form annual series sinkingfund factor:

A
F

(1 i
i
)
n
1

A
F

, i%, n

(1.4)
The sinking-fund factor is the number of dollars A that must be invested at the end of
each of n years at i percent interest to accumulate $1. The series compound amount fac-
tor (F/A) is simply the reciprocal of the sinking-fund factor (Table 1.3), which is the num-
ber of accumulated dollars if $1 is invested at the end of each year. The capital-recovery
factor can be determined by simply multiplying the sinking fund factor (A/F) by the sin-
gle-payment compound-amount factor (Table 1.2):

A
P

, i%, n

A
F

F
P

(1.5)
This factor is the number of dollars that can be withdrawn at the end of each of n years
if $1 is invested initially. The reciprocal of the capital-recovery factor is the series present-
worth factor (P/A), which is the number of dollars initially invested to withdraw $1 at the
end of each year.
A uniform gradient series factor is the number of dollars initially invested to withdraw
$1 at the end of the first year, $2 at the end of the second year, $3 at the end of the third
year, and so on.
1.6.2 Benefit-Cost Analysis
Water projects extend over time, incur costs throughout the duration of the project, and
yield benefits. Typically, the costs are large during the initial start-up period of construc-
tion, followed by operation and maintenance costs only. Benefits typically build up to a
maximum over time, as depicted in Fig. 1.22. The present values of benefits (PVB) and
costs (PVC) are as follows:
PVB b
0

(1
b

1
i)

(1
b
2
i)
2

(1
b
n
i)
n

(1.6)
and
PVC c
0

(1
c

1
i)

(1
c
2
i)
2

(1
c
n
i)
n

(1.7)
Introduction 1.27
Benefits (B)
and
Costs (C)
B
C
Time
FIGURE 1.22 Illustration of how benefits (B) and costs (C) build up over time. (Mays and
Tung, 1992)
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INTRODUCTION
The present value of net benefits is
PVNB PVB PVC (b
0
c
0
)

(b
(1
1

c
i)
1
)

(
(
b
1
2

i
c
)
2
2
)

(
(
b
1
n

i
c
)
n
n
)

(1.8)
To carry out benefit-cost analyses, rules for economic optimization of the project
design and procedures for ranking projects are needed. The most important point in plan-
ning a project is to consider the broadest range of alternatives. The range of alternatives
selected is typically restricted by the responsibility of the water resource agency, the plan-
ners, or both. The nature of the problem to be solved also may condition the range of alter-
natives. Preliminary investigation of alternatives can help to rule out projects because of
their technical unfeasibility or costs.
Consider the selection of an optimal, single-purpose project design, such as the con-
struction of a flood-control system or a water supply project. The optimum size can be
determined by selecting the alternative so that the marginal or incremental current value
of costs, PVC, is equal to the marginal or incremental current value of the benefits,
PVB, (PVB PVC.)
The marginal or incremental value of benefits and costs are for a given increase in the
size of a project:
PVB

(1

b
1
i)

(1

b
2
i)
2

(1

b
n
i)
n

(1.9)
and
PVC

(1

c
1
i)

(1

c
2
i)
2

(1

c
n
i)
n

(1.10)
When selecting a set of projects, one rule for optimal selection is to maximize the cur-
rent value of net benefits. Another ranking criterion is to use the benefit-cost ratio (B/C),
PVB/PVC:

C
B

P
P
V
V
C
B

(1.11)
This method has the option of subtracting recurrent costs from the annual benefits or
including all costs in the present value of cost. Each option will result in a different B/C,
ratio, with higher B/C ratios when netting out annual costs, if the ratio is greater than one.
The B/C ratio is often used to screen unfeasible alternatives with B/C ratios less than 1
from further consideration.
Selection of the optimum alternative is based on the incremental benefit-cost ratios,
B/C, whereas the B/C ratio is used for ranking alternatives. The incremental benefit-
cost ratio is

C
B

(1.12)
where PVB(A
j
) is the present value of benefits for alternative A
j
. Figure 1.23 is a flowchart
illustrating the benefit-cost method.
1.6.3 Estimated Life Spans of Hydraulic Structures
The Internal Revenue Service bulletin gives estimated average lives for many thousands
of different types of industrial assets. The lives (in years) given for certain elements of
hydraulic projects are listed in Table 1.3. Although such estimates of average lives may be
helpful, they are not necessarily the most appropriate figures to use in any given instance.
PVB

A
j

PVB

A
k

PVC

A
j

PVC

A
k

1.28 Chapter One


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INTRODUCTION
Introduction 1.29
Compute B/C Ratio of Each
Alternative
Keep Alternatives With B/C > 1
Rank Alternatives in Order of
Increasing Cost
Compare Two Least-Costly
Alternatives
Compute Incremental B/C Ratio
B/C
Select Next
Alternative to
Compare
Select Next
Alternative to
Compare
Choose Less Costly
Alternative
Choose More Costly Alternative

B
C

> 1
Yes No
FIGURE 1.23 Flowchart for a benefit-cost analysis. (Mays and Tung, 1992)
TABLE 1.3 Lives (in years) for Elements of Hydraulic Projects
Barges 12 Penstocks 50
Booms, log 15 Pipes:
Canals and ditches 75 Cast iron
Coagulating basins 50 2-4 in. 50
Construction equipment 5 4-6 in. 65
Dams: 8-10 in. 75
Crib 25 12 in. and over 100
Earthen, concrete, or masonry 150 Concrete 20-30
Loose rock 60 PVC 40
Steel 40 Steel
Filters 50 Under 4 in. 30
Flumes: Over 4 in. 40
Concrete or masonry 75 Wood stave
Steel 50 14 in. and larger 33
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INTRODUCTION
1.7 ROLE OF OPTIMIZATION IN HYDRAULIC DESIGN
An optimization problem in water resources can be formulated in a general framework in
terms of the decision variables (x), with an objective function to optimize
f(x) (1.13)
subject to constraints
g(x) 0 (1.14)
and bound constraints on the decision variables
x

x x

(1.15)
where x is a vector of n decision variables (x
1
, x
2
, , x
n
), g(x) is a vector of m equations
called constraints, and x

and x

represent the lower and upper bounds, respectively, on the
decision variables.
Every optimization problem has two essential parts: the objective function and the set
of constraints. The objective function describes the performance criteria of the system.
Constraints describe the system or process that is being designed or analyzed and can be
in two forms: equality constraints and inequality constraints. A feasible solution of the
optimization problem is a set of values of the decision variables that simultaneously sat-
isfies the constraints. The feasible region is the region of feasible solutions defined by the
constraints. An optimal solution is a set of values of the decision variables that satisfies
the constraints and provides an optimal value of the objective function.
Depending on the nature of the objective function and the constraints, an optimization
problem can be classified as (1) linear vs. nonlinear, (2) deterministic vs. probabilistic, (3)
static vs. dynamic, (4) continuous vs. discrete, or (5) lumped parameter vs. distributed
parameter.
Linear programming problems consist of a linear objective function, and all constraints
are linear, whereas nonlinear programming problems are represented by nonlinear equa-
tions: that is, part or all of the constraints or the objective functions or both are nonlinear.
Deterministic problems consist of coefficients and parameters that can be assigned
fixed values, whereas probabilistic problems consist of uncertain parameters that are
regarded as random variables.
1.30 Chapter One
TABLE 1.3 (Continues)
Wood 25 3-12 in. 20
Fossil-fuel power plants 28 Pumps 18-25
Generators: Reservoirs 75
Above 3000 kva 28 Standpipes 50
1000-3000 kva 25 Tanks:
50 hp-1000 kva 17-25 Concrete 50
Below 50 hp 14-17 Steel 40
Hydrants 50 Wood 20
Marine construction equipment 12 Tunnels 100
Meters, water 30 Turbines, hydraulic 35
Nuclear power plants 20 Wells 40-50
*Alternating-current generators are rated in kilovolt-amperes (kva).
Source: Linsley et al., 1992.
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Static problems do not explicitly consider the variable time aspect, whereas dynamic
problems do consider the variable time. Static problems are referred to as mathematical
programming problems, and dynamic problems are often referred to as optimal control
problems, which involve difference or differential equations.
Continuous problems have variables that can take on continuous values, whereas with
discrete problems, the variables must take on discrete values. Typically, discrete problems
are posed as integer programming problems in which the variables must be integer values.
Lumped problems consider the parameters and variables to be homogeneous through-
out the system, whereas distributed problems must account for detailed variations in the
behavior of the system from one location to another.
The method of optimization used depends up the type of objective function, the type
of constraints, and the number of decision variables. Optimization is not covered in this
handbook, but it is discussed in detail in Mays and Tung (1992).
1.8 ROLE OF RISK ANALYSIS IN HYDRAULIC DESIGN
1.8.1 Existence of Uncertainties
Uncertainties and the consequent related risks in hydraulic design are unavoidable.
Hydraulic structures are always subject to a probability of failure in achieving their
intended purposes. For example, a flood control project may not protect an area from
extreme floods. A water supply project may not deliver the amount of water demanded.
This failure may be caused by failure of the delivery system or may be the result of the
lack of supply. A water distribution system may not deliver water that meets quality stan-
dards although the source of the water does. The rationale for selecting the design and
operation parameters and the design and operation standards are questioned continually.
Procedures for the engineering design and operation of water resources do not involve any
required assessment and quantification of uncertainties and the resultant evaluation of a
risk.
Risk is defined as the probability of failure, and failure is defined as an event that caus-
es a system to fail to meet the desired objectives. Reliability is defined as the complement
of risk: i.e., the probability of nonfailure. Failures can be grouped into either structural
failures or performance failures. Water distribution systems are a good example. A struc-
tural failure, such as broken pipe or a failed pump, can result in unmet demand. In addi-
tion, an operational aspect of a water distribution system, such as the inability to meet
demands at required pressure heads, is a failure despite the lack of a structural failure in
any component in the system. Uncertainty can be defined as the occurrence of events that
are beyond ones control. The uncertainty of a hydraulic structure is an indeterministic
characteristic and is beyond rigid controls. In the design and operation of these systems,
decisions must be made under various kinds of uncertainty.
The sources of uncertainties are multifold. First, the ideas of natural uncertainties,
model structure uncertainties, model parameter uncertainties, data uncertainties, and
operational uncertainties will be discussed. Natural uncertainties are associated with
the random temporal and spatial fluctuations that are inherent in natural processes.
Model structural uncertainties reflect the inability of a simulation model or design pro-
cedure to represent the systems true physical behavior or process precisely. Model
parameter uncertainties reflect variability in the determination of the parameters to be
used in the model or design. Data uncertainties include inaccuracies and errors in mea-
surements, inadequacy of the data gauging network, and errors in data handling and
Introduction 1.31
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INTRODUCTION
transcription. Operational uncertainties are associated with human factors, such as con-
struction, manufacture, deterioration, and maintenance, that are not accounted for in the
modeling or design procedure.
Uncertainties fall into four major categories: hydrologic uncertainty, hydraulic uncer-
tainty, structural uncertainty, and economic uncertainty. Each category has various com-
ponent uncertainties. Hydrologic uncertainty can be classified into three types: inherent,
parameter, and model uncertainties. Various hydrologic events, such as streamflow or
rainfall, are considered to be stochastic processes because of their observable natural,
(inherent) randomness. Because perfect hydrologic information about these processes is
lacking, informational uncertainties about the processes exist. These uncertainties are
referred to as parameter uncertainties and model uncertainties. In many cases, model
uncertainties result from the lack of adequate data and knowledge necessary to select the
appropriate probability model or from the use of an oversimplified model, such as the
rational method for the design of a storm sewer.
Hydraulic uncertainty concerns the design of hydraulic structures and the analysis
of their performance. It arises mainly from three basic sources: the model, the con-
struction and materials, and the operational conditions of flow. Model uncertainty
results from the use of a simplified or an idealized hydraulic model to describe flow
conditions, which in turn contributes to uncertainty when determining the design capac-
ity of hydraulic structures. Because simplified relationships, such as Mannings equa-
tion, are typically used to model complex flow processes that cannot be described ade-
quately, resulting in model errors.
Structural uncertainty refers to failure caused by structural weakness. Physical failures
of hydraulic structures can be caused by saturation and instability of soil, failures caused
by erosion or hydraulic soil, wave action, hydraulic overloading, structural collapse, mate-
rial failure, and so forth. An example is the structural failure of a levee system either in
the levee or in the adjacent soil; the failure could be caused by saturation and instability
of soil. A flood wave can cause increased saturation of the levee through slumping. Levees
also can fail because of hydraulic soil failures and wave action.
Economic uncertainty can arise from uncertainties regarding construction costs,
damage costs, projected revenue, operation and maintenance costs, inflation, project
life, and other intangible cost and benefit items. Construction, damage, and operation
or maintenance costs are all subject to uncertainties because of fluctuations in the rate
at which construction materials, labor costs, transportation costs, and economic loss-
es, increase and the rate at which costs increase in different geographic regions. Many
other economic and social uncertainties are related to inconvenience losses: for exam-
ple, the failure of a highway crossing caused by flooding, which results in traffic-
related losses.
The objective when analyzing uncertainties is to incorporate the uncertainties system-
atically into the evaluation of loading and resistance. The most commonly used method is
the first-order analysis of uncertainties. This method is used to determine the statistics of
the random variables loading and resistance, which are typically defined through the use
of deterministic models but have uncertain parameter inputs. Chapter 7 provides details of
the first-order analysis of uncertainties.
1.8.2 Risk-Reliability Evaluation
1.8.2.1 Load resistance The load for a system can be defined as an external stress to the
system, and the resistance can be defined as the capacity of the system to overcome
the external load. Although the terms load and resistance have been used in structural
1.32 Chapter One
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INTRODUCTION
engineering, they definitely have a place in the types of risk analysis that must be per-
formed for engineering projects involving water resources.
If we use the variable R for resistance and the variable L for load, we can define a fail-
ure as the event when the load exceeds the resistance and the consequent risk is the prob-
ability that the loading will exceed the resistance, P(L R). A simple example of this type
of failure would be a dam that fails because of overtopping. The risk would be the proba-
bility that the elevation of the water surface in a reservoir exceeds the elevation of the top
of the dam. In this case, the resistance is the elevation of the top of the dam, and the load-
ing is the maximum elevation of the water surface of a flood wave entering the reservoir.
Because many uncertain variables define both the resistance and loading, both are
regarded as random variables. A simple example would be to use the rational equation
Q CiA to define the design discharge (loading) for a storm sewer. The loading L Q
is a function of three uncertain variables: the runoff coefficient C, the rainfall intensity i,
and the drainage area A. Because the three variables cannot be determined with complete
certainty, they are considered to be random variables. If the resistance is defined using
Mannings equation, then the resistance is a function of Mannings roughness factor, the
pipe diameter, and the slope (friction slope). The two main contributors to uncertainty in
this equation would be the friction slope and the roughness factor i.e., random variables.
Thus, the resistance is also is a random variable because it is a function of the other two
random variables.
It is interesting to note that in the example of the storm sewer, both the loading and the
resistance are defined by deterministic equations: the rational equation and Mannings
equation. Both equations are considered to have uncertain design parameters that result in
uncertain resistance and loading. Consequently, they are considered to be random vari-
ables. In the storm sewer example, as in many types of hydraulic structures, the loading
uncertainty is actually the hydrologic uncertainty and the resistance uncertainty is the
hydraulic uncertainty.
1.8.2.2 Composite risk The discussion about the hydrologic and hydraulic uncertainties
being the resistance and loading uncertainties leads to the idea of a composite risk. The
probability of failure defined previously as the risk, P(L R), is actually a composite risk.
If only the hydrologic uncertainty, in particular the inherent hydrologic uncertainty, were
considered, then this would not be a composite risk. In the conventional design processes
of water resources engineering projects, only the inherent hydrologic uncertainties have
been considered. Essentially, a large return period is selected and is artificially considered
as the safety factor without any regard to accounting systematically for the various uncer-
tainties that actually exist.
1.8.2.3 Safety factor The safety factor is defined as the ratio of the resistance to load-
ing, R/L. Because the safety factor SF R/L is the ratio of two random variables, it also
is a random variable. The risk can be written as P(SF 1) and the reliability can be writ-
ten as P(SF 1). In the example of the storm sewer, both the resistance and the loading
are considered to be random variables because both are functions of random variables.
Consequently, the safety factor for storm sewer design would also be a random variable.
1.8.2.4 Risk assessment Risk assessment requires several phases or steps, which can
vary for different types of water resources engineering projects: (1) identify the risk of
hazard, (2) assess load and resistance, (3) perform an analysis of the uncertainties, (4)
quantify the composite risk, and (5) develop the composite risk-safety factor relationships.
1.8.2.5 A model for risk-based design The risk-based design of hydraulic structures
potentially promises to be the most significant application of uncertainty and risk analy-
Introduction 1.33
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INTRODUCTION
sis. The risk-based design of hydraulic structures integrates the procedures of economics,
uncertainty analysis, and risk analysis in design practice. Such procedures can consider
the tradeoffs among risk, economics, and other performance measures in the design of
hydraulic structures. When risk-based design is embedded in an optimization framework,
the combined procedure is called optimal risk-based design. This approach to design is
the ultimate model for the design, analysis, and operation of hydraulic structures and
water resource projects that hydraulics engineers need to strive for in the future. Chapter
7 provides detailed discussions on risk-reliability evaluation.
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Adams, R.M., Heartland of Cities, Surveys of Ancient Settlement and Land Use on the Central
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Akurgal, E., Ancient Civilizations and Ruins of Turkey, 8th ed., Net Turistik Yaylinlar A.S.,
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Allen, J., Scale Models in Hydraulic Engineering, Longman, Green, London, UK, 1947.
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Model Drainage
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Biswas, A.K., History of Hydrology, North-Holland Publishing Amsterdam, 1970.
Butzer, K.W., Early Hydraulic Civilization in Egypt, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1976.
Chow, V T., Open-Channel Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959.
Crouch, D.P., Water Management in Ancient Greek Cities, Oxford University Press, New York,
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Davis, C.V., and K.E. Sorensen, Handbook of Applied Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1942.
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Doolittle, W.E., Canal Irrigation in Prehistoric Mexico, University of Texas Press, Austin, 1990.
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INTRODUCTION
Garbrecht, G., Sadd-el-Kafara: The Worlds Oldest Large Dam, International Water and Power
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International Seminar on Kaust Hydrogeology, IAHR, Anatalya, Turkey, pp. 380-385 1979.
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Rouse, H., ed., Engineering Hydraulics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1950
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Smith, N., A History of Dams, Peter Davies, London, UK, 1971.
Introduction 1.35
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INTRODUCTION
Stoker, J.J., Water Waves, Interscience, New York, 1957.
Streeter, V.L. and E.B. Wylie, Hydraulic Transients, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967.
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Office, Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tuscon, 1922.
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1960, 1973, 1987.
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Supply Paper No. 1849, Arlington, VA, 1967.
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Vivian, R.G., The Chacoan Prehistory of the San Juan Basin, Academic Press, San Diego, CA,
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Chicago Press, Chicago, 1956.
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Johnson, eds., pp. 81153, University of Texas Press, Austin, 1972.
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Sons, New York, 1941.
1.36 Chapter One
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INTRODUCTION
Introduction 1.37
A.1 POLICIES BY CATEGORY
A.1.1 Environment
National Environmental Policy Act: 42 U.S.C. 43214347 (P.L. 91190 and 9481).
Reference - 23 CFR 770772, 40 CFR 15001508, CEQ Regulations, Executive Order
11514 as amended by Executive Order 11991 on NEPA responsibilities. The purpose is to
consider environmental factors through a systematic interdisciplinary approach before
committing to a course of action.
Section 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act: 23 U.S.C. 138, 49 U.S.C. 303 (P.L.
10017, 97449, and 86670), 23 CFR 771.135. The purpose is to preserve publicly
owned public parklands, waterfowl and wildlife refuges, and all historic areas.
Economic, Social, and Environmental Effects: 23 U.S.C. 109(h) (P.I. 91605), 23
U.S.C. 128, 23 CFR 771. The purpose is to assure that possible adverse, economic,
social, and environmental effects of proposed highway projects and their locations are
fully considered and that final decisions on highway projects are made in the best over-
all public interest.
Public Hearings: 23 U.S.C. 128, 23 CFR 771.111. The purpose is to ensure adequate
opportunity for public hearings on the social, economic, and environmental effects of
alternative project locations and major design features as well as the consistency of the
project with local planning goals and objectives.
Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Assistance Act of 1987: Section 123(f)
Historic Bridges 23 U.S.C. 144(o) (P.L. 100-17). The purpose is to complete an invento-
ry of on-and-off system bridges to determine their historic significance and to encourage
the rehabilitation, reuse, and preservation of historic bridges.
A.1.2 Health
Safe Drinking Water Act: 42 U.S.C. 300f300;f-6 (P.L. 93523 and 99339), FHPM
6733, 23 CFR 650, Subpart E, 40 CFR 141, 149. The purpose is to ensure public
health and welfare through safe drinking water.
Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
of 1976: 42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq., see especially 42 U.S.C. 69616964 (P.L. 89272,
91512, and 94580), 23 CFR 751, 40 CFR 256300. The purpose is to provide for the
recovery, recycling, and environmentally safe disposal of solid wastes.
APPENDIX 1. A
INTRODUCTION
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1.38 Chapter One
A.1.3 Historic and Archeological Preservation
Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended: 16 U.S.C. 470f (P.L.
89665, 91243, 9354, 94422, 94458, 96199, 96244, and 96515), Executive Order
11593, 23 CFR 771, 36 CFR 60, 36 CFR 63, 36 CFR 800. The purpose is to protect, reha-
bilitate, restore, and reuse districts, sites, buildings, structures, and other objects signifi-
cant in American architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture.
Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended: 16 U.S.C. 470h2
(P.L. 96515), 36 CFR 65, 36 CFR 78. The purpose is to protect national historic land-
marks and record historic properties before demolition.
Archeological and Historic Preservation Act: 16 U.S.C. 469469c (P.L. 93291) (Moss-
Bennett Act), 36 CFR 66 (draft). The purpose is to preserve significant historical and
archeological data from loss or destruction.
Act for the Preservation of American Antiquities: 16 U.S.C. 431433 (P.L. 59209), 36
CFR 251.5064, 43 CFR 3. Archeological Resources Protection Act: 16 U.S.C. 470aa11
(P.L. 9695), 18 CFR 1312, 32 CFR 229, 36 CFR 296, 43 CFR 7. The purpose is to pre-
serve and protect paleontologic resources, historic monuments, memorials, and antiquities
from loss or destruction.
American Indian Religious Freedom Act: 42 U.S.C. 1996 (P.L. 95341). The purpose is
to protect places of religious importance to American Indians, Eskimos, and Native
Hawaiians.
A.1.4 Land and Water Usage
Wilderness Act 16 U.S.C. 11311136. 36 CFR 251, 293, 43 CFR 19, 8560, 50 CFR 35.
The purpose is to preserve and protect wilderness areas in their natural condition for use
and enjoyment by present and future generations.
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act: 16 U.S.C. 12711287, 36 CFR 251, 261, 43 CFR 8350. The
purpose is to preserve and protect wild and scenic rivers and immediate environments for
the benefit of present and future generations.
Land and Water Conservation Fund Act (Section 6(f)): 16 U.S.C. 46014 to 111 (P.L.
88578). The purpose is to preserve, develop, and assure the quality and quantity of out-
door recreation resources for present and future generations.
Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands, DOT Order 5660. 1A, 23 CFR 777. The
purpose is to avoid direct or indirect support of new construction in wetlands whenever a
practicable alternative is available.
Emergency Wetlands Resources Act of 1986: 16 U.S.C. 3901 note (P.L. 99645). The pur-
pose is to promote the conservation of wetlands in the U.S. to maintain the public bene-
fits they provide.
National Trails Systems Act: 16 U.S.C. 12411249, 36 CFR 251, 43 CFR 8350. The pur-
pose is to provide for outdoor recreational needs and encourage outdoor recreation.
Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899: 33 U.S.C. 401, et seq., as amended and supplemented,
23 CFR part 650, Subpart H, 33 CFR 114115. The purpose is to protect navigable waters
in the U.S.
Federal Water Pollution Control Act (1972), as amended by the Clean Water Act (1977 &
1987): 33 U.S.C. 12511376 (P.L. 92500, 95217, 1004), DOT Order 5660.1A, FHWA
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INTRODUCTION
Notices N5000.3 and N5000.4, FHPM 6733, 23 CFR 650, Subpart B, E, 771, 33 CFR
209, 40 CFR 120, 122125, 128131, 133, 125136, 148, 230231. The purpose is to
restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters
through prevention, reduction, and elimination of pollution.
Executive Order 11988, Floodplain Management, as amended by Executive Order 12148,
DOT Order 5650.2, FHPM 6732, 23 CFR 650, Subpart A, 771. The purpose is to avoid
the long and short-term adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification
of floodplains and to restore and preserve the natural and beneficial values served by
floodplains.
National Flood Insurance Act: (P.L. 90448), Flood Disaster Protection Act: (P.L. 93234)
42 U.S.C. 40014128, DOT Order 5650.2, FHPM 6732, 23 CFR 650, Subpart A, 771,
44 CFR 5977. The purpose is to identify flood-prone areas and provide insurance and to
require the purchase of insurance for buildings in special flood-hazard areas.
Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, as amended: 33 U.S.C.
14011445 (P.L. 92532, 93254, 96572), 33 CFR 320, 330, 40 CFR 220225,
227228, 230231. The purpose is to regulate the dumping of materials into U.S.
ocean waters.
Water Bank Act: 16 U.S.C. (P.L. 91559, 96182), 7 CFR 752. The purpose is to preserve,
restore, and improve wetlands of the U.S.
Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972: 16 U.S.C.1 14511464 (P.L. 92583, 94370,
96464), 15 CFR 923, 926, 930931, 23 CFR 771. The purpose is to preserve, protect,
develop, and (when possible) restore and enhance the resources of the coastal zone.
Coastal Barrier Resource Act, as amended: 16 U.S.C. 35013510, 42 U.S.C. 4028 (P.L.
97348), Great Lakes Coastal Barrier Act of 1988 (P.L. 100707), 13 CFR 116 Subparts
D, E, 44 CFR 71, 205 Subpart N. The purpose is to minimize the loss of human life,
wasteful expenditures of federal revenues, and the damage to fish, wildlife, and other nat-
ural resources.
Farmland Protection Policy Act of 1981: 7 U.S.C. 42014209 (P.L. 9798, 99198), 7
CFR 658. The purpose is to minimize impacts on farmland and maximize compatibility
with state and local farmland programs and policies.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), as amended: 42 U.S.C. 690,
et seq. (P.L. 94580, 98616), 40 CFR 260271. The purpose is to protect human health
and the environment; prohibit open dumping; manage solid wastes; and regulate the treat-
ment, storage transportation, and disposal of hazardous waste.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980
(CERCLA), as amended: 42 U.S.C. 96019657 (P.L. 96510), 40 CFR 300, 43 CFR 11.
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) (P.L. 99499). The
purpose is to provide for liability, compensation, cleanup, and emergency response when
hazardous substances have been released into the environment and to provide for the
cleanup of inactive hazardous waste disposal sites.
Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended: 16 U.S.C. 15311543 (P.L. 93205,
94359, 95632, 96159, 97304), 7 CFR 355, 50 CFR 17, 23, 2529, 81, 217, 222,
225227, 402, 424, 450453. The purpose is to conserve species of fish, wildlife, and
plants facing extinction.
Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act: 16 U.S.C. 661666c (P.L. 85624, 8972, 95616.
The purpose is to conserve, maintain, and manage wildlife resources.
Introduction 1.39
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INTRODUCTION
2.1 INTRODUCTION
The need to provide water to satisfy basic physical and domestic needs; use of mar-
itime and fluvial routes for transportation and travel, crop irrigation, flood protec-
tion, development of stream power; all have forced humanity to face water from the
beginning of time. It has not been an easy rapport. City dwellers who day after day
see water flowing from faucets, docile to their needs, have no idea of its idiosyn-
crasy. They cannot imagine how much patience and cleverness are needed to han-
dle our great friend-enemy; how much insight must be gained in understanding its
arrogant nature in order to tame and subjugate it; how water must be enticed to
agree to our will, respecting its own at the same time. That is why a hydraulician
must first be something like a water psychologist, thoroughly knowledgeable of its
nature. (Enzo Levi, The Science of Water: The Foundations of Modern Hydraulics,
ASCE, 1995, p. xiii.)
Understanding the hydraulics of pipeline systems is essential to the rational design,
analysis, implementation, and operation of many water resource projects. This chapter
considers the physical and computational bases of hydraulic calculations in pressurized
pipelines, whether the pipelines are applied to hydroelectric, water supply, or wastewater
systems. The term pressurized pipeline means a pipe system in which a free water surface
is almost never found within the conduit itself. Making this definition more precise is dif-
ficult because even in a pressurized pipe system, free surfaces are present within reser-
voirs and tanks and sometimes for short intervals of time during transient (i.e.,
unsteady) eventscan occur within the pipeline itself. However, in a pressurized pipeline
system, in contrast to the open-channel systems discussed in Chapter 3, the pressures
within the conveyance system are usually well above atmospheric.
Of central importance to a pressurized pipeline system is its hydraulic capacity: that is,
its ability to pass a design flow. A related issue is the problem of flow control: how design
flows are established, modified, or adjusted. To deal adequately with these
two topics, this chapter considers head-loss calculations in some detail and introduces the
topics of pumping, flow in networks, and unsteady flows. Many of these subjects are treat-
ed in greater detail in later chapters, or in reference such as Chaudhry and Yevjevich (1981).
Rather than simply providing the key equations and long tabulations of standard
values, this chapter seeks to provide a context and a basis for hydraulic design. In addi-
tion to the relations discussed, such issues as why certain relations rather than others are
used, what various equations assume, and what can go wrong if a relation is used incor-
CHAPTER 2
HYDRAULICS OF
PRESSURIZED FLOW
Bryan W. Karney
Department of Civil Engineering
University of Toronto,
Toronto, Ontario,
Canada
2.1
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Source: HYDRAULIC DESIGN HANDBOOK
rectly also are considered. Although derivations are not provided, some emphasis is placed
on understanding both the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches. Given the
virtually infinite combinations and arrangements of pipe systems, such information is
essential for the pipeline professional.
2.2 IMPORTANCE OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS
Over the past several decades, pressurized pipeline systems have become remarkably
competitive as a means of transporting many materials, including water and wastewater.
In fact, pipelines can now be found throughout the world transporting fluids through every
conceivable environment and over every possible terrain.
There are numerous reasons for this increased use. Advances in construction
techniques and manufacturing processes have reduced the cost of pipelines relative to
other alternatives. In addition, increases in both population and population density have
tended to favor the economies of scale that are often associated with pipeline systems. The
need for greater conservation of resources and, in particular, the need to limit losses
caused by evaporation and seepage have often made pipelines attractive relative to open-
channel conveyance systems. Moreover, an improved understanding of fluid behavior has
increased the reliability and enhanced the performance of pipeline systems. For all these
reasons, it is now common for long pipelines of large capacity to be built, many of which
carry fluid under high pressure. Some of these systems are relatively simple, composed
only of series-connected pipes; in others systems, the pipes are joined to form complex
networks having thousands of branched and interconnected lines.
Pipelines often form vital links in the process chain, and high penalties may be asso-
ciated with both the direct costs of failure (pipeline repair, cost of lost fluid, damages
associated with rupture, and so forth) and the interruption of service. This is especially
evident in industrial applications, such as paper mills, mines, and power plants. Yet, even
in municipal systems, a pipe failure can cause considerable property damage. In addition,
the failure may lead indirectly to other kinds of problems. For example, a mainline break
could flood a roadway and cause a traffic accident or might make it difficult to fight a
major fire.
Although pipelines appear to promise an economical and continuous supply of fluid,
they pose critical problems of design, analysis, maintenance, and operation. A successful
design requires the cooperation of hydraulic, structural, construction, survey, geotechni-
cal, and mechanical engineers. In addition, designers and planners often must consider the
social, environmental, and legal implications of pipeline development. This chapter focus-
es on the hydraulic considerations, but one should remember that these considerations are
not the only, nor necessarily the most critical, issues facing the pipeline engineer. To be
successful, a pipeline must be economically and environmentally viable as well as tech-
nically sound. Yet, because technical competence is a necessary requirement for any suc-
cessful pipeline project, this aspect is the primary focus.
2.3 NUMERICAL MODELS: BASIS FOR PIPELINE ANALYSIS
The designer of a hydraulic system faces many questions. How big should each pipe be to
carry the required flow? How strong must a segment of pipe be to avoid breaking? Are
reservoirs, pumps, or other devices required? If so, how big should they be and where
should they be situated?
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There are at least two general ways of resolving this kind of issue. The first way is to
build the pipe system on the basis of our best guess design and learn about the systems
performance as we go along. Then, if the original system as built is inadequate, suc-
cessive adjustments can be made to it until a satisfactory solution is found. Historically, a
number of large pipe systems have been built in more or less this way. For example, the
Romans built many impressive water supply systems with little formal knowledge of fluid
mechanics. Even today, many small pipeline systems are still constructed with little or no
analysis. The emphasis in this kind of approach should be to design a system that is both
flexible and robust.
However, there is a second approach. Rather than constructing and experimenting with
the real system, a replacement or model of the system is developed first. This model can
take many forms: from a scaled-down version of the original to a set of mathematical
equations. In fact, currently the most common approach is to construct an abstract numer-
ical representation of the original that is encoded in a computer. Once this model is
operational, experiments are conducted on it to predict the behavior of the real or pro-
posed system. If the design is inadequate in any predictable way, the parameters of the
model are changed and the system is retested until design conditions are satisfied. Only
once the modeller is reasonably satisfied would the construction of the complete system
be undertaken.
In fact, most modern pipelines systems are modeled quite extensively before they are
built. One reason for this is perhaps surprising experiments performed on a model are
sometimes better than those done on the prototype. However, we must be careful here,
because better is a relative word. On the plus side, modeling the behavior of a pipeline
system has a number of intrinsic advantages:
Cost. Constructing and experimenting on the model is often much less expensive than
testing the prototype.
Time. The response rate of the model pipe system may be more rapid and convenient
than the prototype. For example, it may take only a fraction of a second for a
computer program to predict the response of a pipe system after decades of projected
growth in the demand for water.
Safety. Experiments on a real system may be dangerous or risky whereas testing the
model generally involves little or no risk.
Ease of modification: Improvements, adjustments, or modifications in design or
operating rules can be incorporated more easily in a model, usually by simply editing
an input file.
Aid to communication. Models can facilitate communication between individuals and
groups, thereby identifying points of agreement, disagreement, misunderstanding, or
issues requiring clarification.Even simple sketches, such as Fig. 2.1, can aid discussion.
These advantages are often seen as so overwhelming that the fact that alternative
approaches are available is sometimes forgotten. In particular, we must always remember
that the model is not reality. In fact, what makes the model useful is precisely its simplic-
ityit is not as complex or expensive as the original. Stated more forcibly, the model is
useful because it is wrong. Clearly, the model must be sufficiently accurate for its intend-
ed purpose or its predictions will be useless. However, the fact that predictions are imper-
fect should be no surprise.
As a general rule, systems that are large, expensive, complex, and important justify
more complex and expensive models. Similarly, as the sophistication of the pipeline sys-
tem increases, so do the benefits and advantages of the modeling approach because this
Hydraulics of Pressurized Flow 2.3
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strategy allows us to consider the consequences of certain possibilities (decisions, actions,
inactions, events, and so on before they occur and to control conditions in ways that may
be impossible in practice (e.g., weather characteristics, interest rates, future demands,
control system failures). Models often help to improve our understanding of cause
and effect and to isolate particular features of interest or concern and are our primary tool
of prediction.
To be more specific, two kinds of computer models are frequently constructed for
pipeline systems planning models and operational model:
Planning models. These models are used to assess performance, quantity or econom-
ic impacts of proposed pipe systems, changes in operating procedures, role of devices,
control valves, storage tanks, and so forth. The emphasis is often on selection, sizing, or
modification of devices.
Operational models. These models are used to forecast behavior, adjust pressures or
flows, modify fluid levels, train operators, and so on over relatively short periods (hours,
days, months). The goal is to aid operational decisions.
The basis of both kinds of models is discussed in this chapter. However, before you
believe the numbers or graphs produced by a computer program, or before you work
through the remainder of this chapter, bear in mind that every model is in some sense a
fake it is a replacement, a stand-in, a surrogate, or a deputy for something else. Models
are always more or less wrong. Yet it is their simultaneous possession of the characteris-
tics of both simplicity and accuracy that makes them powerful.
2.4 MODELING APPROACH
If we accept that we are going to construct computer models to predict the performance
of pipeline systems, then how should this be done? What aspects of the prototype can and
should be emphasized in the model? What is the basis of the approximations, and what
principles constrain the approach? These topics are discussed in this section.
Perhaps surprisingly, if we wish to model the behavior of any physical system, a
remarkably small number of fundamental relations are available (or required). In essence,
we seek to answer three simple questions: where?, what? and how? The following sections
provide elaboration.
2.4 Chapter Two
FIGURE 2.1 Energy relations in a simple pipe system.
H
EGL
1
EGL
2
Valve
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
The first question is resolved most easily. Because flow in a pipe system can almost
always be assumed to be one-dimensional, the question of where is resolved by assuming
a direction of flow in each link of pipe. This assumed direction gives a unique orientation
to the specification of distance, discharge, and velocity. Positive values of these variables
indicate flow in the assumed direction, whereas negative values indicate reverse flows.
The issues of what and how require more careful development.
2.4.1 Properties of Matter (What?)
The question of What? directs our attention to the matter within the control system. In
the case of a hydraulic system, this is the material that makes up the pipe walls, or fills the
interior of a pipe or reservoir, or that flows through a pump. Eventually a modeller must
account for all these issues, but we start with the matter that flows, typically consisting
mostly of water with various degrees of impurities.
In fact, water is so much a part of our lives that we seldom question its role. Yet water
possesses a unique combination of chemical, physical, and thermal properties that makes
it ideally suited for many purposes. In addition, although important regional shortages
may exist, water is found in large quantities on the surface of the earth. For both these rea-
sons, water plays a central role in both human activity and natural processes.
One surprising feature of the water molecule is its simplicity, formed as it as from two
diatomic gases, hydrogen (H
2
) and oxygen (O
2
). Yet the range and variety of waters
properties are remarkable (Table 2.1 provides a partial list). Some property values in the
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.5
TABLE 2.1 Selected Properties of Liquid Water
Physical Properties
1. High density
liq
< 1 000 kg/m
3
2. Density maximum at 4Ci.e., above freezing!
3. High viscosity (but a Newtonian fluid) 10
3
N s/m
2
4. High surface tension 73 N/m
5. High bulk modulus (usually assumed incompressible)K 2.07 GPa
Thermal Properties
1. Specific Heathighest except for NH
3
c 4.187 kJ/(kgC)
2. High heat of vaporizationc
v
2.45 MJ/kg
3. High heat of fusionc
f
0.36 MJ/kg
4. Expands on freezingin almost all other compounds,
solid
>
liq
5. High boiling pointc.f., H
2
(20 K), O
2
(90 K) and H
2
O (373 K)
6 Good conductor of heat relative to other liquids and nonmetal solids.
Chemical and Other Properties
1. Slightly ionizedwater is a good solvent for electrolytes and nonelectrolytes
2. Transparent to visible light; opaque to near infrared
3. High dielectric constantresponds to microwaves and electromagnetic fields
Note: The values are approximate. All the properties listed are functions of temperature, pressure, water purity, and
other factors that should be known if more exact values are to be assigned. For example, surface tension is greatly
influenced by the presence of soap films, and the boiling point depends on water purity and confining pressure. The
values are generally indicative of conditions near 10C and one atmosphere of pressure.
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table especially density and viscosity valuesare used regularly by pipeline engineers.
Other properties, such as compressibility and thermal values, are used indirectly, primar-
ily to justify modeling assumptions, such as the flow being isothermal and incompress-
ible. Many properties of water depend on intermolecular forces that create powerful
attractions (cohesion) between water molecules. That is, although a water molecule is
electrically neutral, the two hydrogen atoms are positioned to create a tetrahedral charge
distribution on the water molecule, allowing water molecules to be held strongly together
with the aid of electrostatic attractions. These strong internal forcestechnically called
hydrogen bondsarise directly from the non-symmetrical distribution of charge.
The chemical behavior of water also is unusual. Water molecules are slightly ionized,
making water an excellent solvent for both electrolytes and nonelectrolytes. In fact, water
is nearly a universal solvent, able to wear away mountains, transport solutes, and support
the biochemistry of life. But the same properties that create so many benefits also create
problems, many of which must be faced by the pipeline engineer. Toxic chemicals, disin-
fection byproducts, aggressive and corrosive compounds, and many other substances can
be carried by water in a pipeline, possibly causing damage to the pipe and placing con-
sumers at risk.
Other challenges also arise. Waters almost unique property of expanding on freezing
can easily burst pipes. As a result, the pipeline engineer either may have to bury a line or
may need to supply expensive heat-tracing systems on lines exposed to freezing weather,
particularly if there is a risk that standing water may sometimes occur. Waters high vis-
cosity is a direct cause of large friction losses and high energy costs whereas its vapor
properties can create cavitation problems in pumps, valves, and pipes. Furthermore, the
combination of its high density and small compressibility creates potentially dramatic
transient conditions. We return to these important issues after considering how pipeline
flows respond to various physical constraints and influences in the next section.
2.4.2 Laws of Conservation (How?)
Although the implications of the characteristics of water are enormous, no mere list of its
properties will describe a physical problem completely. Whether we are concerned with
water quality in a reservoir or with transient conditions in a pipe, natural phenomena also
obey a set of physical laws that contributes to the character and nature of a systems
response. If engineers are to make quantitative predictions, they must first understand the
physical problem and the mathematical laws that model its behavior.
Basic physical laws must be understood and be applied to a wide variety of applica-
tions and in a great many different environments: from flow through a pump to transient
conditions in a channel or pipeline. The derivations of these equations are not provided,
however, because they are widely available and take considerable time and effort to do
properly. Instead, the laws are presented, summarized, and discussed in the pipeline con-
text. More precisely, a quantitative description of fluid behavior requires the application
of three essential relations: (1) a kinematic relation obtained from the law of mass con-
servation in a control volume, (2) equations of motion provided by both Newtons second
law and the energy equation, and (3) an equation of state adapted from compressibility
considerations, leading to a wavespeed relation in transient flow and justifying the
assumption of an incompressible fluid in most steady flow applications.
A few key facts about mass conservation and Newtons second law are reviewed
briefly in the next section. Consideration of the energy equation is deferred until steady
flow is discussed in more detail, whereas further details about the equation of state are
introduced along with considerations of unsteady flow.
2.6 Chapter Two
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2.4.3 Conservation of Mass
One of a pipeline engineers most basic, but also most powerful, tools is introduced. in this
section. The central concept is that of conservation of mass a and its key expression is the
continuity or mass conservation equation.
One remarkable fact about changes in a physical system is that not everything changes.
In fact, most physical laws are conservation laws: They are generalized statements about
regularities that occur in the midst of change. As Ford (1973) said:
A conservation law is a statement of constancy in naturein particular, constancy
during change. If for an isolated system a quantity can be defined that remains
precisely constant, regardless of what changes may take place within the system,
the quantity is said to be absolutely conserved.
A number of physical quantities have been found that are conserved in the sense of
Fords quotation. Examples include energy (if mass is accounted for), momentum, charge,
and angular momentum. One especially important generalization of the law of mass con-
servation includes both nuclear and chemical reactions (Hatsopoulos and Keenan, 1965).
2.4.3.1 Law of Conservation of Chemical Species Molecular species are conserved in
the absence of chemical reactions and atomic species are conserved in the absence of
nuclear reactions. In essence, the statement is nothing more a principle of accounting,
stating that number of atoms or molecules that existed before a given change is equal to
the number that exists after the change. More powerfully, the principle can be transformed
into a statement of revenue and expenditure of some commodity over a definite period of
time. Because both hydraulics and hydrology are concerned with tracking the distribution
and movement of the earths water, which is nothing more than a particular molecular
species, it is not surprising that formalized statements of this law are used frequently.
These formalized statements are often called water budgets, typically if they apply to an
area of land, or continuity relations, if they apply in a well-defined region of flow (the
region is welldefined; the flow need not be).
The principle of a budget or continuity equation is applied every time we balance a
checkbook. The account balance at the end of any period is equal to the initial balance plus
all the deposits minus all the withdrawals. In equation form, this can be written as follows:
(balance)
f
(balance)
i

deposits

withdrawals
Before an analogous procedure can be applied to water, the system under considera-
tion must be clearly defined. If we return to the checking-account analogy, this require-
ment simply says that the deposits and withdrawals included in the equation apply to one
account or to a well-defined set of accounts. In hydraulics and hydrology, the equivalent
requirement is to define a control volumea region that is fixed in space, completely sur-
rounded by a control surface, through which matter can pass freely. Only when the
region has been precisely defined can the inputs (deposits) and outputs (withdrawals) be
identified unambiguously.
If changes or adjustments in the water balance (S) are the concern, the budget con-
cept can be expressed as
S S
f
S
i
(balance)
f
(balance)
i
V
i
V
o
(2.1)
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.7
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
where V
i
represents the sum of all the water entering an area, and V
o
indicates the total vol-
ume of water leaving the same region. More commonly, however, a budget relation such
as Eq. 2.1 is written as a rate equation. Dividing the balance equation by t and
taking the limit as t goes to zero produces
S

d
d
S
t

I O (2.2)
where the derivative term S is the time rate of change in storage, S is the water stored in
the control volume, I is the rate of which water enters the system (inflow), and O is the
rate of outflow. This equation can be applied in any consistent volumetric units (e.g., m
3
/s,
ft
3
/s, L/s, ML/day, etc.)
When the concept of conservation of mass is applied to a system with flow, such as a
pipeline, it requires that the net amount of fluid flowing into the pipe must be accounted
for as fluid storage within the pipe. Any mass imbalance (or, in other words, net mass
exchange) will result in large pressure changes in the conduit because of compressibility
effects.
2.4.3.2 Steady Flow Assuming, in addition, that the flow is steady, Eq. 2.2 can be
reduced further to inflow = outflow or I = O. Since the inflow and outflow may occur at
several points, this is sometimes re-written as

inflow
V
i
A
i

outflow
V
i
A
i
(2.3)
Equation (2.3) states that the rate of flow into a control volume is equal to the rate of
outflow. This result is intuitively satisfying since no accumulation of mass or volume
should occur in any control volume under steady conditions. If the control volume were
taken to be the junction of a number of pipes, this law would take the form of Kirchhoffs
current lawthe sum of the mass flow in all pipes entering the junction equals the sum of
the mass flow of the fluid leaving the junction. For example, in Fig. 2.2, continuity for the
control volume of the junction states that
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q
4
(2.4)
2.4.4 Newtons Second Law
When mass rates of flow are concerned, the focus is on a single component of chemical
species. However, when we introduce a physical law, such as Newtons law of motion, we
obtain something even more profound: a relationship between the apparently unrelated
quantities of force and acceleration.
More specifically, Newtons second law relates the changes in motion of a fluid or
solid to the forces that cause the change. Thus, the statement that the resultant of all exter-
nal forces, including body forces, acting on a system is equal to the rate of change of
momentum of this system with respect to time. Mathematically, this is expressed as

F
ext
= (2.5)
where t is the time and F
ext
represents the external forces acting on a body of mass m
moving with velocity . If the mass of the body is constant, Eq. (2.5) becomes
d(mv)

dt
2.8 Chapter Two
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW

F
ext
= m

d
d
v
t

ma (2.6)
where a is the acceleration of the system (the time rate of change of velocity).
In closed conduits, the primary forces of concern are the result of hydrostatic pressure,
fluid weight, and friction. These forces act at each section of the pipe to produce the net
acceleration. If these forces and the fluid motion are modeled mathematically, the result
is a dynamic relation describing the transient response of the pipeline.
For a control volume, if flow properties at a given position are unchanging with time,
the steady form of the moment equation can be written as

F
ext
=
0
cs
v(v n) dA (2.7)
where the force term is the net external force acting on the control volume and the right
hand term gives the net flux of momentum through the control surface. The integral is
taken over the entire surface of the control volume, and the integrand is the incremental
amount of momentum leaving the control volume.
The control surface usually can be oriented to be perpendicular to the flow, and one
can assume that the flow is incompressible and uniform. With this assumption, the
momentum equation can be simplified further as follows:

F
ext
= (Av)
out
(Av)
in
Q(v
out
v
in
) (2.8)
where Q is the volumetric rate of flow.
Example: Forces at an Elbow. One direct application of the momentum relation is
shown in Fig. 2.3, which indicates the flows and forces at elbow. The elbow is assumed to
be mounted in a horizontal plane so that the weight is balanced by vertical forces (not
shown).
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.9
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q
4
CV
FIGURE 2.2 Continuity at a pipe junction Q
1
+ Q
2
= Q
3
+ Q
4
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
The reaction forces shown in the diagram are required for equilibrium if the elbow is
to remain stationary. Specifically, the force F
x
must resist both the pressure force and must
account for the momentum-flux term. That is, taking x as positive to the right, direct appli-
cation of the momentum equation gives
(PA)
1
F
x
Q
1
(2.9)
Thus,
F
x
(PA)
1
Q
1
(2.10)
In a similar manner, but taking y as positive upward, direct application of the momen-
tum equation gives
(PA)
2
F
y
Q(
2
) (2.11)
(here the outflow gives a positive sign, but the velocity is in the negative direction). Thus,
F
y
(PA)
2
+ Q
2
(2.12)
In both cases, the reaction forces are increased above what they would be in the sta-
tic case because the associated momentum must either be established or be eliminated
in the direction shown. Application of this kind of analysis is routine in designing thrust
blocks, which are a kind of anchor used at elbows or bends to restrain the movement of
pipelines.
2.5 SYSTEM CAPACITY: PROBLEMS IN TIME
AND SPACE
A water transmission or supply pipeline is not just an enclosed tube it is an entire sys-
tem that transports water, either by using gravity or with the aid of pumping, from its
source to the general vicinity of the demand. It typically consists of pipes or channels with
their associated control works, pumps, valves, and other components. A transmission sys-
2.10 Chapter Two
(PA)
1
F
x
F
y
y
x
CV
(PA)
2
V
1
V
2
FIGURE 2.3 Force and momentum fluxes at an elbow.
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
tem is usually composed of a single-series line, as opposed to a distribution system that
often consists of a complex network of interconnected pipes.
As we have mentioned, there are many practical questions facing the designer of such
a system. Do the pipes, reservoirs and pumps have a great enough hydraulic capacity? Can
the flow be controlled to achieve the desired hydraulic conditions? Can the system be
operated economically? Are the pipes and connections strong enough to withstand both
unsteady and steady pressures?
Interestingly, different classes of models are used to answer them, depending on the
nature of the flow and the approximations that are justified. More specifically, issues of
hydraulic capacity are usually answered by projecting demands (water requirements) and
analyzing the system under steady flow conditions. Here, one uses the best available esti-
mates of future demands to size and select the primary pipes in the system. It is the
hydraulic capacity of the system, largely determined by the effective diameter of the
pipeline, that links the supply to the demand.
Questions about the operation and sizing of pumps and reservoirs are answered by
considering the gradual variation of demand over relatively short periods, such as over an
average day or a maximum day. In such cases, the acceleration of the fluid is often negli-
gible and analysts use a quasi-steady approach: that is, they calculate forces and energy
balances on the basis of steady flow, but the unsteady form is used for the continuity equa-
tion so that flows can be accumulated and stored.
Finally, the issue of required strength, such as the pressure rating of pipes and fittings,
is answered by considering transient conditions. Thus, the strength of a pipeline is deter-
mined at least in part by the pressures generated by a rapid transition between flow states.
In this stage, short-term and rapid motions must be taken into account, because large
forces and dangerous pressures can sometimes be generated. Here, forces are balanced
with accelerations, mass flow rates with pressure changes. These transient conditions are
discussed in more detail in section 2.8 and in chapter 10.
A large number of different flow conditions are encountered in pipeline systems. To
facilitate analysis, these conditions are often classified according to several criteria. Flow
classification can be based on channel geometry, material properties, dynamic consider-
ations (both kinematic and kinetic), or some other characteristic feature of the flow. For
example, on the basis of fluid type and channel geometry, the flow can be classified as
open-channel, pressure, or gas flow. Probably the most important distinctions are based
on the dynamics of flow (i.e., hydraulics). In this way, flow is classified as steady or
unsteady, turbulent or laminar, uniform or nonuniform, compressible or incompressible,
or single phase or multiphase. All these distinctions are vitally important to the analyst:
collectively, they determine which physical laws and material properties are dominant in
any application.
Steady flow: A flow is said to be steady if conditions at a point do not change with
time. Otherwise a flow is unsteady or transient. By this definition, all turbulent flows, and
hence most flows of engineering importance, are technically unsteady. For this reason, a
more restrictive definition is usually applied: A flow is considered steady if the temporal
mean velocity does not change over brief periods. Although the assumption is not for-
mally required, pipeline flows are usually considered to be steady; thus, transient condi-
tions represent an abnormal, or nonequilibrium, transition from one steady-state flow to
another. Unless otherwise stated, the initial conditions in transient problems are usually
assumed to be steady.
Steady or equilibrium conditions in a pipe system imply a balance between the physi-
cal laws. Equilibrium is typified by steady uniform flow in both open channels and closed
conduits. In these applications, the rate of fluid inflow to each segment equals the rate of
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.11
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
outflow, the external forces acting on the flow are balanced by the changes in momentum,
and the external work is compensated for by losses of mechanical energy. As a result, the
fluid generally moves down an energy gradient, often visualized as flow in the direction
of decreasing hydraulic grade-line elevations (e.g., Fig. 2.1).
Quasi-steady flow. When the flow becomes unsteady, the resulting model that must
be used depends on how fast the changes occur. When the rate of change is particular-
ly slow, typically over a period of hours or days, the rate of the fluids acceleration is
negligible. However, fluid will accumulate or be depleted at reservoirs, and rates of
demand for water may slowly adjust. This allows the use of a quasi-steady or extend-
ed-duration simulation model.
Compressible and Incompressible. If the density of the fluid is constantboth in
time and throughout the flow fielda flow is said to be incompressible. Thus, is not a
function of position or time in an incompressible flow. If changes in density are permitted
or reguined the flow is compressible.
Surge. When the rate of change in flow is moderate, typically occurring over a period
of minutes, a surge model is often used. In North America, the term surge indicates an
analysis of unsteady flow conditions in pipelines when the following assumptions are
made: the fluid is incompressible (thus, its density is constant) and the pipe walls are rigid
and do not deform. These two assumptions imply that fluid velocities are not a function
of position along a pipe of constant cross-section and the flow is uniform. In other words,
no additional fluid is stored in a length of pipe as the pressure changes; because velocities
are uniform, the rate at which fluid enters a pipe is always equal to the rate of discharge.
However, the acceleration of the fluid and its accumulation and depletion from reservoirs
are accounted for in a surge model.
Waterhammer. When rapid unsteady flow occurs in a closed conduit system, the tran-
sient condition is sometimes marked by a pinging or hammering noise, appropriately
called waterhammer. However, it is common to refer to all rapidly changing flow condi-
tions by this term, even if no audible shock waves are produced. In waterhammer models,
it is usually assumed that the fluid is slightly compressible, and the pipe walls deform with
changes in the internal pressure. Waterhammer waves propagate with a finite speed equal
to the velocity of sound in the pipeline.
The speed at which a disturbance is assumed to propagate is the primary distinction
between a surge and a waterhammer model. Because the wavespeed parameter a is relat-
ed to fluid storage, the wavespeed is infinite in surge or quasi-steady models. Thus, in
effect, disturbances are assumed to propagate instantly throughout the pipeline system. Of
course they do no such thing, because the wavespeed is a finite physical property of a pipe
system, much like its diameter, wall thickness, or pipeline material. The implication of
using the surge or quasi-steady approximation is that the unsteady behavior of the pipe
system is controlled or limited by the rate at which the hydraulic boundary conditions
(e.g., pumps, valves, reservoirs) at the ends of the pipe respond to the flow and that the
time required for the pipeline itself to react is negligible by comparison.
Although unsteady or transient analysis is invariably more involved than is steady-state
modeling, neglecting these effects in a pipeline can be troublesome for one of two
reasons: the pipeline may not perform as expected, possibly causing large remedial
expenses, or the line may be overdesigned with respect to transient conditions, possibly
causing unnecessarily large capital costs. Thus, it is essential for engineers to have a clear
physical grasp of transient behavior and an ability to use the computers power to maxi-
mum advantage.
One interesting point is that as long as one is prepared to assume the flow is com-
pressible, the importance of compressibility does not need to be known a priory. In fact,
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
all the incompressible, quasi-steady, and steady equations are special cases of the full tran-
sient equations. Thus, if the importance of compressibility or acceleration effects is
unknown, the simulation can correctly assume compressible flow behavior and allow the
analysis to verify or contradict this assumption.
Redistribution of water, whatever model or physical devices are used, requires control
of the fluid and its forces, and control requires an understanding not only of physical law
but also of material properties and their implications. Thus, an attempt to be more specif-
ic and quantitative about these matters will be made as this chapter progresses.
In steady flow, the fluid generally moves in the direction of decreasing hydraulic
grade-line elevations. Specific devices, such as valves and transitions, cause local pressure
drops and dissipate mechanical energy; operating pumps do work on the fluid and increase
downstream pressures while friction creates head losses more or less uniformly along the
pipe length. Be warned, howeverin transient applications, this orderly situation rarely
exists. Instead, large and sudden variations of both discharge and pressure can occur and
propagate in the system, greatly complicating analysis.
2.6 STEADY FLOW
The design of steady flow in pipeline systems has two primary objectives. First, the
hydraulic objective is to secure the desired pressure and flow rate at specific locations in
the system. Second the economic objective is to meet the hydraulic requirements with the
minimum expense.
When a fluid flows in a closed conduit or open channel, it often experiences a com-
plex interchange of various forms of mechanical energy. In particular, the work that is
associated with moving the fluid through pressure differences is releted to changes in both
gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. In addition, the flow may lose mechan-
ical energy as a result of friction, a loss that is usually accounted for by extremely small
increases in the temperature of the flowing fluid (that is, the mechanical energy is con-
verted to thermal form).
More specifically, these energy exchanges are often accounted for by using an
extended version of Bernoullis famous relationship. If energy losses resulting from fric-
tion are negligible, the Bernoulli equation takes the following form:

1
z
1

2

z
2
(2.13)
where p
1
and p
2
are the pressures at the end points, is the specific weight of the fluid, v
1
and v
2
are the average velocities at the end points, and z
1
and z
2
are the elevations of the
end points with respect to an arbitrary vertical datum. Because of their direct graphical
representation, various combinations of terms in this relationship are given special labels,
historically called heads because of their association with vertical distances. Thus,
Head Definition Associated with
Pressure head p/ Flow work
Elevation head z Gravitational potential energy
Velocity head v
2
/2g Kinetic energy
Piezometric head p/ z Pressure elevation head
Total head p/ z v
2
/2g Pressure elevation velocity head
v

2
2

2g
v

2
1

2g
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.13
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
A plot of piezometric head along a pipeline forms a line called the hydraulic grade line
(HGL). Similarly, a plot of the total head with distance along a pipeline is called the ener-
gy grade line (EGL). In the vast majority of municipally related work, velocity heads are
negligible and the EGL and HGL essentially become equivalent.
If losses occur, the situation becomes a little more complex. The head loss h
f
is defined
to be equal to the difference in total head from the beginning of the pipe to the end over a
total distance L. Thus, h
f
is equal to the product of the slope of the EGL and the pipe length:
h
f
L S
f
. When the flow is uniform, the slope of the EGL is parallel to that of the HGL,
the difference in piezometric head between the end points of the pipe. Inclusion of a head-
loss term into the energy equation gives a useful relationship for describing 1-D pipe flow

z
1

z
2
h
f
(2.14)
In this relation, the flow is assumed to be from Point 1 to Point 2 and h
f
is assumed to be
positive. Using capital H to represent the total head, the equation can be rewritten as
H
1
H
2
h
f
In essence, a head loss reduces to the total head that would have occurred in the sys-
tem if the loss were not present (Fig. 2.1). Since the velocity head term is often small, the
total head in the above relation is often approximated with the piezometric head.
Understanding head loss is important for designing pipe systems so that they can
accommodate the design discharge. Moreover, head losses have a direct effect on both the
pumping capacity and the power consumption of pumps. Consequently, an understanding
of head losses is important for the design of economically viable pipe systems.
The occurrence of head loss is explained by considering what happens at the pipe wall,
the domain of boundary layer theory. The fundamental assertion of the theory is that when
a moving fluid passes over a solid surface, the fluid immediately in contact with the sur-
face attains the velocity of the surface (zero from the perspective of the surface). This no
slip condition gives rise to a velocity gradient in which fluid further from the surface has
a larger (nonzero) velocity relative to the velocity at the surface, thus establishing a shear
stress on the fluid. Fluid that is further removed from the solid surface, but is adjacent to
slower moving fluid closer to the surface, is itself decelerated because of the fluids own
internal cohesion, or viscosity. The shear stress across the pipe section is zero at the cen-
ter of the pipe, where the average velocity is greatest, and it increases linearly to a maxi-
mum at the pipe wall. The distribution of the shear stress gives rise to a parabolic distrib-
ution of velocity when the flow is laminar.
More frequently, the flow in a conduit is turbulent. Because turbulence introduces a
complex, random component into the flow, a precise quantitative description of turbulent
flow is impossible. Irregularities in the pipe wall lead to the formation of eddy currents
that transfer momentum between faster and slower moving fluid, thus dissipating mechan-
ical energy. These random motions of fluid increase as the mean velocity increases. Thus,
in addition to the shear stress that exists for laminar flow, an apparent shear stress exists
because of the exchange of material during turbulent flow.
The flow regimewhether laminar, turbulent, or transitionalis generally classified by
referring to the dimensionless Reynolds number (Re). In pipelines, Re is given as
Re

VD

(2.15)
where V is the mean velocity of the fluid, D is the pipe diameter, is the fluid density, and
v

2
2

2g
v

2
1

2g
2.14 Chapter Two
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
is the dynamic viscosity. Although the exact values taken to limit the range of Re vary with
author and application, the different flow regimes are often taken as follows: (1) laminar
flow: Re 2000, (2) transitional flow: 2000 Re 4000, and (3) turbulent flow: Re > 4000.
These flow regime have a direct influence on the head loss experienced in a pipeline system.
2.6.1 Turbulent Flow
Consider an experiment in which a sensitive probe is used to measure flow velocity in a
pipeline carrying a flowing fluid. The probe will certainly record the mean or net compo-
nent of velocity in the axial direction of flow. In addition, if the flow in the pipeline is tur-
bulent, the probe will record many small and abrupt variations in velocity in all three spa-
tial directions. As a result of the turbulent motion, the details of the flow pattern will
change randomly and constantly with time. Even in the simplest possible systeman uni-
form pipe carrying water from a constant-elevation upstream reservoir to a downstream
valvethe detailed structure of the velocity field will be unsteady and exceedingly com-
plex. Moreover, the unsteady values of instantaneous velocity will exist even if all exter-
nal conditions at both the reservoir and valve are not changing with time. Despite this, the
mean values of velocity and pressure will be fixed as long as the external conditions do
not change. It is in this sense that turbulent flows can be considered to be steady.
The vast majority of flows in engineering are turbulent. Thus, unavoidably, engineers
must cope with both the desirable and the undesirable characteristics of turbulence. On the
positive side, turbulent flows produce an efficient transfer of mass, momentum, and ener-
gy within the fluid. In fact, the expression to stir up the pot is an image of turbulence;
it implies a vigorous mixing that breaks up large-scale order and structure in a fluid. But
the rapid mixing also may create problems for the pipeline engineer. This down side can
include detrimental rates of energy loss, high rates of corrosion, rapid scouring and ero-
sion, and excessive noise and vibration as well as other effects.
How does the effective mixing arise within a turbulent fluid? Physically, mixing results
from the random and chaotic fluctuations in velocity that exchange fluid between differ-
ent regions in a flow. The sudden, small-scale changes in the instantaneous velocity tend
to cause fast moving packets of fluid to change places with those of lower velocity and
vice verse. In this way, the flow field is constantly bent, folded, and superimposed on
itself. As a result, large-scale order and structure within the flow is quickly broken down
and torn apart. But the fluid exchange transports not only momentum but other properties
associated with the flow as well. In essence, the rapid and continual interchange of fluid
within a turbulent flow creates both the blessing and the curse of efficient mixing.
The inherent complexity of turbulent flows introduces many challenges. On one hand,
if the velocity variations are ignored by using average or mean values of fluid properties,
a degree of uncertainty inevitably arises. Details of the flow process and its variability will
be avoided intentionally, thereby requiring empirical predictions of mean flow character-
istics (e.g., head-loss coefficients and friction factors). Yet, if the details of the velocity
field are analyzed, a hopelessly complex set of equations is produced that must be solved
using a small time step. Such models can rarely be solved even on the fastest computers.
From the engineering view point, the only practical prescription is to accept the empiri-
cism necessitated by flow turbulence while being fully aware of its difficultiesthe aver-
aging process conceals much of what might be important. Ignoring the details of the
fluids motion can, at times, introduce significant error even to the mean flow calculations.
When conditions within a flow change instantaneously both at a point and in the mean,
the flow becomes unsteady in the full sense of the word. For example, the downstream
valve in a simple pipeline connected to a reservoir might be closed rapidly, creating shock
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.15
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
waves that travel up and down the conduit. The unsteadiness in the mean values of the
flow properties introduces additional difficulties into a problem that was already complex.
Various procedures of averaging, collecting, and analyzing data that were well justified for
a steady turbulent flow are often questionable in unsteady applications. The entire situa-
tion is dynamic: Rapid fluctuations in the average pressure, velocity, and other properties
may break or damage the pipe or other equipment. Even in routine applications, special
care is required to control, predict, and operate systems in which unsteady flows com-
monly occur.
The question is one of perspective. The microscopic perspective of turbulence in flows
is bewildering in its complexity; thus, only because the macroscopic behavior is relative-
ly predictable can turbulent flows be analyzed. Turbulence both creates the need for
approximate empirical laws and determines the uncertainty associated with using them.
The great irregularity associated with turbulent flows tends to be smoothed over both by
the empirical equations and by a great many texts.
2.6.2 Head Loss Caused by Friction
A basic relation used in hydraulic design of a pipeline system is the one describing the
dependence of discharge Q (say in m
3
/s) on head loss h
f
(m) caused by friction between
the flow of fluid and the pipe wall. This section discusses two of the most commonly used
head-loss relations: the Darcy-Weisbach and Hazen-Williams equations.
The Darcy-Weisbach equation is used to describe the head loss resulting from flow in
pipes in a wide variety of applications. It has the advantage of incorporating a dimen-
sionless friction factor that describes the effects of material roughness on the surface of
the inside pipe wall and the flow regime on retarding the flow. The Darcy-Weisbach equa-
tion can be written as
h
f
,
DW
f

D
L

2
V
g
2

0.0826

Q
D
2
5

Lf (2.16)
where h
f
,
DW
= head loss caused by friction (m), f = dimensionless friction factor, L =
pipe length (m), D = pipe diameter (m), V = Q/A = mean flow velocity (m/s), Q = dis-
charge (m
3
/s), A = cross-sectional area of the pipe (m
2
), and g = acceleration caused by
gravity (m/s
2
).
For noncircular pressure conduits, Dis replaced by 4R, where R is the hydraulic radius.
The hydraulic radius is defined as the cross-sectional area divided by the wetted perime-
ter or, R = A/P.
Note that the head loss is directly proportional to the length of the conduit and the fric-
tion factor. Obviously, the rougher a pipe is and the longer the fluid must travel, the greater
the energy loss. The equation also relates the pipe diameter inversely to the head loss. As
the pipe diameter increases, the effects of shear stress at the pipe walls are felt by less of
the fluid, indicating that wider pipes may be advantageous if excavation and construction
costs are not prohibitive. Note in particular that the dependence of the discharge Q on the
pipe diameter D is highly nonlinear; this fact has great significance to pipeline designs
because head losses can be reduce dramatically by using a large-diameter pipe, whereas
an inappropriately small pipe can restrict flow significantly, rather like a partially closed
valve.
For laminar flow, the friction factor is linearly dependent on the Re with the simple
relationship f = 64/Re. For turbulent flow, the friction factor is a function of both the Re
and the pipes relative roughness. The relative roughness is the ratio of equivalent uniform
sand grain size and the pipe diameter (e/D), as based on the work of Nikuradse (1933), who
2.16 Chapter Two
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
experimentally measured the resistance to flow posed by various pipes with uniform sand
grains glued onto the inside walls. Although the commercial pipes have some degree of spa-
tial variance in the characteristics of their roughness, they may have the same resistance char-
acteristics as do pipes with a uniform distribution of sand grains of size e. Thus, if the veloc-
ity of the fluid is known, and hence Re, and the relative roughness is known, the friction fac-
tor f can be determined by using the Moody diagram or the Colebrook-White equation.
Jeppson (1976) presented a summary of friction loss equations that can be used instead
of the Moody diagram to calculate the friction factor for the Darcy-Weisbach equation.
These equations are applicable for Re greater than 4000 and are categorized according to
the type of turbulent flow: (1) turbulent smooth, (2) transition between turbulent smooth
and wholly rough, and (3) turbulent rough.
For turbulent smooth flow, the friction factor is a function of Re:

1
f
2log (Ref ) (2.17)
For the transition between turbulent smooth and wholly rough flow, the friction factor
is a function of both Re and the relative roughness e/D. This friction factor relation is often
summarized in the Colebrook White equation:

1
f
2log

e
3
/
.
D
7

+
R
2
e
.

51
f

,
(2.18)
When the flow is wholly turbulent (large Re and e/D), the Darcy-Weisbach friction fac-
tor becomes independent of Re and is a function only of the relative roughness:

1
f
1.14 2log (e/D) (2.19)
In general, Eq. (2.16) is valid for all turbulent flow regimens in a pipe,, where as Eq.
(2.22) is merely an approximation that is valid for the hydraulic rough flow. In a smooth-
pipe flow, the viscous sublayer completely submerges the effect of e on the flow. In this
case, the friction factor f is a function of Re and is independent of the relative roughness
e/D. In rough-pipe flow, the viscous sublayer is so thin that flow is dominated by the
roughness of the pipe wall and f is a function only of e/D and is independent of Re. In the
transition, f is a function of both e/D and Re.
The implicit nature of f in Eq. (2.18) is inconvenient in design practice. However, this
difficulty can be easily overcome with the help of the Moody diagram or with one of many
available explicit approximations. The Moody diagram plots Re on the abscissa, the resis-
tance coefficient on one ordinate and f on the other, with e/D acting as a parameter for a
family of curves. If e/D is known, then one can follow the relative roughness isocurve
across the graph until it intercepts the correct Re. At the corresponding point on the
opposite ordinate, the appropriate friction factor is found; e/D for various commercial
pipe materials and diameters is provided by several manufacturers and is determined
experimentally.
A more popular current alternative to graphical procedures is to use an explicit
mathematical form of the friction-factor relation to approximate the implicit Colebrook-
white equation. Bhave (1991) included a nice summary of this topic. The popular net-
work-analysis program EPANET and several other codes use the equation of Swanee and
Jain (1976), which has the form
(2.20)
f 0.25

log

3.7
e
D

R
5.
e
7
0
4
.9

,
1
1
]
2
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.17
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
To circumvent considerations of roughness estimates and Reynolds number depen-
dencies, more direct relations are often used. Probably the most widely used of these
empirical head-loss relation is the Hazen-Williams equation, which can be written as
Q C
u
CD
2.63
S
0.54
(2.21)
where C
u
unit coefficient (C
u
0.314 for English units, 0.278 for metric units), Q
discharge in pipes, gallons/s or m
3
/s, L length of pipe, ft or m, d internal diameter of
pipe, inches or mm, C Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient, and S = the slope of the
energy line and equals h
f
/L.
The Hazen-Williams coefficient C is assumed constant and independent of the dis-
charge (i.e., R e). Its values range from 140 for smooth straight pipe to 90 or 80 for old,
unlined, tuberculated pipe. Values near 100 are typical for average conditions. Values of
the unit coefficient for various combinations of units are summarized in Table 2.2.
In Standard International (SI) units, the Hazen-Williams relation can be rewritten for
head loss as
h
f ,HW
10.654

Q
C

0.
1
54

D
1
4.87
L (2.22)
where h
f,HW
is the Hazen-Williams head loss. In fact, the Hazen-Williams equation is not
the only empirical loss relation in common use. Another loss relation, the Manning equa-
tion, has found its major application in open channel flow computations. As with the other
expressions, it incorporates a parameter to describe the roughness of the conduit known
as Mannings n.
Among the most important and surprisingly difficult hydraulic parameter is the diam-
eter of the pipe. As has been mentioned, the exponent of diameter in head-loss equations
is large, thus indicating high sensitivity to its numerical value. For this reason, engineers
2.18 Chapter Two
EGL
H
1
H
2
H
3
(a)
(b)
Q
1
Q
1
Q
1
EGL
H
1
H
2
Q
2
FIGURE 2.4 Flow in series and parallel pipes.
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
and analysts must be careful to obtain actual pipe diameters often from manufacturers; the
use of nominal diameters is not recommended. Yet another complication may arise, how-
ever. The diameter of a pipe often changes with time, typically as a result of chemical
depositions on the pipe wall. For old pipes, this reduction in diameter is accounted for
indirectly by using an increased value of pipe resistance. Although this approach may be
reasonable under some circumstances, it may be a problem under others, especially for
unsteady conditions. When ever possible, accurate diameters are recommended for all
hydraulic calculations. However, some combinations of pipes (e.g., pipes in series or par-
allel; Fig. 2.4) can actualy be represented by a single equivalent diamenter of pipe.
2.6.3 Comparison of Loss Relations
It is generally claimed that the Darcy-Weisbach equation is superior because it is the oret-
ically based, where as both the Manning equation and the Hazen-Williams expression use
empirically determined resistance coefficients. Although it is true that the functional rela-
tionship of the Darcy-Weisbach formula reflects logical associations implied by the
dimensions of the various terms, determination of the equivalent uniform sand-grain size
is essentially experimental. Consequently, the relative roughness parameter used in the
Moody diagram or the Colebrook-White equations is not theoretically determined. In this
section, the Darcy-Weisbach and Hazen-Williams equations are compared briefly using a
simple pipe as an example.
In the hydraulic rough range, the increase in h
f
can be explained easily when the ratio
of Eq. (2.16) to Eq. (2.22) is investigated. For hydraulically rough flow, Eq. (2.18) can be
simplified by neglecting the second term 2.51 (Ref) of the logarithmic argument. This
ratio then takes the form of
128.94

1.14 2 log

D
e

,
2

C
D
1
0
.8
.1
5
3
2

Q
0
1
.148
(2.23)
which shows that in most hydraulic rough cases, for the same discharge Q, a larger head
loss h
f
is predicted using Eq. (2.16) than when using Eq. (2.22). Alternatively, for the same
head loss, Eq. (2.22) returns a smaller discharge than does Eq. (2.16).
When comparing head-loss relations for the more general case, a great fuss is often
made over unimportant issues. For example, it is common to plot various equations on the
Moody diagram and comment on their differences. However, such a comparison is of sec-
ondary importance. From a hydraulic perspective, the point is this: Different equations
should still produce similar similar head discharge behavior. That is, the physical relation
between head loss and flow for a physical segment of pipe should be predicted well by
h
f
,
HW

h
f
,
DW
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.19
TABLE 2.2 Unit Coefficient C
u
for the Hazen-Williams Equation
Units of Discharge Q Units of Diameter D Unit Coeficient C
u
MGD ft 0.279
ft
3
/s ft 0.432
GPM in 0.285
GPD in 405
m
3
/s m 0.278
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
2.20 Chapter Two
any practical loss relation. Said even more simply, the issue is how well the h
f
versus Q
curves compare.
To compare the values of h
f
determined from Eq. (2.16) and those from Eq. (2.22),
consider a pipe for which the parameters D, L and C are specified. Using the Hazen-
Williams relation, it is then possible to calculate h
f
for a given Q. Then, the Darcy-
Weisbach f can be obtained, and with the Colebrook formula Eq. (2.18), the equivalent
value of roughness e can be found. Finally, the variation of head with discharge can be
plotted for a range of flows.
This analysis is performed for two galvanized iron pipes with e 0.15 mm. One pipe
has a diameter of 0.1 m and a length of 100 m; and the dimensions of the other pipe are
D 1.0 m and L = 1000 m, respectively. The Hazen-Williams C for galvanized iron pipe
is approximately 130. Different C values for these two pipes to demonstrate the shift and
change of the range within which h
f
is small. The results of the calculated h
f
Q relation
and the difference h
f
of the head loss of the two methods for the same discharge are
shown in Figs. 2.5 and 2.6.
If h
f
,
DW
denotes the head loss determined by using Eq. (2.16) and h
f
,
HW
that using Eq.
(2.22), h
f
(m) can be
h
f
h
f
,
DW
h
f
,
DW
(2.24)
where by the Darcy-Weisbach head loss h
f
,
DW
is used as a reference for comparison.
Figures 2.5 and 2.6 show the existence of three ranges: two ranges, within which h
f
,
DW
h
f,DW
, and the third one for which h
f ,DW
h
f ,DW
. The first range of h
f ,DW
h
f ,DW
is at a
lower head loss and is small. It seems that the difference the result of h
f
in this case is
the result of the fact that the Hazen-Williams formula is not valid for the hydraulic smooth
and the smooth-to-transitional region. Fortunately, this region is seldom important for
design purposes. At high head losses, the Hazen-Williams formula tends to produce a dis-
charge that is smaller than the one produced by the Darcy-Weisbach equation.
For a considerable part of the curveprimarily the range within which h
f ,DW
h
f ,DW

h
f
is small compared with the absolute head loss. It can be shown that the range of
small h
f
changes is shifted when different values of Hazen-Williamss C are used for the
calculation. Therefore, selecting the proper value of C, which represents an appropriate
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035
Q (cms)
L = 100 m
D = 0.1 m
e = 0.15 mm
C = 122.806
Q (cms)

(
m
)
Hazen-Williams
Darcy-Weisbach
FIGURE 2.5 Comparison of Hazen-Williams and Darcy-Weisbach loss relations (smaller diameter).
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Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.21
point on the head-discharge curve, is essential. If such a C value is used, h
f
is small, and
whether the Hazen-Williams formula or the Darcy-Weisbach equation is used for the
design will be of little importance.
This example shows both the strengths and the weaknesses of using Eq. (2.22) as an
approximation to Eq. (2.16). Despite its difficulties, the Hazen-Williams formula is often
justified because of its conservative results and its simplicity of use. However, choosing a
proper value of either the Hazen-Williams C or the relative roughness e/D is often diffi-
cult. In the literature, a range of C values is given for new pipes made of various materi-
als. Selecting an appropriate C value for an old pipe is even more difficult. However, if an
approximate value of C or e is used, the difference between the head-loss equations is like-
ly to be inconsequential.
Head loss also is a function of time. As pipes age, they are subject to corrosion, espe-
cially if they are made of ferrous materials and develop rust on the inside walls, which
increases their relative roughness. Chemical agents, solid particles, or both in the fluid can
gradually degrade the smoothness of the pipe wall. Scaling on the inside of pipes can
occur if the water is hard. In some instances, biological factors have led to time-dependent
head loss. Clams and zebra mussels may grow in some intake pipes and may in some cases
drastically reduce discharge capacities.
2.6.4 Local Losses
Head loss also occurs for reasons other than wall friction. In fact, local losses occur when-
ever changes occur in the velocity of the flow: for example, changes in the direction of the
conduit, such as at a bend, or changes in the cross-sectional area, such as an aperture,
valve or gauge. The basic arrangement of flow and pressure is illustrated for a venturi con-
traction in Fig. 2.7.
The mechanism of head loss in the venturi is typical of many applications involving
local losses. As the diagram indicates, there is a section of flow contraction into which the
flow accelerates, followed by a section of expansion, into which the flow decelerates.
This aspect of the venturi, or a reduced opening at a valve, is nicely described by the con-
tinuity equation. However, what happens to the pressure is more interesting and more
important.
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0 2 4 6 8 10
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10
Q (cms)
L = 1000 m
D = 1.0 m
e = 0.15 mm
C = 124.923
Q (cms)
(
m
)
Hazen-Williams
Darcy-Weisbach
FIGURE 2.6 Comparison of Hazen-Williams and Darcy-Weisbach loss relations (larger diameter).
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
2.22 Chapter Two
As the flow accelerates, the pressure decreases according to the Bernoulli relation.
Everything goes smoothly in this case because the pressure drop and the flow are in the
same direction. However, in the expansion section, the pressure increases in the
downstream direction. To see why this is significant, consider the fluid distributed over the
cross section. In the center of the pipe, the fluid velocity is high; the fluid simply slow
down as it moves into the region of greater pressure. But what about the fluid along the
wall? Because it has no velocity to draw on, it tends to respond to the increase in pressure
in the downstream direction by flowing upstream, counter to the normal direction of flow.
That is, the flow tends to separate, which can be prevented only if the faster moving fluid
can pull it along using viscosity. If the expansion is too abrupt, this process is not suf-
ficient, and the flow will separate, creating a region of recirculating flow within the main
channel. Such a region causes high shear stresses, irregular motion, and large energy loss-
es. Thus, from the view point of local losses, nothing about changes in pressure is sym-
metricaladverse pressure gradients or regions of recirculating flow are crucially impor-
tant with regards to local losses.
Local head losses are often expressed in terms of the velocity head as
h
l
k

2
v
g
2

(2.25)
where k is a constant derived empirically from testing the head loss of the valve, gauge,
and so on, and is generally provided by the manufacturer of the device. Typical forms for
this relation are provided in Table 2.3 (Robertson and Crowe, 1993).
2.6.5 Tractive Force
Fluid resistance also implies a flux in momentum and generates a tractive force, which
raises a number of issues of special significance to the two-phase (liquid-solid) flows
found in applications of transport of slurry and formation of sludge. In these situations,
Q
1
1 2
EGL
HGL
V
2
2g
h
f
EGL
HGL
FIGURE 2.7 Pressure relations in a ventur contraction.
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
the tractive force has an important influence on design velocities: The velocity cannot be
too small or the tractive force will be insufficient to carry suspended sediment and depo-
sition will occur. Similarly, if design velocities are too large, the greater tractive force will
increase rates of erosion and corrosion in the channel or pipeline, thus raising maintenance
and operational costs. Thus, the general significance of tractive force relates to designing
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.23
TABLE 2.3 Local Loss Coefficients at Transitions
Additional
Description Sketch Data K Source
r/d K
e
(1)
Pipe entrance 0.0 0.50
0.1 0.12
h
L
K
e
V
2
/2g 0.2 0.03
Contraction K
c
K
c
D
2
/D
1
0 5 60 0 5 180 (1)
0.0 0.08 0.50
0.20 0.08 0.49
0.40 0.07 0.42
0.60 0.06 0.32
0.80 0.05 0.18
h
L
K
e
V
2
2
/2g 0.90 0.04 0.10
Expansion K
E
K
E
D
1
/D
2
0 5 10 0 5 180 (1)
0.0 1.00
0.20 0.13 0.92
0.40 0.11 0.72
0.60 0.06 0.42
h
L
K
E
V
2
1
/2g 0.80 0.03 0.16
Without K
b
1.1 (26)
90 miter vanes
bend
With K
b
0.2 (26)
vanes
90 miter r/d (3)
bend
1 K
b
0.35 and
2 0.19 (13)
4 0.16
6 0.21
8 0.28
10 0.32
Globe valvewide open K
v
10.0 (26)
Threaded Angle valvewide open K
v
5.0
pipe Gate valvewide open K
v
0.2
fittings Gatevalvehalf open K
v
5.6
Return bend K
b
2.2
Tee K
t
1.8
90 elbow K
b
0.9
45 elbow K
b
0.4
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
self-cleansing channel and pressure-flow systems and to stable channel design in erodible
channels. Moreover, high tractive forces are capable of causing water quality problems in
distribution system piping through the mechanism of biofilm sloughing or suspension of
corrosion by-products.
2.6.6 Conveyance System Calculations: Steady Uniform Flow
A key practical concern in the detailed calculation of pressure flow and the estimation of
pressure losses. Because the practice of engineering requires competent execution in a
huge number of contexts, the engineer will encounter many different applications in prac-
tice. compare, for example Fig. 2.4 to 2.8 In fact, the number of applied topics is so large
that comprehensive treatment is impossible. Therefore, this chapter emphasizes a system-
atic presentation of the principles and procedures of problem-solving to encourage the
engineers ability to generalize. To illustrate the principles of hydraulic analysis, this sec-
tion includes an example that demonstrates both the application of the energy equation
and the use of the most common head-oss equations. A secondary objective is to justify
two common assumptions about pipeline flow: namely, that flow is, to a good approxi-
mation, incompressible and isothermal.
Problem. A straight pipe is 2500 m long 27 inches in diameter and discharges water
at 10C into the atmosphere at the rate of 1.80 m3/s. The lower end of the pipe is at an ele-
vation of 100 m, where a pressure gauge reads 3.0 MPa. The pipe is on a 4% slope.
1. Determine the pressure head, elevation head, total head, and piezometric level at
both ends of this pipeline.
2. Determine the associated Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f and Hazen-Williams C
for this pipeline and flow.
3. Use the known pressure change to estimate the change in density between the
upstream and downstream ends of the conduit. Also estimate the associated change
2.24 Chapter Two
FIGURE 2.8 Flow in a simple pipe network.
A
B
190.0 m
C
1
2
3
D
196.7 m
162.6 m
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
in velocity between the two ends of the pipe, assuming a constant internal diame-
ter of 27 in throughout. What do you conclude from this calculation?
4. Estimate the change in temperature associated with this head loss and flow, assum-
ing that all the friction losses in the pipe are converted to an increase in the tem-
perature of the water. What do you conclude from this calculation?
Solution. The initial assumption in this problem is that both the density of the water
and its temperature are constant. We confirm at the end of the problem that these are excel-
lent assumptions (a procedure similar to the predictor-corrector approaches often used for
numerical methods). We begin with a few preliminary calculations that are common to
several parts of the problem.
Geometry. If flow is visualized as moving from left to right, then the pipeline is at a
100 m elevation at its left end and terminates at an elevation of 100 0.04 (2500) 200
m at its right edge, thus gaining 100 m of elevation head along its length. The hydraulic
grade linerepresenting the distance above the pipe of the pressure head term P/is
high above the pipe at the left edge and falls linearly to meet the pipe at its right edge
because the pressure here is atmospheric.
Properties. At 10C, the density of water 999.7 kg/m
3
, its bulk modulus K /
P/ 2.26 GPa, and its specific heat C 4187 J/(kg C). The weight density is
g 9.81 kN/m
3
.
Based on an internal diameter of 27 in, or 0.686 m, the cross-sectional area of the
pipe is
A

D
2

(0.686)
2
0.370 m
2
Based on a discharge Q 1.80 m
3
/s, the average velocity is
V

Q
A

1
0
.
.
8
3
0
70
m
m
3
/s
2

4.87 m/s
Such a velocity value is higher than is typically allowed in most municipal work.
1. The velocity head is given by
h
v

2
v
g
2

1.21 m
Thus, the following table can be completed:
Variable Expression Upstream Downstream
Pressure (MPa) P 3.0 0.0
Pressure head (m) P / 305.9 0.0
Elevation head (m) z 100.0 200.0
Piezometric head (m) P / z 405.9 200.0
Total head (m) P / z v
2
/2g 407.1 201.2
2. The head loss caused by friction is equal to the net decrease in total head over the
length of the line. That is, h
f
407.1 201.2 205.9 m. Note that because this
pipe is of uniform diameter, this value also could have been obtained from the
piezometric head terms.
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.25
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
From the Darcy-Weisbach equation, we can obtain the following expression for the
dimensionless f:
f

(2
(2
0
5
5
0
.9
0
)
)
(
(
0
1
.
.
6
2
8
1
6
)
)

0.047
Alternatively, from the Hazen-Williams equation that Q 0.278 C D
2.63
(h
f
/L)
0.54
, we obtain the following for the dimensional C:
C = 67.2
These values would indicate a pipe in poor condition, probably in much need of
repair or replacement.
3. In most problems involving steady flow, we assume that the compressibility of the
water is negligible. This assumption is easily verified since the density change asso-
ciated with the pressure change is easily computed.
In the current problem, the pressure change is 3.0 MPa and the bulk modulus is
2200 MPa. Thus, by definition of the bulk modulus K,

K
P

22
3
00

0.0014
Clearly, even in this problem, with its unusually extreme pressure changes, the rel-
ative change in density is less than 0.2 percent. The density at the higher pressure
(upstream) end of the pipe is
1

2
999.7 (1 0.0014) 1001.1 kg/m
3
.
Using the mass continuity equation, we have
(AV)
1
(AV)
2
In this case, we assume that the pipe is completely rigid and that the change in
pressure results in a change in density only (in most applications, these terms are
likely to be almost equally important). In addition, we assume that the velocity
weve already calculated applies at the downstream end (i.e., at Location 2). Thus,
the continuity equation requires
V
1
V
2

2
1

4.87

1
9
0
9
0
9
1
.7
.1

4.86 m/s
Obviously, even in this case, the velocity and density changes are both negligible
and the assumption of incompressible flow is an extremely good one.
4. Assuming that the flow is incompressible, the energy dissipated, P
d
, can be com-
puted using work done in moving the fluid through a change in piezometric flow
(in fact, the head loss is nothing more than the energy dissipating per unit rate of
weight of fluid transferred). Thus,
P
d
Qh
f
Strictly speaking, this energy is not lost but is transferred to less available forms: typ-
ically, heat. Since energy is associated with the increase in temperature of the fluid, we
1.8

0.278(0.686)
2.63
(205.9/2500)
0.54
Q

0.278 D
2.63
(h
f
/L)
0.54
h
f
D

L

2
v
g
2

2.26 Chapter Two


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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
can easily estimate the increase in temperature of the fluid that would be associated with
the dissipation of energy, assuming that all the heat is retained in the fluid. That is, P
f

Q cT gqhf . Solving for the temperature increase gives


T

g
c
h
f

0.48C.
We conclude that the assumption of isothermal flow also is an excellent one.
2.6.7 Pumps: Adding Energy to the Flow
Although water is the most abundant substance found on the surface of the earth, its nat-
ural distribution seldom satisfies an engineers partisan requirements. As a result, pump-
ing both water and wastewater is often necessary to achieve the desired distribution of
flow. In essence, a pump controls the flow by working on the flowing fluid, primarily by
discharging water to a higher head at its discharge flange than is found at the pump inlet.
The increased head is subsequently dissipated as frictional losses within the conduit or is
delivered further downstream. This section provides a brief introduction to how pumps
interact with pipe systems. Further details are found in Chap. 10.
How exactly is the role of a pump quantified? The key definition is the total dynamic
head (TDH) of the pump. This term describes the difference between the total energy on the
discharge side compared with that on the suction side. In effect, the TDH H
P
is the difference
between the absolute total head at the discharge and suction nozzle of the pump: that is,
H
P

h
p

2
V
g
2

,
d

h
p

2
V
g
2

,
s
(2.26)
where h
p
hydraulic grade line elevation (i.e., pressure-plus-elevation head with respect
to a fixed datum), and subscripts d and s refer to delivery and suction flanges, respective-
ly. Typically, the concern is how the TDH head varies with the discharge Q; for a pump,
this HQ relation is called the characteristic curve.
What the TDH definition accomplishes can be appreciated better if we consider a typ-
ical pump system, such as the one shown in Fig. 2.9. In this relation, the Bernoulli equa-
tion relates what happens between Points 1 and 2 and between Points 3 and 4, but techni-
cally it cannot be applied between 2 and 3 because energy is added to the flow. However,
the TDH definition spans this gap.
To see this more clearly, the energy relation is written between Points 1 and 2 as
H
S
H
PS
h
fs
(2.27)
where H
s
is the head of the suction reservoir, H
PS
is the total head at the suction flange of
the pump, and h
fs
is the friction loss in the suction line. Similarly, the energy relation is
written between Points 3 and 4 as
H
PD
H
D
h
fd
(2.28)
where H
d
is the head of the discharge reservoir, HPD is the head at the discharge flange of
the pump, and h
fd
is the friction loss in the discharge line. If Eq. (2.27) is then added to
Eq. (2.28), the result can be rearranged as
H
pd
H
ps
H
d
H
s
h
fd
h
fs
(2.29)
(9.91m/s
2
)(205.9 m)

4187 J/(kg C)
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.27
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
which can be rewritten using Eq. (2.26) as
H
p
H
st
h
f
(2.30)
where H
st
is the total static lift and h
f
is the total friction loss. The total work done by the
pump is equal to the energy required to lift the water from the lower reservoir to the high-
er reservoir plus the energy required to overcome friction losses in both the suction and
discharge pipes.
2.6.8 Sample Application Including Pumps
Problem. Two identical pumps are connected in parallel and are used to force water into
the transmission/distribution pipeline system shown in Fig. 2.10. The elevations of the
demand locations and the lengths of C 120 pipe also are indicated. Local losses are neg-
ligible in this system and can be ignored. The demands are as follows: D
1
1.2 m
3
/s,
D
2
1.6 m
3
/s, and D
3
= 2.2 m
3
/s. The head-discharge curve for a single pump is approx-
imated by the equation
H 90 6Q
1.70
1. What is the minimum diameter of commercially available pipe required for the 4.2
km length if a pressure head is to be maintained at a minimum of 40 m everywhere
in the system? What is the total dynamic head of the pump and the total water
horsepower supplied for this flow situation?
2. For the system designed in the previous questions the demand can shift as follows
under certain emergency situations: D
1
0.8 m
3
/s, D
2
1.2 m
3
/s, and D
3
4.2
m
3
/s. For this new demand distribution, can the system maintain a residual pressure
head of 20 m in the system?
2.28 Chapter Two
H
S
H
D
H
ST
H
P
H
PD
H
PS
Pump
1
2
4
HGL
3
HGL
FIGURE 2.9 Definition sketch for pump system relations.
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
Solution. Total flow is Q
t
D
1
D
2
D
3
1.2 1.6 2.2 5.0 m
3
/s and, each
pump will carry half of this flow: i.e., Q
pump
Q
t
/2 2.5 m
3
/s. The total dynamic head
of the pump H
pump
is
H
pump
90 6(2.5)
1.7
61.51 m
which allows the total water power to be computed as
Power 2 (Q
pump
H
pump
) Q
t
H
pump

Thus, numerically,
Power

5.0

m
s
3

,
(61.51
m
)

9810

m
N
3

,
3017 kW
which is a huge value. The diameter d
1
of the pipe that is 4.2 km long, the head loss h
i
caused by friction for each pipe can be determined using the Hazen-Williams formula
since the flow can be assumed to be in the hydraulic rough range. Because d
1
is unknown,
h
2
, h
3
, and h
1
are calculated first. The site where the lowest pressure head occurs can
be shown to be at Node 2 (i.e., the highest node in the system) as follows:
h
3
L
3

0.
1
54

800

0.
1
54

3.80 m
Because the head loss h
3
is less than the gain in elevation of 10 m, downstream pres-
sures increase; thus, Node 2 (at D
2
) will be critical in the sense of having the lowest pres-
sure. Thus, if the pressure head at that node is greater than 40 m, a minimum pressure head
of 40 m will certainly be maintained throughout the pipeline.
Continuing with the calculations,
h
2
L
2

0.27
Q
8C
2
d
2.63

0.
1
54

1000

0.
1
54

2.30 m
3.8

0.278(120)(1.524
2.63
)
2.2

0.278(120)(1.067
2.63
)
Q
3

0.278Cd
2.63
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.29
FIGURE 2.10 Example pipe and pump system.
Pump
240 m
245 m
255 m
250 m
D
1
D
2
D
3
4
2
0
0

m
1
0
0
0
m
8
0
0

m
6
0
''
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
Now, the pressure head at Node 2 is
h
p2
z
R
H
pump
h
1
h
2
z
2
40 m
which implies that
h
1
(z
R
z
2
) H
pump
h
2
40 (240 255) 61.51 2.30 40 4.21 m
where z is the elevation and the subscripts R and 2 denote reservoir and Node 2, respec-
tively. Thus, the minimum diameter d
1
is
d
1

0.278
Q
CS
0.54

2.
1
63

2.
1
63

= 2.006 m
Finally, the minimum diameter (d
1
2.134 m) of the commercially available pipe is
therefore 84 in.
Under emergency conditions (e.g., with a fire flow), the total flow is Q
t
D
1
D
2

D
3
0.8 1.2 4.2 6.2 (m
3
/s). Note that with an increase in flow, the head lost result-
ing from friction increases while the head supplied by the pump decreases. Both these
facts tend to make it difficult to meet pressure requirements while supplying large flows.
More specifically,
H
pump
90 6(3.1)
1.7
48.90 m
and
h
3
800

0.
1
54

12.6 m
Because this loss now exceeds the elevation change, Node 3 (at D
3
) now becomes critical
in the system; minimum pressures now occur at the downstream end of the system. Other
losses are
h
2
1000

0.
1
54

4.4 m
and
h
1
4200

0.
1
54

4.6 m
Thus, the pressure head at Node 3 is
h
p3
(z
R
z
3
) H
pump
h
1
h
2
h
3
5 48.9 12.6 4.4 4.6 22.3 m
Clearly, a residual pressure head of 20 m is still available in the system under emer-
gency situations, and the pressure requirement is still met, though with little to spare!
2.6.9 NetworksLinking Demand and Supply
In water supply and distribution applications, the pipes, pumps, and valves that make up
the system are frequently connected into complex arrangements or networks. This topo-
logical complexity provides many advantages to the designer (e.g., flexibility, reliability,
water quality), but it presents the analyst with a number of challenges. The essential prob-
lems associated with linked calculations in networks are discussed in Chap. 9.
6.2

0.278(120)(2.134)
2.63
5.4

0.278(120)(1.524)
2.63
4.2

0.278(120)(1.067)
2.63
5.0

0.278(120)

4
4
2
.2
0
1
0

,
0.54
2.30 Chapter Two
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
2.7 QUASI-STEADY FLOW: SYSTEM OPERATION
The hydraulics of pressurized flow is modified and adjusted according to the presence,
location, size, and operation of storage reservoirs and pumping stations in the system. This
section discusses the criteria for and the approach to these components, introducing the
equations and methods that will be developed in later chapters.
A common application of quasi-steady flow arises in reservoir engineering. In this
case, the key step is to relate the rate of outflow O to the amount of water in the reservoir
(i.e., its total volume or its depth). Although the inflow is usually a known function of
time, Eq. (2.2) must be treated as a general first-order differential equation. However, the
solution usually can be approximated efficiently by standard numerical techniques, such
as the Runge-Kutta or Adams-type methods. This application is especially important when
setting operating policy for spillways, dams, turbines, and reservoirs. One simple case is
illustrated by the example below.
Usually, reservoir routing problems are solved numerically, a fact necessitated by the
arbitrary form of the input function to the storage system and the sometimes complex
nature of the storage-outflow relation. However, there are occasions when the application
is sufficiently simple to allow analytical solutions.
Problem. A large water-filled reservoir has a constant free surface elevation of 100
m relative to a common datum. This reservoir is connected by a pipe (L 50 m, D 6
cm, and f constant 0.02, h
f
= fLV
2
/2gD) to the bottom of a nearby vertical cylindrical
tank that is 3 m in diameter. Both the reservoir and the tank are open to the atmosphere,
and gravity-driven flow between them is established by opening a valve in the connecting
pipeline.
Neglecting all minor losses, determine the time T (in hours) required to raise the ele-
vation of the water in the cylindrical tank from 75 m to 80 m.
Solution. If we neglect minor losses and the velocity head term, the energy equa-
tion can be written between the supply reservoir and the finite area tank. Letting the
level of the upstream reservoir be h
r
, the variable level of the downstream reservoir
above datum being h and the friction losses being h
f
, the energy equation takes on the
following simple form:
h
r
h h
f
This energy relation is called quasi-steady because it does not directly account for any
transient terms (i.e., terms that explicitly depend on time).
A more useful expression is obtained if we use the Darcy-Weisbach equation to relate
energy losses to the discharge Q VA:
h
f

f
D
L

2
v
g
2

f
D
L

2
Q
gA
2
2

g
8f
2
L
D
5

Q
2
What is significant about this expression, however, is that all the terms involved in the
last fraction are known and can be treated as a single constant. Thus, we can solve for Q
and rewrite it as Q Ch
r
h , where C
2
g
2
D
5
/8fL
Thus far, we have a single equation involving two unknowns: the head h in the receiv-
ing tank and the discharge Q between them. A second relation is required and is given by
the continuity equation. Because the flow can be treated as incompressible, the discharge
in the tank (i.e., the tanks area A
t
times its velocity of dh/dt) must equal the discharge in
the pipe Q. in symbols,
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
A
t

d
d
h
t

Q
Thus, using the energy equation, we have,

d
d
h
t

A
C
t

h
r
h
Separating variables and integrating gives

h
2
h
1

t
0

A
C
t

dt
and performing the integration and using appropriate limits gives
2

h
r
h
1
h
r
h
2

A
C
t

t
Finally, solving for t gives the final required expression for quasi-steady flow con-
necting a finite-area tank to a constant head reservoir:
t =

2
C
A
t

h
r
h
1
h
r
h
2

The numerical aspects are now straightforward:


C =

g
2
8
(0

.
1
06)
5

0.5
or C

2
(
8

.
1
0

)
5

m
5/2
/s 3.068(10)
3
m
5/2
/s
If h
r
100 m, h
1
75 m, h
2
80 m, than we have
t =

(2 5 m 2 0 m ) 2432.6 s
Converting to minutes, this gives a time of about 40.5 minutes (0.676 hr).
In problems involving a slow change of the controlling variables, it is often simple to
check the calculations. In the current case, a good approximation can be obtained by using
the average driving head of 22.5 m (associated with an average tank depth of 77.5 m). This
average head, in turn, determines the associated average velocity in the pipeline. Using
this equivalent steady velocity allows one to estimate how much time is required to fill
the tank by the required 5 m. The interested reader is urged to try this and to verify that
this approximate time is actually relatively accurate in the current problem, being within
6 s of the exact calculation.
2.8 UNSTEADY FLOW: INTRODUCTION
OF FLUID TRANSIENTS
Hydraulic conditions in water distribution systems are in an almost continual state of
change. Industrial and domestic users often alter their flow requirements while supply
conditions undergo adjustment as water levels in reservoirs and storage tanks change or
as pumps are turned off and on. Given this dynamic condition, it is perhaps surprising that
steady state considerations have so dominated water and wastewater engineering. The fol-
lowing sections provide an introduction to unsteady flow in pipe systemsa topic that is
neglected too often in pipeline work. The purpose is not too create a fluid transients expert
but to set the stage for Chap. 12, which considers these matters in greater detail.
2

4
(3 m)
2

3.068(10)
3
m
5/2
/s
dh

h
r
h
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
2.8.1 Importance of Water Hammer
Pressure pipe systems are subjected to a wide range of physical loads and operational
requirements. For example, underground piping systems must withstand mechanical
forces caused by fluid pressure, differential settlement, and concentrated loads. The pipe
must tolerate a certain amount of abuse during construction, such as welding stresses and
shock loads. In addition, the pipe must resist corrosion and various kinds of chemical
attack. The internal pressure requirement is of special importance, not only because it
directly influences the required wall thickness (and hence cost) of large pipes, but also
because pipe manufacturers often characterize the mechanical strength of a pipeline by its
pressure rating.
The total force acting within a conduit is obtained by summing the steady state and
waterhammer (transient) pressures in the line. Transient pressures are most important
when the rate of flow is changed rapidly, such as by closing a valve or stopping a pump.
Such disturbances, whether caused intentionally or by accident, create traveling pressure
and velocity waves that may be of large magnitude. These transient pressures are super-
imposed on steady-state values to produce the total pressure load on a pipe.
Most people have some experience with waterhammer effects. A common example is
the banging or hammering noise sometimes heard when a water faucet is closed quickly.
In fact, the mechanism in this simple example typifies all pipeline transients. The kinetic
energy carried by the fluid is rapidly converted into strain energy in the pipe walls and
fluid. The result is a pulse wave of abnormal pressure that travels along the pipe. The ham-
mering sound indicates that a portion of the original kinetic energy is converted into
acoustic form. This and other energy-transformation losses (such as fluid friction) cause
the pressure wave to decay gradually until normal (steady) pressures and velocities are
once again restored.
It turns out that waterhammer phenomena are the direct means of achieving all
changes in fluid velocity, gradual or sudden. The difference is that slow adjustments in
velocity or pressures produce such small disturbances that the flow appears to change
smoothly from one value to another. Yet, even in these cases of near equilibrium, it is
traveling pressure waves that satisfy the conservation equations. To illustrate why this
must be so, consider the steady continuity equation for the entire pipe. This law requires
that the rate at which fluid leaves one end of a conduit must be equal to the rate at which
it enters the other end. The coordination between what happens at the two ends of the
pipeline is not achieved by chance or conspiracy. It is brought about by the same
physical laws and material properties that cause disturbances to propagate in the tran-
sient case.
If waterhammer waves were always small, the study of transient conditions would be
of little interest to the pipeline engineer. This is not the case. Waterhammer waves are
capable of breaking pipes and damaging equipment and have caused some spectacular
pipeline failures. Rational design, especially of large pipelines, requires reliable transient
analysis. There are several reasons why transient conditions are of special concern for
large conduits. Not only is the cost of large pipes greater, but the required wall thickness
is more sensitive to the pipes pressure rating as well. Thus, poor designwhether it
results in pipeline failure or the hidden costs of overdesigncan be extremely expensive
for large pipes.
Despite their intrinsic importance, transient considerations are frequently relegated
to a secondary role when pipeline systems are designed or constructed. That is, only
after the pipelines profile, diameter, and design discharge have been chosen is any
thought given to transient conditions. This practice is troublesome. First, the pipeline
may not perform as expected, possibly causing large remedial expenses. Second, the
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
line may be overdesigned and thus unnecessarily expensive. This tendency to design for
steady state conditions alone has been particularly common in the water supply indus-
try. In addition, there has been a widely held misconception that complex arrangements
of pipelines reflect or dampen waterhammer waves. Although wave reflections in pipe
networks do occur, attenuation depends on many factors and cannot be guaranteed.
Networks are not intrinsically better behaved than simple pipelines are, and some com-
plex systems may respond even more severely to transient conditions (Karney and
McInnis, 1990).
The remainder of this chapter introduces, in a gentle and nonmathematical way, sev-
eral important concepts relating to transient conditions. Although rigorous derivations and
details are avoided, the discussion is physical and accurate. The goal is to answer two key
questions: How do transients arise and propagate in a pipeline? and under what circum-
stances are transient conditions most severe?
Transient conditions in pressure pipelines are modeled using either a lumped or
distributed approach. In distributed systems, the fluid is assumed to be compressible,
and the transient phenomena occur in the form of traveling waves propagating with a
finite speed a. Such transients often occur in water supply pipes, power plant conduits,
and industrial process lines. In a lumped system, by contrast, the flow is considered to
be incompressible and the pipe walls are considered to be inelastic. Thus, the fluid
behaves as a rigid body in that changes in pressure or velocity at one point in the flow
system are assumed to change the flow elsewhere instantaneously. The lumped system
approximation can be obtained either directly or in the limit as the wavespeed a
becomes unbounded in the distributed model. The slow oscillating water level in a surge
tank attached to a short conduit typifies a system in which the effects of compressibili-
ty are negligible.
Although the problem of predicting transient conditions in a pipeline system is of con-
siderable practical importance, many challenges face the would-be analyst. The govern-
ing partial differential equations describing the flow are nonlinear, the behavior of even
commonly found hydraulic devices is complex, and data on the performance of systems
are invariably difficult or expensive to obtain. The often-surprising character of pulse
wave propagation in a pipeline only makes matters worse. Even the basic question of
deciding whether conditions warrant transient analysis is often difficult to answer. For all
these reasons, it is essential to have a clear physical grasp of transient behavior.
2.8.2 Cause of Transients
In general, any change in mean flow conditions in a pipeline system initiates a sequence
of transient waves. In practice, we are generally concerned with changes or actions that
affect hydraulic devices or boundary conditions attached to the conduit. The majority of
these devices are used to provide power to the system or to control the flow in some way.
The following list illustrates how some transient conditions can originate, although not all
of the them are discussed further here:
1. Changes in valve settings (accidental or planned; manual or automatic)
2. Starting or stopping of either supply or booster pumps
3. Changes in the demand conditions, including starting or arresting a fire flow
4. Changes in reservoir level (e.g., waves on a water surface or the slow accumula-
tion of depth with time)
5. Unstable device characteristics, including unstable pump characteristics, valve
instabilities, the hunting of a turbine, and so on
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
6. Changes in transmission conditions, such as when a pipe breaks or buckles
7. Changes in thermal conditions (e.g., if the fluid freezes or if changes in proper-
ties are caused by temperature fluctuations)
8. Air release, accumulation, entrainment, or expulsion causing dramatic distur-
bances (e.g., a sudden release of air from a relief valve at a high point in the pro-
file triggered by a passing vehicle); pressure changes in air chambers; rapid
expulsion of air during filling operations
9. Transitions from open channel to pressure flow, such as during filling operations
in pressure conduits or during storm events in sewers.
10. Additional transient events initiated by changes in turbine power loads in hydro-
electric projects, draft-tube instabilities caused by vortexing, the action of recip-
rocating pumps, and the vibration of impellers or guide vanes in pumps, fans, or
turbines
2.8.3 Physical Nature of Transient Flow
In pipeline work, many approximations and simplifications are required to understand the
response of a pipe system following an initialization of a transient event. In essence, this
is because the flow is both unsteady in the mean as well as turbulent. Many of these
assumptions have been confirmed experimentally to the extent that the resulting models
have provided adequate approximations of real flow behavior. Yet, it is wise to be skepti-
cal about any assumption and be cautious about mathematical models. As we have
stressed, any model only approximates reality to a greater or lesser extent. Still, even in
cases where models perform poorly, they may be the best way of pinpointing sources of
uncertainty and quantifying what is not understood.
An air of mystery often surrounds the development, role, and significance of transient
phenomena in closed conduits. Indeed, the complexity of the governing differential equa-
tions and the dynamic nature of a systems response can be intimidating to the novice.
However, a considerable understanding of transient behavior can be obtained with only
the barest knowledge about the properties of fluid and a few simple laws of conservation.
When water flows or is contained in a closed conduit so that no free surface is pre-
sentfor example, in a typical water supply linethe properties of the flowing fluid have
some direct implications to the role and significance of transient conditions. For a water
pipeline, two properties are especially significant: waters high density and its large bulk
modulus (i.e., water is heavy and difficult to compress). Surprisingly, these two facts
largely explain why transient conditions in a pipeline can be so dramatic (see also, Karney
and McInnis, 1990):
2.8.3.1 Implication 1. Water has a high density. Because water has a high density
( 1000 kg/m
3
) and because pipelines tend to be long, typical lines carry huge amounts
of mass, momentum, and kinetic energy. To illustrate, assume that a pipeline with area
A 1.0 m
2
and length L 1000 m is carrying fluid with a velocity v 2.0 m/s. The kinet-
ic energy contained in this pipe is then
KE

1
2

mv
2

1
2

LAv
2
2,000,000 J
Now this is a relatively ordinary situation: the discharge is moderate and the pipe is not
long. Yet the pipe still contains energy equivalent to, say, 10,000 fast balls or to a pickup
truck falling from a 30-story office tower. Clearly, large work interactions are required to
change the flow velocity in a pipeline from one value to another.
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.35
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
In addition to kinetic energy, a pipeline for liquid typically transports large amounts of
mass and momentum as well. For example, the above pipeline contains 2(10
6
) kg m/s of
momentum. Such large values of momentum imply that correspondingly large forces are
required to change flow conditions (Further details con be found in Karney. 1190).
2.8.3.2 Implication 2. Water is only slightly compressible. Because water is only
slightly compressible, large head changes occur if even small amounts of fluid are forced
into a pipeline. To explain the influence of compressibility in a simple way, consider Fig.
2.11, which depicts a piston at one end of a uniform pipe. If this piston is moved slowly,
the volume containing the water will be altered and the confining pressure will change
gradually as a result. Just how much the pressure will change depends on how the pipe
itself responds to the increasing pressure. For example, the bulk modulus of water is
defined as
K

P
/

2,070 MPa (2.31)


Thus, if the density of the fluid is increased by as little as one-tenth of 1 percent, which
is equivalent to moving the imagined piston a meter in a rigid pipe, the pressure will
increase by about 200 m of head (i.e., 2 MPa). If the pipe is not rigid, pressure increases
are shared between the pipe walls and the fluid, producing a smaller head change for a
given motion of the piston. Typical values are shown in the plot in Fig. 2.11. For exam-
ple, curve 2 indicates typical values for a steel pipe in which the elasticity of the pipe wall
and the compressibility of the fluid are nearly equal; in this case, the head change for a
given mass imbalance (piston motion) is about half its previous value.
Note that it is important for the conduit to be full of fluid. For this reason, many
options for accommodating changes in flow conditions are not available in pipelines that
can be used in channels. Specifically, no work can be done to raise the fluid mass against
gravity. Also note that any movement of the piston, no matter how slowly it is accom-
plished, must be accommodated by changes in the density of the fluid, the dimension of
the conduit, or both. For a confined fluid, Cauchy and Mach numbers (relating speed of
change to speed of disturbance propagation) are poor indexes of the importance of com-
pressibility effects.
2.8.3.3 Implication 3. Local action and control. Suppose a valve or other device is
placed at the downstream end of a series-connected pipe system carrying fluid at some
steady-state velocity V
0
. If the setting of the valve is changedsuddenly say, for simplic-
ity, the valve is instantly closedthe implications discussed above are combined in the
pipeline to produce the transient response. We can reason as follows:
The downstream valve can only act locally, providing a relationship between flow
through the valve and the head loss across the valve. In the case of sudden closure, the dis-
charge and velocity at the valve becomes zero the instant the valve is shut. However, for
the fluid mass as a whole to be stopped, a decelerating force sufficient to eliminate the
substantial momentum of the fluid must be applied. But how is such a force generated?
We have already mentioned that gravity cannot help us because the fluid has no place to
go. In fact, there is only one way to provide the required decelerating forcethe fluid
must be compressed sufficiently to generate an increase in pressure large enough to arrest
the flow. Because water is heavy, the required force is large; however, since water is only
slightly compressible, the wave or disturbance will travel quickly. In a system like the one
shown in Fig. 2.11, a pressure wave of nearly 100 m would propagate up the pipeline at
approximately 1000 m/s.
In many ways, the response of the system we have described is typical. For closed con-
duit systems, the only available mechanism for controlling fluid flows is the propagations
of shock waves resulting from the elasticity of the fluid and the pipeline. In essence, tran-
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
sient considerations cause us to look at the flow of fluid in a pipeline in a new way: For
any flow, we consider not only its present significance but also how this condition was
achieved and when it will change because, when change occurs, pressure pulses of high
magnitude may be created that can burst or damage pipelines. Although this qualitative
development is useful, more complicated systems and devices require sophisticated quan-
titative analysis. The next section briefly summarizes how more general relations can be
obtained. (Greater detail is provided in Chap. 12.)
2.8.4 Equation of State-Wavespeed Relations
In pipeline work, an equation of state is obtained by relating fluid pressure to density
through compressibility relations. Specifically, the stresses in the wall of the pipe need to
be related to the pressure and density of the fluid. The result is a relationship between the
fluid and the properties of the pipe material and the speed at which shock waves are prop-
agated (wavespeed or celerity).
The most basic relation describing the wavespeed in an infinitely elasticly fluid is usu-
ally written as follows:
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.37
L
pipe piston

Pressure
head
(m)
200
100
0.5 1.0
Piston movement (m)
x
FIGURE 2.11 Relation between piston motion (mass imbalance) and head change in a closed conduit
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a

(2.32)
where a is the wavespeed, is the ratio of the specific heats for the fluid, K is the bulk
modulus of the fluid, and is the fluid density. If a fluid is contained in a rigid conduit,
all changes in density will occur in the fluid and this relation still applies. The following
comments relate to Eq. (2.32):
1. As fluid becomes more rigid, K increases and, hence, a increases. If the medium is
assumed to be incompressible, the wavespeed becomes infinite and disturbances
are transmitted instantaneously from one location to another. This is not, strictly
speaking, possible, but at times it is a useful approximation when the speed of prop-
agation is much greater than the speed at which boundary conditions respond.
2. For liquids that undergo little expansion on heating, is nearly 1. For example,
water at 10C has a specific heat ratio () of 1.001.
3. Certain changes in fluid conditions can have a drastic effect on celerity (or
wavespeed) values. For example, small quantities of air in water (e.g., 1 part in
10,000 by volume) greatly reduce K, because gases are so much more compress-
ible than liquids are at normal temperatures. However, density values () are affect-
ed only slightly by the presence of a small quantity of gas. Thus, wavespeed values
for gas-liquid mixtures are often much lower than the wavespeed of either compo-
nent taken alone.
Example: Elastic Pipe
The sonic velocity (a) of a wave traveling through an elastic pipe represents a
convenient method of describing a number of physical properties relating to the fluid,
the pipe material, and the method of pipe anchoring. A more general expression for the
wavespeed is
a

(2.33)
where K is the bulk modulus of the fluid,
w
is the density of the fluid, E is the elas-
tic modulus of the pipe material, and D and e are the pipes, diameter and wall thick-
ness, respectively. The constant c
1
accounts for the type of support provided for the
pipeline. Typically, three cases are recognized, with c
1
defined for each as follows (
is the Poisons ratio for the pipe material):
Case a. The pipeline is anchored only at the upstream end:
c
1
1

(2.34)
Case b. The pipeline is anchored against longitudinal movement.
c
1
1
2
(2.35)
Case c. The pipeline has expansion joints throughout.
K/
w

1 c
1
KD/Ee
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c
1
1 (2.36)
Note that for pipes that are extremely rigid, thick-walled, or both, c
1
KD/Ee 0 and
Eq. 2.33 can be simplified to a K /
w
that which recovers the expression for the
acoustic wavespeed in an infinite fluid (assuming 1).
For the majority of transient applications, the wavespeed can be regarded as constant.
Even in cases where some uncertainty exists regarding the wavespeed, the solutions of the
governing equations, with respect to peak pressures, are relatively insensitive to changes
in this parameter. It is not unusual to vary the wave celerity deliberately by as much as
15 percent to maintain a constant time step for solution by standard numerical techniques
(Wylie and Streeter, 1993). (Again, further details are found in Chap. 12.)
Wavespeeds are sensitive to a wide range of environmental and material conditions.
For example, special linings or confinement conditions (e.g., tunnels); variations in mate-
rial properties with time, temperature, or composition; and the magnitude and sign of the
pressure wave can all influence the wavespeed in a pipeline. (For additional details, see
Wylie and Streeter, 1993.Chaudhry, 1987; or Hodgson, 1983).
2.8.5 Increment of Head-Change Relation
Three physical relationsNewtons second law, conservation of mass and the wavespeed
relationcan be combined to produce the governing equations for transient flow in a
pipeline. The general result is a set of differential equations for which no analytical solu-
tion exists. It is these relations that are solved numerically in a numerical waterhammer
program.
In some applications, a simplified equation is sometimes used to obtain a first approx-
imation of the transient response of a pipe system. This simple relation is derived with the
assumption that head losses caused by friction are negligible and that no interaction takes
place between pressure waves and boundary conditions found at the end of pipe lengths.
The resulting head rise equation is called the Joukowsky relation:
H

g
a

V (2.37)
where H is the head rise, H is the change in velocity in the pipe, a is the wavespeed,
and g is the acceleration caused by gravity. The negative sign in this equation is applica-
ble for a disturbance propagating upstream and the positive sign is for one moving down-
stream. Because typical values of a/g are large, often 100 s or more, this relation predicts
large values of head rise. For example, a head rise of 100 m occurs in a pipeline if a/g
100 s and if an initial velocity of 1 m/s is suddenly arrested at the downstream end.
Unfortunately, the Joukowsky relation is misleading in a number of respects. If the
equation is studied, it seems to imply that the following relations are true:
1. The greater the initial velocity (hence, the larger the maximum possible V), the
greater the transient pressure response.
2. The greater the wavespeed a, the more dramatic the head change.
3. Anything that might lower the static heads in the system (such as low reservoir lev-
els or large head losses caused by friction) will tend to lower the total head (static
plus dynamic) a pipe system is subject to.
Although these implications are true when suitable restrictions on their application are
enforced, all of them can be false or misleading in more complicated hydraulic systems.
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.39
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It is important to be skeptical about simple rules for identifying worst case scenarios in
transient applications. Karney and McInnis (1990) provide further elaboration of this
point. However, before considering even a part of this complexity, one must clarify the
most basic ideas in simple systems.
2.8.6 Transient Conditions in Valves
Many special devices have been developed to control and manage flows in pipeline
systems. This is not surprising because the inability to control the passage of water in
a pipeline can have many consequences, ranging from the minor inconvenience of
restrictive operating rules to the major economic loss associated with pipeline failure
or rupture. The severity of the problem clearly depends on the timing and magnitude of
the failure.
In essence, control valves function by introducing a specified and predictable rela-
tionship between discharge and pressure drop in a line. When the setting of a valve (or,
for that matter, the speed of a pump) is altered, either automatically or by manual action,
it is the head-discharge relationship that is controlled to give the desired flow character-
istics. The result of the change may be to increase or reduce the pressure or discharge,
maintain a preset pressure or flow, or respond to an emergency or unusual condition in
the system.
It is a valve control function that creates most difficulties encountered by pipeline
designers and system operators. Valves control the rate of flow by restricting the passage
of the flow, thereby inducing the fluid to accelerate to a high velocity as it passes through
the valve even under steady conditions. The large velocities combine with the no-slip con-
dition at the solid boundaries to create steep velocity gradients and associated high shear
stresses in the fluid; in turn, these shear stresses, promote the rapid conversion of mechan-
ical energy into heat through the action of turbulence of the fluid in the valve. The net
result is a large pressure drop across the valve for a given discharge through it; it is this
h-Q relationship for a given opening that makes flow control possible. However, the
same high velocities also are responsible for the cavitation, noise, energy loss, wear, and
maintenance problems often associated with valves even under steady conditions.
This section presents an overview of control valve hydraulics and considers the basic
roles that control valves play in a pipeline. Valves are often classified by both their func-
tion and their construction. Valves can be used for on/off control or for pressure or flow
control, and the physical detail of the valves construction varies significantly depending
on the application. The kind of valves used can range from traditional gate and globe
valves to highly sophisticated slow-closing air valves and surge-anticipating valves. The
actuator that generates the valves motion also varies from valve to valve, depending on
whether automatic or manual flow control is desired. Many kinds of valves can be used in
a single pipeline, creating challenging interactions for the transient analyst to sort out. The
most basic of these interactions is discussed in more detail in the following section.
2.8.6.1 Gate discharge equation. Among the most important causes of transient condi-
tions in many pipelines is the closure of regulating and flow control valves. The details of
how these valves are modeled can be influential in determining the maximum pressure
experienced on the lines. For this reason, and because some knowledge of valve behavior
is required to interpret the output from a simulation program, it is worthwhile to briefly
review valve theory.
Consider a simple experiment in which a reservoir, such as the one shown in Fig. 2.12,
has a valve directly attached to it. If we initially assume the valve is fully open, the dis-
charge through the valve Q
0
can be predicted with the usual orifice equation:
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Q
0
(C
d
A
v
)
0
2gH
0
(2.38)
where C
d
is the discharge coefficient, A
v
is the orifice area, g is the acceleration caused by
gravity, H
0
is the head difference across the valve, and the subscript 0 indicates that the
valve is fully open. If the valve could completely convert the head difference across it into
velocity, the discharge coefficient C
d
would be equal to 1. Since full conversion is not pos-
sible, C
d
values are inevitably less than 1, with values between 0.7 and 0.9 being common
for a fully open valve. The product of the orifice area A
v
and the discharge coefficient C
d
is often called the effective area of the valve. The effective area, as determined by details
of a valves internal construction, controls the discharge through the valve.
Equation (2.38) is valid for a wide range of heads and discharges: For example, the
solid curve in the plot above depicts this relation for a fully open valve. Yet, clearly the
equation must be altered if the setting (position) of the valve is altered because both the
discharge coefficient and the orifice valve area would change. Describing a complete set
of a valves characteristics would appear to require a large set of tabulated C
d
A
v
values.
Fortunately, a more efficient description is possible.
Suppose we take a valve at another position and model its discharge in a way that is
analogous to the one shown in Eq. (2.38). That is:
Q (C
d
A
v
) 2 gH (2.39)
where both C
d
and A
v
will, in general, have changed from their previous values. If Eq.
(2.39) is divided by Eq. (2.38), the result can be written as
Q E
s
H (2.40)
In Eq. (2.40), E
s
is a new valve constant representing the ratio of the fully open dis-
charge to the root of the fully open head difference:
E
s

In essence, E
s
scales the head losses across a fully open valve for its size, construc
tion, and geometry. In addition, represents the nondimensional effective gate opening:

(C
C
d
d
A
A
v
v
)
0

Using -values to represent gate openings is convenient, because the effective range is
from 0.0 (valve fully closed) to 1.0 (valve fully open).
The precise way the -value changes as a valve is closed varies from valve to valve.
The details of this closure curve determine the head-discharge relationship of the valve
and thus often have a marked influence on transient conditions in a pipeline.
2.8.6.2 Alternate valve representation. In the literature relating to valves, and as was
introduced earlier in this chapter, it is common to model local losses as a multiplier of the
velocity head:
H

2
v
g
2

(2.41)
where v is the average velocity in the pipeline upstream of the valve and is the alterna-
tive valve constant. This apparently trivial change has a detrimental effect on numerical
Q
0

H
0

Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.41


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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
calculations: now varies from some minimum value for a fully open valve to infinity for
a closed valve. Such a range of values can cause numerical instabilities in a transient pro-
gram. For this reason, the reciprocal relationship involving -values is almost always pre-
ferred in transient applications.
2.8.6.3 Pressure Regulating Valves. In many applications, the valve closure relations
are even more complicated than is the case in the situation just described. Pressure-regu-
lating valves are often installed to maintain a preset pressure on their downstream side;
they accomplish this function by partially closing, thus inducing a greater pressure drop
across the valve. However, if a power failure or other transient condition were now to
occur in the line, any active pressure-regulating valve would start from an already par-
tially closed position. Depending on its initial setting, a pressure-regulating valve may
close in a time that is much less than its design or theoretical value. The influence of the
initial valve position is most severe for regulating valves breaking the largest pressures,
which are often associated with relatively low head losses in the remainder of the line.
Thus, when a pressure-regulating valve is used, the most severe transient conditions can
occur in a system transmitting small flows.
2.8.7 Conclusion
Transient fluid flow, variously called waterhammer, oil hammer, and so on, is the means
of achieving a change in steady-state flow and pressure. When conditions in a pipeline are
changed, such as by closing a valve or starting a pump, a series of waves are generated.
These disturbances propagate with the velocity of sound within the medium until they are
dissipated down to the level of the new steady state by the action of some form of damp-
ing or friction. In the case of flow in a pipeline, these fluid transients are the direct means
of achieving all changes in fluid velocity, gradual or sudden. When sudden changes occur,
however, the results can be dramatic because pressure waves of considerable magnitude
can occur and are capable of destroying the pipe. Only if the flow is regulated extremely
slowly is it possible to go smoothly from one steady state to another without large fluctu-
ations in pressure head or pipe velocity.
Clearly, flow control actions can be extremely important, and they have implications
not only for the design of the hydraulic system but also for other aspects of system design
and operation. Such problems as selecting the pipe layout and profile, locating control ele-
2.42 Chapter Two
H
0
C
l
o
s
e
d
H
H
= 1.0 = 0.5
Q Q
0
H
0
= 0.0
Valve
FIGURE 2.12 Relation between head and discharge in a valve.
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
ments within the system, and selecting device operating rules as well as handling the
ongoing challenges of system management are influenced by the details of the control sys-
tem. A rational and economic operation requires accurate data, carefully calibrated mod-
els, ongoing predictions of future demands and the response of the system to transient
loadings, and correct selection of both individual components and remedial strategies.
These design decisions cannot be regarded as an afterthought to be appended to a nearly
complete design. Transient analysis is a fundamental and challenging part of rational
pipeline design.
REFERENCES
Bhave, P.R. 1991. Analysis of Flow in Water Distribution Networks, Technomic Publishing Inc.,
Lancaster, PA, 1991.
Chaudhry, H. M., Applied Hydraulic Transients, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, 1987.
Chaudhry, M. H., and V. Yevjevich, Closed Conduit Flow, Water Resources Publications, Littleton,
CO, 1981.
Ford, K. W. Classical and Modern Physics, Vol. 1, Xerox College Publishing, Lexington, Ma,
1973.
Hatsopoulos, N, and J. H. Keenan, Principles of General Thermodynamics, John Wylie and Sons,
New York, 1965.
Hodgson, J., Pipeline Celerities Masters of Engineering thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton,
Alberta, Canada. 1983.
Jeppson, R.W. Analysis of Flow in Pipe Networks. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Stoneham, MA,
1976.
Karney, B. W., Energy Relations in Transient Closed Conduit Flow., Journal of Hydraulic
Engineering, 116: 11801196, 1990.
Karney, B. W., and D. M. McInnis, Transient Analysis of Water Distribution Systems, Journal of
the American Water Works Association, 82(7): 6270, 1990.
Nikuradse, Stonm ungs gesetze in rauhen Rohre. Forsch-Arb, Ing.-Wes. Itett 361, 1933.
Roberson, J. A., and C. T. Crowe, Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA,
1993.
Swamee, P. K, and A. K. Jain, Explicit Equations for Pipe Flow Problems, Journal of Hydraulic
Engineering, 102: 657664, 1997.
Wylie, B. E., and V. L. Streeter, Fluid Transients in Systems, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,
1993.
Hydraulics of pressurized flow 2.43
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HYDRAULICS OF PRESSURIZED FLOW
3.1 INTRODUCTION
By definition, an open channel is a flow conduit having a free surface: that is, a boundary
exposed to the atmosphere. The free surface is essentially an interface between two fluids
of different density. Open-channel flows are almost always turbulent, unaffected by sur-
face tension, and the pressure distribution within the fluid is hydrostatic. Open channels
include flows ranging from rivulets flowing across a field to gutters along residential
streets and highways to partially filled closed conduits conveying waste water to irrigation
and water supply canals to vital rivers.
In this chapter, the basic principles of open channel hydraulics are presented as an
introduction to subsequent chapters dealing with design. By necessity, the material pre-
sented in this chapter is abbreviatedan abstract of the fundamental concepts and
approachesfor a more detailed treatment, the reader is referred to any standard refer-
ences or texts dealing with the subject: for example, Chow (1959), French (1985),
Henderson (1966), or Chaudhry (1993)
As with any other endeavor, it is important that a common vocabulary be established
and used:
Critical slope (S
c
): A longitudinal slope such that uniform flow occurs in a critical
state.
Flow area (A): The flow area is the cross-sectional area of the flow taken normal to
the direction of flow (Table 3.1).
Froude number (Fr): The Froude number is the dimensionless ratio of the inertial and
gravitational forces or
Fr

V
gD
(3.1)
where V average velocity of flow, g gravitational acceleration, and D hydraulic
depth. When Fr 1, the flow is in a critical state with the inertial and gravitational forces
in equilibrium; when Fr 1, the flow is in a subcritical state and the gravitational forces
are dominant; and when Fr 1, the flow is in a supercritical state and the inertial forces
are dominant. From a practical perspective, sub and supercritical flow can be differen-
tiated simply by throwing a rock or other object into the flow. If ripples from the rock
CHAPTER 3
HYDRAULICS OF OPEN
CHANNEL FLOW
Richard H. French
Desert Research Institute,
University and Community College System of Nevada
Reno, Nevada
3.1
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Source: HYDRAULIC DESIGN HANDBOOK
T
A
B
L
E

3
.
1
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

S
e
c
t
i
o
n

G
e
o
m
e
t
r
i
c

P
r
o
p
e
r
t
i
e
s
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

D
e
f
i
n
i
t
i
o
n
A
r
e
a
W
e
t
t
e
d

P
e
r
i
m
e
t
e
r
H
y
d
r
a
u
l
i
c

R
a
d
i
u
s
T
o
p

W
i
d
t
h
H
y
d
r
a
u
l
i
c

D
e
p
t
h
A
P
R
T
D
(
1
)
(
2
)
(
3
)
(
4
)
(
5
)
(
6
)
R
e
c
t
a
n
g
l
e
b
y
b

2
y
b

b
y
2
y

b
y
T
r
a
p
e
z
o
i
d
w
i
t
h
e
q
u
a
l

s
i
d
e
(
b

z
y
)
y
b

2
y

2
b

(
b
2
y

z
1
y
)

y
z

2
z
y
(
b b

2 z
yz
)y
y

s
l
o
p
e
s
T
r
a
p
e
z
o
i
d
w
i
t
h
u
n
e
q
u
a
l
b
y

0
.
5
y
2
(
z
1

z
2
)
b

y
(
1

22
)
z

1 2

y
(
z
1
+
z
2
)
s
i
d
e

s
l
o
p
e
s
T
r
i
a
n
g
l
e
w
i
t
h

e
q
u
a
l

z
y
2
2
y

2
2

1
z
y

2
z
y
0
.
5
y
s
i
d
e

s
l
o
p
e
s
T
r
i
a
n
g
l
e
w
i
t
h
0
.
5
y
2
(
z
1

z
2
)
y
(

1 2

22
)
y
(
z
1

z
2
)
0
.
5
y
u
n
e
q
u
a
l
s
i
d
e

s
l
o
p
e
s
C
i
r
c
u
l
a
r
F
i
g
u
r
e

T
3
.
1
-
6
18

s
i
n

)
d
o 2
0
.
5

d
o
0
.
2
5

s
i
n

_,
d
o
2

y
(

18

s
i
n

(
0
s
.
5 i
n

11]
0
.
5
y
2
(
z
1

z
2
)

y
(

1 2

22
)
b
y

0
.
5
y
2
(
z
1

z
2
)

y
(
z
1

z
2
)
b
y

0
.
5
y
2
(
z
1

z
2
)

y
(

1 2

22
)
3.2
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
progress upstream of the point of impact, the flow is subcritical; however, if ripples from
the rock do not progress upstream but are swept downstream, the flow is supercritical.
Hydraulic depth (D). The hydraulic depth is the ratio of the flow area (A) to the top
width (T) or D A/T (Table 3.1).
Hydraulic radius (R). The hydraulic radius is the ratio of the flow area (A) to the wet-
ted perimeter (P) or R A/P (Table 3.1).
Kinetic energy correction factor (). Since no real open-channel flow is one-dimen-
sional, the true kinetic energy at a cross section is not necessarily equal to the spatially
averaged energy. To account for this, the kinetic energy correction factor is introduced, or

2
V
g
3

2
v
g
3

dA
and solving for ,

V
v
3
3
d
A
A
(3.2)
When the flow is uniform, 1 and values of for various situations are summarized
in Table 3.2.
Momentum correction coefficient (): Analogous to the kinetic energy correction fac-
tor, the momentum correction factor is given by
QV v
2
dA

V
v
2
2
d
A
A
(3.3)
When the flow is uniform, 1 and values of for various situations are summarized in
Table 3.2
Prismatic channel. A prismatic channel has both a constant cross-sectional shape and
bottom slope (S
o
). Channels not meeting these criteria are termed nonprismatic.
Specific energy (E). The specific energy of an open-channel flow is
E y
2
V
g
2
(3.4)
where y depth of flow and the units of specific energy are length in meters or feet.
Hydraulics of OpenChannel Flow 3.3
TABLE 3.2 Typical Values of and for Various Situations
Situation Value of Value of
Min. Avg. Max. Min. Avg. Max.
Regular channels, flumes, 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.03 1.05 1.07
spillways
Natural streams and torrents 1.15 1.30 1.50 1.05 1.10 1.17
Rivers under ice cover 1.20 1.50 2.00 1.07 1.17 1.33
River valleys, overflooded 1.50 1.75 2.00 1.17 1.25 1.33
Source: After Chow (1959).
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
Specific momentum (M). By definition, the specific momentum of an open-channel
flow is
M

g
Q
A
2

+ z

A (3.5)
Stage: The stage of a flow is the elevation of the water surface relative to a datum. If
the lowest point of a channel section is taken as the datum, then the stage and depth of
flow (y) are equal if the longitudinal slope (S
o
) is not steep or cos () 1, where is the
longitudinal slope angle. If 10
o
or S
o
0.18, where S
o
is the longitudinal slope of the
channel, then the slope of the channel can be assumed to be small.
Steady. The depth (y) and velocity of flow (v) at a location do not vary with time; that
is, (y/t 0) and (v/t 0). In unsteady flow, the depth and velocity of flow at a loca-
tion vary with time: that is, (y/t 0) and (v/t 0).
Top width (T). The top width of a channel is the width of the channel section at the
water surface (Table 3.1).
Uniform flow. The depth (y). flow area (A), and velocity (V) at every cross section are
constant, and the energy grade line (S
f
), water surface, and channel bottom slopes (S
o
) are
all parallel.
Superelevation (y). The rise in the elevation of the water surface at the outer channel
boundary above the mean depth of flow in an equivalent straight channel, because of cen-
trifugal force in a curving channel.
Wetted perimeter (P). The wetted perimeter is the length of the line that is the inter-
face between the fluid and the channel boundary (Table 3.1).
3.2 ENERGY PRINCIPLE
3.2.1 Definition of Specific Energy
Central to any treatment of open-channel flow is that of conservation of energy. The
total energy of a particle of water traveling on a streamline is given by the Bernoulli
equation or
H z

2
V
g
2

where H total energy, z elevation of the streamline above a datum, p pressure,
fluid specific weight, (p/) pressure head, V
2
/2g velocity head, and g accelera-
tion of gravity. H defines the elevation of the energy grade line, and the sum [z (p/)]
defines the elevation of the hydraulic grade line. In most uniform and gradually varied
flows, the pressure distribution is hydrostatic (divergence and curvature of the streamlines
is negligible) and the sum [z + (p/)] is constant and equal to the depth of flow y if the
datum is taken at the bottom of the channel. The specific energy of an open-channel flow
relative to the channel bottom is
E y
2
V
g
2
y

2
Q
gA
2
2

(3.6)
3.4 Chapter Three
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
where the average velocity of flow is given by
V

Q
A

(3.7)
where Q flow rate and A flow area.
The assumption inherent in Eq. (3.6) is that the slope of the channel is small, or cos()
1. If 10 or S
o
0.18, where S
o
is the longitudinal slope of the channel, Eq. (3.6)
is valid. If is not small, then the pressure distribution is not hydrostatic since the verti-
cal depth of flow is different from the depth measured perpendicular to the bed of the
channel.
3.2.2 Critical Depth
If y in Eq. (3.6) is plotted as a function of E for a specified flow rate Q, a curve with two
branches results. One branch represents negative values of both E and y and has no phys-
ical meaning; but the other branch has meaning (Fig. 3.1). With regard to Fig. 3.1, the fol-
lowing observations are pertinent: 1) the portion designated AB approaches the line y E
asymptotically, 2) the portion AC approaches the E axis asymptotically, 3) the curve has
a minimum at point A, and 4) there are two possible depths of flowthe alternate
depthsfor all points on the E axis to the right of point A. The location of point A, the
minimum depth of flow for a specified flow rate, can be found by taking the first deriva-
tive of Eq. (3.6) and setting the result equal to zero, or

d
d
E
y
1
g
Q
A
2
3

d
d
A
y
0 (3.8)
It can be shown that dA (T dy) or (dA/dy T) (French, 1985). Substituting this
result, using the definition of hydraulic depth and rearranging, Eq. (3.8) becomes
Hydraulics of OpenChannel Flow 3.5
FIGURE 3.1 Specific energy and momentum as a function of depth when the channel geome-
try and flow rate are specified.
y
y
c
Specific Momentum
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
1
g
Q
A
2
3

d
d
A
y
1
g
Q
A
2
2

A
T
1
g
V
D
2
0
or

2
V
g
2

D
2
(3.9)
and

V
gD
Fr 1 (3.10)
which is the definition of critical flow. Therefore, minimum specific energy occurs at the
critical hydraulic depth and is the minimum energy required to pass the flow Q. With this
information, the portion of the curve AC in Fig. 3.1 is interpreted as representing super-
critical flows, where as AB represents subcritical flows.
With regard to Fig. 3.1 and Eq. (3.6), the following observations are pertinent. First,
for channels with a steep slope and 1, it can be shown that
Fr (3.11)
Second, E y curves for flow rates greater than Q lie to the right of the plotted curve,
and curves for flow rates less than Q lie to the left of the plotted curve. Third, in a rec-
tangular channel of width b, y D and the flow per unit width is given by
q

Q
b

(3.12)
and
V

q
y

(3.13)
Then, where the subscript c indicates variable values at the critical point,
y
c

q
g
2

1/3
(3.14)

V
2g
c
2

y
2
c

(3.15)
and
y
c

2
3

E
c
(3.16)
In nonrectangular channels when the dimensions of the channel and flow rate are spec-
ified, critical depth is calculated either by the trial and error solution of Eqs. (3.8), (3.9),
and (3.10) or by use of the semiempirical equations in Table 3.3.
3.2.3 Variation of Depth with Distance
At any cross section, the total energy is
H

2
V
g
2

y z (3.17)
V

s(

3.6 Chapter Three


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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
Hydraulics of OpenChannel Flow 3.7
TABLE 3.3 Semiempirical Equations for the Estimation of y
c
Channel Definition Equation for y
c
(1) in terms of
Q
2
/g
(2)
Rectangle
Figure T3.1-1

,
0.33
TrapezoidFig
ure T-3.1-2 0.81

z
0.75

b
1.25

,
0.27

3
b
0z

TriangleFigure T3.1-4

2
z

,
0.20
CircleFigure T3.1-6

d
1
o
.0
0.2
1
6

,

0.25
where y depth of flow, z elevation of the channel bottom above a datum, and it is
assumed that and cos() are both equal to 1. Differentiating Eq. (3.17) with respect to lon-
gitudinal distance,

d
d
H
x

d
d
y
x

d
d
x
z

(3.18)
where
d
d
H
x
the change of energy with longitudinal distance (S
f
),
d
d
x
z
the channel bot-
tom slope (S
o
), and, for a specified flow rate,

g
Q
A
2
3

d
d
A
y

d
d
y
x

Q
gA
2
T
3

d
d
y
x

(Fr)
2

d
d
y
x

Substituting these results in Eq. (3.18) and rearranging,

d
d
y
x

1
S
o

F
S
r
2
f

(3.19)
which describes the variation of the depth of flow with longitudinal distance in a channel
of arbitrary shape.
d

2
V
g
2

dx
d

2
V
g
2

dx
Source: From Straub (1982).
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
3.2.4 Compound Section Channels
In channels of compound section (Fig. 3.2), the specific energy correction factor is not
equal to 1 and can be estimated by
(3.20)
where K
i
and A
i
as follows the conveyance and area of the ith channel subsection, respec-
tively, K and A are conveyance are as follows:
K

N
i 1
K
i
and
A

N
i 1
A
i
N number of subsections, and conveyance (K) is defined by Eq. (3.48) in Sec. 3.4.
Equation (3.20) is based on two assumptions: (1) the channel can be divided into subsec-
tions by appropriately placed vertical lines (Fig. 3.2) that are lines of zero shear and do
not contribute to the wetted perimeter of the subsection, and (2) the contribution of the
nonuniformity of the velocity within each subsection is negligible in comparison with the
variation in the average velocity among the subsections.
3.3 MOMENTUM
3.3.1 Definition of Specific Momentum
The one-dimensional momentum equation in an open channel of arbitrary shape and a
control volume located between Sections 1 and 2 is

N
i 1

K
A
3
2
i
i

K
A
2
3

3.8 Chapter Three


FIGURE 3.2 Channel with a compound section.
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
z
1
A
1
z
2
A
2
P
f

Q (V
2
V
1
) (3.21)
where specific weight of water, A
i
flow area at sections 1 and 2; V
i
average veloc-
ity of flow at sections 1 and 2, P
f
horizontal component of unknown force acting
between Sections 1 and 2 and z
w
i distances to the centroids of the flow areas 1 and 2 from
the free surface. Substitution of the flow rate divided by the area for the velocities and
rearrangement of Eq. (3.21) yields

g
Q
A
2
1
z
1
A
1

g
Q
A
2
2
z
2
A
2
or

M
1
M
2
(3.22)
where
M
i

g
Q
A
2
i

z
i
A
i
(3.23)
and M is known as the specific momentum or force function. In Fig. 3.1, specific momen-
tum is plotted with specific energy for a specified flow rate and channel section as a func-
tion of the depth of flow. Note that the point of minimum specific momentum corresponds
to the critical depth of the flow.
The classic application of Eq. (3.22) occurs when P
f
0 and the application of the result-
ing equation to the estimation of the sequent depths of a hydraulic jump. Hydraulic jumps
result when there is a conflict between the upstream and downstream controls that influence
the same reach of channel. For example, if the upstream control causes supercritical flow
while the downstream control dictates subcritical flow, there is a contradiction that can be
resolved only if there is some means to pass the flow from one flow regime to the other. When
hydraulic structures, such as weirs, chute blocks, dentated or solid sills, baffle piers, and the
like, are used to force or control a hydraulic jump, P
f
in Eq. (3.22) is not equal to zero. Finally,
the hydraulic jump occurs at the point where Eq. (3.22) is satisfied (French, 1985).
3.3.2 Hydraulic Jumps in Rectangular Channels
In the case of a rectangular channel of width b and P
f
0, it can be shown (French,
1985) that

y
y
2
1

0.5 [ 1 8 (F r
1
)
2
1] (3.24)
or

y
y
1
2

0.5 [1 8 (F r
2
)
2
1] (3.25)

y
y
1
2

2(Fr
2
)
2
4(Fr
2
)
4
16(Fr
2
)
6
...
Equations (3.24) and (3.25) each contain three independent variables, and two must be
known before the third can be found. It must be emphasized that the downstream depth of
flow (y
2
) is not the result of upstream conditions but is the result of a downstream con-
trolthat is, if the downstream control produces the depth y
2
then a hydraulic jump will
form. The second form of Eq. (3.25) should be used when (Fr
2
)
2
0.05 (French, 1985).
Hydraulics of OpenChannel Flow 3.9
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
3.3.3 Hydraulic Jumps in Nonrectangular Channels
In analyzing the occurrence of hydraulic jumps in nonrectangular but prismatic channels, we
see that no equations are analogous to Eqs. (3.24) and (3.25). In such cases, Eq. (3.22) could
be solved by trial and error or by use of semiempirical equations. For example, in circular sec-
tions, Straub (1978) noted that the upstream Froude number (Fr
1
) can be approximated by
Fr
1

y
y
1
c

,
1.93
(3.26)
and the sequent depth can be approximated by
Fr
1
1.7y
2

y
y
1
2
c

(3.27
Fr
1
1.7y
2

y
y
1.
0
8
.
c
73
1

(3.28)
For horizontal triangular and parabolic prismatic channel sections, Silvester (1964,
1965) presented the following equations.
For triangular channels:

y
y
2
1

,
2.5
1 1.5 (Fr
1
)
2

y
y
1
2

,
2
1
1
]
(3.29)
For parabolic channels with the perimeter defined by y aT
2
/2, where a is a
coefficient:

y
y
2
1

,
2.5
1 1.67 (Fr
1
)
2

y
y
1
2

,
1.5
1
1
]
(3.30)
3.10 Chapter Three
FIGURE 3.3 Analytic curves for estimating sequent depths in a trapezoidal channel
(From Silvester, 1964)
yy
21
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
In the case of trapezoidal channels, Silvester (1964) presented a method for graphical
solution in terms of the parameter
k

z
b
y
1

(3.31)
In Fig. 3.3, the ratio of (y
2
/y
1
) is plotted as a function of Fr
1
and k.
3.4 UNIFORM FLOW
3.4.1 Manning and Chezy Equations
For computational purposes, the average velocity of a uniform flow can be estimated by
any one of a number of semiempirical equations that have the general form
V CR
x
S
y
(3.32)
where C a resistance coefficient, R hydraulic radius, S channel longitudinal slope,
and x and y are exponents. At some point in the period 17681775 (Levi, 1995), Antoine
Chezy, designing an improvement for the water system in Paris, France, derived an equa-
tion relating the uniform velocity of flow to the hydraulic radius and the longitudinal slope
of the channel, or
V C R S (3.33)
where C is the Chezy resistance coefficient. It can be easily shown that Eq (3.33) is sim-
ilar in form to the Darcy pipe flow equation. In 1889, Robert Manning, a professor at the
Royal College of Dublin (Levi, 1995) proposed what has become known as Mannings
equation, or
V =

R
2/3
S (3.34)
where n is Mannings resistance coefficient and 1 if SI units are used and 1.49
if English units are used. The relationship among C, n, and the Darcy-Weisbach friction
factor (f) is
C

R
1/6

8
f

(3.35)
At this point, it is pertinent to observe that n is a function of not only boundary rough-
ness and the Reynolds number but also the hydraulic radius, an observation that was made
by Professor Manning (Levi, 1995).
3.4.2 Estimation of Mannings Resistance Coefficient
Of the two equations for estimating the velocity of a uniform flow, Mannings equation is
the more popular one. A number of approaches to estimating the value of n for a channel
are discussed in French (1985) and in other standard references, such as Barnes (1967),
Urquhart (1975), and Arcement and Schneider (1989). Appendix 3.A lists typical values
of n for many types of common channel linings.
Hydraulics of Open-Channel Flow 3.11
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
In an unvegetated alluvial channel, the total roughness consists of two parts: grain or
skin roughness resulting from the size of the sediment particles and form roughness
because of the existence of bed forms. The total coefficient n can be expressed as
n n n (3.36)
where n portion of Mannings coefficient caused by grain roughness and n portion
of Mannings coefficient caused by form roughness. The value of n is proportional to the
diameter of the sediment particles to the sixth power. For example, Lane and Carlson
(1953) from field experiments in canals paved with cobbles with d
75
in inches, developed
n 0.026d
75
1/6
(3.37)
and Meyer-Peter and Muller (1948) for mixtures of bed material with a significant pro-
portion of coarse-grained sizes with d
90
in meters developed
n 0.038d
90
1/6
(3.38)
In both equations, d
xx
is the sediment size such that xx percent of the material is smaller
by weight.
Although there is no reliable method of estimating n, an example of the variation of
f for the 0.19 mm sand data collected by Guy et al. (1966) is shown in Fig. 3.4. The n val-
ues commonly found for different bed forms are summarized in Table 3.4. The inability
to estimate or determine the variation of form roughness poses a major problem in the
study of alluvial hydraulics (Yang, 1996).
Use of Mannings equation to estimate the velocity of flow in channels where the pri-
mary component of resistance is from drag rather than bed roughness has been questioned
(Fischenich, 1996). However, the use of Mannings equation has persisted among engineers
because of its familiarity and the lack of a practical alternative. Jarrett (1984) recognized that
3.12 Chapter Three
FIGURE 3.4 Variation of the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor as a function of unit stream power.
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
guidelines for estimating resistance coefficients for high-gradient streams with stable beds
composed of large cobbles and boulders and minimally vegetated banks (S
o
0.002) were
based on limited data. Jarrett (1984) examined 21 high-gradient streams in the Rocky
Mountains and developed the following empirical equation relating n to S
o
and R (in feet):
n

0.3
R
9
0
S
.1
0
6
0.38

(3.39)
Jarrett (1984) stated the following limitations on the use of Eq. (3.39): First, the equa-
tion is applicable to natural main channels with stable bed and bank materials (gravels,
cobbles, boulders) with no backwater. Second, the equation can be used for 0.002 S
o

0.04 and 0.15 R 2.1 m (0.5 R 7.0 ft). Results of the regression analysis indicat-
ed that for R 2.1 m ( 7.0 ft), n did vary significantly with depth; therefore, as long as
the bed and bank material remain stable, extrapolation to larger flows should not result in
significant error. Third, the hydraulic radius does not include the wetted perimeter of the
bed particles. Fourth, the streams used in the analysis had relatively small amounts of sus-
pended sediment.
Vegetated channels present unique challenges from the viewpoint of estimating rough-
ness. In grass-lined channels, the traditional approach assumed that n was a function of
vegetal retardance and VR (Coyle, 1975). However, there are approaches more firmly
based on the principles of fluid mechanics and the mechanics of materials (Kouwen, 1988;
Kouwen and Li, 1980.) Data also exist that suggest that in such channels flow duration is
not a factor as long as the vegetal elements are not destroyed or removed. Further, inun-
dation times, and/or hydraulic stresses, or both that are sufficient to damage vegetation
have been found, as might be expected, to reduce the resistance to flow (Temple, 1991).
Petryk and Bosmajian (1975) presented a relation for Mannings n in vegetated chan-
nels based on a balance of the drag and gravitational forces, or
n R
2/3

C
d
(
2
V
g
eg)
d

1
1
]
1/2
(3.40)
where C
d
a coefficient accounting for the drag characteristics of the vegetation and (Veg)
d
the vegetation density. Flippin-Dudley (1997) has developed a rapid and objective
procedure using a horizontal point frame to measure (Veg)
d
. Equation (3.40) is limited
because there is limited information regarding C
d
for vegetation (Flippin-Dudley
et al., 1997).
3.4.3 Equivalent Roughness Parameter k
In some cases, an equivalent roughness parameter k is used to estimate n. Equivalent
roughness, sometimes called roughness height, is a measure of the linear dimension
of roughness elements but is not necessarily equal to the actual or even the average height
of these elements. The advantage of using k instead of Mannings n is that k accounts for
changes in the friction factor due to stage, whereas the Mannings n does not. The rela-
tionship between n and k for hydraulically rough channels is
n (3.41)
where 32.6 for English units and 18.0 for SI units.
R
1/6

log
10

12.2

R
k

,
Hydraulics of Open-Channel Flow 3.13
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
With regard to Eq. (3.41), it is pertinent to observe that as R increases (equivalent to
an increase in the depth of flow), n increases. Approximate values of k for selected
materials are summarized in Table 3.4. For sand-bed channels, the following sediment
sizes have been suggested by various investigators for estimating the value of k: k d
65
(Einstein, 1950), k d
90
(Meyer-Peter and Muller, 1948), and k d
85
(Simons and
Richardson, 1966).
3.4.4 Resistance in Compound Channels
In many designed channels and most natural channels, roughness varies along the perime-
ter of the channel, and it is necessary to estimate an equivalent value of n for the entire
perimeter. In such cases, the channel is divided into N parts, each with an associated wet-
ted perimeter (P
i
), hydraulic radius (R
i
), and roughness coefficient (n
i
), and the equivalent
roughness coefficient (n
e
) is estimated by one of the following methods. Note that the wet-
ted perimeter does not include the imaginary boundaries between the subsections.
1. Horton (1933) and Einstein and Banks (1950) developed methods of estimating n
e
assuming that the average velocity in each of the subdivisions is the same as the
average velocity of the total section. Then
n
e


2/3
(3.42)

N
i 1

P
i
n
i
3/2

P
3.14 Chapter Three
TABLE 3.4 Equivalent Roughness Values of Various Bed Materials
Material k k
(ft) (m)
(1) (2) (3)
Brass, copper, lead, glass 0.00010.0030 0.000030480.0009
Wrought iron, steel 0.00020.0080 0.00010.0024
Asphalted cast iron 0.00040.0070 0.00010.0021
Galvanized iron 0.00050.0150 0.00020.0046
Cast iron 0.00080.0180 0.00020.0055
Wood stave 0.00060.0030 0.00020.0009
Cement 0.00130.0040 0.00040.0012
Concrete 0.00150.0100 0.00050.0030
Untreated gunite 0.010.033 0.00300.0101
Drain tile 0.00200.0100 0.00060.0030
Riveted steel 0.00300.0300 0.00090.0091
Rubble masonry 0.02 0.0061
Straight, uniform earth 0.01 0.0030
channels
Natural streambed 0.1000-3.0000 0.0305-0.9144
Sources: From Ackers C (1958), Chow (1959), and Zegzhda (1938).
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
2. Assuming that the total force resisting motion is equal to the sum of the subsection
resisting forces,
n
e


1/2
(3.43)
3. Assuming that the total discharge of the section is equal to the sum of the subsec-
tion discharges,
n
e
(3.44)
4. Weighting of resistance by area (Cox, 1973),
n
e
(3.45)
5. The Colebatch method (Cox, 1973).
n
e


2/3
(3.46)
3.4.5 Solution of Mannings Equation
The uniform flow rate is the product of the velocity of flow and the flow area, or
Q VA

AR
2/3
S (3.47)
In Eq. (3.47), AR
2/3
is termed the section factor and, by definition, the conveyance of the
channel is
K

AR
2/3
(3.48)
Before the advent of computers, the solution of Eq. (3.34) or Eq. (3.47) to estimate the
depth of flow for specified values of V (or Q), n, and S was accomplished in one of two
ways: by trial and error or by the use of a graph of AR
2/3
versus y. In the age of the
desktop computer, software is used to solve the equations of uniform flow. Trial and error
and graphical approaches to the solution of the uniform flow equations can be found in
any standard reference or text (e.g., French, 1985).
3.4.6 Special Cases of Uniform Flow
3.4.6.1 Normal and critical slopes. If Q, n, and y
N
(normal depth of flow) and the chan-
nel section are defined, then Eq. (3.47) can be solved for the slope that allows the flow to
occur as specified; by definition, this is a normal slope. If the slope is varied while the dis-
charge and roughness are held constant, then a value of the slope such that normal flow

N
i1
A
i
n
i
3/2

N
i 1
n
i
A
i

A
PR
5/3

N
i 1

P
i
R
n
i
i
5/3

N
i 1
(P
i
n
i
2
)

P
Hydraulics of Open-Channel Flow 3.15
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
occurs in a critical state can be found: that is, a slope such that normal flow occurs with
Fr 1. The slope obtained is the critical slope, but it also is a normal slope. The smallest
critical slope, for a specified channel shape, roughness, and discharge is termed the limit-
ing critical slope. The critical slope for a given normal depth is
S
c

gn
2
R
2
D
N
4/
N
3

(3.49)
where the subscript N indicates the normal depth value of a variable and, for a wide channel,
S
c

g
2
y
n
c
2
1/3

(3.50)
3.4.6.2 Sheetflow. A special but noteworthy uniform flow condition is that of sheetflow.
From the viewpoint of hydraulic engineering, a necessary condition for sheetflow is that
the flow width must be sufficiently wide so that the hydraulic radius approaches the depth
of flow. With this stipulation, the Mannings equation, Eq. (3.48), for a rectangular chan-
nel becomes
Q

Ty
N
5/3
S (3.51)
where T sheetflow width and y
N
normal depth of flow. Then, for a specified flow rate
and sheetflow width, Eq. (3.51) can be solved for the depth of flow, or
y
N

T
nQ
S

,
3/5
(3.52)
The condition that the value of the hydraulic radius approaches the depth of flow is not
a sufficient condition. That is, this condition specifies no limit on the depth of flow, and
there is general agreement that sheetflow has a shallow depth of flow. Appendix 3.A sum-
marizes Mannings n values for overland and sheetflow.
3.4.6.3 Superelevation. When a body of water moves along a curved path at constant
velocity, it is acted for a force directed toward the center of the curvature of the path.
When the radius of the curve is much larger than the top width of the water surface, it can
be shown that the rise in the water surface at the outer channel boundary above the mean
depth of flow in a straight channel (or superelevation) is
y

V
2g
2
T
r

(3.53)
where r the radius of the curve (Linsley and Franzini, 1979). It is pertinent to note that
if the effects of the velocity distribution and variations in curvature across the channel are
considered, the superelevation may be as much as 20 percent more than that estimated by
Eq. (3.53) (Linsley and Franzini, 1979). Additional information regarding superelevation
is available in Nagami et al., (1982) and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE, 1970).
3.5 GRADUALLY AND SPATIALLY VARIED FLOW
3.5.1 Introduction
The gradual variation in the depth of flow with longitudinal distance in an open channel
is given by Eq. (3.19), or
3.16 Chapter Three
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW

d
d
y
x

1
S
o

F
S
r
f
2

and two cases warrant discussion. In the first case, because the distance over which the
change in depth is short it is appropriate to assume that boundary friction losses are small,
or S
f
0. When this is the case, important design questions involve abrupt steps in the
bottom of the channel (Fig. 3.5) and rapid expansions or contractions of the channel
(Fig. 3.6). The second case occurs when S
f
0.
3.5.2 Gradually Varied Flow with S
f
0
When S
f
0 and the channel is rectangular in shape and has a constant width, Eq. (3.19)
reduces to
(1 Fr
2
)

d
d
y
x

d
d
x
z

0 (3.54)
and the following observations are pertinent (the observations also apply to channels of
arbitrary shape):
1. If dz/dx 0 (upward step) and Fr 1, then dy/dx must be less than zerodepth
of flow decreases as x increases.
2. If dz/dx 0 (upward step) and Fr 1, then dy/dx must be greater than zerodepth
of flow increases as x increases.
Hydraulics of Open-Channel Flow 3.17
FIGURE 3.5 Definition of variables for gradually varied flow over positive and nega-
tive steps.
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
3. If dz/dx 0 (downward step) and Fr 1, then dy/dx must be greater than zero
depth of flow increases as x increases.
4. If dz/dx 0 (downward step) and Fr 1, then dy/dx must be less than zerodepth
of flow decreases as x increases.
In the case of a channel of constant width with a positive or negative step, the relation
between the specific energy upstream of the step and the specific energy downstream of
the step is
E
1
= E
2
+ z (3.55)
In the case dz/dx 0, if the channel is rectangular in shape but the width of the chan-
nel changes, it can be shown (French, 1985) that the governing equation is
(1 Fr
2
)

d
d
y
x

Fr
2

b
y

d
d
T
x

0 (3.56)
The following observations also apply to channels of arbitrary shape:
1. If db/dx 0 (width increases) and Fr 1, then dy/dx must be greater than
zerodepth of flow increases as x increases.
2. If db/dx 0 (width increases) and Fr 1, then dy/dx must be less than zerodepth
of flow decreases as x increases.
3.18 Chapter Three
FIGURE 3.6 Definition of variables for gradually varied flow through contracting
and expanding channel sections.
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
3. If db/dx 0 (width decreases) and Fr 1, then dy/dx must be less than zero
depth of flow decreases as x increases.
4. If db/dx 0 (width decreases) and Fr 1, then dy/dx must be greater than zero
depth of flow increases as x increases.
In this case, the relation between the specific energy upstream of the contraction
(expansion) and the specific energy downstream of the step contraction (expansion) is
E
1
E
2
(3.57)
It is pertinent to note that in the case of supercritical flow, channel expansions and con-
tractions may result in the formation of waves.
Additional information regarding steps, expansions, and contractions can be found in any
standard reference or text on open-channel hydraulics (e.g., French, 1985).
3.5.3 Gradually Varied Flow with S
f
0
In the case where S
f
cannot be neglected, the water surface profile must estimated. For a
channel of arbitrary shape, Eq. (3.19) becomes

d
d
y
x

S
o
(3.60)
For a specified value of Q, Fr and S
f
are functions of the depth of flow y. For illustra-
tive purposes, assume a wide channel; in such a channel, Fr and S
f
will vary in much the
same way with y since P T and both S
f
and Fr have a strong inverse dependence on the
flow area. In addition, as y increases, both S
f
and Fr decrease. By definition, S
f
S
o
when
y y
N
. Given the foregoing, the following set of inequalities must apply:
S
f
S
o
for y y
N
Fr 1 for y y
c
S
f
S
o
for y y
N
and
Fr 1 for y y
c
These inequalities divide the channel into three zones in the vertical dimension. By con-
vention, these zones are labeled 1 to 3 starting at the top. Gradually varied flow profiles
are labeled according to the scheme defined in Table 3.5.
For a channel of arbitrary shape, the standard step methodology of calculating the grad-
ually varied flow profile is commonly used: for example, HEC-2 (USACE, 1990) or HEC-
RAS (USACE, 1997). The use of this methodology is subject to the following assump-
tions: (1) steady flow, (2) gradually varied flow, (3) one-dimensional flow with correction
for the horizontal velocity distribution, (4) small channel slope, (5) friction slope (aver-
aged) constant between two adjacent cross sections, and (6) rigid boundary conditions.
The application of the energy equation between the two stations shown in Fig. 3.7 yields
n
2
Q
2
P
4/3

Q
gA
2
T
3

S
o
S
f

Q
gA
2
T
3

Hydraulics of Open-Channel Flow 3.19


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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
T
A
B
L
E

3
.
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i
c
a
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o
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o
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r
a
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a
l
l
y

V
a
r
i
e
d

F
l
o
w

P
r
o
f
i
l
e
s
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r
o
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i
l
e

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e
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i
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n
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Z
o
n
e
Z
o
n
e
R
e
l
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

y
T
y
p
e
T
y
p
e
S
l
o
p
e
1
2
3
t
o

y
N
a
n
d
o
f
o
f
y
c
C
u
r
v
e
F
l
o
w
(
1
)
(
2
)
(
3
)
(
4
)
(
5
)
(
6
)
(
7
)
M
i
l
d
M
1
y

y
N

y
c
B
a
c
k
w
a
t
e
r
S
u
b
c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
0

S
o

S
c
(
d
y
/
d
x

0
)
M
2
y
N

y
c
D
r
a
w
d
o
w
n
S
u
b
c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
(
d
y
/
d
x
<

0
)
M
3
y
N

y
c

y
B
a
c
k
w
a
t
e
r
S
u
p
e
r
c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
(
d
y
/
d
x

0
)
C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
C
1
y

y
c

y
N
B
a
c
k
w
a
t
e
r
S
u
b
c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
S
o

S
c

0
(
d
y
/
d
x

0
)
C
2
y

y
N

y
c
P
a
r
a
l
l
e
l

t
o

U
n
i
f
o
r
m

c
h
a
n
n
e
l

b
o
t
t
o
m
c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
(
d
y
/
d
x

0
)
C
3
y
c

y
N

y
B
a
c
k
w
a
t
e
r
S
u
p
e
r
c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
(
d
y
/
d
x

0
)
S
t
e
e
p
S
1
y

y
c

y
N
B
a
c
k
w
a
t
e
r
S
u
b
c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
S
o

S
c

0
(
d
y
/
d
x

0
)
S
2
y
c

y
N
D
r
a
w
d
o
w
n
S
u
p
e
r
c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
(
d
y
/
d
x

0
)
3.20
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
T
A
B
L
E

3
.
5
:
(
C
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
)
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Z
o
n
e
Z
o
n
e
Z
o
n
e
R
e
l
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

y
T
y
p
e
T
y
p
e
S
l
o
p
e
1
2
3
t
o

y
N
a
n
d
o
f
o
f
y
c
C
u
r
v
e
F
l
o
w
(
1
)
(
2
)
(
3
)
(
4
)
(
5
)
(
6
)
(
7
)
S
3
y
c

y
N

y
B
a
c
k
w
a
t
e
r
S
u
p
e
r
c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
(
d
y
/
d
x

0
)
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
N
o
n
e
S
o

0
H
2
y
N

y
c
D
r
a
w
d
o
w
n
S
u
b
c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
(
d
y
/
d
x

0
)
H
3
y
N

y
c

y
B
a
c
k
w
a
t
e
r
S
u
p
e
r
c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
(
d
y
/
d
x

0
)
A
d
v
e
r
s
e
N
o
n
e
S
o

0
A
2
y
N

y
c
D
r
a
w
d
o
w
n
S
u
b
c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
(
d
y
/
d
x

0
)
A
3
y
N

y
c

y
B
a
c
k
w
a
t
e
r
S
u
p
e
r
c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
(
d
y
/
d
x

0
)
3.21
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
z
1

1

2
V
g
1
2

z
2

2

2
V
g
2
2

h
f
+ h
e
(3.61)
where z
1
and z
2
elevation of the water surface above a datum at Stations 1 and 2, respec-
tively, h
e
eddy and other losses incurred in the reach, and h
f
reach friction loss.
The friction loss can be obtained by multiplying a representative friction slope, S
f
, by
the length of the reach, L. Four equations can be used to approximate the friction loss
between two cross sections:
S
f

Q
K
1
1

Q
K
2
2

_

,
2
(average conveyance) (3.62)
S
f

S
f1

2
S
f2

(average friction slope) (3.63)


S
f

S
2
f1
S

f1
S
S
f
f
2
2

(harmonic mean friction slope) (3.64)


and
S
f
S
f1
S
f2
(geometric mean friction slope) (3.65)
The selection of a method to estimate the friction slope in a reach is an important deci-
sion and has been discussed in the literature. Laurenson (1986) suggested that the true
friction slope for an irregular cross section can be approximated by a third-degree poly-
3.22 Chapter Three
FIGURE 3.7 Energy relationship between two channel sections.

2

2
V
g
2
2

2
V
g
1
2

y
1
y
2
z
2
z
1
h
f
x
W
a
t
e
r

S
u
r
f
a
c
e

(
S
w)
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

B
o
t
t
o
m

(
S
o
)
xL
E
n
e
r
g
y

G
r
a
d
e

L
i
n
e

(
S
f
)
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
nomial. He concluded that the average friction slope method produces the smallest maxi-
mum error, but not always the smallest error, and recommended its general use along with
the systematic location of cross sections. Another investigation based on the analysis of
98 sets of natural channel data showed that there could be significant differences in the
results when different methods of estimating the friction slope were used (USACE, 1986).
This study also showed that spacing cross sections 150m (500 ft) a part eliminated the dif-
ferences.
The eddy loss takes into account cross section contractions and expansions by multi-
plying the absolute difference in velocity heads between the two sections by a contraction
or expansion coefficient, or
h
e
C
x

1

2
V
g
2
2


2

2
V
g
2
2

(3.66)
There is little generalized information regarding the value of the expansion (C
e
) or the
contraction coefficient (C
c
). When the change in the channel cross section is small, the
coefficients C
e
and C
c
are typically on the order of 0.3 and 0.1, respectively (USACE,
1990). However, when the change in the channel cross section is abrupt, such as at
bridges, C
e
and C
c
may be as high as 1.0 and 0.6, respectively (USACE, 1990).
With these comments in mind,
H
1
z
1

1

2
V
g
1
2

(3.67)
and
H
2
z
2

2

2
V
g
2
2

(3.68)
With these definitions, Eq. (3.61) becomes
H
1
H
2
h
f
h
e
(3.69)
Eq. (3.69) is solved by trial and error: that is, assuming H
2
is known and given a lon-
gitudinal distance, a water surface elevation at Station 1 is assumed, which allows the
computation of H
1
by Eq. (3.67). Then, h
f
and h
e
are computed and H
1
is estimated by
Eq. (3.67). If the two values of H
1
agree, then the assumed water surface elevation at
Station 1 is correct.
Gradually varied water surface profiles are often used in conjunction with the peak
flood flows to delineate areas of inundation. The underlying assumption of using a steady
flow approach in an unsteady situation is that flood waves rise and fall gradually. This
assumption is of course not valid in areas subject to flash flooding such as the arid and
semiarid Southwestern United States (French, 1987).
In summary, the following principles regarding gradually varied flow profiles can be
stated:
1. The sign of dy/dx can be determined from Table 3.6.
2. When the water surface profile approaches normal depth, it does so asymptotically.
3. When the water surface profile approaches critical depth, it crosses this depth at a
large but finite angle.
4. If the flow is subcritical upstream but passes through critical depth, then the feature
that produces critical depth determines and locates the complete water surface pro-
file. If the upstream flow is supercritical, then the control cannot come from the
downstream.
Hydraulics of Open-Channel Flow 3.23
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
5. Every gradually varied flow profile exemplifies the principle that subcritical flows
are controlled from the downstream while supercritical flows are controlled from
upstream. Gradually varied flow profiles would not exist if it were not for the
upstream and downstream controls.
6. In channels with horizontal and adverse slopes, the term normal depth of flow
has no meaning because the normal depth of flow is either negative or imaginary.
However, in these cases, the numerator of Eq. (3.60) is negative and the shape of
the profile can be deduced.
Any method of solving a gradually varied flow situation requires that cross sections be
defined. Hoggan (1989) provided the following guidelines regarding the location of cross
sections:
1. They are needed where there is a significant change in flow area, roughness, or lon-
gitudinal slope.
2. They should be located normal to the flow.
3. They should be located in detailupstream, within the structure, and downstream-
at structures such as bridges and culverts. They are needed at all control structures.
4. They are needed at the beginning and end of reaches with levees.
5. They should be located immediately below a confluence on a main stem and imme-
diately above the confluence on a tributary.
6. More cross sections are needed to define energy losses in urban areas, channels
with steep slopes, and small streams than needed in other situations.
7. In the case of HEC-2, reach lengths should be limited to a maximum distance of
0.5 mi for wide floodplains and for slopes less than 38,550 m (1800 ft) for slopes
equal to or less than 0.00057, and 370 m (1200 ft) for slopes greater than 0.00057
(Beaseley, 1973).
3.6 GRADUALLY AND RAPIDLY VARIED UNSTEADY FLOW
3.6.1 Gradually Varied Unsteady Flow
Many important open-channel flow phenomena involve flows that are unsteady.
Although a limited number of gradually varied unsteady flow problems can be solved
analytically, most problems in this category require a numerical solution of the govern-
ing equations. Examples of gradually varied unsteady flows include flood waves, tidal
flows, and waves generated by the slow operation of control structures, such as sluice
gates and navigational locks.
The mathematical models available to treat gradually varied unsteady flow problems
are generally divided into two categories: models that solve the complete Saint Venant
equations and models that solve various approximations of the Saint Venant equations.
Among the simplified models of unsteady flow are the kinematic wave, and the diffusion
analogy. The complete solution of the Saint Venant equations requires that the equations
be solved by either finite difference or finite element approximations.
The one dimensional Saint Venant equations consist of the equation of continuity

y
t

v
x

y
x

0 (3.70a)
3.24 Chapter Three
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
Hydraulics of Open-Channel Flow 3.25
and the conservation of momentum equation

v
t

v
x

y
x

g(S
o
S
f
) 0 (3.71a)
An alternate form of the continuity and momentum equations is
T

y
t

A
x
u)

0 (3.70b)
and

1
g

v
t

g
v

v
x

y
x

S
f
S
o
0 (3.71b)
By rearranging terms, Eq. (3.71b) can be written to indicate the significance of each
term for a particular type of flow, or
S
f
S
o
]
steady

y
x


g
v

v
x

]
steady, nonuniform


1
g

v
t

]
unsteady, nonuniform
(3.72)
Equations (3.70) and (3.71) compose a group of gradually varied unsteady flow mod-
els that are termed complete dynamic models. Being complete, this group of models can
provide accurate results; however, in many applications, simplifying assumptions regard-
ing the relative importance of various terms in the conservation of momentum equation
(Eq. 3.71) leads to other equations, such the kinematic and diffusive wave models (Ponce,
1989).
The governing equation for the kinematic wave model is

Q
t

(V)

Q
x

0 (3.73)
where a coefficient whose value depends on the frictional resistance equation used (
= 5/3 when Mannings equation is used). The kinematic wave model is based on the equa-
tion of continuity and results in a wave being translated downstream. The kinematic wave
approximation is valid when

t
R
S
y
o
V

85 (3.74)
where t
R
time of rise of the inflow hydrograph (Ponce, 1989).
The governing equation for the diffusive wave model is

Q
t

( V )

Q
x

2T
Q
S
o

2
x
Q
2

(3.75)
where the left side of the equation is the kinematic wave model and the right side accounts
for the physical diffusion in a natural channel. The diffusion wave approximation is valid
when (Ponce, 1989),
t
R
S
o


g
y

,
0.5
15 (3.76)
If the foregoing dimensionless inequalities ( Eq. 3.74 and 3.76) are not satisfied, then the
complete dynamic wave model must be used. A number of numerical methods can be used
to solve these equations (Chaudhry, 1987; French; 1985, Henderson, 1966; Ponce, 1989).
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
3.6.2 Rapidly Varied Unsteady Flow
The terminology rapidly varied unsteady flow refers to flows in which the curvature of the
wave profile is large, the change of the depth of flow with time is rapid, the vertical accel-
eration of the water particles is significant relative to the total acceleration, and the effect of
boundary friction can be ignored. Examples of rapidly varied unsteady flow include the cat-
astrophic failure of dams, tidal bores, and surges that result from the quick operation of con-
trol structures such as sluice gates. A surge producing an increase in depth is termed a pos-
itive surge, and one that causes a decrease in depth is termed a negative surge. Furthermore,
surges can go either upstream or downstream, thus giving rise to four basic types (Fig. 3.8).
Positive surges generally have steep fronts, often with rollers, and are stable. In contrast,
negative surges are unstable, and their form changes with the advance of the wave.
Consider the case of a positive surge (or wave) traveling at a constant velocity (wave
celerity) c up a horizontal channel of arbitrary shape (Fig. 3.8b). Such a situation can
result from the rapid closure of a downstream sluice gate. This unsteady situation is con-
verted to a steady situation by applying a velocity c to all sections; that is, the coordinate
system is moving at the velocity of the wave. Applying the continuity equation between
Sections 1 and 2
(V
1
c)A
1
(V
2
c)A
2
(3.77)
Since there are unknown losses associated with the wave, the momentum equation
rather than the energy equation is applied between Sections 1 and 2 or
A
1
z
1
A
2
z
2

y
1
(V
1
c)(V
2
c V
1
c) (3.78)
3.26 Chapter Three
FIGURE 3.8 Definition of variables for simple surges moving in
an open channel.
y
1
y
1
y
2
y
2
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
Hydraulics of Open-Channel Flow 3.27
FIGURE 3.8 Definition of variables for simple surges mov-
ing in an open channel.
where boundary friction has been ignored. Eliminating V
2
in Eq. (3.78) by manipulation
of Eq. (3.77) yields
V
1
c

1
1
]
0.5
(3.79)
In the case of a rectangular channel, Eq. (3.79) reduces to
V
1
c g y
1


2
y
y
2
1

y
y
2
1

,
1
1
]
0.5
(3.80)
When the slope of a channel becomes very steep, the resulting supercritical flow at
normal depth may develop into a series of shallow water waves known as roll waves. As
these waves progress downstream, they eventually break and form hydraulic bores or
shock waves. When this type of flow occurs, the increased depth of flow requires
increased freeboard, and the concentrated mass of the wavefronts may require additional
structural factors of safety.
Escoffier (1950) and Escoffier and Boyd (1962) considered the theoretical conditions
under which a uniform flow must be considered unstable. Whether roll waves form or not
is a function of the Vedernikov number (Ve), the Montuori number (Mo), and the concen-
tration of sediment in the flow. When the Manning equation is used, the Ve is
Ve

2
3

Fr (3.81a)
g


A
A
2
1

,
(A
1
z
1
A
2
z
2
)

A
1
A
2
y
1
y
1
y
2
y
2
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
and if the Chezy equation is used
Ve

1
2

Fr (3.81b)
Fr should be computed using Eq. (3.11) and a channel shape factor (Table 3.6) or
1 R

d
d
P
A

(3.82)
When Mo 1, flow instabilities should expected. The Montuori number is given by
Mo

g
V
S
f
2
L

(3.83)
It is appropriate to note that in some publications (e.g., Aisenbrey et al., 1978) Mo is
the inverse of Eq. (3.83). Figure 3.9 provides a basis for deciding whether roll waves will
form in a given situation. In the figure, data from Niepelt and Locher (1989) for a slurry
flow are also plotted. The Niepelt and Locher data suggest that flow stability also is a
function of the concentration of sediment.
3.7 CONCLUSION
The foregoing sections provide the basic principles on which the following chapters on
design are based. Two observations are pertinent. First, open-channel hydraulics is incre-
mentally progressing. That is, over the past several decades, there have been incremental
advances that primarily have added details, often important details, but no major new
advances. Second, open-channel hydraulics remains a one-dimensional analytic approach.
However, the assumption of a one-dimensional approach may not be valid in many situa-
tions: for example, nonprismatic channels, flow downstream of a partially breached dam,
or lateral flow over a spillway. In some of these cases, the one-dimensional approach may
provide an approximation that is suitable for design. In other cases, however, a two or
three dimensional approach should be used. Additional information regarding two and
three dimensional approaches can be found in Chaudhry (1993).
3.28 Chapter Three
TABLE 3.6 Shape Factor for Common Channel Sections
Channel Definition
(1) (2)

b
b
2y

Trapezoid
1
1

s
c
i
o
n
s
(
(
)
)]

R( 1 z
1
2
1 z
2
2
)

T
b
y
Trapezoid
with
unequal side
slopes
Circle
Rectangle
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
Hydraulics of Open-Channel Flow 3.29
F
I
G
U
R
E

3
.
9
F
l
o
w

s
t
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

a
s

a

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n

o
f

t
h
e

V
e
d
e
r
n
i
k
o
v

a
n
d

M
o
n
t
u
o
r
i

n
u
m
b
e
r
s

f
o
r

c
l
e
a
r

w
a
t
e
r

a
n
d

s
l
u
r
r
y

f
l
o
w
.

(
B
a
s
e
d

o
n

d
a
t
a

f
r
o
m

M
o
n
t
u
o
r
i
,
1
9
6
3
;
N
i
e
p
e
l
t

a
n
d

L
o
c
h
e
r
,
1
9
8
9
g
V S
f2
L

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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
REFERENCES
Ackers, P., Resistance to Fluids flowing in Channels and Pipes, Hydraulic Research Paper No. 1,
Her Majetys Stationery Office, London, 1958.
Aisenbrey, A. J., Jr., R. B., Hayes, H. J., Warren, D. L., Winsett, and R. B. Young, Design of Small
Canal Structures, U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, DC 1978.
Arcement, G. J., and V. R. Schneider, Guide for Selecting Mannings Roughness Coefficients for
Natural Channels and Flood Plains, Water Supply Paper 2339, U.S. Geological Survey,
Washington, DC, 1989.
Barnes, H. H., Roughness Characteristics of Natural Channels, U.S. Geological Survey Water
Supply Paper No. 1849, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, DC. 1967.
Beasley, J. G., An Investigation of the Data Requirements of Ohio for the HEC-2 Water Surface
Profiles Model, Masters thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1973.
Chaudhry, M. H., Open-Channel Flow, Prentice-Hall, New York 1993.
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Chow, V. T., Open-Channel Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959.
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Coyle, J. J. Grassed Waterways and Outlets, Engineering Field Manual, U.S. Soil Conservation
Service, Washington, DC, April, 1975, pp. 7-17-43.
Einstein, H. A., The Bed Load Function for Sediment Transport in Open Channel Flows.
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Einstein, H. A., and R. B. Banks, Fluid Resistance of Composite Roughness, Transactions of the
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Escoffier, F. F., A Graphical Method for Investigating the Stability of Flow in Open Channels
or in Closed Conduits Flowing Full, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 31(4),
1950.
Escoffier, F. F., and M. B. Boyd, Stability Aspects of Flow in Open Channels, Journal of the
Hydraulics Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 88(HY6): 145166, 1962.
Fischenich, J. C., Hydraulic Impacts of Riparian Vegetation: Computation of Resistance, EIRP
Technical Report EL-96-XX, U.S. Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg,
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3.30 Chapter Three
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
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Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 106(HY6): 10851103, 1980.
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1979.
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Hydraulics of Open-Channel Flow 3.31
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
U.S Army Corps Engineers, Accuracy of Computed Water Surface Profiles, U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center, Davis, CA, 1986.
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3.32 Chapter Three
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
Values of the Roughness Coefficient n
*
Type of Channel Minimum Normal Maximum
A Closed Conduits flowing partly full
A1 Metal
a. Brass, smooth 0.009 0.010 0.013
b. Steel
1. Lockbar and welded 0.010 0.012 0.014
2. Riveted and spiral 0.013 0.016 0.017
c. Cast iron
1. Coated 0.010 0.013 0.014
2. Uncoated 0.011 0.014 0.016
d. Wrought iron
1. Black 0.012 0.014 0.015
2. Galvanized 0.013 0.016 0.017
e. Corrugated metal
1. Subdrain 0.017 0.019 0.030
2. Storm drain 0.021 0.024 0.030
A2 Non-metal
a. Lucite 0.008 0.009 0.010
b. Glass 0.009 0.010 0.013
c. Cement
1. Neat, surface 0.010 0.011 0.013
2. Mortar 0.011 0.013 0.015
d. Concrete
1.Culvert, straight
and free of debris 0.010 0.011 0.013
2. Culvert, with bends, connections,
and some debris 0.011 0.013 0.014
3. Finished 0.011 0.012 0.014
4. Sewer and manholes, inlet, etc,
straight 0.013 0.015 0.017
5. Unfinished, steel form 0.012 0.013 0.014
6. Unfinished, smooth wood form 0.012 0.014 0.016
7. Unfinished, rough wood
form 0.015 0.017 0.020
e. Wood
1. Stave 0.010 0.012 0.014
2. Laminated, treated 0.015 0.017 0.020
Hydraulics of Open-Channel Flow 3.33
APPENDIX 3.A
VALUES OF THE
ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENT n
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
Type of Channel Minimum Normal Maximum
f. Clay
1. Common drainage tile 0.011 0.013 0.017
2. Vitrified sewer 0.011 0.014 0.017
3. Vitrified sewer with
manholes, inlet, etc. 0.013 0.015 0.017
4. Vitrified subdrain with
open joint 0.014 0.016 0.018
g. Brickwork
1. Glazed 0.011 0.013 0.015
2. Lined with cement mortar 0.012 0.015 0.017
h. Sanitary sewers coated with
sewage slimes with bends and
connections 0.012 0.013 0.016
i. Paved invert, sewer, smooth
bottom 0.016 0.019 0.020
j. Rubble masonry, cemented 0.018 0.025 0.030
k.Polyethylene pipe 0.009
l. Polyvinyl chloride 0.010
B. Lined or Builtup Channels
B1 Metal
a. Smooth steel surface
1. Unpainted 0.011 0.012 0.014
2. Painted 0.012 0.013 0.017
b. Corrugated 0.021 0.025 0.030
B2 Nonmetal
a. Cement
1. Neat, surface 0.010 0.011 0.013
2. Mortar 0.011 0.013 0.015
b. Wood
1. Planed, untreated 0.010 0.012 0.014
2. Planed, creosoted 0.011 0.012 0.014
3. Unplaned 0.011 0.013 0.015
4. Plank with battens 0.012 0.015 0.018
5. Lined with roofing paper 0.010 0.014 0.017
c. Concrete
1. Trowel finish 0.011 0.013 0.015
2. Float finish 0.013 0.015 0.016
3. Finished, with gravel
on bottom 0.015 0.017 0.020
4. Unfinished 0.014 0.017 0.020
5. Gunite, good section 0.016 0.019 0.023
6. Gunite, wavy section 0.018 0.022 0.025
7. On good excavated rock 0.017 0.020
8. On irregular excavated rock 0.022 0.027
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
Type of Channel Minimum Normal Maximum
d. Concrete bottom float with
sides of
1. Dressed stone in mortar 0.015 0.017 0.020
2. Random stone in mortar 0.017 0.020 0.024
3. Cement, rubble masonry,
plastered 0.016 0.020 0.024
4. Cement rubble masonry 0.020 0.025 0.030
5. Dry rubble or riprap 0.020 0.030 0.035
e. Gravel bottom with sides of
1. Formed concrete 0.017 0.020 0.025
2. Random stone in mortar 0.020 0.023 0.026
3. Dry rubble or riprap 0.023 0.033 0.036
f. Brick
1. Glazed 0.011 0.013 0.015
2. In cement mortar 0.012 0.015 0.018
g. Masonry
1. Cemented rubble 0.017 0.025 0.030
2. Dry rubble 0.023 0.032 0.035
h. Dressed ashlar 0.013 0.015 0.017
i. Asphalt
1. Smooth 0.013 0.013
2. Rough 0.016 0.016
J. Vegetal cover 0.030 0.500
C1 Excavated or Dredged
C.1 General
a. Earth, straight and uniform
1. Clean and recently completed 0.016 0.018 0.020
2. Clean, after weathering 0.018 0.022 0.025
3. Gravel, uniform section, clean 0.022 0.025 0.030
4. With short grass, few weeds 0.022 0.027 0.033
b. Earth, winding and sluggish
1. No vegetation 0.023 0.025 0.030
2. Grass, some weeds 0.025 0.030 0.033
3. Dense weeds or aquatic plants
in deep channels 0.030 0.035 0.040
4. Earth bottom and rubble
sides 0.028 0.030 0.035
5. Stony bottom and weedy
banks 0.025 0.035 0.040
6. Cobble bottom and clean
sides 0.030 0.040 0.050
c. Dragline-excavated or dredged
1. No vegetation 0.025 0.028 0.033
2. Light brush on banks 0.035 0.050 0.060
Hydraulics of Open-Channel Flow 3.35
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
Type of Channel Minimum Normal Maximum
d. Rock cuts
1. Smooth and uniform 0.025 0.035 0.040
2. Jagged and irregular 0.035 0.040 0.050
e. Channels not maintained, weeds
and brush uncut
1. Dense weeds, high as
flow depth 0.050 0.080 0.120
2. Clean bottom, brush on sides 0.040 0.050 0.080
3. Same, highest stage of flow 0.045 0.070 0.110
4. Dense brush, high stage 0.080 0.100 0.14
C.2 Channels with maintained vegetation
and velocities of 2 and 6 ft/s
a. Depth of flow up to 0.7 ft
1. Bermuda grass, Kentucky bluegrass,
buffalo grass
Mowed to 2 in 0.07 0.045
Length 4 to 6 in 0.09 0.05
2. Good stand, any grass
Length approx. 12 in 0.18 0.09
Length approx. 24 in 0.30 0.15
3. Fair stand, any grass
Length approx. 12 in 0.014 0.08
Length approx. 24 in 0.25 0.13
b. Depth of flow up to 0.71.5 ft
1. Bermuda grass, Kentucky bluegrass,
buffalo grass
Mowed to 2 in 0.05 0.035
Length 46 in 0.06 0.04
2. Good stand, any grass
Length approx. 12 in 0.12 0.07
3. Length approx. 24 in 0.20 0.10
Fair stand, any grass
Length approx. 12 in 0.10 0.16
Length approx. 24 in 0.17 0.09
D Natural streams
D1 Minor streams (top width at
flood stage < 100 ft)
a. Streams on plain
1. Clean, straight, full stage
no rifts or deep pools 0.025 0.030 0.033
2. Same as above, but with more
stones and weeds 0.030 0.035 0.040
3. Clean, winding, some pools and
shoals 0.033 0.040 0.045
4. Same as above, but with some
weeds and stones 0.035 0.045 0.050
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
Type of Channel Minimum Normal Maximum
5. Same as above, lower stages
more ineffective slopes and
sections 0.040 0.048 0.055
6. Same as no. 4, more stones 0.045 0.050 0.060
7. Sluggish reaches, weedy, deep
pools 0.050 0.070 0.080
8. Very weedy, reaches, deep pools
or floodways with heavy stand of
timber and underbrush 0.075 0.100 0.150
b. Mountain streams, no vegetation in
channel, banks usually steep, trees
and brush along banks submerged
at high stages
1. Bottom: gravels, cobbles and
few boulders 0.030 0.040 0.050
2. Bottom: cobbles with large
boulders 0.040 0.050 0.070
D2 Floodplains
a. Pasture, no brush
1. Short grass 0.025 0.030 0.035
2. High grass 0.030 0.035 0.050
b. Cultivated areas
1. No crop 0.020 0.030 0.040
2. Mature row crops 0.025 0.035 0.045
3. Mature field crops 0.030 0.040 0.050
c. Brush
1. Scattered brush,
heavy weeds 0.035 0.050 0.070
2. Light brush and trees
in winter 0.035 0.050 0.060
3. Light brush and trees
in summer 0.040 0.070 0.110
4. Medium to dense brush
in winter 0.045 0.070 0.110
5. Medium to dense brush in
summer 0.070 0.100 0.160
d. Trees
1. Dense willows, summer,
straight 0.110 0.150 0.200
2. Cleared land with tree stumps,
no sprouts 0.030 0.040 0.050
3. Same as above but with a heavy
growth of sprouts 0.050 0.060 0.080
4. Heavy stand of timber, a few down
trees, little undergrowth, flood stage
below branches 0.080 0.100 0.120
5. Same as above, but with flood stage
reaching branches 0.100 0.120 0.160
Hydraulics of Open-Channel Flow 3.37
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
Type of Channel Minimum Normal Maximum
D3 Major streams (top width at flood stage
> 100 ft); the n value is less that for
minor streams of similar description
because banks offer less effective resistance
a. Regular section with no boulders
or brush 0.025 0.060
b. Irregular and rough section 0.035 0.100
D4 Alluvial sandbed channels (no vegetation
and data is limited to sand channels with
D50 < 1.0 mm
a. Tranquil flow, Fr < 1
1. Plane bed 0.014 0.020
2. Ripples 0.018 0.030
3. Dunes 0.020 0.040
4. Washed out dunes or transition 0.014 0.025
b. Rapid flow, Fr > 1
1. Standing waves 0.010 0.015
2. Antidunes 0.012 0.020
E. Overland Flow (Sheetflow)
E1 Vegetated areas
a. Dense turf 0.17 0.80
b. Bermuda and dense grass 0.17 0.48
c. Average grass cover 0.20 0.40
d. Poor grass cover on rough surface 0.20 0.30
e. Short prairie grass 0.10 0.20
f. Shrubs and forest litter, pasture 0.30 0.40
g. Sparse vegetation 0.05 0.13
h. Sparse rangeland with debris
1. 0% cover 0.09 0.34
2. 20% cover 0.05 0.25
E2 Plowed or tilled fields
a. Fallowno residue 0.008 0.012
b. Conventional tillage 0.06 0.22
c. Chisel plow 0.06 0.16
d. Fall disking 0.30 0.50
e. No tillno residue 0.04 0.10
f. No till (2040% residue cover) 0.07 0.17
g. No till (100% residue cover) 0.17 0.47
E3 Other surfaces
a. Open ground with debris 0.10 0.20
b. Shallow flow on asphalt or
concrete 0.10 0.15
c. Fallow fields 0.08 0.12
d. Open ground, no debris 0.04 0.10
f. Asphalt or concrete 0.02 0.05
Source: From Chow (1959), Richardson et al. (1987), Simons, Li, & Associates (SLA),
1982, and others. * The values in bold are recommended for design
3.38 Chapter Three
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HYDRAULICS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
4.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter begins with the mathematical description of the constitutive relationships for
flow and transport in porous media. Following this, simple analytical solutions are pre-
sented for a variety of subsurface flow and transport problems. The principles of flow and
transport are outlined, and solutions are provided for practical problems of flow and trans-
port in both the saturated and the unsaturated zones. The latter includes problems of
transport in the vapor phase. The major focus is on the processes that are relevant to
subsurface mitigation.
4.2 CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONSHIPS
This section presents the basic concepts and laws used to describe flow and transport in the
subsurface. In particular, the constitutive relationships defining the fluid flow in fully and
partially saturated media are given as well as the relationships that describe diffusive and dis-
persive mass fluxes in porous media. Finally, we show the relations used to describe parti-
tioning of chemicals in the subsurface environment.
4.2.1 Darcys law
Consider the flow of a fluid through a pipe filled with a granular material, as shown in Fig.
4.1. In the figure, z
1
and z
2
represent the elevations of the pipe centerline above a reference
level at Sections 1 and 2, respectively, whereas p
1
/ and p
2
/ represent the water
pressure head at Sections 1 and 2, respectively. We define the piezometric head at any
location in the porous media as
h z p/ (4.1)
where specific weight (weight per unit volume) of water, typically, 9810 N/m
3
or
62.4 lb/ft
3
. Let q be the average water velocity in the cross section of the pipe: i.e.,
q Q/A (4.2)
CHAPTER 4
SUBSURFACE FLOW
AND TRANSPORT
Mariush W. Kemblowki and Gilberto E. Urroz
Utah Water Research Laboratory
Utah State University
Logan, Utah
4.1
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Source: HYDRAULIC DESIGN HANDBOOK
where Q volumetric discharge (volume per unit time) and A total cross-sectional area
of the pipe (including the soil matrix). French hydrologist Henry Darcy discovered that
the average flow velocity could be estimated from
q K (h
1
h
2
)/L (4.3)
where L is the distance, measured along the pipe, between cross sections 1 and 2, and K
is a parameter that depends on the nature of the porous media as well as on the properties
of the transported fluid. For water, K is known as the hydraulic conductivity or the coef-
ficient of permeability. Typical values of K are given in many references (e.g., Bureau of
Reclamation, 1985) see tables 4.1 ard 4.2. Eq. (4.3) is known as Darcy's law and is com-
monly used to model the flow of fluids in porous media. Notice that the velocity V is not
the fluid velocity in the soil pores, it is an average velocity calculated over the entire area
of the flow cross section. The average pore velocity is calculated as
v

q
W

(4.4)
where
W
is the volumetric water moisture content. Note that for saturated flow,
W
n,
where n is porosity.
Darcys law (i.e., Eq. 4.3) also can be written more concisely as
q KI (4.5)
where I is the hydraulic gradient defined as
I

(h
1

L
h
2
)

4.6)
Hydraulic conductivity K is a function of aquifer and fluid properties specifically of
the intrinsic soil permeability k, fluid viscosity , and fluid density and is given by
K k g/ (4.7)
For saturated flow of a constant density fluid in isotopic porous media, the Darcy law
can be written as
4.2 Chapter Four
FIGURE 4.1 Porous media flow.
Arbitrary datum
h
1
z
1
1
2
h
2
z
2

p
w
2

p
w
1

h
L
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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
q
i
K

,
(4.8)
For anisotropic media, the Darcy law is written as
q
i
K
ij

x
h
j

,
(4.9)
where K
ij
is the conductivity tensor. For saturated flow of a fluid of variable density in
anisotropic porous media, we have
q
i

s
f
o
lu
il
i
,
d
ij

x
p
i


fluid
g

x
z
i

,
(4.10)
where k
soil,ij
is the intrinsic permeability tenser. Finally, for unsaturated flow of variable-
density fluid in anisotropic porous media, we have
q
i

k
r
(

)
fl
k
ui
s
d
oil,ij

x
p
j


fluid
g

x
z
j

,
(4.11)
where k
r
() relative permeability of the porous media. Relative permeability is a func-
tion of soil saturation, which in turn is a function of the capillary pressure. These rela-
tionships for partially saturated flow are discussed in the next section.
4.2.2 Unsaturated FlowConstitutive Relationship
In unsaturated flow, the concern is water movement in the zone above the water table. In
this case, the water saturation S
w
is a function of the difference between air and water
pressures because the water is resulting from held by capillary forces resulting from sur-
face tension. This difference is known as the capillary pressure and is defined as
h
aw
h
a
h
w
(4.12)
Typically, in unsaturated flow theory we assume negligible resistance to the gas-phase
flow in porous media; as a result, we also can assume that the gas-phase pressure is uni-
form and equal to the atmospheric pressure. Hence h
aw
h
w
. The aqueous pressure in
the unsaturated zone is lower than the atmospheric pressure; thus, the capillary pressure
is positive. The negative pressure head h
w
also is known as the soil matrix suction . Thus,
the total head in the aqueous phase is h + z.
To remove water from the pore space i.e., to reduce the water content we have to apply
more negative pressure to the aqueous phase, i.e., increase the capillary pressure h
aw
. This
relationship is typically called the soil-water retention curve, and can be expressed by the
following commonly used parametric models: the Brooks-Corey (BC) model and the van
Genuchten (VG) model. The BC model is

r
r

(4.13)
for h
b
and is otherwise (capillary fringe zone),

e
1 (4.14)
where n porosity, volumetric moisture content (equal to n S
w
),
e
effective volu-
metric moisture content,
r
residual (irreducible) moisture content, Brooks-Corey
parameter, and h
b
capillary fringe height. The van Genuchten model is
h

x
j
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n
r


r
[1 ()
n
]
m
(4.15)
where: n curve fitting parameter that depends on the type of soil, soil property
index, 1/h
b
, and m 1 1/n.
Note that parameter n depends on pore-size distribution. For a well-graded soil (wide
pore-size distribution, which results in a flatter moisture content curve ()), n is small,
whereas for poorly graded soils (narrow pore-size distribution, which results in a steeper
moisture content curve (), n is large: typically values of n higher than 2.5.
Also note that although the BC and VG models are the most commonly used models
in analysis, there is no restriction on using different mathematical representations to
describe the characteristics of soil-water retention. For example, a simple exponential
model, such as
e
exp( ), is in some cases, sufficient to describe the physics of the
retention.
As the moisture content in partially saturated media decreases, so does the volume of
pores available to fluid flow. Thus, hydraulic conductivity for the partially saturated media
depends on the water content and, in turn, on the metric suction. To describe this rela-
tionship, we modify the value of intrinsic permeability k by the factor of k
r
() or k
r
(),
called relative permeability. Several models for k
r
are shown below:
BC model of relative permeability:
k
r

e

(4.16)
VG model of relative permeability:
k
r

e
0.5
(1 (1
e
1/m
)
m
)
2
(4.17)
Mualem model of relative permeability:
k
r
exp [ ] (4.18)
4.2.3 Diffussive and Dispersive fluxes
4.2.3.1 Molecular diffusion. Molecular diffusion describes the process by which a con-
taminant species dissolved in an environmental fluid moves from regions of higher
concentration to regions of lower concentration. When the only mechanism affecting the
diffusion of the contaminant species is the random motion of its molecules, the process is
referred to as molecular diffusion. The mass flux of a solute along a single direction, in a
liquid or gaseous body, is described by Fick's law:
q D

d
d
C
x

(4.19)
In this equation, q mass flux of solute per unit area per unit time [ML
2
T
1
],
D diffusion coefficient (L
2
T
1
), C solute concentration mass of solute/volume of
solution (M/L
3
), dC/dx concentration gradient along the x direction. The minus sign in
Eq. (4.19) indicates that the solute flux will go from regions of larger concentration to
those of lower concentration. Values of the diffusion coefficient, D, depend on the type of
solute and the type of environmental fluid. For major cations and amnions dissolved in
water, values of D range from 1 10
9
to 2 10
9
m
2
/s (Fetter, 1994).
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4.2.3.2 Molecular diffusion in porous media Molecular diffusion in a porous medium
is affected by the nature of the medium. For example, the paths that diffusing molecules
follow in a porous medium are, in general, more complicated than if they were diffusing
in water. Although Eq. (4.19) can still be used to describe the diffusion in a porous medi-
um, the diffusion coefficient must be modified, and Eq. (4.19) is rewritten in terms of an
effective diffusion coefficient. One widely accepted expression for the effective diffusion
coefficient in porous media is the Millington-Quirk equation
D D
o

so
n
lu
2
tion
3.33

(4.20)
where D
o
is the molecular diffusion coefficient of the compound in pure solution fluid,

solution
is the solution fluid-filled porosity of the soil, and n is the total porosity of the soil.
4.2.3.3 Mechanical dispersion and macro-dispersion. Mechanical dispersion refers to
the component of dispersion caused by differences in velocity at the pore level that are a
consequence of the pore geometry. Water will move at different rates as a result of differ-
ences in pore sizes and tortuosity. A contaminant dissolved in the water flowing through
a porous medium will be dispersed in both the longitudinal and transverse directions
because of the fluctuations in the water velocity field. A way to incorporate the influence
of pore geometry in the dispersion process is to define longitudinal and transverse disper-
sivities
L
and
T
. Longitudinal and transverse mechanical dispersion coefficients can thus
be defined in terms of the dispersivities and the average pore velocity. For example, the
longitudinal mechanical dispersion coefficient (D
L
)
mech
will be given by (D
L
)
mech

L
v.
This dispersion coefficient is not treated separately from the effective diffusion coefficient
defined in (8); instead, they are both combined in a coefficient of hydrodynamic disper-
sion. Thus, Ficks Law, which describes molecular diffusion in a fluid, can be used to
describe longitudinal and transverse dispersion in a porous medium if the diffusion coef-
ficient D in Eq. (4.19) is replaced by a coefficient of longitudinal (or transverse) hydro-
dynamic dispersion, D
L
or D
T
, given by
D
L

L
v D* (4.21)
or
D
T

T
v D* (4.22)
where
L
,
T
longitudinal and transverse dispersivities, respectively, and D* effec-
tive porous-media diffusion coefficient.
In addition to the pore-scale dispersion, we also have formation-scale dispersion or,
more accurately, spreading, which is a result of the variability in transport velocity caused
by the heterogeneity of the hydraulic conductivity field. In terms of magnitude, this
microdispersive flux is significantly larger than the one related to mechanical dispersion.
Mathematically, macrodispersive flux is the flux equal to the expected value of the prod-
uct of Darcian velocity (q) and of the contaminant concentration (C) fluctuations:
q
macrodispersive
q C (4.23)
In otherwords, this flux can be described using an expression similar to the Fickian diffu-
sion equation (Eq. 4.19) with a macrodispersivity coefficient. In the most general (three-
dimensional) case, the equation defining the macrodispersive flux in the flowing fluid is
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q
i
( A
ij
v )

x
C
j

(4.24)
where A
ij
represents the macrodispersivity tensor and the bar indicates averaged quanti-
ties. The fluctuations q and c result from the heterogeneous nature of the aquifer. This is
expressed in the way the macrodispersivity tensor is estimated. For example, the longitu-
dinal macrodispersivity is estimated using
A
11

2
2

(4.25)
where
f
2
variance of log-conductivity (f L
n
[K]),
1
correlation scale in the direc-
tion of flow, and is given by

K
q
g
J
1

exp

6
f
2

1
1
]
(4.26)
In summary, the longitudinal and transverse components of the total diffusive and dis-
persive mass flux (per unit bulk area) in heterogeneous geologic formations is estimated
as follows:
q
L
(
FLUID
A
L
v
FLUID
D)

C
x

(4.27)
q
T,HOR
(
FLUID
A
T,HOR
v
FLUID
D)

C
y

(4.28)
q
T,vert
(
FLUID
A
T,vert
v
FLUID
D)

C
y

(4.29)
where D Millington-Quirk effective dispersion coefficient.
4.2.4 Partitioning
Equilibrium partitioning and sorption are the most common chemical processes that
affect reactive transport. These processes are dealt with by equating the total concentra-
tion to the sum of the concentrations in each phase multiplied by their respective volumes.
Furthermore, by equating the concentration in each phase to the concentration in a com-
mon phase say, the concentration in water the total concentration can be expressed in
terms of the common phases concentration and a retardation coefficient R
C
T

WATER
C
WATER
(1

I WATER

K
WA
1

TE
1
R

)
WATER
C
WATER
R
(4.30)
where: K
I
partitioning coefficient between the i
th
phase and the common phase K
I
C
I
/
C
WATER,

I
the volumetric content of the ith phase, and
WATER
the volumetric content
of the common phase. This type of equilibrium partitioning is frequently used to describe
the relationships between concentrations in the following scenarios: (1) vapor and aque-
ous phases, (2) soil and vapor phases, (3) soil and aqueous phases, (4) partitioning of a
tracer between aqueous and NAPL or DNAPL phases, and (5) partitioning of a tracer
between vapor and NAPL or DNAPL phases.
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For partitioning of compounds present in a NAPL or DNAPL mixture and aqueous
phase, we use
C
I,WATER
x
I
S
I
(4.31)
where S
I
is the solubility of compound I in water and x
I
is its mole fraction in the mixture.
Finally, for partitioning of compounds present in a NAPL or DNAPL mixture and vapor
phase, use
V
i
[mg/L] 10
3
[mg/g]x
i
(4.32)
where V
I
is the vapor concentration of compound I, P
v,I
is the vapor pressure of compound
I, M
W,I
is its molecular weight, R gas constant, and T temperature in K.
4.2.5 Degradation
In addition to partitioning, degradation of compounds also may affect the fate and
transport of reactive compounds significantly. Typically, degradation is modeled using
either power-order decay models or growth-process-based models. In environmental
subsurface hydrology, three basic power-order models are used: (1) zero-order decay,
(2) first-order decay, and (3) a combination of the first two models. According to these
models, the total decrease of mass in unit bulk volume caused by degradation is
expressed by

C
t
T

I PHASES

I
K
0,I

I PHASES

I
K
1,I
C
I
(4.33)
where K
0,I
zero-order degradation rate of the compound in phase I, K
1,I
first-order
degradation rate of the compound in phase I, and C
I
= mass/volume concentration of the
compound in phase I.
In addition to the zero-order and first-order degradation processes, the Monad kinetics
is frequently used to describe oxygen limited aerobic degradation of organic compounds
in the aqueous phase. According to the Monod model, the degradation rate in terms of the
total concentration is expressed by the following system of equations:

C
t
T

WATER
M
t

K
C
C

WA
C
TE
W
R
ATER

K
O
O

W
O
ATE
W
R
ATER

,
(4.34)
and

O
t
T

WATER
M
t

K
C
C

WA
C
TE
W
R
ATER

K
O
O

WA
O
TE
W
R
ATER

,
(4.35)
where C
WATER
is the aqueous concentration of the contaminant, O
WATER
is the dissolved oxy-
gen concentration, M
t
is the total concentration of the active microbial biomass, is the
maximum rate of organic solute utilization, K
C
is the concentration of the organic solute
at which the utilization rate is half the maximum, K
O
is the electron acceptor (oxygen)
concentration at which the utilization rate is half the maximum, and is the substrate uti-
lization ratio.
P
vi
[atm]* M
w,i
[g/mole]

R 0.0821[L atm/mole K]T[K]


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4.3 FLOW AND TRANSPORT IN SATURATED ZONES
In this section, we present some solutions to saturated flow and transport problems that
are encountered in the practice of subsurface hydrology. We begin with well hydraulics,
an understanding of which is important to the design of pump-and-treat systems, and dis-
cuss several models of transport of soluble plumes.
4.3.1 Flow to a Single Well
Darcy's law describes the average water flux through a porous medium when the local
hydraulic gradient is known. To determine discharges we use the law of conservation of
mass for the water, also known as the continuity equation. For the analysis of wells, it is
assumed that the flow toward the well caused by the well pumping is radially symmetric.
In this situation, it is convenient to use the equation of continuity in radial coordinates
(r, ). For steady-state state flow toward a single well in a confined aquifer without
recharge, the equation reads
Q 2KB

d
d
h
r

(4.36)
where K and B aquifer conductivity and thickness, respectively. The equation of conti-
nuity for well flow in an unconfined aquifer is similar to Eq. (4.19): namely,
Q 2rKh

d
d
h
r

(4.37)
with B replaced by the variable flow depth h. Implicit in Eq. (4.36) and (4.37) is the
Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption, the implication of which is that the flow in the aquifer
can be assumed to be practically horizontal.
Equations (4.36) and (4.37) are used to obtain solutions for the steady-state discharge
to a well in confined and unconfined aquifers, respectively, if the piezometric heads (con-
fined aquifers) or water-table elevations (unconfined aquifers) h
1
and h
2
are known at two
radial distances r
1
and r
2
, respectively:
Q 2KB(h
2
h
1
)/ln(r
2
/r
1
) 2T(h
2
h
1
)/ln(r
2
/r
1
) (4.38)
where T KB aquifer transmissivity, and
Q KD(h
2
2
h
1
2
)/ln(r
2
/r
1
) (4.39)
The solutions given in Eqs. (4.38) and (4.39) assume that the well penetrates to the
impermeable bottom of the aquifer and that there is no recharge into the aquifer. They also
assume an infinitely large aquifer with no interaction with surface streams or imperme-
able boundaries. Well solutions are often given in terms of the drawdown s as a function
of the radial distance r. The drawdown is defined as
s H h (4.40)
where H is the elevation of the original piezometric surface before pumping at the well
starts. The distance R for which h H and s 0 is called the radius of influence of the
well. Using the concepts of drawdown and radius of influence, the steady-state flow equa-
tion in a confined aquifer can be rewritten as
s

2
Q
T

Ln

R
r

1
1
]
(4.41)
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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
By combining the solutions for the steady state flow in confined and unconfined
aquifers, one can derive a relationship between the drawdown calculated from confined
conditions (assuming constant in space and time aquifer thickness equal to H), and that
estimated for unconfined conditions (when the change in aquifer thickness caused by
pumping is taken into account):
s
UNC
H H
2
2 s
C

ON

F
H (4.42)
Using this formula, known as Jacobs correction, one can initially assume constant
aquifer thickness B H in calculations and use confined aquifer solutions to calculate
drawdown, then correct the drawdown using Jacobs correction. This approach is particu-
larly useful when dealing with transient flow. For transient flow conditions in an aquifer
with constant flow thickness, the transient drawdown is given by
s (r,t)

4
Q
T

exp[
x
x]

dx

4
Q
T

W [u(r,t)] (4.43)
where
u(r,t)

4
r
2
T
S
t

(4.44)
and S storativity (for confined aquifers) or porosity (for unconfined aquifers) and W(u)
is known in subsurface hydrology as well function and in mathematics as exponential inte-
gral. This function is tabulated in almost every groundwater hydrology textbook. It also is
available in many engineering mathematics software packages, such as Mathematica, as
a library function.
4.3.2 Superposition and Convolution
For a time-variable pumping rate, the principle of convolution can be used to estimate the
transient drawdown. This approach is strictly valid for linear systems: i.e., systems in
which the response (drawdown) is a linear function of the excitement (pumping rate). The
linearity assumption is strictly valid for confined aquifers only; however, as long as the
drawdowns do not exceed 20% of the initial aquifer thickness, it also may be used for
unconfined aquifers. Using the convolution approach, the transient drawdown for a pump-
ing rate changing in a step-wise fashion is given by
s(r,t)

4
1
T

n
k 1
(Q
K
Q
K 1
)W(u(r,t
K 1
)) (4.45)
where the drawdown is estimated at time t, t
n
t t
n 1
, Q
K
is the pumping rate for
t
K 1
t t
K,tO
0, Q
0
0.0, and t
K 1
t t
K 1
. When several wells are present,
the superposition approach is used to estimate the cumulative drawdown by adding the
drawdown contributions from all the wells:
s(t)

4
1
T

m
L 1
Q
L
W(u(r
L
,t)) (4.46)
where r
L
is the distance between the point of interest (where the drawdown is estimated) and
well L. When several wells are pumping at variable rates, the superposition and convolution
approaches are used simultaneously. The superposition principle also can be used to super-
impose the drawdown on the natural (ambient) flow conditions. Using this principle leads to
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h(x, y, t) H(x, y, t) s(x, y, t) (4.47)
where h transient potentiometric surface that combines ambient conditions and well
impact, H potentiometric surface under natural (ambient) conditions, and s transient
drawdown.
4.3.3 Interception Wells
With respect to contaminant transport in the subsurface, interception wells are used to trap
the contaminant plume within the well flow field. It is assumed in this analysis that there
is an ambient steady-state uniform flow through the aquifer. The combination of well-
related flow and ambient uniform flow satisfies the conditions of two-dimensional poten-
tial flow in a horizontal plane, where the discharge described by stream function y is relat-
ed to potential , or the piezometric head h. The extent of the aquifer through which water
travels to the well and is captured by it is called the capture zone. The derivation of the
analytical solution for steady-state flow capture-zone uses the following assumptions:
(1) ahomogeneous, isotropic, infinitely large aquifer, (2) uniform flow, (3) no leakage, (4)
aquifer storativity or specific yield neglected, (not relevant for steady-state analysis),
(5) hydrodynamic dispersion neglected, (6) the Dupuit assumption applies, and (7) the
well is fully penetrating and pumping at a constant rate. Three important parameters are
used in delineating the capture zone: namely, the stagnation point, the upgradient maxi-
mum width of the capture zone, and the equation for the capture zone boundary.
For a confined aquifer, the distance from the well to the stagnation point (measured in
the direction of the uniform flow) is
x
STAG

2
Q
T
w
I

(4.48)
where Q
w
well discharge, T aquifer transmissivity KB (K aquifer permeability,
B aquifer depth), and I natural hydraulic gradient: i.e., the gradient responsible for
the ambient steady-state uniform flow in the aquifer. The upgradient divide, defined by
the maximum width of the capture zone far upgradient of the well, for the confined aquifer
is given by
w
DIV

Q
TI
w

(4.49)
and the equation of the dividing streamline is
x (4.50)
The procedure for delineating the capture zone consists of the following steps: (1) esti-
mate the location of the stagnation point (x
STAG
, 0), (2) estimate the maximum width of the
capture zone w
DIV
, and (3) vary y between zero and w
DIV
/2 and use the capture zone bound-
ary to estimate the boundary location (x,y).
4.3.4 Partially Penetrating Wells
Performance of wells that penetrate only partially through the bearing strata is discussed
in this section. The simplest case consists of a well that is barely penetrating into an semi-
y

tan

2
Q
T
w
Iy

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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
infinite porous medium so that the aquifer flow is three-dimensional and spherically sym-
metric. In this case, the following relationship applies between the flow into the partially
penetrating well Q
p
and the flow to a fully penetrating one Q:

Q
Q
p

r
B
w

ln

r
R
w

(4.51)
where B is the aquifer thickness, r
w
is the well radius, and R is the radius of influence of
the partially penetrating well. Because, in general, r
w
B, then the equation above indi-
cates that the spherical flow to a partially penetrating well is highly inefficient compared
with simple radial flow: i.e., for the same drawdown in the well, it results in a significantly
smaller pumping rate.
In the general case of partial penetration, one may consider the total drawdown s
T
,
which consists of the drawdown equivalent to that of a fully penetrating well s and addi-
tional head loss because of the partial penetration of the well s:
s
T
s s (4.51)
Additional head loss for a well penetrating from the top (or the bottom) of the aquifer
is estimated as follows:
s

Q(
2
1

Tp
p)

ln

(1
r
w
p)h
s

1
1
]
(4.53)
where p penetration factor; p h
s
/B; h
s
penetration depth; and B aquifer
thickness (Fig. 4.2). For the well centrally positioned in the aquifer, the following formu-
la is used:
s

Q(
2
1

Tp
p)

ln

(1
2r
w
p)h
s

1
1
]
(4.54)
Thus, when the pumping rate is defined for a well, we calculate the drawdown correc-
tion s and add it to the full penetration drawdown s. However, when the drawdown is
given for a well, we have to recalculate the pumping rate. In this case, the true pumping
Subsurface Flow and Transport 4.11
FIGURE 4.2 Partially-penetrating well.
B
h
s
h
s
B/2
h
s
/2
2r
w
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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
rate is given by
Q
s
Q

s
s
s

S
T

S
T
s

(4.55)
where s drawdown defined at the well, Q pumping rate estimated using s, and
Q
p
actual pumping rate
4.3.5 Well Duplets
Well duplets, each of which consists of one pumping and one recharge well, are frequent-
ly used as a means of injecting and removing aquifer mitigation solutes, such as co-sol-
vents, surfactants, or both. Typically, the recharge well is positioned directly upgradient
from the discharge well, and the magnitudes of pumping and injection rates are the same.
In this case, the two wells form a flow circulation cell: i.e., all the injected water is
pumped out by the discharge well. In the case of co-solvent flushing, it is important to
understand what region of the aquifer is subject to the mitigation: i.e., what the boundary
is of the circulation cell. This boundary is defined by the upgradient and downgradient
stagnation points (x
STAG
, 0) and (x
STAG
, 0) and the cell boundary equation. For the x-axis
parallel to the direction of ambient flow and the origin of the coordinate system located at
the mid-point between the two wells, the two stagnation points, (x
STAG
, 0) and (x
STAG
, 0)
are given as the roots of the quadratic equation

q
Q
o
B
w
d

2
1

(x/d
x

/d
1)
2

(x/d
x/

d
1)

2
_

,
0 (4.56)
where q
o
ambient flux, 2d distance between the wells, and Q
w
pumping/injection
rate. The boundary of the circulation cell is defined by

q
Q
o
B
w
y

2
1

tan
1

(x/d
y/

d
1)

1
1
]
tan
1

(x/d
y/

d
1)

1
1
]
_

1
2

(4.57)
The circulation cell is symmetric with respect to the y axis. The cell delineation pro-
cedure consists of estimating the locations of the stagnation points and varying x between
zero and x
STAG
and using the cell-boundary equation to solve for y. This implicit equation
can be solved by any calculation software, such as Mathematica or MS Excel.
4.3.6 Transport Equations
The following general form of mass transport equation in the saturated zone is derived assum-
ing one-dimensional advective and three-dimensional diffusive-dispersive transport in the
aqueous phase, linear partitioning of a compound between the three phases (water-soil-
(D)NAPL), and first-order degradation in the aqueous phase. For this conditions, we have
R

x
i

i
v

C
x
W
i

C
x
1
W

C
W
(4.58)
where C
W
aqueous phase concentration, v pore-water velocity, and
W
volumetric
moisture content, and
i
longitudinal, transverse horizontal, and transverse vertical
D

W
C
W

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macrodispersivities, and D Millington-Quirk dispersion coefficient, and first-order
degradation rate in the aqueous phase, and R retardation factor,
R 1

k
S

OI
W
L

k
NAP

W
NAPL

(4.59)
where k
SOIL
water-soil partitioning coefficient, k
SOIL
S/C
W
, S weight/weight con-
centration of absorbed compound in soil, k
NAPL
NAPL water partitioning coefficient,
k
NAPL
C
NAPL/
C
W
, C
NAPL
concentration of compound in the NAPL phase,
B
bulk den-
sity of dry soil, and
NAPL
volumetric NAPL content.
Assuming that the diffusive fluxes are negligible compared the macrodispersive flux-
es, the transport equation can be simplified to yield

t
W

x
i

i
v
R

C
x
W
i

,
v
R

R
C
W
(4.60)
where v
R
v/R and
R
/
R
.
4.3.7 Selected Analytical Solutions
Closed-form solutions are available for a variety of flow, boundary, and initial conditions.
Van Genuchten and Alves (1982) presented a good summary of these solutions. Some of
the most useful solutions are presented below.
4.3.7.1 One-dimensional transport with step change in concentrationno degrada-
tion. This simple case has the initial condition C(x,0) 0 for x 0, and it is subject to
the following boundary conditions: C(0,t) C
o
, t 0 and C(,t) 0, t 0. The solution
of the transport equation for these conditions is given by
C(x,t)

C
2
O

Erfc

2(
x

x
v
R
v
t
R
)
t
1/2

1
1
]
exp

x
x

1
1
]
Erfc

2(
x

x
v
R
v
t
R
)
t
1/2
1
1
]

(4.61)
4.3.7.2 One-dimensional transport with step change in concentration and first-order
degradation. The initial and boundary conditions are the same as in Sec. 4.7.1.
The solution is given by
C(x,t)

C
2
O

exp

2
x

1
_

,
1/2
_

,
1
1
]
Erfc

(4.62)
where Erfc complementary error function.
4.3.7.3 Continuous point injection, 2-D dispersive transport, no retardation, and no
degradation. A tracer is continuously injected at a rate Q (per unit depth of the aquifer)
x v
R

4
v
R
R

1/2
t

2(
x
v
R
t)
1/2
4
R

v
R
C
W

x
i
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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
with a concentration C
o
into a uniform flow field from a point (x 0, y 0). Let the
uniform velocity be v
x
. The asymtotic solution, i.e., for t , is given by
C(x,y)

,
exp

2D
v
x
L
x
D
T

,
K
o

D
x

2
L

D
y

2
T

1
1
]
(4.63)
where K
o
modified Bessel function of the second kind and of 0th order (Bear, 1972).
The time-dependent solution is
C(x,y)

,
exp

2
v
D
x
x
L

,
K
o
[W(0,)] W(t,) (4.64)
where

4
v

D
x
2

D
x

2
L

(4.65)
W (t, b) leaky well function (see, for example, Hunt, 1983, p. 100).
4.3.7.4 Point slug injection into a uniform flow field3-D transport and retardation.
In this case, a slug of contaminant of the mass M C
o
V is injected at point (0,0,0). The
transient distribution of concentration is described by
C(x, y, z, t)

8(v
R
t)
3
V
/2
o
(
C

o
x

z
)
1/2

exp

(x
4

x
v
v
R
R
t
t)
2

4
y
y
2
v
R
t

4
z
z
2
v
R
t

1
1
]
(4.66)
4.3.7.5 Continuous injection from a finite-sized source with retardation and degrada-
tion. In this case, consider transport from a rectangular source that is perpendicular
to the direction of flow. The source width is Y, and its depth below the water table is Z.
The transient concentration distribution in the presence of retardation and degradation is
given by
C(x, y, z, t)

C
8
o

exp

2
x

1
v
4
R

R
x

,
1/2

1
1
]
Erfc

1
1
]

Erfc

2
y
(

y
x
Y
)
/
1
2
/2

1
1
]
Erfc

2
y
(

y
x
Y
)
/
1
2
/2

1
1
]

Erfc

2
z
(

z
x)
Z
1/2
1
1
]
Erfc

2
z
(

z
x)
Z
1/2
1
1
]

(4.67)
x v
R
t(1 4
R

v
x
)
1/2

2(
x
v
R
t)
1/2
y
2

D
T
C
o
Q

2D
L
D
T

v
x
2

4D
L
C
o

2D
L
D
r
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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
4.4 FLOW AND TRANSPORT IN UNSATURATED
ZONE AQUEOUS PHASE
In this section, we briefly discuss the flow continuity equations and present some simple
solutions to selected flow problems. That discussion is followed by a presentation of mass
transport in the water phase of unsaturated zone.
4.4.1 Flow in an Unsaturated Zone
The continuity equation for an unsaturated flow system can be written as

.q (4.68)
or

q
x
x

q
y
y

q
z
z

,
(4.69)
Combining Darcy's law with the mass continuity equation, we can write the final flow
equations is

(K()h) (4.70)
The flow equations can be simplified for horizontal and vertical flow conditions.
a. One-dimensional horizontal flow:

K()

,
(4.71)
where volumetric water content. In this, the contribution of the elevation head, z,
vanishes, since z/x 0.
b. One-dimensional vertical flow:

K()

1
_

,
_

,
(4.72)
Note that the flow equations are characterized by the presence of two dependent, albeit
related, variables: namely, and . To simplify this situation, we describe the relation-
ship between and by a term called soil diffusivity D() as
D()

K
C
(
(

)
)

(4.73)
where C() is called specific moisture capacity and is defined as
C()

(4.74)
Using these definitions, the flow equation can be written as follows:
c. One-dimensional horizontal flow:

D
x
()

,
(4.75)
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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
d. One-dimensional 1-D vertical flow:

(D
z
()

K
z
()) (4.76)
As can be seen, we now have only one dependent variable: namely, . The only limitation of
this formulation is that specific moisture capacity C() becomes zero in the capillary fringe
zone, thus making the solution impossible. Therefore, this formulation is valid only in the par-
tially saturated zone (water content less than saturated value), not in the capillary fringe.
Another way to solve this problem, which does not have the limitation discussed
above, is to formulate the flow equations in terms of soil suction . For the vertical flow,
we obtain
C()

K
z
()(

1)

(4.74)
Exercise. Consider steady-state vertical infiltration from the soil surface to the water table
at depth L. The relative hydraulic conductivity of the soil is described by the following
exponential law:
k
r
() exp[ ] (4.78)
Derive an expression for the vertical distribution of h. After the first integration of the
flow equation, we obtain
K
z
()

1
_

,
q (4.79)
where q infiltration rate and K is a function of capillary pressure y.
K
z
() K
sat
exp[] (4.80)
where h z . Substitution of these relationships into the flow equation leads to
exp

(h z)
1
1
]

h
z

K
q
SAT

(4.81)
or
exp[h]dh

K
q
SAT

exp[x]dx (4.82)
After the second integration, we obtain

exp[h]

K
q
SAT

exp[z] C
1
(4.83)
Substituting the boundary condition h(0) 0 and solving for C
1
yields the following
expression for the total head h:
h(z)

1

ln

K
q
SAT

(exp[z] 1) 1
1
1
]
(4.84)
4.4.2 Transport in an Unsaturated Zone
The mass continuity equation for an unsaturated flow system with advection and diffu-
sion/dispersion in the aquoeus phase, diffusion in the vapor phase, partitioning between
four phases (soil, water, vapor, and (D)NAPL), and first-order degradation in the aqueous
phase can be written as
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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
R

C
t
W

x
i

i
v

D
W

v
k
W
AIR

C
x
W
i

,
v

C
x
1
W

C
W
(4.85)
where C
W
aqueous phase concentration; v pore-water velocity;
W
volumetric
moisture content;
i
longitudinal, transverse horizontal, and transverse vertical
macrodispersivities; D Millington-Quirk dispersion coefficient; D
v
Millington-Quirk
dispersion coefficient in the vapor phase; first-order degradation rate in the aquoeus
phase; and R retardation factor;
R 1

k
S

OI
W
L

k
NAP

W
NAPL

k
AI

W
AIR

(4.86)
where k
SOIL
water-soil partitioning coefficient, k
SOIL
S/C
W
, S weight/weight con-
centration of absorbed compound in soil, k
NAPL
NAPL-water partitioning coefficient,
k
NAPL
C
NAPL
/C
W
, C
NAPL
concentration of compound in the NAPL phase, k
AIR
vapor-
water partitioning coefficient, k
AIR
V/C
W
, V concentration of compound in the vapor
phase,
B
bulk density of dry soil,
AIR
volumetric vapor content, and
NAPL
volu-
metric NAPL content.
Assuming again that the diffusive fluxes are negligible compared with the macrodis-
persive and advective fluxes, the transport equation can be simplified to yield

C
t
W

x
i

i
v
R

C
x
W
i

,
v
R

C
x
W
i

R
C
W
(4.87)
where v
R
v/R and
R
/R. Note that the form of this equation is the same as the form
of the one for transport in the saturated zone; therefore, the analytical solutions presented
for the saturated transport are valid for the unsaturated conditions. This is particularly true
for the one-dimensional (vertical) transport equations, which are of primary interest in the
case of unsaturated fate and transport of compounds.
4.5 FLOW AND TRANSPORT IN VAPOR PHASE
This section, presents the soil vapor flow equations. This is followed by selected solutions
to vapor flow problems. Finally, we discuss diffusive transport in the vapor phase.
4.5.1 Soil Vapor Flow
The flow of gases in a porous medium can be described by combining the following
equations:
a. The equation of continuity is
(v) n

(4.88)
with vapor density, v Darcys flux vector,
AIR
air-filled porosity, and t time.
b. The perfect gas law is

m
v

p
R
M
T

(4.89)
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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
with m gas mass, V gas volume, p absolute pressure, M molar mass, T
absolute temperature K, and R universal gas constant.
c. Darcys law for vapor flow is
v

p (4.90)
where k soil intrinsic permeability and gas viscosity. The resulting governing
equation is 1953

2
p
2

2n
k

p
t

(4.91)
(Bruce et al., 1953).
d. The molar flux [moles/unit area-time] is given by
q

R
k
T

pp (4.92)
For one-dimensional flow, the governing equation reduces to

2
x
p
2
2

2
A
k
IR

p
t

(4.93)
and for radial flow, the governing equation is

2
r
p
2
2

1
r

p
r
2

2
A
k
IR

p
t

. (4.94)
For steady state, exact analytical solutions for gas flow are obtained by using the fol-
lowing transformation (Cho, 1991):
m

K ( p
2
2
p
r
2
)

(4.95)
where m is referred to as the discharge potential. The governing equation now becomes
Laplace's equation:

2
m 0 (4.96)
For example, the exact solution for the point source in three-dimensional space is given by
m

4
Q
r

(4.97)
where Q source strength and r distance from source point.
To estimate the time required to achieve steady-state vapor flow, Johnson et al. (1990)
presented a method based on the solution of radial flow of vapor to a well. Their results
are summarized in Fig. 2 of Johnson et al. (1990 b) for values of k corresponding to sandy
soil. They also presented a method to estimate vapor flow rates, pressure distributions, and
vapor velocities in unsaturated soils based on the steady-state solution to the governing
equation of vapor radial flow: namely,

2
p
2

2n
k

p
t

(4.98)
The pressure p can be expressed in terms of the ambient pressure p
Atm
and a deviation
p from this pressure: p is equivalent to the vacuum that would be measured in the soil. If
this substitution is used in the flow equation and if we neglect the product p'
2
relative to
the product p
Atm
p (linearization), then the resulting equation for radial flow is
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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT

p
A
A
IR
T

p
t

1
r

p
r

,
(4.99)
The solution to this equation for the following boundary conditions is
p 0, for r
lim
r0

p
r

2B
Q
k/

(4.100)
as given by
p

4B
Q
(k/)

exp[ x]dx

4B
Q
(k/)

W(u) (4.101)
where Q is the volumetric flow rate to the vapor well. The well function W(u) is tabulat-
ed in almost all groundwater textbooks. The behavior of the integral is such that for
(r
2

AIR
/4kp
Atm
t) 0.001, its value is close to the asymptotic steady-state limit.
Exercise. Given the following parametershydraulic conductivity K 102 cm/sec,
air viscosity
AIR
0.018 cp, volumetric air content (equal to porosity)
AIR
0.3, and
local pressure gradient dp/dx 0.01 atm/cmestimate the pore-vapor velocity. From the
conversion table (Domenico and Schwartz, 1990), we have
k[darcy] K[m/s]*1.04*10
5
(4.102)
Thus, k 10.4 darcy. The vapor flux is given by
q
i

k
r
(

f
)
lu
k
id
fluid

x
p
i

x
z
i

,
(4.103)
Assuming that k
r
1.0, we obtain
q[cm/sec]

k
[
r
c
*
e
k
n
[
t
d
i
a
p
r
o
c
is
y
e
]
]

p
x

a
c
t
m
m

1
1
]

10.
0
4
.
*
01
0
8
.01

5.78[cm/sec] (4.104)
Finally, we estimate the pore-vapor velocity v q/
AIR
19.26 cm/s.
4.5.2 Transport in Vapor Phase
It is usual to assume that whenever advective vapor flow is present, it dominates the trans-
port process and the diffusive/dispersive processes can be neglected. In this case, the fate
and transport equation for a compound that partitions between the four phases (soil, water,
vapor, and (DNAPL) and is subject to first-order degradation in the aqueous phase is
R

V
t

v
AIR

x
V
1

A
W
IR

k
AW
V (4.105)
where: V vapor phase concentration, v
AIR
pore-air velocity,
W
volumetric mois-
ture content,
AIR
volumetric vapor content, first-order degradation rate in the
aqueous phase, k
A W
air-water partitioning coefficient, k
AW
C
W
/V, and R retar-
dation factor,
Subsurface Flow and Transport 4.19

u
r
4
2
k

p
A
A
IR
T

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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
R 1

k
A

W
A
k
I
S
R
OIL

k
A W
k

N
A
A
IR
PL

NAPL

k
A

A
W
IR

(4.106)
where: k
SOIL
water-soil partitioning coefficient, k
SOIL
S/C
W
, S weight/weight con-
centration of absorbed compound in soil, k
NAPL
NAPL-water partitioning coefficient,
k
NAPL
C
NAPL
/C
W
, C
NAPL
concentration of compound in the NAPL phase, k
AIR
vapor-
water partitioning coefficient, k
AIR
V/C
W
, V concentration of compound in the vapor
phase,
B
bulk density of dry soil,
AIR
volumetric vapor content, and
NAPL
volu-
metric NAPL content.
Division of the transport equation by the retardation factor yields

V
t

v
AIR,R

x
V
1

*
R
V (4.107)
where v
Air,R
v
AIR
/R and R k
A W

W
/(
AIR
R). Note that the form of this equation is the
same as the form of the one for transport in the saturated zone, except for the absence of
the dispersive term. Therefore, the analytical solutions presented for the saturated trans-
port are valid for the vapor transport conditions.
When there is no advective transport in the vapor phase, the transport equation must
include diffusive fluxes in vapor and aqueous phases to yield
R

V
t

x
i

D
v

V
x
i

Dk
A W

V
x
i

A
W
IR

k
A W
V (4.108)
where D Millington-Quirk dispersion coefficient for the aqueous phase, and D
v

Millington-Quirk dispersion coefficient in the vapor phase. Assuming that the dispersion
coefficients do not vary in space leads to the following form of the transport equation:

V
t

2
x
V
i
2

V (4.109)
where
D

D
v
D
R
k
A W

(4.110)
and

I
W
R
R

(4.111)
Again, we note the similarity of this fate and transport equation to the one presented
for saturated transport and conclude that all the analytical solutions presented in Sec. 4.2
can, in principle, be used to analyze vapor phase transport.
Exercise. Given that water saturation S
w
0.20, porosity n 0.4, compound concentra-
tion in soil vapor at depth L 2 m C
o
100 mg/L, compound concentration at the soil
surface C
s
0.01, and molecular diffusion coefficient of the compound D
o

0.087cm2/sec, estimate the compound mass flux in the vapor phase at the soil surface. The
effective vapor-phase diffusion coefficient is given by
D D
o

n
A
3
2
.33

0.0026 cm
3
/s (4.20)
and the mass flux of compound A is estimated as follows:
4.20 Chapter Four
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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
q D

C
x

Co
L
Cs

0.0026[cm
2
/s]

100*
2
1
0
0
0
3
[
[
c
m
m
g
]
/cm
3
]

1.3[mg/(cm
2
s)] (4.112)
Exercise. Consider advective transport of a compound in vapor phase. The compound
partitions between vapor and aqueous phases according to the relationship
V K C (4.113)
where V concentration in vapor phase, C concentration in aqueous phase, and K
partitioning coefficient. Given vapor flux q, porosity n, and water saturation S
w
, estimate
the apparent (retarded) velocity of the compound. From the advective transport equation,
we have

C
t
T

V
x

(4.114)
where
C
T
C S
W
n V(1 S
W
)n Vn (1 S
W
)

K(1
S

W
S
W

1
_

,
(4.115)
Thus, for nonretarded tracers, we have

V

V
x

(4.116)
where pore-vapor velocity is
v

n(1
q
S
w
)

(4.117)
whereas for retarded compounds, we have

V
t

v
R

V
x

(4.118)
where the retarded velocity is given by
v
R

R
v

1 (4.119)
Exercise. Consider diffusive vertical transport of a compound in vapor phase. The com-
pound is subject to first-order degradation in the aqueous phase at rate and to partitions
between vapor and aqueous phases according to the following relationship:
V K C (4.113)
where V concentration in vapor phase, C concentration in aqueous phase, and K
partitioning coefficient. At the depth of 100 cm below the ground surface, the vapor con-
centration of the compound was measured to be V
o
, whereas at the ground surface the con-
centration was V
s
. Given the compounds diffusion coefficient in vapor phase D
o
, porosi-
ty n, and water saturation S
w
, estimate the diffusive flux of the compound at the soil sur-
face. The relevant mass transport equation is given by
v

K(1
S

W
S
W
)

Subsurface Flow and Transport 4.21


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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
D

2
x
V
2

nS
w
C 0 (4.120)
where
D D
o

n
A
3.
2
33

(4.19)
Substituting C V/K into the mass transport equation leads to

2
x
V
2

*
2
V 0 (4.121)
where

*
2

K
n
D
S
w

(4.122)
We solve the modified mass transport equation to obtain
V(x) C
1
exp[

x] C
2
exp[

x] (4.123)
where constants C
1
and C
2
are obtained from the boundary conditions
V(0) V
o
, and V(100) V
s
(4.124)
The compound's mass flux at the soil surface is estimated from
q D

(
x
x)

@x 100 (4.125)
REFERENCES
Bear, J., and Y. Bachmat, Introduction to Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Porous Media,
Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1990.
Bear, J., Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media, Dover Publications, New York,k 1972.
Bear, J., Hydraulics of Groundwater, McGraw Hill, New York, 1979.
Bouwer H., Groundwater Hydrology, McGraw Hill, New York, 1978.
Bruce, G. H., D. W. Peaceman, and H. H. Rachford, Jr., 1953. Calculations of Unsteady-State Gas
Flow Through Porous Media, Petroleum Transactions, AIME, 198: 1953.
Bureau of Reclamation, Ground Water Manual (Reprint), U.S. Department of the Interior
Washington, DC, 1995.
Cedergren H. R., Seepage, Drainage, and Flow Nets, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York,
1989.
Charbeneau, R. J., Kinematic Models for Soil Moisture and Solute Transport, Water Resources
Research, 20: 699706, June, 1984.
Chirlin, G. R., A Critique of the Hvorslev Method for Slug Test Analysis: The Fully Penetrating
Well, Ground Water Monitoring Review, 130138, 1989.
Cho, J. S., 1991. Forced Air Ventilation for Remediation of Unsaturated Soils Contaminated by
VOC., Publication No. EPA/600/S291/016, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,
D.C.
4.22 Chapter Four
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Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
Dagam, G., Solute transport in heterogeneous porous formations, Journal of Fluid Mechanics,
145: 151177, 1984.
De Josselin Jong, G. Singularity Distribution for the Analysis of Multiple-Fluid Flow Through
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Subsurface Flow and Transport 4.23
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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
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4.24 Chapter Four
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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
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Subsurface Flow and Transport 4.25
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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
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4.26 Chapter Four
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SUBSURFACE FLOW AND TRANSPORT
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The thermal, chemical, and biologic quality of water in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and near
coastal areas is inseparable from a consideration of hydraulic engineering principles;
therefore, the term environmental hydraulics. In this chapter we discuss the basic princi-
ples of water and thermal budgets as well as mixing and dispersion.
5.2 WATER AND THERMAL BUDGETS
5.2.1 Water Budget
A water budget is a statement of the law of conservation of mass or
(change in storage) (input) (output) (5.1)
and the expressions of the water budget can range from simple to very complex. For exam-
ple, consider the lake or reservoir shown in Figure 5.1. For this situation, a generic water
budget could be written as follows:

d
d
S
t
s
(I
c
I
o
I
g
P
r
R
r
) (E
v
T
r
G
s
O
c
W) (5.2)
CHAPTER 5
ENVIRONMENTAL
HYDRAULICS
Richard H. French
Water Resources Center
Desert Research Institute
University and Community College System of Nevada
Reno, Nevada
Steven C. McCutcheon
Ecosystems Research Division
National Exposure Research Laboratory
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Athens, Georgia
James L. Martin
AScI Corporation
Athens, Georgia
5.1
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Source: HYDRAULIC DESIGN HANDBOOK
where I
c
channel inflow rate, I
o
overland inflow rate, I
g
groundwater inflow rate,
P
r
precipitation rate, R
r
return flow rate, E
v
evaporation rate, T
r
transpiration
rate, G
s
groundwater seepage rate, O
c
channel outflow rate, W consumptive with-
drawal, and S
s
lake/reservoir storage rate at time t (volume).
The solution of Eq (5.2) quantifies the terms, and, in many cases, the goal of the mod-
eling effort is to estimate the value of a single term or group of terms: for example, evap-
otranspiration (E
v
T
r
). The reliability of using a water budget is directly related to the
accuracy of the prediction techniques used, the availability and quality of gauged data, and
the time period involved. Among the methods of evaluating the individual terms in Eq.
(5.2) are the following:
Channel inflow and outflow ( I
c
and O
c
)gauging, statistical simulation.
Overland inflow (I
o
)gauging, rainfall-runoff relationships.
Groundwater inflow and seepage rate (I
g
and G
s
)seepage equations, gauging.
Precipitation (P
r
)gauging, statistical simulation (Smith, 1993).
Evaporation and transpiration (E and T)gauging, evaporation/transpiration predic-
tion relationships (Bowie et al. 1985; Shuttleworth, 1993).
Return flow and withdrawal (R
r
and W)gauging.
5.2 Chapter Five
FIGURE 5.1 A hypothetical lake illustrating the variables in the water budget.
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
5.2.2 Thermal Budget
The total thermal budget for a body of water includes atmospheric heat exchange at the
air water interface (usually the dominant process), the effects of inflows (tributaries,
wastewater, and cooling water discharges), heat resulting from chemical-biological reac-
tions, and heat exchange with the stream bed. In the following sections, the primary com-
ponents of the air-water interface heat budget will be briefly discussed; for further details
the reader is referred to Bowie et al., (1985), McCutcheon (1989), or Shuttleworth
(1993).
Atmospheric heat exchange at the air-water interface is given by
H Q
s
Q
sr
Q
a
Q
ar
Q
br
Q
e
Q
c
(5.3)
where H net surface heat flux, Q
s
shortwave radiation incident to the water surface
[3300 (kcal/m
2
)/h], Q
sr
reflected shortwave radiation [525 (kcalm
2
)/h], Q
a
incom-
ing longwave radiation from the atmosphere (225360 kcal/m
2
/h), Q
ar
reflected long-
wave radiation [515 (kcalm
2
)/hr], Q
br
longwave back radiation emitted by the water
body [220345 (kcalm
2
)/h], Q
e
energy utilized by evaporation [25900 (kcalm
2
)/h],
and Q
c
energy convected to or from the body of water (3550 kcalm
2
/hr). Note that
the ranges given are typical for the middle latitudes of the United States (Bowie et al.,
1985).
The equations for estimating the terms of the thermal budgets use a mixed set of units,
and appropriate conversions among the different units used are provided in Table 5.1.
5.2.2.1 Net atmospheric shortwave radiation (Q
s
Q
sr
) The net shortwave radiation
(Q
sn
) is that portion of the incident shortwave radiation captured at the ground, taking into
account losses caused by reflection. Although solar radiation can be measured with spe-
cialized meteorological stations equipped with radiometers, these instruments require
painstaking calibration and maintenance. In most cases, measured values of solar radia-
tion are not available at the location of interest and must be estimated from equations.
Among the formulations for estimating net shortwave solar radiation is
Q
sn
Q
s
Q
sr
0.94Q
sc
(1 0.65C
2
c
) (5.4)
where Q
sc
clear sky solar radiation [kcalm
2
)/h) and C
c
fraction of sky covered by
clouds (Anderson, 1954; Ryan and Harleman, 1973). It is pertinent to note that Eq. (5.4)
Environmental Hydraulics 5.3
TABLE 5.1 Useful Energy Conversions for Energy Budget Calculations
1Btuft
2
/day = 0.131 W/m
2
= 0.271 Ly/day = 0.113 (kcalm
2
)/h
1 watt/m
2
= 7.61 Btuft
2
)/day = 2.07 Ly/day = 0.86 (kcalm
2
)/h
1 Ly/day = 0.483 W/m
2
= 3.69 (Btu/ft
2
)/day = 0.42 (kcalm
2
)/h
1 (kcalm
2
)/hr = 1.16 W/m
2
= 2.40 Ly/day = 8.85 (Btuft
2
)/day
1 kpa = 10 mb = 7.69 mm Hg = 0.303 in (Hg)
1 mb = 0.1 kpa = 0.769 mm Hg = 0.03 in (Hg)
1 mm Hg = 1.3 mb = 0.13 kpa = 0.039 in (Hg)
1 in Hg = 33.0 mb = 25.4 mm Hg = 3.3 kpa
Abbreviations Ly Langleys; mb millibar; and Btu British Thermal Unit
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
5.4 Chapter Five
assumes average reflectance at the Waters surface and uses clear sky solar radiation. In
some situations, the effects of atmospheric attenuation are much greater than normal and
more complex equations are required (e.g., 1972). Clear sky radiation (Q
sc
) can be esti-
mated as a function of calendar month and latitude from Fig. 5.2.
Shortwave solar radiation is absorbed at the waters surface and penetrates the water
column, depending on the wavelength of the radiation, the properties of the water, and the
matter suspended in the water. The degree of penetration of shortwave solar radiation
(sunlight) into the water column has a significant effect not only on water temperature but
also on the rate of photosynthesis by aquatic plants and the general clarity, color and aes-
thetic quality of the water. The penetration of shortwave solar radiation is described by
I I
o
exp (k
e
y) (5.5)
where I light intensity at depth y, K
e
extinction coefficient, and I
o
light intensity
at the surface (y 0).
Values of the extinction coefficient can be estimated by several methods. For example,
measurement of total light penetration into a water column can be made by using a pyre-
heliometer positioned at the surface that measures the total incoming solar radiation.
Simultaneously, an underwater photometer is lowered and the radiation is recorded at each
of a series of depths throughout the water column. Then, a value of K
e
can be estimated
by linear leastsquares regression. An alternative but traditional, simpler, and less accu-
rate method to estimate K
e
is to lower a target into the water column until, by eye, the tar-
get just disappears. A standardized target (Secchi disk) is commonly used, and a number
of investigators (Beeton, 1958; French et al., 1982; Sverdrup et al, 1942;) have developed
empirical relationships between, the Secchi disk depth (y
s
) and the extinction coefficient
of the form.
K
e

(
1.2 to
y
s
1.9)
(5.6)
Finally, the depth (y
e
) at which 1 percent of the surface radiation still remains (the
euphotic depth) is given from Eq. (5.5) as
y
e

4
K
.6
e
1
(5.7)
5.2.2.2 Net atmospheric long-wave radiation (Q
a
Q
ar
) Atmospheric radiation is char-
acterized by much longer wavelengths than solar radiation because the major emitting
elements are water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone. The approach generally used to
estimate this flux involves the empirical estimation of an overall atmospheric emissivity
and the use of the Stephan-Boltzman law (Ryan and Harleman, 1973). Swinbank (1963)
developed the following equation, which has been used in many water quality models:
Q
an
Q
a
Q
ar
1.16 10
13
(1 0.17C
2
c
)(T
a
460)
6
(5.8)
where Q
an
net longwave atmospheric radiation (Btuft
2
/day), C
c
fraction of sky cov-
ered by clouds, and T
a
dry bulb air temperature (F).
5.2.2.3 Long-wave back radiation (Q
br
) The long-wave back radiation from a water
surface in most cases is the largest of all the fluxes in the heat budget (Ryan
and Harleman, 1973). The emissivity of a water surface is well known; therefore, this
flux can be estimated with a high degree of accuracy as a function of the water surface
temperature:
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
Environmental Hydraulics 5.5
F
I
G
U
R
E

5
.
2
C
l
e
a
r

s
k
y

s
o
l
a
r

r
a
d
i
a
t
i
o
n
.

(
F
r
o
m

H
a
m
o
n

e
t

a
l
.

1
9
5
4
)
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
Q
br
0.97T
4
s
(5.9)
where Q
br
longwave back radiation (cal/m
2
/s), T
s
surface water temperature (
0
K),
and Stefan-Boltzman constant (1.357 10
8
calm
2
/s/K
4
)
5.2.2.4 Evaporative heat flux (Q
e
) Evaporative heat loss (kcal/m
2
/s) occurs as a result
of the change of state of water from a liquid form to vapor and is estimated by
Q
a
L
w
E
v
(5.10)
where L
w
latent heat of vaporization (597 0.57T
s
, kcal/kg), T
s
surface water tem-
perature (C), E
v
evaporation rate (m/s), and water density (kg/m
3
).
A standard expression for evaporation from a natural water surface is
E
v
(a bW)(e
s
e
a
) (5.11)
where E
v
evaporation rate (m/s), a and b empirical coefficients, W wind speed at
some specified distance above the water surface (m/s), e
s
saturation vapor pressure at
the temperature of the water surface (mb), and e
a
vapor pressure of the overlying atmos-
phere (mb). In many cases, the empirical coefficient a has been taken as zero with 1
10
9
b 5 10
9
(Bowie et al., 1985). The saturated vapor pressure can be estimated
(Thackston, 1974) by
e
s
exp
j
,
(
17.62

T
s
9

50
4
1
60

\
(
,
(5.12)
where e
s
is in inches of Hg, and T
s
water surface temperature (F). There are a number
of ways of estimating e
a
, depending on the available data. For example, if the relative
humidity (R
H
) is known, then
R
H

e
e
a
s
(5.13)
and then if the wet bulb temperature and atmospheric pressure are known (Brown and
Barnwell, 1987)
e
a
e
s
0.000367P
a
(T
a
T
wb
)
j
,
(
1

T
w
1
b
5

71
32

\
(
,
(5.14)
where all pressures are in (in Hg), all temperatures are in (F), P
a
atmospheric pressure,
and T
wb
wet bulb temperature. The relationship among the air and wet bulb tempera-
tures (F) and relative humidity (Thackston, 1974) is
T
wb
(0.655 0.36R
H
)T
a
(5.15)
There are many equations for estimating the rate of evaporation. For example, Jobson
(1980) developed a modified formula that was used in the temperature modeling of the
San Diego Aqueduct and subsequently was modified for use on the Chattahoochee River
in Georgia (Jobson and Keefer, 1979). McCutcheon (1982) noted that, in many models,
the wind speed function is a catchall term that compensates for many factors, such as (1)
numerical dispersion in some models, (2) the effects of wind direction, fetch, channel
width, sinuosity, bank, and tree height, (3) the effects of depth, turbulence, and lateral
velocity distribution; and (4) the stability of air moving over the stream. (Fetch is the dis-
tance over which the wind blows or causes shear over the waters surface.) Finally, it is
5.6 Chapter Five
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
important to note that evaporation estimators that work well for lakes or reservoirs will not
necessarily provide the same level of performance when used in streams, rivers, or con-
structed open channels.
5.2.2.5 Convective heat flux (Q
c
). Convective heat is transferred between air and water
by conduction and is transported to or from the air-water interface by convection. The con-
vective heat flux is related to the evaporative heat flux (Q
e
) by the Bowen ratio (Bowie et
al., 1985), or
R
B

Q
Q
c
e

(6.19 10
4
)P
a

T
e
s
s

T
e
a
a

(5.16)
where all temperatures are in (C), all pressures are in (mb), and R
B
Bowen ratio.
5.2.2.6 Conclusion. The foregoing is a brief summary of the approaches used most fre-
quently to estimate surface heat exchange in numerical models. The reader is referred to
other publications for a more detailed discussion of the approaches (Bowie et al., 1985)
and meteorological data requirements (Shanahan, 1984). Note that each situation should
be considered carefully from the viewpoint of specific factors that must be taken into
account. For example, in most lakes, estuaries, and deep rivers, the thermal flux through
the bottom is not significant. However, in water bodies with depths less than 3 m (10 ft),
bed conduction of heat can be significant in determining the diurnal variation of temper-
atures within the body of water (Jobson, 1980, Jobson and Keefer, 1979).
5.3 EFFECTS AND CAUSES OF STRATIFICATION
5.3.1 Effects
The density of water is strongly affected by temperature and the concentrations of dis-
solved and suspended solids. Regardless of the cause of differences in water density, water
with the greatest density is found at the bottom, whereas water with the least density resides
at the surface. When density gradients are strong, vertical mixing is inhibited. Stratification
is the establishment of distinct layers of water of different densities (Mills et al., 1982).
Stratification is enhanced by quiescent conditions and is destroyed by in a body of water-
phenomenasc that encourage mixing (wind stress, turbulence caused by large inflows, and
destabilizing changes in water temperature). In many bodies of water (rivers, lakes, and
reservoirs), stratification is the single most important phenomena affecting water quality.
When stratification is absent, the water column is mixed vertically and dissolved oxy-
gen (DO) is present in the vertical water column from the top to the bottom: that is, fully
mixed water columns do not have DO deficit problems. For example, when stratification
occurs, in reservoirs and lakes mixing is limited to the epliminion or surface layer. Since
stratification inhibits, vertical mixing is inhibited by stratification, and reaeration of the
bottom layer (the hypoliminion) is inhibited if not eliminated. The thermocline (the layer
of steep thermal gradient between the epiliminion and hypoliminion) limits not only mix-
ing but also photosynthetic activity as well. The hypolimnion has a base oxygen demand
and benthic matter and the settling of particulate matter, from the epiliminion only adds
to this demand. Therefore, while the demands of DO in the hypoliminion increase during
the period of stratification, inhibition of mixing between the epiliminion and the
hypolimnion and the lack of photosynthetic activity deplete the DO concentrations in the
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
5.8 Chapter Five
hypolimnion. Finally, a rule of thumb suggests that when water temperature is the pre-
dominant cause of differences in water density a temperature gradient of at least 1

C/m is
required to define the thermocline (Mills et al., 1982).
The density of water can be estimated by

T

s
(5.17)
where water density (kg/m
3
),
T
water density as a function of temperature, and

s
increments in density caused by solids.
5.3.2 Water Density as a Function of Temperature
A number of formulations have been proposed to estimate
T
and among these are

T
999.8452594 6.793952 10
2
Te
9.095290 10
3
Te
2
1.001685 10
4
Te
3
(5.18)
1.120083 10
6
Te
4
6.536332 10
9
Te
5
where T
e
water temperature in C(Gill, 1982).
5.3.3 Water Density as a Function of Dissolved Solids or Salinity and
Suspended Solids
In most cases, data for dissolved solids are in the form of total dissolved solids
(TDS); however, in some cases, salinity may be specified. The density increment for dis-
solved solids can be estimated by

TDS
C
TDS
(8.221 10
4
3.87 10
6
Te 4.99 10
8
Te
2
) (5.19)
(Ford and Johnson, 1983), where C
TDS
concentration of TDS (g/m
3
or mg/L). If the con-
centration of TDS is specified in terms of salinity (Gill, 1982).

SL
C
SL
(0.824493 4.0899 10
3
Te 7.6438 10
5
Te
2
8.2467 10
7
Te
3
5.3875 10
9
Te
4
)
C
SL
1.5
(5.72466 10
3
1.0277 10
4
Te
1.6546 10
6
Te
2
) 4.8314 10
4
C
SL
2
(5.20)
where C
SL
concentration of salinity (kg/m
3
). The density increment for suspended
solids is

ss
C
ss
j
,
(
1.

S
1
G

\
(
,
10
3
(5.21)
where S
G
specific gravity of the suspended sediment. (Ford and Johnson, 1983).
The total density increment caused by solids is then

s
(
TDS
or
SL
)
SS
(5.22)
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
Environmental Hydraulics 5.9
5.4 MIXING AND DISPERSION IN OPEN CHANNELS
Turbulent diffusion (mixing) refers to the random scattering of particles in a flow by tur-
bulent motions, whereas dispersion is the scattering of particles by the combined effects
of shear and transverse turbulent diffusion. Shear is the advection of a fluid at different
velocities at different positions within the flow.
When a tracer is injected into a homogeneous channel flow, the advective transport
process can be viewed as composed of three stages. In the first stage, the tracer is diluted by
the flow in the channel because of its initial momentum. In the second stage, the tracer is
mixed throughout the cross section by turbulent transport processes. In the third stage, lon-
gitudinal dispersion tends to erase longitudinal variations in the tracer concentration. In
some cases, the second stage is eliminated because the tracer discharge has a significant
amount of initial momentum associated with it; however, in many cases, the tracer flow is
small and the momentum associated with it is insignificant. In the latter case, the first trans-
port stage is eliminated. In this treatment, only the second and third transport stages will be
treated, with the implied assumption that if there is a first stage, it can be treated separately.
The reader is cautioned that, in this chapter, y is the vertical coordinate direction and z
is the transverse coordinate direction.
5.4.1 Vertical Turbulent Diffusion
To develop a quantitative expression for the vertical turbulent diffusion coefficient,
consider a relatively shallow flow in a wide rectangular channel. It can be shown that the
vertical transport of momentum in such a flow is given by

v

d
d
v
y

(5.23)
where shear stress at a distance y above the bottom boundary, fluid density,
v

vertical turbulent diffusion coefficient, and v longitudinal velocity (French, 1985).


Because the one-dimensional vertical velocity profile and shear distribution are known, it
can be shown that

v
kv
*
y
d
j
,
(

y
y
d

\
(
,
j
,
(
1

y
y
d

\
(
,
(5.24)
where k von Karmans turbulence constant (0.41), y
d
depth of flow, v
*
shear veloc-
ity ( g y
d
S), and S longitudinal channel slope (French, 1985). The depthaveraged
value of
v
is

v
0.067y
d
v
*
(5.25)
When the fluid is stably stratified, mixing in the vertical direction is inhibited, and one
often quoted formula expressing the relationship between the unstratified and stratified
vertical mixing coefficient was provided by Munk and Anderson (1948):

vs

1 3.3

v
3 Ri)
1.5

(5.26)
where
vs
the stratified vertical mixing coefficient.
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
5.4.2 Transverse Turbulent Diffusion
In the infinitely wide channel hypothesized to derive Eq. (5.24), there is no transverse
velocity profile; therefore, a quantitative expression for
t
, the transverse turbulent diffu-
sion coefficient, cannot be derived from theory. The following equations to estimate
t
derived from experiments by Fischer et al., (1979), and Lau and Krishnappen (1977).
In straight rectangular channels, an approximate average of the results available is

t
0.15y
d
v
*
50% (5.27)
where the 50 percent indicates the error incurred in estimating
t
. In natural channels,
t
is significantly greater than the value estimated by Eq. (5.27). For channels that can be
classified as slowly meandering with only moderate boundary irregularities

t
0.60y
d
v
*
50% (5.28)
If the channel has curves of small radii, rapid changes in channel geometry, or severe
bank irregularities, then the value of
t
will be larger than that estimated by Eq. (5.28).
For example, in the case of meanders, Fischer (1969) estimated that

t
25

V
R
2
2
y
c
v
3
d

*
(5.29)
where a slowly meandering channel is one in which

R
T
c
V
v
*

2 (5.30)
and R
c
radius of the curve.
As stated above, the complete advective transport process in a two-dimensional flow
can be conveniently viewed as composed of three stages. In the second stage, the prima-
ry transport mechanism is turbulent diffusion, and a comparison of Eqs. (5.25) and (5.27)
shows that the rate of transverse mixing is roughly 10 times greater than the rate of verti-
cal mixing. Thus, the rate at which a plume of tracer spreads laterally is an order of mag-
nitude larger than is the rate of spread in the vertical direction. However, most channels
are much wider than they are deep. In a typical case, it will take approximately 90 times
as long for a plume to spread completely across the channel as it will take to mix in the
vertical dimension. Therefore, in most applications, it is appropriate to begin by assuming
that the tracer is uniformly distributed over the vertical.
In a diffusional process in which the tracer is added at a constant mass flow rate (M
*
)
at the center line of a bounded channel (C/z 0 at z 0 and C/z 0 at z T), the
downstream concentration of tracer is given approximately by

C
C

4
1
x'

exp
j
,
(

(z' 2
4
n
x
'
z
o
')
2

\
(
,
exp
j
,
(

(z' 2
4
n
x'
z
o
')
2

\
(
,

(5.31)
where
C'

V
M
T
*
y
d

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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
x'

V
x
T

t
2

and
z'

T
z

A reasonable criterion for the distance required for complete mixing (where the con-
centration is within 5 percent of its mean value everywhere in the cross section) from a
center-line discharge is
L

0.1

V
t
T
2

(5.32)
If the pollutant is discharged at the side of the channel, the width over which the mix-
ing must take place is twice that for center-line injection, but the boundary conditions are
otherwise identical and Eq. (5.32) applies if T is replaced with 2T.
5.4.3 Longitudinal Dispersion
After a tracer becomes mixed across the cross section, the final stage in the mixing process
is the reduction of longitudinal gradients by dispersion. If a conservative tracer is dis-
charged at a constant rate into a channel, the flow rate of which also is constant, there is
no need to be concerned about dispersion; however, in the case of an accidental release
(spill) of a tracer into a channel or the release is cyclic, dispersion is important. The one-
dimensional equation governing longitudinal dispersion is

C
t
V

C
x
K

2
2
C
x
S (5.33)
where K the longitudinal dispersion coefficient and S sources or sinks of materials.
The initial work in dispersion, beginning with Taylor (1954), assumed a prismatic chan-
nel. However, natural streams have bends, sandbars, side pools, in-channel pools, bridge
piers, and other natural and anthropogenic changes, and every irregularity in the channel
contributes to longitudinal dispersion. Some channels may be so irregular that no reason-
able approximation of dispersion is possible: for example, a mountain stream consisting
of pools and riffles.
Fischer et al. (1979) presented a number of methods of approximating K in a natural
open channel. Of these, the most practical is
K

0.01
y
1
d
v
V
*
2
T
2

(5.34)
Equation (5.33) depends on a crude estimate of
t
and does not reflect the existence of
dead zones in natural channels. However, it does have the advantage of relying only on
the usually available estimates of depth, velocity, width, and surface slope.
With regard to the solution of the dispersion equation, the following observations are
pertinent:
1. The longitudinal dispersion analysis is not valid until the end of the initial period,
when
x

0.4

V
t
T
2

(5.35)
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
5.12 Chapter Five
2. In the case of a slug of dispersing material (mass M), the longitudinal length of the
cloud after the initial period can be estimated approximately by
L 4
,
,

2K

t
T
2

j
,
(

V
x
T

t
2

0.07
\
(
,
]
]
]
0.5
(5.36)
and the peak concentration within the dispersing cloud is
C
max
(5.37)
Note that the observed value of the peak concentration will generally be less than this
estimate because some of the material is trapped in dead zones and some of the typical
tracers (Martin and Mc Cutcheon, 1999) sorb onto sediment particles.
5.5 MIXING DISPERSION IN LAKES AND RESERVOIRS
Important factors in the hydraulic design, operation, and analysis of spills in reservoirs
and lakes include (1) determining vertical stratification to guide lake monitoring and the
design withdrawal structures, (2) locating the plunge point or separation point to deter-
mine how inflows mix, (3) computing the dilution and mixing of inflows and the time
required to travel through a reservoir or lake, and (4) determining the quality of with-
drawals or outflows and effects on the quality of reservoir water. The elevation and flow
through withdrawal structures at dams are selected to control flooding and achieve cer-
tain water-quality targets or standards. The stratification, mixing, and travel of inflows
are determined to design water-intake structures at dams or other locations in lakes, to
forecast the habitat and fisheries that a proposed reservoir may support, and to track
chemical spills or flood waters through reservoirs. This section is based on
Chaps. 8 and 9 in Martin and McCutcheon (1999), which provide a number of sample
calculations.
Many lakes and reservoirs stratify for part of the year into an epilimnion, thermocline,
and hypolimnion illustrated in Fig. 5.3. The depth and thickness of the thermocline or met-
alimnion vary with location and time of the year and even time of the day to a limited
extent. The thermocline represents the interface between a well-mixed surface layer, or
epilimnion, and the cooler, deeper hypolimnion. In freshwater lakes, the thermocline is
defined by a minimum temperature gradient of 1C/m. When a distinct interface does not
exist, the thermocline, epilimnion, and hypolimnion may not be defined. Mixing process-
es also are different in riverine, transition, and lacustrine zones (Fig. 5.3). Mixing in the
riverine zone is dominated by advection and bottom shear, and turbulence is generally dis-
sipated under the same conditions. Seiche, wind mixing, boundary shear, boundary intru-
sion, withdrawal shear, internal waves, and dissipation of turbulence generated elsewhere
cause mixing in the lacustrine zone. Buoyancy resulting from stable stratification stabi-
lizes or prevents mixing. In the transition zone, ending at the plunge point or separation
point, buoyancy begins to balance the advective force of the inflow. There are three
sources of energy for mixing: (1) inflows from tributaries, overland runoff, and dis-
charges, (2) withdrawal at dams, discharges at control structures, and natural outflows,
and (3) wind shear, solar heating and cooling, heat conduction and evaporation, and other
meteorological forces.
M

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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
Environmental Hydraulics 5.13
F
I
G
U
R
E

5
.
3
M
i
x
i
n
g

p
r
o
c
e
s
s
e
s

i
n

z
o
n
e
s

o
f

l
a
k
e
s

a
n
d

r
e
s
e
r
v
o
i
r
s
.

(
M
o
d
i
f
i
e
d

f
r
o
m

F
i
s
c
h
e
r
,
e
t

a
l
.
1
9
7
9
)
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
Shallow lakes and reservoirs that do not stratify are normally analyzed in the same
fashion as rivers or as a completely mixed body of water. For a completely mixed system,
the residence time (T in seconds or more typically years) or time for an inflow to travel
through the body of water is simply t
r
/Q, where is the volume of the lake (m
3
) and
Q is the sum of the inflows or the average reservoir discharge (m
3
/s).
Freshwater lakes tend to stratify when the mean depth exceeds 10 m and the residence
time exceeds 20 days (Ford and Johnson, 1986). The densimetric or internal Froude num-
ber Fr
d
(Norton et al., 1968) provides a better indication of the stratification potential of a
reservoir where
Fr
d
Fr
p
(5.38)
L
L
the length of the reservoir (m), y
avg
the its mean depth (m), g gravitational accel-
eration (m/s
2
), the difference in density over the depth for the internal Fr or between
the inflow and surface waters of the lake or reservoir at the plunge point or separation
point (kg /m
3
), r average density of the lake for the internal Fr or density of the inflow
(Turner, 1973) at plunge or separation points (kg/m
3
), V
o
the average velocity of the
inflow (m/s), and y
o
the hydraulic depth or cross-sectional area divided by the top width
of the inflow (m). The Fr at the plunge point Fr
p
, also defined in Eq. (5.38), will be used
in the next section. For design projections, the dimensionless density gradient /(y
avg
)
normally is taken to be 10
-6
m
1
(Norton et al., 1968). If Fr >> 1/, the reservoir is expect-
ed to be well mixed. If Fr << 1/, the reservoir is expected to be strongly stratified, and
when Fr 1/, the reservoir is expected to be weakly or intermittently stratified.
Using the length or depth scales of Sundaram (1973) and Ford and Johnson (1986) the
depth to which wind can mix and destroy the stratification of a lake or reservoir for a par-
ticular surface heat flux is
D
t

C
g
p
w
H
3
*
n

5.9 10
9

H
w
3
*
n

(5.39)
where w
*
= the shear velocity of the wind (m/s), = an empirical coefficient approxi-
mately equal to the von Karman constant of 0.4, = the volumetric coefficient of thermal
expansion for water (1.8 10
4
/C), H
n
surface heat flux (W/m
2
), = the density of
water ( 1000 kg/m
3
), and C
p
= the specific heat of water (4186J/kgC).
The wind shear velocity is
w
*

a
C

2
w

1.27 10
3
u
w
, (5.40)
where u
w
= the wind speed (m/s),
a
= the density of air (kg/m
3
), and C
d
= the drag coef-
ficient, which usually is taken to be 1.3 10
3
. (See Martin and McCutcheon (1998) to
estimate the net thermal energy flux.)
5.5.1 Annual Stratification Cycle
In freshwater lakes, stratification results when the sun heats the water faster than wind
shear can mix the heat over the depth. In saline lakes, differences in both temperature and
dissolved solids cause stratification. Stratification involving salinity may persist year-
round in deeper saline lakes. The onset of stratification in freshwater lakes occurs in late
V
o

y
o
L
L
Q

y
avg

5.14 Chapter Five


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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
spring or early summer and persists into the fall or early winter, depending on latitude.
The surface heats rapidly, becoming less dense than deeper layers and forming stable dif-
ferences in vertical density that inhibit vertical mixing until the fall overturn. As stratifi-
cation develops, wind and currents mix the upper layers and tend to deepen the thermo-
cline to form the well-mixed epilimnion. Although storms in late spring and summer
episodically lower the thermocline, the thermocline generally rises as solar heating
increases until midsummer. After later summer cooling begins, the thermocline deepens
until the fall overturn occurs. The decreased difference in temperature in the fall with the
hypolimnion allows more mixing that deepens the epilimnion and thermocline. The vari-
able depth of the thermocline at any time is controlled by seasonal climate, the occurrence
of storms, water temperature, water depth, lake bathymetry, the strength of inflow and out-
flow current, and other factors covered in more detail by Chapra and Reckhow (1983),
Ford and Johnson (1986), Hutchinson (1957), and Wetzel (1983).
The onset of cooler fall conditions causes the epilimnion to lose heat to the atmos-
phere. As heat is lost, mixing tends to become more dominant. The overturning or com-
plete mixing of the reservoir or lake dominates as the epilimnion and hypolimnion
approach the same temperature. During winter, lakes and reservoirs remain unstratified
except in the higher latitudes where the hypolimnion approaches 4C and the surface
approaches 0C. The slight winter stratification of these colder water bodies is the result
of to the usual decrease in water density as temperature decreases from 4 to 0C. Ice cover
maximizes and prevents wind mixing and erosion of the mild differencesm in density.
Stratification is so mild that a distinct thermocline does not form and the epilimnion and
hypolimnion are not well defined. Winter stratification persists until spring warming melts
the ice and heats the surface layer to the temperature of the hypolimnion (usually 4C)
when the spring overturn occurs.
The arrival of spring begins the cycle of heating and stratification anew. A difference
in temperature of just a few degrees results in a difference in density sufficient to inhibit
or prevent most vertical mixing in lakes and reservoirs. Vertical mixing is inhibited almost
completely during summer heating because wind and inflows and outflows do not have
sufficient energy to erode the differences in density that arise. The wind and energy avail-
able from wind and currents cannot overcome the potential energy differences that tend to
prevent mixing of the denser hypolimnion and lighter epilimnion. Fresh water flows into
a saline lake cause salinity gradients that have the same damping effect. Density stratifi-
cation also is caused by suspended sediments, primarily resulting in sediment-laden
underflows. Martin and McCutcheon (1998) have illustrated the stratification cycle for
warmwater lakes and reservoirs.
Run-of-the-river reservoirs and shallow lakes that are weakly stratified because of high
flows or wind mixing, follow only the general stratification trend. Complete mixing may
occur during the summer stratification period as a result of wind or runoff events, and the
thermocline may be difficult to define. Fall overturn occurs earlier in these bodies of water
than it does in deeper lakes.
5.5.2 Plunge and Separation PointEnd of the Transition
Between Riverine and Lacustrine Conditions
The plunge point or separation point marks the downstream end of the transition zone
defined where buoyancy begins to exceed advective forces. These points move seasonal-
ly and, to a limited degree, during the day. Usually distinguished by a line of foam or float-
ing debris across the reservoir or lake, the plunge point occurs when a denser inflow dives
below the lakes surface and continues to flow along the bottom as a density current. The
separation point occurs when an underflow has the same density of the lake water at a
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
given depth, and separates from the bottom to flow into a discrete layer of the lake as an
interflow. Some underflows may be dense enough to flow to the lowest point in a lake or
to the dam that forms a reservoir. If the inflow is less dense than water at the lakes sur-
face, an overflow occurs. Fig. 5.3 illustrates these three types of inflows.
At the plunge or separation point, the internal Fr of the stratified lake Fr
d
is equal to
the Fr of the inflow at that point (Fr
p
), as noted in Eq. Fr
d
(5.38). If the difference in den-
sity in between the lakes surface and the inflow is positive, an overflow occurs, and
if is negative, an underflow occurs. If the slope of the reservoir bottom, or valley, is
mild (S
B
0.007), then the hydraulic depth (y
o
) is the normal depth of flow. For steep
slopes (S
B
0.007), the hydraulic depth is the critical depth (Akiyama and Stefan, 1984).
For tributary or river channels that are approximately rectangular or triangular, the
hydraulic depth and location of the plunge point or separation point can be calculated. For
a rectangular cross section of constant width, the hydraulic depth is
y
o


1/3


1/3
(5.41)
where Q the riverine inflow rate (m
3
/s) equal to VA, A the cross-sectional flow in area
of the river (m
2
), B the conveyance width (m), and q the flow per unit width (m
2
/s).
Similar expressions were proposed by Akiyama and Stefan (1984), Jain (1981), Singh and
Shah (1971), and Wunderlich and Elder (1973), among and others. Savage and Brimberg
(1973) developed an independent expression for the Froude number at the plunge point or
point of separation (Fr
p
) based on the conservation of energy and the theory of two-lay-
ered flow in stratified water bodies, which can be expressed as
Fr
p

j
,
(

S
f
b
b

\
(
,
0.478
(5.42)
where f
b
the dimensionless bed friction factor and f
i
dimensionless interfacial fric-
tion. Martin and McCutcheon (1998) have illustrated the calculations and summarized the
validation of these equations by an example derived from Ford and Johnson (1981, 1983).
For a triangular cross section with an angle 2 between the channel or valley walls, the
hydraulic depth is one-half the total depth. The area of the cross section (m
2
) is A y
2
o
tan(), which, when substituted into the expression for the normal densimetric number Fr
n
and solved for the hydraulic depth y
o
(m), is
y
o
0.5

1\5
where the bottom depth (distance between water surface and apex of the triangular cross
section) is twice the hydraulic depth for a triangular cross section. Hebbert et al. (1979)
derived an expression for the downstream densimetric Froude number at the plunge point
or separation point F
p
for normal flow (S
B
0.007) in a triangular crosssection, related
to the reservoir characteristics as
2Q
2

Fr
n
2

tan
2
()

2.05

f
f
b
i

q
2

Fr
p
2
g

Q
2

Fr
2
p
g

B
2
5.16 Chapter Five
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
Fr
2
n

sin()
C
t
D
an(S
b
)

[1 0.85 C
1/2
D
sin ()] (5.44)
where C
D
the dimensionless bottom drag coefficient [C
D
(f
i
f
b
)/4].
Equations (5.42) and (5.44) are based on characteristics of the reservoir or lake. (See
Martin and McCutcheon (1998) and Gu et al. (1996) for an example of the calcula-
tions.)
5.5.3 Speed, Thickness, and Width of Overflows
Martin and McCutcheon (1998) have noted that the speed of an overflow (v
of
with dimen-
sions m/s) can be estimated from the celerity of a wave in a frictionless flow, but this con-
sistently overestimates the rate of spread. Instead, Koh (1976) developed a more practi-
cal semiempirical expression based on uniform flow which reduces to (Ford and
Johnson, 1983)
v
of
1.04

of
where the thickness of the overflow y
of
(m) can be estimated from (Kao, 1976) as
y
of
1.24
,
,

]
]
]
1/3
(5.46)
In natural settings, overflows are usually dissipated by mixing caused by wind and solar
heating before traveling too far.
Horizontal spreading of an overflow is estimated using the inflow Fr defined by Eq.
(5.38). Safaie (1979, cited in Ford and Johnson, 1983) found that for Fr
d
3, the flow is
an unsteady, buoyancy-driven spread and can be assumed to be completely mixed lateral-
ly except for abrupt changes in the entrance geometry. Typically, reservoirs widen gradu-
ally where major tributaries enter, but lakes may have an abrupt widening at the mouth of
tributaries. For Fr
d
3, the inflow acts like a jet that expands proportionally with distance
B(x) B
0
cx where B(x) the overflow width (m) at distance x measured from the sep-
aration point (m), B
0
the width of the riverine or tributary flow at the separation point
(m), and c a dimensionless empirical constant (Ford and Johnson, 1983). From labora-
tory experiments with plane jets, the value of c has been determined to be approximately
0.16 (Fischer et al. 1979; Ford and Johnson, 1983).
5.5.4 Underflow or Density Current Mixing
Underflows are dominated by two mixing processes. First, significant mixing occurs dur-
ing the plunge beneath the surface. Second, shear at the interface with ambient lake or
reservoir water will result in mixing and entrainment as the underflow moves downward.
The initial turbulent mixing of the plunging flow will increase the total flow rate of the
underflow and reduce the density and concentration gradients. The fraction entrainment
caused by plunging is (Q
p
Q)/Q, where Q
p
is the flow rate at the plunge point (m
3
/s) and
Q is the river flowrate (m
3
/s). For mild slopes S
B
< 0.007, is on the order of 0.15
(Akiyama and Stefan, 1984). The depth of the underflow is the normal depth of flow. For
steep slopes S
B
> 0.007, is on the order of 1.18 and the density current depth is the crit-
q
2

Environmental Hydraulics 5.17


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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
5.18 Chapter Five
ical depth (Akiyama and Stefan, 1984). However, the entrained fraction is highly vari-
able. The dilution of concentrations or temperatures resulting from mixing in plunging
flows follows from a simple mass or heat balance
C
p

C
1
a

C
(5.47)
where C is the inflow concentration (g/m
3
or mg/L
3
) or temperature (C), C
a
is the ambi-
ent concentration (g/m
3
or mg/L
3
) or temperature (C) of the lake, and C
p
is the concen-
tration (g/m
3
or mg/L
3
) or temperature (C) of the plunging flow after initial mixing.
The mixing after plunging results from bottom shear as well as shear at the interface
of the underflow with ambient lake water. For a triangular cross section, the entrainment
coefficient is (Imberger and Patterson, 1981).
E

1
2

C
k
C
3/2
D
Fr
2
b
(5.48)
where laboratory experiments indicate that C
k
is approximately 3.2 (Hebbert et al. 1979),
C
D
the dimensionless bottom drag coefficient defined following Eq (5.42), Fr
b
the inter-
nal fronde number
Fr
b

b
b
h
b

(5.49)
where u
b
underflow velocity, h
b
underflow depth, and
b
relative density differ-
ence. The entrainment coefficient E is a constant for a specific body of water.
y
uf
(6/5)Ex y
O
The depth or thickness of the underflow (m) is a linear function of the entrainment
coefficient (Hebbert et al. 1979; Imberger and, 1981), where x is the distance downstream
from the plunge point (m) and y
o
is the initial thickness of the underflow (m) that is
approximately equal to the depth at the plunge point. If entrainment is limited, the depth
of the underflow remains approximately constant as long as the bottom slope remains con-
stant. The increase in flow rate because of entrainment for an underflow in a triangular
cross section is solved iteratively as
Q(x) Q
1
,
,

j
,
(

y
y
u
1

\
(
,
5/3
1
]
]
] (5.50)
where Q
1
the discharge (m
3
/s) and y
1
the depth (m) from the previous calculation
step. For the initial iteration, Q
1
the discharge at the plunge point Q
p
(m
3
/s) and y
1

the plunge point depth y


o
(m).
Because of more significant differences in density and less internal mixing contrasted
with the epilimnion, underflows tend to remain more coherent than overflows. Sediment
laden underflows, especially, tend to travel to the lake outlet or dam.
5.5.5 Interflow Mixing
After experiencing approximately 15 percent entrainment at the plunge point (for mild
slopes) and mixing as an underflow, an interflow intrudes into a lake at the depth at which
neutral buoyancy is achieved. The turbulence generated by bottom shear is dissipated
quickly, and entrainment into the interflow is dominated by interfacial shear with ambient
lake water above and below the intrusion layer.
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
Environmental Hydraulics 5.19
When the momentum of inflow is small, an interflow is analogous to a withdrawal
from a dam discussed in Sec. (5.5.6). Interflows are governed chiefly by three conditions
based on the dimensionless number R Fr
i
G
r
1/3
where Fr
i
is the internal Fr defined in Eq.
(5.51) and G
r
is the Grashof number (G
r
), both of which are computed at the depth of
intrusion. The internal Froude Number computed at the intrusion depth is
Fr
i

N
q
L
I
2
I

B
I
Q
N
I
L
2
I

(5.51)
where q
I
the interflow rate per unit width following entrainment at the intrusion point
( m
2
/s), L
I
the length of the reservoir at the level of intrusion (m), Q
I
the interflow rate
(m
2
/s), B
I
the intrusion width (m), and N the buoyancy frequency (s
-1
) expressed as
N

I
y

(5.52)
where
I
density difference between the layers into which the flow is intruding
(kg/m
3
),
I
density of the intrusion (kg/m
3
), and y
I
the thickness of the depth of the
intrusion (m). The dimensionless Grashof number G
r
is the square of the ratio of the dis-
sipation time to the internal wave period or
G
r

2
2
L
v
4
I

(5.53)
where
v
the vertically averaged diffusivity (m
2
/s). Generally, if G
r
1, then an inter-
nal wave field will decay slowly, but if G
r
1 then viscous dissipation damps waves
quickly (Fischer et al. 1979). Imberger and Patterson (1981) also introduced a dimen-
sionless time variable
t
*

G
t
r
N
1/6

where t time(s), which, along with the Prandtl number Pr


v
/
t
, where
t
is vertical-
ly averaged diffusivity of heat (m
2
/s), is used to define three interflow conditions:
1. If R 1, the intrusion is governed by a balance of the inertial and buoyancy forces
so that the actual intrusion length L
i
is proportional to time, as given by (Ford and
Johnson, 1983; Imberger et al., 1976).
L
i
0.44L
i
R t
*
0.44 q
I
N t (5.54)
If the speed of the intrusion is constant or uniform, the velocity v
I
is L
i
/t, so that
v
I
0.44 q
I
N 0.194
j
,
(

I
I
y
I

\
(
,
1/2
where
m
the density of the intrusion. The difference in density in the computation
of the buoyancy frequency is that occurring over the thickness of the intrusion h
m
,
which, along with the relationship u
m
q
m
/h
m
, can be substituted into the above equa-
tion to yield an alternative formulation for the speed of intrusion. The thickness of the
interflow can be solved by assuming uniform flow (Ford and Johnson, 1983).
h
m
2.99
,
,

]
]
]
1/3
(5.55)
q
2
m

m
m

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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
5.20 Chapter Five
where h
m
is generally distributed equally above and below the center line of the
intrusion.
2. If R t
*
R P
2/3
r
, then the flow regime is dominated by the balance between vis-
cous and buoyancy forces and the intrusion length becomes
L
i
0.57 L R
2/3
t
*
5/6
(5.56)
The thickness of the interflow is
h
m
5.5L
m
G
r
1/6
(5.57)
In this regime, the flow is generally distributed so that 64 percent lies above the cen-
ter line of the intrusion (Imberger, 1980); thus, the half-thickness (h
ma
) of the interflow
above the center line is given by
h
ma
3.5L
m
G
r
1/6
(5.58)
and the half-thickness below the center line is given by
h
mb
2.0L
m
G
r
1/6
(5.59)
3. If P
2/3
r
t
*
R
-1
then the flow regime is dominated by viscosity and diffusion and
the intrusion length becomes
L
i
= C

LR
3/4
t
*
3/4
(5.60)
where C

is a coefficient, that generally is unknown (Fischer et al. 1979).


Ford and Johnson (1986) indicated that unless dissolved solids dominate the densi-
ty profile (i.e., P
r
is high), intrusions into most reservoirs have R 1, where inertia and
buoyancy dominate. Because the difference in density varies with the location of the
limits of the interflow zone above and below its center line, the solution proceeds by
estimating a value of h
m
and then by computing the difference in density, which is then
used to compute a revised estimate of h
m
. This process is repeated until convergence
occurs.
The equations for intrusion require information on both the morphometry of the reser-
voir and the temperature distribution. The widths used in the formulations should repre-
sent the conveyance width (Ford and Johnson, 1983). Because the time for the intrusion
to pass through a lake can be relatively long, the flow rates used in the calculations
should represent an average value over the period of intrusion. To estimate the time scale
in their analysis of intrusions in DeGray Lake in Arkansas, Ford and Johnson (1983) used
the length of the lake and
m
and h
m
across the thermocline. For DeGray Lake, the intru-
sion time scale ranged from 4 to 6 days. Changes in outflow during the period of the
intrusion also can affect the movement through the lake. Interflows may stall and col-
lapse if the inflow or outflow ends. Interflows also may be diverted or mixed because of
changes in meteorological conditions that influence epilimnion mixing and thermocline
depth.
The temperature or density of the interflow will remain constant. However, the inter-
flow will spread laterally and the thickness will increase caused by entrainment of ambi-
ent water. The resulting concentrations can be computed from a mass balance v
in
CBh
n

constant, where v
in
is the velocity of the interflow; C the concentration or temperature;
B the reservoir width, which may vary with distance from the separation or detachment
point; and h
n
the thickness of the interflow.
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
Environmental Hydraulics 5.21
F
I
G
U
R
E

5
.
4
R
e
s
e
r
v
o
i
r

w
i
t
h
d
r
a
w
a
l
.

(
A
d
a
p
t
e
d

f
r
o
m

M
a
r
t
i
n

a
n
d

M
c
C
u
t
c
h
e
o
n
,
1
9
9
8
)
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
5.22 Chapter Five
5.5.6 Outflow Mixing
The withdrawal velocity profile is used in models CE-QUAL-R1 (Environmental
Laboratory, 1985) and CE-QUAL-W2 (Cole and Buchak, 1993) and in calculations to pre-
dict the effects of withdrawals on reservoir and tail race water quality. The extent of a
withdrawal zone (Fig. 5.4) strongly depends on the ambient lake stratification and release
rate, location of the withdrawal, and reservoir bathymetry. For a given outflow rate and
location, the withdrawal zone thins as the density gradient increases. Depending on the
degree of stratification, withdrawal rate and location, and other factors related to the
design of the dam and the bathymetry of the reservoir, the withdrawal zone may be thin
or may extend to the reservoir bottom or water surface. Within the withdrawal zone, the
velocity distribution will vary from a maximum velocity to zero at the limits of the zone,
depending on the shape of the density profile. The maximum velocity is not necessarily
centered on the withdrawal port.
A number of methods predict the extent of withdrawal zones and the resulting veloci-
ty distributions. Fischer et al. (1979) described methods of computing withdrawal patterns
similar to those used in the analysis of interflows in the previous section. The Box
Exchange Transport, Temperature, and Ecology of Reservois (BETTER) model and the
SELECT model based on the original work of Bohan and Grace (1973) are the more prac-
tical approaches. The BETTER model, applied to a number of Tennessee Valley Authority
reservoirs, computes the thickness of the withdrawal zone above and below the outlet ele-
vation from y c
w
Q
out
, where Q
out
the total outflow rate and c
w
is a thickness coeffi-
cient. The model assumes a triangular or Gaussian flow distribution to distribute flows
within the withdrawal zone (Bender et al. 1990).
The SELECT model (Davis et al. 1985) computes the in-pool vertical distribution of
outflow and concentrations of water quality constituents, the outlet configuration and
depth, and the discharge rate (Stefan et al. 1989). The SELECT code also is applied as
subroutines in generalized reservoir models, such as CE-QUAL-R1 (Environmental
Laboratory, 1985). The model is based on the following equations.
The theoretical limits of withdrawal (Bohan and Grace, 1973) were modified by Smith
et al. (1985) to include the withdrawal angle as

Z
Q
3
o
N
ut

(5.61)
where Z distance from the port center line to the upper or lower withdrawal limit;
the withdrawal angle (radians); and N the buoyancy frequency [g/(Z)]
1/2
, in which
the difference in density between that at the upper or lower withdrawal limit and at
the port centerline; and the density (kg/m
3
) at the port center line. The convention is
that is positive for stably stratified flows such that (upper limit) (with-
drawal port) or (withdrawal port) (lower limit). The elevation of the water
surface, the bottom, of the reservoir, and the withdrawal port and the density profile must
be known. The equation must be solved iteratively since both the distance from the port
center line Z and the density as a function of Z are unknown. A typical solution procedure
where the upper and lower withdrawal zones can form freely within the reservoir without
interference at the surface or bottom is as follows:
1. Rearrange the equation as Q
out
Z
3
N/ 0.
2. Check to see if interference exists by, first, using Z equal to the distance from the
port,s center line to the surface. Estimate the density at the center line of the with-
drawal port and the water surface and substitute the values into the rearranged
equation. If the solution is not-zero and is positive, surface interference exists.
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
Environmental Hydraulics 5.23
F
I
G
U
R
E

5
.
5
D
e
f
i
n
i
t
i
o
n

o
f

w
i
t
h
d
r
a
w
a
l

c
h
a
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
s
.

(
F
r
o
m

M
a
r
t
i
n

a
n
d

M
c
C
u
t
c
h
e
o
n
,
1
9
9
8
)
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
Similarly, substitute the distance from the port center line to the bottom, along with
the density at the bottom of the reservoir, and determine if a bottom interference
exists.
3. If both of the evaluations from Step 2 are negative, the withdrawal zone forms
freely in the reservoir. The limit of the surface withdrawal zone above the port
can be determined by using iterative estimates of values for Z and the density at
the height above the center line until the equation approaches zero to within some
tolerance. The lower limit of withdrawal below the port center line can be deter-
mined in a similar manner.
4. If surface or bottom interference exists, a theoretical withdrawal limit can be
determined using values of Z computed using elevations above the waters sur-
face for surface interference or below the reservoirs bottom for bottom interfer-
ence. However, this solution requires an estimate of density for regions outside
the limits of the reservoir. Davis et al. (1985) estimated these densities by linear
interpolation using the density at the port center line and the density at the sur-
face or bottom of the reservoir.
For the case where one withdrawal limit intersects a boundary and the other does not,
the freely forming withdrawal limit cannot be estimated precisely using the rearranged
equation. Smith et al. (1985) proposed an extension to estimate the limit of the freely
forming layer similar to that described above

Q
N
out

0.125(D

d)
3

,
,

sin
j
,
(

D
D
d

\
(
,

D
D
d

]
]
]
, (5.62)
where d the distance from the port center line to the boundary of interference (m) and
D the distance between the free withdrawal limit and the boundary of interference (m)
shown in Fig. 5.5. The length scale in the buoyancy frequency N is D in place of Z, and
is the difference in the density between that at the surface for withdrawals that extend
to the surface and between the lower free limit or density at the bottom for withdrawals
that extend to the bottom and upper free limit. For consistency with the definition of sta-
ble stratification as positive, the convention is that (surface layer) (free limit)
or (upper free limit) (bottom layer).
Once the limits of withdrawal are established, the distribution of withdrawal veloci-
ty is estimated by dividing the reservoir into layers, the density of which is determined
at the center line of each layer. The computation of the vertical velocity distribution is
based on the location of the maximum velocity, which can be estimated from (Bohan
and Grace, 1973).
Y
L
Hsin
j
,
(
1.57

Z
H
L

\
(
,
2
(5.63)
where Y
L
the distance from the lower limit to the elevation of maximum velocity (m)
shown in Fig. 5.4, H the vertical distance between the upper and lower withdrawal lim-
its (m), and Z
L
the vertical distance between the outlet center line and the lower with-
drawal limit (m). If the withdrawal intersects a physical boundary, the theoretical with-
drawal limit is used, which may be above the waters surface or below the reservoirs bot-
tom. Once the location of the maximum velocity V
max
(m/s) is determined, the normalized
velocity V
N
(I) V(I)/V
max
in each layer I is estimated for withdrawal zones that intersect
a boundary as (Bohan and Grace, 1973).
5.24 Chapter Five
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
V
N
(I) 1
j
,
(

y
Y
(
L
I)

m
(
a
I
x
)

\
(
,
2
(5.64)
or for a withdrawal that does not intersect a boundary
V
N
(I)
j
,
(
1
\
(
,
2
(5.65)
where V(I) the velocity in layer I (m/s), y(I) the vertical distance from the elevation
of maximum velocity to the center line of layer I (m), Y
L
the vertical distance from the
elevation of maximum velocity to the upper or lower withdrawal limit (m) determined by
whether the centerline of layer I is above or below the point of maximum velocity, (I)
the density difference between the elevation of maximum velocity and the center line
of layer I, and
max
the difference in density between the point of maximum velocity
and the upper or lower withdrawal limit.
If the withdrawal intersects the surface or the bottom, velocities are calculated for loca-
tions either above the waters surface or below the reservoirs bottom and the distribution
is truncated at the reservoirs boundaries to produce the final velocity distribution. The
flow rate in each layer I is
q(I) Q
out
(5.66)
where Q
out
the total release rate and mthe number of layers. The quality of the release
can be determined from a simple flow-weighted average or mass balance as
C
R
V
(5.67)
where C
R
the concentration or temperature of waterquality constituent C in the
release and C(I) the concentration or temperature in each layer.
For discharge over a weir, the withdrawal limit Z and average velocity in the with-
drawal zone V
weir
is derived from the densimetric Froude number [Eq. 5.38] as (Grace,
1971, Martin and McCutcheon, 1998),
0 V
weir

C
1
g
H
(Z
w

H
w
)
2

C
2
(Z

H
w
)

(5.68)
where the difference in density between the weir crest and the lower withdrawal
limit, the density at the weir crest elevation, H
w
head above the weir crest eleva-
tion, Z distance between the crest elevation and the lower withdrawal limit, and C
1
and
C
2
are constants, which have values of
C
1
0.54 and C
2
0 for

Z
H
w
H
w

2.0
and (5.69)
C
1
0.78 and C
2
0.70 for

Z
H
w
H
w

2.0
q(I) C(I)

N
I 1
q(I)
V
N
(I)

m
I = 1
V
N
(I)
y(I) (I)

Y
L

MAX
Environmental Hydraulics 5.25
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
5.26 Chapter Five
5.5.7 Mixing Caused by Meteorological Forces
Windgenerated waves and convective cooling cause significant mixing at the water sur-
face. Wind shear causes waves at the surface and at each density interface within a lake or
reservoir, such as the thermocline, and larger scale surface mixing by Langmuir circula-
tion results from sustained wind. Wind setup, seiche, and upwelling are caused by mete-
orological events that generate mixing over much larger areas. Internal waves are caused
by shearing currents set up by both wind and other currents and, although not as obvious
as surface waves, these can be larger and more effective in causing mixing. The intensity
of wave mixing and turbulence is a direct result of wind energy or the energy in other
shearing currents.
The basic characteristics of waves are amplitude or height between trough and crest
and the length between crests. The wave period is the time required for successive waves
to pass a given point. Progressive waves move with respect to a fixed point, whereas stand-
ing waves remain stationary while water and air currents move past. The height and peri-
od of wind waves are related to wind speed, duration, and fetch. Fetch is the distance over
which the wind blows or causes shear over the waters surface. As fetch increases, the
wavelength increases; long wavelengths are only produced in the presence of a long fetch.
The shortest wavelengths require only limited contact between wind and water. Waves
with a wavelength less than 2 cm (6.28 cm) are capillary waves, which are not important
in the modeling of lakes and reservoirs. The more important gravity waves have wave-
lengths longer than 2 cm. The two types of gravity waves are short waves and long
waves, distinguished by the interaction with the benthic boundary. The wavelength of
short waves seen by eye on lakes and reservoirs is much less than the waters depth, and
they are not affected by bottom shear. Long waves, such as lake seiche, are influenced by
bottom friction. Seiches are periodic oscillations of the waters surface and density inter-
faces resulting from a displacement.
Shortwave motion is circular in a vertical plane, making a complete revolution as each
successive wave passes. The orbital motion mixes surface layers or layers at an interface.
With no net advection of water, the overall effect is dispersive. Thus, the mixing terms in
transport and water quality models are generally increased to account for wave mixing,
especially in the epilimnion. In a few cases, specific mixinglength formulas Kent and
Pritchard, 1957, Rossby and Montgomery, 1935; were derived for wave mixing, but these
formulas have not been applied in current models of water quality. No appreciable orbital
motion occurs below a depth of approximately one-half the wavelength in unstratified
flow, a depth referred to as the wind mixed depth. The wind mixed depth increases with
fetch because the wave height and wavelength increase with increasing fetch. This is illus-
trated by a simple relationship discovered by Lerman (1978) relating fetch to the depth of
the summer thermocline for a wide variety of lakes of different sizes and shapes.
As wavelength becomes longer in relation to the depth, or as water becomes shallow-
er, wave orbits become increasingly flatter or elliptical. As the orbits flatten, the motion
of the water essentially becomes horizontal oscillation (Smith, 1975) so that the motion
of the water caused by, long waves is more advective rather than dispersive. For long
waves, the wave speed or celerity is c (gY)
0.5
.
As short waves enter shallow water, the bottom affects orbital motion. From this point
inland to the line where wave breaking occurs, the depth is less than onehalf the wave
period. In this shore zone, wave velocity decreases with the square root of the depth,
which results in a corresponding increase in wave height. Waves distort as water at the
crest moves faster than the wave, creating an instability. These unstable waves may even-
tually collapse, forming breakers or whitecaps, depending on the wave steepness of the
waves, the wind speed and direction, the direction of the waves, and the shape and rough-
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
Environmental Hydraulics 5.27
ness of the bottom. A spilling breaker tends to form over a gradually shoaling bottom and
tends to break over long distances, with the wave collapsing downward in front of the
wave. Plunging breakers occur when the bottom shoals rapidly or when the direction of
the wind opposes the wave. The plunging breaker begins to curl and then collapses before
the curl is complete. A plunging or surging breaker does actually not break or collapse but
forms a steep peak as the wave moves up the beach. The type of breaking wave and the
associated energy controls beach erosion, aquatic plant growth, surf-zone mixing, and the
exchange of contaminants between surface and ground waters.
After breaking, waves continue to move up a gradually sloping beach until the force of
gravity forces the water back. The extent to which the water runs up the beach is called
the swash zone. The movement of the swash up the beach may result in the deposition of
particles and debris, causing swash marks at the highest point of the zone. Wave runup
in the swash zone also sets up an imbalance of momentum along the porous beach face
that pumps contaminants into and out of the beach (McCutcheon, 1989).
In large lakes and reservoirs with an extremely long fetch, parallel pairs of large verti-
cal vortices or circulatory cells known as Langmuir circulation develop at an angle of 15
clockwise with the general direction of a sustained wind, when wave and current condi-
tions are favorable. The depth of the vortices depends on stratification and may interact
with internal waves formed on the thermocline, deepening over the troughs of internal
waves. Where the counterrotating Langmuir cells converge, visible streaks or bands form
on the surface that tend to accumulate floating debris. In the convergence zone, downward
velocities of 26 cm/s carry surface waters toward the thermocline. These downward cur-
rents move in a circular fashion and turn upward into a divergence zone midway between
the Langmuirstreaks. Water near the thermocline moves to a zone near the surface at a
velocity of about 1 to 2 cm/s over a larger area. As first proposed by Langmuir (1938), this
type of large-scale circulation also contributes to the vertical mixing of the epilimnion.
Like smaller-scale orbital wave mixing, the effect of Langmuir circulation is lumped into
values selected for the eddy viscosities and eddy diffusivities of the epilimnion.
Because of the smaller differences in density across density interfaces within a body of
water, internal waves travel more slowly than do surface waves, but they achieve greater
wave heights. Internal waves include standing waves, such as seiches (Mortimer, 1974) and
internal hydraulic jumps (French, 1985), but most are progressive waves that radiate energy
from the point at which the waves were generated (Ford and Johnson, 1986). Wind shear,
water withdrawals, hydropower releases, and thermal discharges as well as local distur-
bances produce internal waves. The most significant mixing between stratified layers occurs
when internal waves break (Turner, 1973). Before breaking, internal waves mix the water
adjacent to the interface and sharpen the density interface to increase the likelihood of break-
ing. When wave breaking does occur, the entrained water is mixed through the adjacent layer.
Among the most important internal waves is the seiche. As defined above, seiches are
periodic oscillations of the water surface and density interfaces resulting from a displace-
ment. Displacements are typically caused by large scale wind events or large withdrawals.
Sustained wind across a lake surface increases the elevation the waters surface at the
downwind boundary of the lake, causing wind setup. As the wind subsides, the waters
surface tilt or displacement results in a sloshing motion, or seiche, of the lake surface and
in thermocline if the lake is stratified. If hydropower operations or reservoir releases
change the net flow toward the dam, the water piles up at the dam and forms a seiche,
often resulting in noticeable differences in thermocline depths between periods of opera-
tion and nonoperation, such as between weekdays and weekends. More rarely, a seiche
may result from earthquakes or other geologic events. During the rocking or sloshing,
potential energy is converted to kinetic energy and is dissipated by bottom friction.
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
5.28 Chapter Five
Wind setup in Lake Erie may exceed 2 m during severe storms (Wetzel, 1975), but for
a moderate storm blowing over the long axis of Green Bay, Wisconsin the wind setup has
reached approximately 12 cm (Martin and McCutcheon, 1998). An estimate of wind setup
can be obtained from the onedimensional equation of motion assuming constant depth,
negligible bottom stress, and steadystate conditions in an unstratified lake, or

a
g
C

D
y
u
2
w

g
v
y
2
*

(5.70)
where the deviation of the waters surface (m), x the horizontal distance (m),
a

the density of air (kg/m


3
), the density of water (kg/m
3
), C
D
the dimensionless drag
coefficient, u
w
the wind speed (m/s), y the water depth (m), and v
*
the friction
velocity in water (m/s) or (
s
/)
0.5
, in which
s
is the surface shear stress (kg/m s
2
).
The term /x is positive in the direction of the wind. The divergence between wind and
shear force is negligible in shallow lakes and reservoirs but not in deep oceans.
5.6 PLUME AND JET HYDRAULICS
Ajet is the discharge of a fluid from an opening into a large body of the same or similar fluid
that is driven by momentum. A plume is a flow that, while resembling a jet, is the result of
an energy source providing the fluid with positive or negative buoyancy rather than momen-
tum relative to its surroundings. Many discharges into the environment are discussed in
terms of negatively or positively buoyant jets, implying that they derive from sources that
provide both momentum and buoyancy. In such cases, the initial flow is driven primarily by
the momentum of the fluid exiting the opening; however, if the exiting fluid is less or more
dense than the surrounding fluid, it is subsequently acted on by buoyancy forces.
Jets and plumes can be classified as either laminar or turbulent, with the difference
between the two being described by a Reynolds number, as with pipe flow. Near the
source of the flow, the flow of a jet or plume is controlled entirely by the primary initial
conditions that include the mean velocity of the jets exit, the geometry of the exit, and the
initial difference in density between the discharge and the surrounding, or ambient, fluid.
Secondary initial conditions include the intensity of the exiting turbulence and the distri-
bution of the velocity. Following Fischer et al. (1979), the factors of prime importance to
jet dynamics can be defined as follows:
1. Mass flux the mass of fluid passing a jet cross section per unit time
mass flux =
a
A
(u)dA (5.71)
where A is the cross-sectional area of the jet and u the time-averaged velocity of the
jet in the axial direction.
2. Momentum flux amount of momentum passing a jet cross section per unit time
momentum flux =
a
A
(u
2
)dA (5.72)
3. Buoyancy flux buoyant or submerged weight of the fluid passing a jet cross sec-
tion per unit of time
buoyancy flux =
a
A
(gu)dA (5.73)
where the difference in density between the surrounding fluid and the fluid in the
jet. It is convenient to define g()/g g' as the effective gravitational acceleration.
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
Environmental Hydraulics 5.29
5.6.1 Simple Jets
The two dimensional or plane jet issuing from a slot and the round jet issuing from a noz-
zle into a quiescent ambient fluid are among the simplest cases of jets that can be consid-
ered. These jets have been studied extensively, and there is a reasonable understanding of
how they behave. The boundary between the ambient and jet fluids is sharp at any instant,
and if a tracer were present in the jet fluid, time-averaged measurements would show a
Gaussian distribution of tracer concentration (C) across the jet or

C
C
m

exp
,
,

k
j
j
,
(

y
x

\
(
,
2
]
]
]
(5.74)
where the subscript m the value of C on the jet axis, x the distance along the jet axis,
k
j
experimental coefficients, and y the transverse (or radial) distance from the jet
axis. The Gaussian distribution also is valid for the time-averaged velocity profile across
the jet provided that the measurement is taken downstream of the zone of established flow.
In the case of a circular jet, the length of the zone of established flow is approximately 10
orifice diameters downstream.
Downstream of the zone of established flow, the jet continues to expand and the mean
velocity and tracer concentrations decrease. Within the zone of established flow, the
velocity and concentration profiles are self-similar and can be described in terms of a
maximum value (measured at the jets center line) and a measure of the width or, in the
case of the velocity, distribution:

v
v
m

f
j
,
(

b
y
w

\
(
,
(5.75)
where v
m
the value of v on the jets center line, y a coordinate transverse to the jets
axis, and b
w
the value of x at which v is some specified fraction of v
m
(often taken as
either 0.5 or 0.37; Fischer et al. 1979). The functional form of f in Eq, (5.75) is most often
taken as Gaussian.
Almost all the properties of turbulent jets that are important to engineers can be
deduced from dimensional analysis combined with empirical data (Fischer et al. 1979).
These results are summarized in Table 5.2.
5.6.2 Simple Plumes
Because the simple plume has no initial volume or momentum flux (e.g., smoke rising
from a fire), all variables must be a function of only the buoyancy flux (B), the vertical
distance from the origin (y), and the viscosity of the fluid where
B g
j
,
(

\
(
,
Q g
'
o
Q (5.76)
and
o
difference in density between the plume fluid and the ambient fluid and g
o

apparent gravitational acceleration.
Results similar to those for jets are summarized in Table 5.3, and the numerical con-
stants given are from Chen and Rodi (1976).
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
5.30 Chapter Five
TABLE 5.3 Summary of Plume Properties
Parameter Round Plume Plane Plume
Maximum time-averaged (4.7 0.2)B
1/3
y
-1/3
1.66 B
1/3
velocity
v
m
Maximum time-average (9.1 0.5)M B
-1/3
y
-5/3
2.38M B
-1/3
B
-1
tracer concentration
C
m
Volume flux (0.15 0.015)B
1/3
y
5/3
0.34 B
1/3
y
Q
Ratio 1.4 0.2 0.81 0.1
C
m
/C
avg
Source: After Fischer et al. 1979.
TABLE 5.2 Summary of the Properties of Turbulent Jets
Parameter Round Jet Plane Jet
Initial volume flow rate

D
4
2
V
0

b
0
y
0
V
0
Q
o
Initial momentum flux

D
4
2
V
2
0

b
0
y
0
V
2
0
M
o
Characteristic length scale
M
Q

0
0


M
Q
2
0
0

l
Q
Maximum time-averaged
velocity v
m

M
Q

(7.0

0.1)
j
,
(

l
y
Q

\
(
,
v
m

M
Q

(2.41

0.04)
j
,
(

l
y
Q

\
(
,
V
m
Maximum time-averaged
tracer concentration

C
C
m
0

(5.6

0.1)
j
,
(

l
y
Q

\
(
,

C
C
m
0

(2.38

0.04)
j
,
(

l
y
Q

\
(
,
C
m
Mean dilution

Q
Q
0

(0.25

0.01)
j
,
(

l
y
Q

\
(
,
Q\Q
0
(0.50

0.02)
j
,
(

l
y
Q

\
(
,
Ratio
C
m
/C
av
1.4

0.1 1.2

0.1
Source: After Fischer et al. 1979.
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
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ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS
6.1 INTRODUCTION
Since the beginning of mankind, sedimentation processes have affected water supplies,
irrigation, agricultural practices, flood control, river migration, hydroelectric projects,
navigation, fisheries, and aquatic habitat. In the last few years, sediment also has been
found to play an important role in the transport and fate of pollutants; thus, sedimentation
control has become an important issue in water quality management. Toxic chemicals can
become attached to, or adsorbed by, sediment particles and then be transported to and
deposited in other areas. By studying the quantity, quality, and characteristics of sediment
in rivers and streams, scientists and engineers can determine the sources of the sediment
and evaluate the impact of pollutants on the aquatic environment. In the United States,
sedimentation control is a multibillion-dollar issue. For example, approximately $500 mil-
lion are spent every year to dredge waterways and harbors for navigation purposes. Most
of the dredged sediment is the result of substantial soil erosion in watersheds. Estimates
by the U.S. Department of Agriculture indicate that annual offside costs of sediment
derived from copland erosion are on the order of $2 billion to $6 billion, with an addi-
tional $1 billion arising from loss in compared productivity.
The sediment cycle starts with the process of erosion, where by particles or fragments
are weathered from rock material. Action by water, wind, glaciers, and plant and animal
activities all contribute to the erosion of the earths surface. Fluvial sediment is the term
used to describe the case where water is the key agent for erosion. Natural, or geologic,
erosion takes place slowly, over centuries or millennia. Erosion that occurs as a result of
human activity may take place much faster. It is important to understand the role of each
cause when studying sediment transport.
Any material that can be dislodged is ready to be transported. The transportation
process is initiated on the land surface when raindrops result in sheet erosion. Rills, gul-
lies, streams, and rivers then act as conduits for the movement of sediment. The greater
the discharge, or rate of flow, the higher the capacity for sediment transport.
The final process in the cycle is deposition. When there is not enough energy to transport
the sediment, it comes to rest. Sinks, or depositional areas, can be visible as newly deposit-
ed material on a floodplain, on bars and islands in a channel, and on deltas. Considerable
deposition occurs that may not be apparent, as on lake and river beds. A knowledge of sed-
iment dynamics is an integral part of understanding the aquatic ecosystem.
This chapter presents fundamental aspects of the erosion, transport, and deposition of
sediment in the environment. The emphasis is on the hydraulics of bedload and suspend-
CHAPTER 6
SEDIMENTATION AND
EROSION HYDRAULICS
Marcelo H. Garca
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Urbana, IL
6.1
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Source: HYDRAULIC DESIGN HANDBOOK
ed load transport in rivers, with the goal of establishing the background needed for sedi-
mentation engineering. Because of their relevance, the hydraulics of both reservoir sedi-
mentation and turbidity currents also is considered. Emphasis is placed on noncohesive
sediment transport, where the material involved can be silt, sand, or gravel. When possi-
ble, the behavior of both uniform-sized material and sediment mixtures is analyzed.
Although such topics as cohesive sediment transport, debris and mud flows, alluvial fans,
river meandering, and sediment transport by wave action are not discussed here, it is
hoped that the material covered in this chapter will provide a firm foundation to tackle
problems in those.
For more information on sediment transport and sedimentation engineering, readers
are referred to Allen (1985), Ashworth et al. (1996), Bogardi (1974), Bouvard (1992),
Carling and Dawson (1996), Chang (1988), Coussot (1997), Fredse and Deigaard
(1992), Garde and Ranga Raju (1985), Graf (1971), Jansen et al. (1979), Julien (1992),
Mehta (1986), Mehta et al. (1989a, 1989b), Morris and Fan (1998), Nakato and Ettema
(1996), National Research Council (1996), Nielsen (1992), National Research council
(1996), Parker and Ikeda (1989), Raudkivi (1990, 1993), Renard et al. (1997), Sieben
(1997), Simons and Senturk (1992), Sloff (1997), van Rijn (1997), Yalin (1972, 1992),
Yang (1996), and Wan and Wang (1994).
6.2 HYDRAULICS FOR SEDIMENT TRANSPORT
6.2.1 Flow Velocity Distribution
Consider a steady, turbulent, uniform, open-channel flow having a mean depth H and a
mean flow velocity U (Fig. 6.1). The channel is extremely wide and its bottom has a mean
slope S and a surface roughness that can be characterized by an effective height k
s
(Brownlie, 1981b). When the bottom of the channel is covered with sediment having a
mean size or diameter D, the roughness height k
s
will be proportional to that diameter.
Because of the weight of the water, the flow exerts on the bottom a tangential force per
unit bed area known as the bed shear stress
b
, which can be expressed as:

b
gHS (6.1)
where is the water density and g is the gravitational acceleration. With the help of the
boundary shear stress, it is possible to define the shear velocity u
*
as
6.2 Chapter Six
FIGURE 6.1 Definition diagram for open-channel flow over an erodible bed.
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
u
*

b
/ (6.2)
The shear velocity, and thus the boundary shear stress, provides a direct measure of the
intensity of flow and its ability to entrain and transport sediment particles. The size of the
sediment particles on the bottom determines the surface roughness, which in turn affects
the flow velocity distribution and its sediment transport capacity. Since flow resistance
and sediment transport rates are interrelated, the ability to determine the role played by
the bottom roughness is important.
Research has shown (Schlichting, 1979) that the flow velocity distribution is well rep-
resented by:

u
u

lnz const. (6.3)


where u

is the time-averaged flow velocity at distance z above the bed and is known as
Von Karmans constant and is equal to 0.4. For obvious reasons, the above law is known
as the logarithmic law of the wall. It strictly applies only in a thin layer near the bed. It is
empirically found to apply as a reasonable approximation throughout most of the flow in
many rivers.
If the bottom boundary is sufficiently smooth (a condition rarely satisfied in rivers),
turbulence will be drastically suppressed in an extremely thin layer near the bed. In this
region, a linear velocity profile will hold:

u
u



u
v
*
z

(6.4)
where is the kinematic viscosity of water. This law merges with the logarithmic law near
z
v
, where

v
11.6

u

(6.5)
denotes the height of the viscous sublayer. In the logarithmic region, the constant of inte-
gration introduced above has been evaluated from data to yield

u
u

ln

*
z

,
5.5 (6.6)
Most boundaries in river flow are rough. Let k
s
denote an effective roughness height.
If k
s
/
v
1, then no viscous sublayer will exist. The corresponding logarithmic velocity
profile is given by

u
u

1

ln

k
z
s

,
8.5

1

ln

30

k
z
s

,
(6.7)
As noted above, this relation often holds as a first approximation throughout the flow in a
river. It is by no means exact.
The conditions k
s
/

1 for rough turbulent flow and k


s
/

1 for smooth turbulent


flow can be rewritten to indicate that u
*
k
s
/ should be much larger than 11.6 for turbulent
rough flow and much smaller than 11.6 for turbulent smooth flow. A composite form that
represents both ranges, as well as the transitional range between them, can be written as

u
u

1

ln

k
z
s

,
B
s
(6.8)
with B
s
as a function of Re
*
u
*
k
s
/, which can be estimated with
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.3
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
B
s
8.5 [2.5 ln(Re
*
) 3]e
0.127[ln(Re
*
)]
2
(6.9)
as proposed by Yalin (1992).
6.2.2 Relations for Channel Resistance
Most river flows are indeed hydraulically rough. Equation (6.7) can be used to obtain an
approximate expression for depth-averaged velocity U that is reasonably accurate for
many flows. Using the following integral:
U

H
1

H
0
u

dz (6.10)
but changing the lower limit slightly to avoid the fact that the logarithmic law is singular
at z 0, the following result is obtained:

u
U
*

H
1

H
k
s

ln

k
z
s

,
8.5
1
1
]
dz (6.11)
or, performing the integration

u
U
*

ln

H
k
s

,
6

ln

11

H
k
s

,
(6.12)
This relation is known as Keulegan's resistance relation for rough flow.
An approximation to Keulegan's relation is the Manning-Strickler power form

u
U
*

H
k
s

,
1/6
(6.13)
Between Eqs. (6.2) and (6.12), a resistance relation can be found for bed shear stress:

b
C
f
U
2
(6.14)
where the friction coefficient C
f
is given by
C
f

ln

11

H
k
s

,
1
1
]
2
(6.15)
If Eq. (6.13) is used instead of Eq. (6.12), the friction coefficient takes the form
C
f

H
k
s

,
1/61
1
]
2
(6.16)
It is useful to show the relationship between the friction coefficient C
f
and the rough-
ness parameters in open-channel flow relations commonly used in practice. Between Eqs.
(6.1) and (6.14), the following form of Chezy's law can be derived:
U C
c
H
1/2
S
1/2
(6.17)
where the Chezy coefficient C
c
is given by the relation
6.4 Chapter Six
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
C
c

C
g
f

,
1/2
(6.18)
A specific evaluation of Chezy's coefficient can be obtained by substituting Eq. (6.15) into
Eq. (6.18). It is seen that the coefficient is not constant but varies as the logarithm of H/k
s
.
A logarithmic dependence is typically a weak one, partially justifying the common
assumption that Chezy's coefficient in Eq. (6.17) is a constant. Substituting Eq. (6.16) into
Eqs. (6.17) and (6.18), Manning's law is obtained:
U =

1
n

H
2/3
S
1/2
(6.19)
where Manning's n is given by
n =

8
k
g
s
1
1
/6
/2

(6.20)
The above relation is often called the Manning-Strickler form of Manning's n.
6.2.3 Fixed-Bed and Movable-Bed Roughness
It is clear that to use the above relations for channel flow resistance, a criterion for evalu-
ating k
s
is necessary. Nikuradse (1933) proposed the following criterion: Suppose a rough
surface is subjected to a flow. The equivalent roughness k
s
of that surface is equal to the
diameter of sand grains that, when glued uniformly to a completely smooth wall and then
subjected to the same external conditions, yields the same velocity profile. Nikuradse used
sand glued to the inside of pipes to conduct this evaluation. Extending Nikuradse's con-
cept of equivalent grain roughness to the case of rivers and streams, k
s
can be assumed to
be proportional to a representative sediment size D
x
,
k
s
=
s
D
x
(6.21)
Suggested values of
s
, which have appeared in the literature, are listed in Table 6.1 (Yen,
1992). Different sizes of sediment have been suggested for D
x
in Eq. (6.21). Statistically, D
50
(the grain size for which 50% of the bed material is finer) is most readily available and
meaningful. Physically, a representative size larger than D
50
is more meaningful to estimate
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.5
TABLE 6.1 Ratio of Nikuradse Equivalent Roughness Size and Sediment Size for Rivers.
Investigator Measure of Sediment Size, D
x

s
= k
s
/D
x
Ackers and White (1973) D
35
1.23
Strickler (1923) D
50
3.3
Keulegan (1938) D
50
1
Meyer-Peter and Muller (1948) D
50
1
Thompson and Campbell (1979) D
50
2.0
Hammond et al. (1984) D
50
6.6
Einstein and Barbarossa (1952) D
65
1
Irmay (1949) D
65
1.5
Engelund and Hansen (1967) D
65
2.0
Lane and Carlson (1953) D
75
3.2
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
flow resistance because of the dominant effect by large sediment particles.
In flow over a geometrically smooth, fixed boundary, the apparent roughness of the
bed k
s
can be computed using Nikuradse's approach. However, once the transport of bed
material has been instigated, the characteristic grain diameter and the thickness of the vis-
cous sublayer no longer provide the relevant length scales. The characteristic length scale
in this situation is the thickness of the layer where the sediment particles are being trans-
ported by the flow, usually referred to as the bedload layer.
Once the bed shear stress
b
exceeds the critical shear stress for particle motion
c
, the
apparent bed roughness k
a
can be estimated as follows (Smith and McLean, 1997):
k
a

0

(
(

s
b

)
c
)
g

k
s
(6.22)
where
0
26.3, k
s
is Nikuradse's fixed-bed roughness, and
s
is the bed sediment densi-
ty. This approach is particularly suitable for sand bed rivers.
Under intense sediment transport conditions, bedforms, such as dunes, can develop. In
this situation, the apparent roughness also will be influenced by the form drag caused by
the presence of bedforms. Nikuradse's approach is valid only for grain-induced roughness.
Methods for flow resistance in the presence of both bedforms and grain roughness are pre-
sented later.
6.3 SEDIMENT PROPERTIES
6.3.1 Rock Types
The solid phase of the problem embodied in sediment transport can be any granular sub-
stance. In engineering applications, however, the granular substance in question typically
consists of fragments ultimately derived from rockshence the name sediment transport.
The properties of these rock-derived fragments, taken singly or in groups of many parti-
cles, all play a role in determining the transportability of the grains under fluid action. The
6.6 Chapter Six
TABLE 6.1. (Continued)
Investigator Measure of Sediment Size, D
x
s = k
s
/D
x
Gladki (1979) D
80
2.5
Leopold et al. (1964) D
84
3.9
Limerinos (1970) D
84
2.8
Mahmood (1971) D
84
5.1
Hey (1979), Bray (1979) D
84
3.5
Ikeda (1983) D
84
1.5
Colosimo et al. (1986) D
84
3 6
Whiting and Dietrich (1990) D
84
2.95
Simons and Richardson (1966) D
85
1
Kamphuis (1974) D
90
2.0
van Rijn (1982) D
90
3.0
SOURCE: Adapted from Yen (1992)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.7
important properties of groups of particles include porosity and size distribution. The most
common rock type one is likely to encounter in the river or coastal environment is quartz.
Quartz is a highly resistant rock and can travel long distances or remain in place for long
periods without losing its integrity. Another highly resistant rock type that is often found
together with quartz is feldspar. Other common rock types include limestone, basalt, gran-
ite, and more esoteric types, such as magnetite. Limestone is not a resistant rock; it tends
to abrade to silt rather easily. Silt-sized limestone particles are susceptible to solution
unless the water is buffered sufficiently. As a result, limestone typically is not a major
component of sediments at locations distant from its source. On the other hand, it often
can be the dominant rock type in mountain environments.
Basaltic rocks tend to be heavier than most rocks composing the earths crust and typ-
ically are brought to the surface by volcanic activity. Basaltic gravels are relatively com-
mon in rivers that derive their sediment supply from areas subjected to vulcanism in recent
geologic history. Basaltic sands are much less common. Regions of weathered granite
often provide copious supplies of sediment. Although the particles produced by weather-
ing are often in the granule size, they often break down quickly to sand size.
Sediments in the fluvial or coastal environment in the size range of silt, or coarser, are
generally produced by mechanical means, including fracture or abrasion. The clay miner-
als, on the other hand, are produced by chemical action. As a result, they are fundamen-
tally different from other sediments in many ways. Their ability to absorb water means
that the porosity of clay deposits can vary greatly over time. Clays also display cohesivi-
ty, which renders them more resistant to erosion.
6.3.2 Specific Gravity
The specific gravity of sediment is defined as the ratio between the sediment density
s
and the density of water . Some typical specific gravities for various natural and artifi-
cial sediments are listed in Table 6.2.
6.3.3 Size
Herein, the notation D is used to denote sediment size, the typical units of which are
millimeters (mm) for sand and coarser material or microns () for clay and silt.
Another standard way of classifying grain sizes is the sedimentological scale,
according to which
TABLE 6.2 Specific Gravity of Rock Types
and Artificial Material
Rock type or Specific gravity
material
s
/
quartz 2.60 2.70
limestone 2.60 2.80
basalt 2.70 2.90
magnetite 3.20 3.50
plastic 1.00 1.50
coal 1.30 1.50
walnut shells 1.30 1.40
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.8 Chapter Six
D 2

(6.23)
Taking the logarithm of both sides, it is seen that
log2(D)

1
1
n
n
(
(
D
2)
)

(6.24)
Note that the size 0 corresponds to D 1 mm. The usefulness of the scale will
become apparent upon a consideration of grain size distributions. The minus sign has been
inserted in Eq. (6.24) simply as a matter of convenience to sedimentologists, who are more
accustomed to working with material finer than 1 mm than they are with coarser materi-
al. The reader should always recall that larger implies finer material. The scale pro-
vides a simple way of classifying grain sizes into the following size ranges in descending
order: boulders, cobbles, gravel, sand, silt, and clay. (Table 6.3).
Note that the definition of clay according to size (D 2) does not always correspond
to the definition of clay according to mineral. That is, some clay-mineral particles can be
coarser than this limit, and some silt-sized particles produced by grinding can be finer than
that. In general, however, the effect of viscosity makes it difficult to grind up particles in
water to sizes finer than 2.
In practical terms, there are several ways to determine grain size. The most popular
way for grains ranging from 4 to 4 (0.0625 to 16 mm) is with the use of
sieves. Each sieve has a square mesh, the gap size of which corresponds to the diameter
of the largest sphere that would fit through it. Thus, the grain size D so measured corre-
sponds exactly to the diameter only in the case of a sphere. In general, the sieve size D
corresponds to the smallest sieve gap size through which a given grain can be fitted.
For coarser grain sizes, it is customary to approximate the grain as an ellipsoid. Three
lengths can be defined. The length along the major (longest) axis is denoted as a, the
length along the intermediate axis is denoted as b, and the length along the minor (small-
est) axis is denoted as c. These lengths are typically measured with a caliper. The value b
is then equated to grain size D.
For grains in the silt and clay sizes, many methods (hydrometer, sedigraph, and so
forth) are based on the concept of equivalent fall diameter. That is, the terminal fall veloc-
ity v
s
of a grain in water at a standard temperature is measured. The equivalent fall diam-
eter D is the diameter of the sphere having exactly the same fall velocity under the same
conditions. Sediment fall velocity is discussed in more detail below.
A variety of other more recent methods for sizing fine particles rely on blockage of
light beams. The blocked area can be used to determine the diameter of the equivalent cir-
cle: i.e., the projection of the equivalent sphere. It can be seen that all the above methods
can be expected to operate consistently as long as grains shape does not deviate too great-
ly from a sphere. In general, this turns out to be the case. There are some important excep-
tions, however. At the fine end of the spectrum, mica particles tend to be platelike; the
same is true of shale grains at the coarser end. Comparison with a sphere is not necessar-
ily an especially useful way to characterize grain size for such materials.
6.3.4 Size Distribution
Any sample of sediment normally contains a range of sizes. An appropriate way to char-
acterize these samples is by grain size distribution. Consider a large bulk sample of sedi-
ment of given weight. Let p
f
(D)or p
f
()denote the fraction by weight of material in
the sample of material finer than size D(). The customary engineering representation of
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.9
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r
y

f
i
n
e

s
a
n
d
0
.
1
2
5

0
.
0
6
2
3

4
1
2
5

6
2
2
5
0
2
3
0
C
o
a
r
s
e

s
i
l
t
0
.
0
6
2

0
.
0
3
1
4

5
6
2

3
1
M
e
d
i
u
m

s
i
l
t
0
.
0
3
1

0
.
0
1
6
5

6
3
1

1
6
F
i
n
e

s
i
l
t
0
.
0
1
6

0
.
0
0
8
6

7
1
6

8
V
e
r
y

f
i
n
e

s
i
l
t
0
.
0
0
8

0
.
0
0
4
7

8
8

4
C
o
a
r
s
e

c
l
a
y
0
.
0
0
4

0
.
0
0
2
0
8

9
4

2
M
e
d
i
u
m

c
l
a
y
0
.
0
0
2
0

0
.
0
0
1
0
2

1
F
i
n
e

c
l
a
y
0
.
0
0
1
0

0
.
0
0
0
5
1

0
.
5
V
e
r
y

f
i
n
e

c
l
a
y
0
.
0
0
0
5

0
.
0
0
0
2
4
0
.
5

0
.
2
4
S
O
U
R
C
E
:
A
d
a
p
t
e
d

f
r
o
m

V
a
n
o
n
i
,
1
9
7
5
.
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.10 Chapter Six
the grain size distribution consists of a plot of p
f
100 (percentage finer) versus log
10
(D):
that is, a semilogarithmic plot is used. The same size distribution plotted in sedimento-
logical form would involve plotting p
f
100 versus on a linear plot.
The size distribution p
f
() and size density p() by weight can be used to extract use-
ful statistics concerning the sediment in question. Let x denote some percentage, say 50%;
the grain size
x
denotes the size such that x percent of the weight of the sample is com-
posed of finer grains. That is,
x
is defined such that
p
f
(
x
)

10
x
0

(6.25)
It follows that the corresponding grain size of equivalent diameter is given by D
x
, where
D
x
2

x
(6.26)
The most commonly used grain sizes of this type are the median size D
50
and the size
D
90
: i.e., 90% of the sample by weight consists of finer grains. The latter size is especial-
ly useful for characterizing bed roughness.
The density p() can be used to extract statistical moments. Of these, the most useful
are the mean size
m
and the standard deviation . These are given by the relations.

m
p()d;
2
(
m
)
2
p()D (6.27a, b)
The corresponding geometric mean diameter D
g
and geometric standard deviation
g
are given as
D
g
2

m
;
g
2

(6,28a,b)
Note that for a perfectly uniform material, 0 and g 1. As a practical matter, a sed-
iment mixture with a value of
g
less than 1.3 is often termed well sorted and can be treat-
ed as a uniform material. When the geometric standard deviation exceeds 1.6, the mater-
ial can be said to be poorly sorted (Diplas and Sutherland, 1988).
In fact, one never has the continuous function p() with which to compute the
moments of Eqs. (6.27a, and b). Instead, one must rely on a discretization. To this end, the
size range covered by a given sample of sediment is discretized using n intervals bound-
ed by n 1 grain sizes
1
,
2
,,
n 1
in ascending order of . The following defini-
tions are made from i 1 to n:

i


1
2

(
i

i1
) (6.29a)
p
i
p
f
(
i
) p
f
(
i1
) (6.29b)
Eqs. (6.27a and b) now discretize to

n
i1

i
p
i

2

n
i1
(
i

m
)
2
p
i
(6.30)
In some cases, especially when the material in question is sand, the size distribution
can be approximated as gaussian on the scale (i.e., log-normal in D). For a perfectly
Gaussian distribution, the mean and median sizes coincide:

m

50


1
2

(
84

16
) (6.31)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.11
Furthermore, it can be demonstrated from a standard table of the Gauss distribution that
the size displaced one standard deviation larger that
m
is accurately given by
84
; by
symmetry, the corresponding size that is one standard deviation smaller than
m
is
16
.
The following relations thus hold:


1
2

(
84

16
) (6.32a)

m


1
2

(
84

16
) (6.32b)
Rearranging the above relations with the aid of Eqs. (6.28a and b) and Eqs. (6.31 and
6.32a),

D
D
8
1
4
6

1/2
(6.33a)
D
g
(D
84
D
16
)
1/2
(6.33b)
It must be emphasized that the above relations are exact only for a gaussian distribution
in . This is not often the case in nature. As a result, it is strongly recommended that D
g
and
g
be computed from the full size distribution via Eqs. (6.30a and b) and (6.28a and
b) rather than the approximate form embodied in the above relations.
6.3.5 Porosity
The porosity
p
quantifies the fraction of a given volume of sediment that is composed of
void space. That is,

If a given mass of sediment of known density is deposited, the volume of the deposit
must be computed, assuming that at least part of it will consist of voids. In the case of
well-sorted sand, the porosity often can take values between 0.3 and 0.4. Gravels tend to
be more poorly sorted. In this case, finer particles can occupy the spaces between coarser
particles, thus reducing the void ratio to as low as 0.2. Because so-called open-work grav-
els are essentially devoid of sand and finer material in their interstices, they may have
porosities similar to sand. Freshly deposited clays are notorious for having high porosi-
ties. As time passes, the clay deposit tends to consolidate under its own weight so that
porosity slowly decreases.
The issue of porosity becomes of practical importance with regard to salmon spawn-
ing grounds in gravel-bed rivers, for example (Diplas and Parker, 1985). The percentage
of sand and silt contained in the sediment is often referred to as the percentage of fines in
the gravel deposit. When this fraction rises above 20 or 26 percent by weight, the deposit
is often rendered unsuitable for spawning. Salmon bury their eggs within the gravel, and
a high fines content implies a low porosity and thus reduced permeability. The flow of
groundwater necessary to carry oxygen to the eggs and remove metabolic waste products
is impeded. In addition, newly hatched fry may encounter difficulty in finding enough
pore space through which to emerge to the surface. All the above factors dictate lowered
survival rates. Chief causes of elevated fines in gravel rivers include road building and
clear-cutting of timber in the basin.
volume of voids

volume of total space


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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.3.6 Shape
Grain shape can be classified in a number of ways. One of these, the Zingg classification
scheme, is illustrated here (Vanoni, 1975). According to the definitions introduced earlier,
a simple way to characterize the shape of an irregular clast (stone) is by lengths a, b, and
c of the major, intermediate, and minor axes, respectively. If the three lengths are equal,
the grain can be said to be close to a sphere in shape. If a and b are equal but c is much
larger, the grain should be rodlike. Finally, if c is much smaller than b, which in turn, is
much larger than a, the resulting shape should be bladelike.
6.3.7 Fall Velocity
A fundamental property of sediment particles is their fall velocity. The relation for termi-
nal fall velocity in quiescent fluid v
s
can be presented as
R
f

4
3

C
D
1
(R
p
)

1/2
(6.34)
where
R
f

R
v
s
gD

(6.35a)
R
p


v
s
v
D

(6.35b)
and the functional relation C
D
C
D
(R
p
) denotes the drag curve for spheres. This relation
is not particularly useful because it is not explicit in v
s
; one must compute fall velocity by
trial and error. One can use the equation for C
D
given below
C
D


2
R
4
p

(1 0.152R
p
1
/
2 0.0151R
p
) (6.36)
and the definition
Re
p

Rg

D D

(6.37)
to obtain an explicit relation for fall velocity in the form of R
f
versus Re
p
. In Fig. 6.2, the
ranges for silt, sand, and gravel are plotted for 0.01 cm
2
/s (clear water at 20C) and R
1.65 (quartz). A good summary of relations for terminal fall velocity for the case of
nonspherical (natural) particles can be found in Dietrich (1982), who also proposed the
following useful fit:
R
f
exp{b
1
b
2
ln(Re
p
) b
3
[ln(Re
p
)]
2
b
4
[ln(Re
p
)]
3
b
5
[ln(Re
p
)]
4
} (6.38)
where b
1
2.891394, b
2
0.95296, b
3
0.056835, b
4
0.002892, and b
5
0.000245
6.3.8 Relation Between Size Distribution and Stream Morphology
The study of sediment properties and, in particular, size distribution is most relevant to the
context of stream morphology. The following discussion points out some of the more
interesting issues.
6.12 Chapter Six
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.13
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
2
S
e
d
i
m
e
n
t

f
a
l
l

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
d
i
a
g
r
a
m
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.14 Chapter Six
FIGURE 6.3 Particle size distribution of bed materials in Kankakee River, Illinois.
(Bhowmik et al., 1980)
In Fig. 6.3, several size distributions from the sand-bed Kankakee River in Illinois, are
shown (Bhowmik et al., 1980). The characteristic S shape suggests that these distributions
might be approximated by a gaussian curve. The median size D
50
falls near 0.3 to 0.4 mm.
The distributions are tight, with a near absence of either gravel or silt. For practical pur-
poses, the material can be approximated as uniform.
In Fig. 6.4, several size distributions pertaining to the gravel-bed Oak Creek in Oregon,
are shown (Milhous, 1973). In gravel-bed streams, the surface layer (armor or pave-
ment) tends to be coarser than the substrate (identified as subpavement in the figure).
Whether the surface or substrate is considered, it is apparent that the distribution ranges
over a much wider range of grain sizes than is the case in Fig. 6.3. More specifically, in
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.15
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
4
S
i
z
e

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

o
f

b
e
d

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

s
a
m
p
l
e
s

i
n

O
a
k

C
r
e
e
k
.

O
r
e
g
o
n
.

S
o
u
r
c
e
:
(
M
i
l
h
o
u
s
,
1
9
7
3
)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.16 Chapter Six
the distributions of the sand-bed Kankakee River, varies from about 0 to about 3, where-
as in Oak Creek, varies from about 8 to about 3. In addition, the distribution of Fig.
6.4 is upward-concave almost everywhere and thus deviates strongly from the gaussian
distribution.
These two examples provide a window toward generalization. A river can be loosely
classified as sand-bed or gravel-bed according to whether the median size D
50
of the sur-
face material or substrate is less than or greater than 2 mm. The size distributions of sand-
bed streams tend to be relatively narrow and also tend to be S shaped. The size distribu-
tions of gravel-bed streams tend to be much broader and to display an upward-concave
shape. Of course, there are many exceptions to this behavior, but it is sufficiently general
to warrant emphasis.
More evidence for this behavior is provided in Fig. 6.5. Here, the grain size distribu-
tions for a variety of stream reaches have been normalized using the median size D
50
.
Four sand-bed reaches are included with three gravel-bed reaches. All the sand-bed
distributions are S shaped, and all have a lower spread than the gravel-bed distributions.
The standard deviation is seen to increase systematically with increasing D
50
(White et al.,
1973).
The three gravel-bed size distributions differ systematically from the sand-bed distrib-
utions in a fashion that accurately reflects Oak Creek (Fig. 6.4). The standard deviation in
all cases is markedly larger than any of the sand-bed distributions, and the distributions
FIGURE 6.5 Dimensionless grain-size distribution for different rivers (White et al., 1973)
are upward-concave except perhaps near the coarsest sizes.
6.4 THRESHOLD CONDITION FOR SEDIMENT MOVEMENT
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.17
When a granular bed is subjected to a turbulent flow, virtually no motion of the grains is
observed at some flows, but the bed is mobilized noticeably at other flows. Factors that
affect the mobility of grains subjected to a flow are summarized below:
randomness

grain placement
turbulence
forces on grain

fluid

lift
mean & turbulent
drag
gravity
In the presence of turbulent flow, random fluctuations typically prevent the clear defini-
tion of a critical, or threshold condition for motion: The probability for the movement of
a grain is never precisely zero (Lavelle and Mofjeld, 1987). Nevertheless, it is possible to
define a condition below which movement can be neglected for many practical purposes.
6.4.1 Granular Sediment on a Stream Bed
Figure 6.6 is a diagram showing the forces acting on a grain in a bed of other grains. When
critical conditions exist and the grain is on the verge of moving, the moment caused by
the critical shear stress
c
about the point of support is just equal to that of the weight of
the grain. Equating these moments gives (Vanoni, 1975):
FIGURE 6.6 Forces acting on a sediment particle on an inclined bed
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.18 Chapter Six

c


c
c
1
2
a
a
1
2

(
s
) Dcos (tan tan) (6.39)
in which
s
specific weight of sediment grains, specific weight of water, D diam-
eter of grains, is the slope angle of the stream, the angle of repose of the sediment, c
1
and c
2
are dimensionless constants, and a
1
and a
2
are lengths shown in Fig. 6.6. Any consis-
tent set of units can be used in Eq. (6.39). For a horizontal bed, Eq. (6.39) reduces to

c
c
1
2
a
a
1
2

(
s
)D tan (6.40)
For an adverse slope (i.e., 0),

c
c
1
2
a
a
1
2

(
s
)D cos (tan tan ) (6.41)
Equations (6.39), (6.40), and (6.41) cannot be used to give
c
because the factors c
1
, c
2
,
a
1
, and a
2
are not known. Therefore, the relation between the pertinent quantities is
expressed by dimensional analysis, and the actual relation is determined from experimen-
tal data. Figure 6.7 is such a relation, first presented by Shields (1936) and carries his
name. The curve is expressed by dimensionless combinations of critical shear stress
c
,
sediment and water specific weights
s
and , sediment size D, critical shear velocity u
*c

c
/ and kinematic viscosity of water .
These quantities can be expressed in any consistent set of units. Dimensional analysis
yields,

c
*

(
s

c
)D

u
*

c
D

,
(6.42)
The Shields values of
c
*
are commonly used to denote conditions under which bed
sediments are stable but on the verge of being entrained. Not all workers agree with the
results given by the Shields curve. For example, some workers give
c
*
0.047 for the
dimensionless critical shear stress for values of R
*
u
*
D/ in excess of 500 instead of
0.06, as shown in Fig. 6.7. Taylor and Vanoni (1972) reported that small but finite amounts
of sediment were transported in flows with values of
c
*
given by the Shields curve.
The value of
c
to be used in design depends on the particular case at hand. If the sit-
uation is such that grains that are moved can be replaced by others moving from upstream,
some motion can be tolerated, and the Shields values can be used. On the other hand, if
grains removed cannot be replaced, as on a stream bank, the Shields value of
c
are too
large and should be reduced.
The Shields diagram is not especially useful in the form of Fig. 6.7 because to find
c
,
one must know u
*

c
/ . The relation can be cast in explicit form by plotting
c
*
ver-
sus Re
p
, noting the internal relation

u
*

R
u
*
gD

(*)
1/2
Re
p
(6.43)
where R


is the submerged specific gravity of the sediment. A useful fit is given
by Brownlie (1981a):

*
c
0.22Re
p
0.6
0.06 exp(17.77Re
p
0.06
) (6.44)
RgD D

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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.19
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
7
S
h
i
e
l
d
s

d
i
a
g
r
a
m

f
o
r

i
n
i
t
i
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

m
o
t
i
o
n
.

S
o
u
r
c
e

V
a
n
o
n
i

(
1
9
7
5
)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.20 Chapter Six
FIGURE 6.8 Angle of repose of granular material. (Lane,
1955)
With this relation, the value of
c
*
can be computed readily when the properties of the
water and the sediment are given.
The value of bed-shear stress
b
for a wide rectangular channel is given by
b
HS,
as shown earlier. The average bed-shear stress for any channel is given by
b
R
h
S, in
which R
h
the hydraulic radius of the channel cross section.
6.4.2 Granular Sediment on a Bank
A sediment grain on a bank is less stable than one on the bed because the gravity force
tends to move it downward (Ikeda, 1982). The ratio of the critical shear stress
wc
for a par-
ticle on a bank to that for the same particle on the bed
c
is (Lane, 1955)

w
c
c

= cos
1

t
t
a
a
n
n

,
2

(6.45)
where
1
is the slope of the bank and is the angle of repose for the sediment. Values of are
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.21
given in Fig. 6.8 after Lane (1955) and also can be found in Simons and Senturk (1976).
6.4.3 Granular Sediment on a Sloping Bed
Equation (6.39) shows that
c
diminishes as the slope angle increases. For extremely
small s,
c
is given by Eq. (6.40). Taking the ratio between Eqs. (6.39) and (6.40) yields

c
c

cos

t
t
a
a
n
n

,
(6.46)

c
is the critical shear stress for sediment on a bed with a slope angle , and
co
is the crit-
ical shear stress for a bed with an extremely small slope. The value of
co
can be found
from the Shields diagram or with Eq. (6.44). Equation (6.46) is for positive , which is
positive for downward sloping beds. For beds with adverse slope, is negative and the
term tan /tan in Eq. (6.46) is positive.
6.4.4 Sediment Mixtures
Several authors have offered empirical or quasi-theoretical extensions of the above rela-
tions to the case of mixtures (e.g., Wilcock, 1988). Let D
i
denote the characteristic grain
size of the ith size range in a mixture. Furthermore, let D
sg
denote the geometric mean size
of the surface (exchange, active) layer. Most of the generalizations can be written in the
following form (Parker, 1990):

*
ci

*
cg

D
D
s
i
g

(6.47)
Here

*
ci

b
g
c
D
i
i

(6.48a)
and

*
cg

b
g
c
D
sg
sg

(6.48b)
where
bci
and
bcsg
denote the values of the dimensioned critical shear stress required to
move sediment of sizes D
i
and D
sg
in the mixture, respectively, and is an exponent tak-
ing a value given below;
0.9 (6.49)
Figure 6.9 shows the similarity between four different published expressions having
the general form given by Eq. (6.47), which is of interest because it includes the effect of
hiding. For uniform material, the critical Shields stress is defined by Eq. (6.44). Consider
two flumes, one with uniform size D
a
and the other with uniform size D
b
. For sufficient-
ly coarse material (u
*
D/ 1 or Re
p
1), the critical Shields stress must be the same for
both sizes (Fig. 6.7). It follows from Eq. (6.42) that where
bca
and
bcb
denote the dimen-
sioned boundary shear stresses for cases a and b respectively,

bcb

bca

D
D
b
a

,
(6.50)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.22 Chapter Six
For the case of mixtures, on the other hand, it is seen from Eqs. (6.47) and (6.48) that

bci

bcsg

D
D
s
i
g

,
1

bcsg

D
D
s
i
g

,
0.1
(6.51)
Comparing Eqs. (6.50) and (6.51), it is seen that a finer particle (D
b
D
a
, or alternative-
ly, D
i
D
sg
) is more mobile than a coarser particle. For example, suppose that one grain
size is four times coarser than another. If two uniform sediments are being compared, it
follows from Eq. (6.50) that the critical shear stress for the coarser material is four times
that of the finer material. In the case of a mixture, however, the critical shear stress for the
coarser material is only about 4
0.1
, or 1.15 times that for the finer material.
A finer particle in a mixture is thus seen to be only a little more mobile than its coars-
er-sized brethren, where uniform beds of fine material are much more mobile than are uni-
form beds of coarser material. The reason is that finer particles in a mixture are relatively
less exposed to the flow; they tend to hide in the lee of coarser particles. By the same token,
a particle is relatively more exposed to the flow when most of its neighbors are finer.
A method to calculate the critical shear stress for motion of uniform and heterogeneous
sediments was proposed by Wiberg and Smith (1987) on the basis of the fluid mechanics
of initiation of motion, which takes into account both roughness and hiding effects.
6.5 SEDIMENT TRANSPORT
FIGURE 6.9 Critical shear stress for sediment mixture (Source: Misri et
al., 1983)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.23
6.5.1 Sediment Transport Modes
The most common modes of sediment transport in rivers are bedload and suspended load.
In the case of bedload, the particles roll, slide, or saltate over each other, never deviating
too far above the bed. In the case of suspended load, the fluid turbulence comes into play
carrying the particles well up into the water column. In both cases, the driving force for
sediment transport is the action of gravity on the fluid phase; this force is transmitted to
the particles via drag.
The same phenomena of bedload and suspended load transport occur in a variety of
other geophysical contexts. Sediment transport is accomplished in the near-shore lake and
oceanic environment by wave action. Turbidity currents carry sediment into lakes, reser-
voirs, and the deep sea.
The phenomenon of sediment transport can sometimes be disguised in rather esoteric
phenomena. When water is supercooled, large quantities of particulate frazil ice can form.
As this water moves under a frozen ice cover, the phenomenon of sediment transport in
rivers is stood on its head. The frazil ice particles float rather than sink and thus tend to
accumulate on the bottom side of the ice cover rather than on the river bed. Turbulence
tends to suspend the particles downward rather than upward.
In the case of a powder snow avalanche, the fluid phase is air and the solid phase con-
sists of snow particles. The dominant mode of transport is suspension. These flows are
close analogies of turbidity currents, insofar as the driving force for the flow is the action
of gravity on the solid phase rather than the fluid phase. That is, if all the particles drop
out of suspension, the flow ceases. In the case of sediment transport in rivers, it is accu-
rate to say that the fluid phase drags the solid phase along. In the case of turbidity currents
and powder snow avalanches, the solid phase drags the fluid phase along.
Desert sand dunes provide an example for which the fluid phase is air, but the domi-
nant mode of transport is saltation rather than suspension. Because air is so much lighter
than water, quartz sand particles saltate in long, high trajectories, relatively unaffected by
the direct action of turbulent fluctuations. The dunes themselves are created by the effect
of the fluid phase acting on the solid phase. They, in turn, affect the fluid phase by chang-
ing the resistance.
Among the most interesting sedimenttransport phenomena are debris flows, slurries,
and hyperconcentrated flows. In all these cases, the solid and fluid phases are present in
similar quantities. A debris flow typically carries a heterogeneous mixture of grain sizes
ranging from boulders to clay. Slurries and hyperconcentrated flows are generally restrict-
ed to finer grain sizes. In most cases, it is useful to think of such flows as consisting of a
single phase, the mechanics of which are highly non-Newtonian.
The study of the movement of grains under the influence of fluid drag and gravity
becomes even more interesting when one considers the link between sediment transport
and morphology. In the laboratory, the phenomenon can be studied in the context of a vari-
ety of containers, such as channel and wave tanks, specified by the experimentalist. In the
field, however, the fluid-sediment mixture constructs its own container. This new degree
of freedom opens up a variety of intriguing possibilities.
Consider the river. Depending on the existence or lack of a viscous sublayer and the
relative importance of bedload versus suspended load, a variety of rhythmic structures can
form on the river bed. These include ripples, dunes, antidunes, and alternate bars. The first
three of these can have a profound effect on the resistance to flow offered by the river bed.
Thus, they act to control river depth. River banks themselves also can be considered to be
a self-formed morphological feature, thus specifying the entire container.
The container itself can deform in plan. Alternate bars cause rivers to erode their banks
in a rhythmic pattern, thus allowing for the onset of meandering. Fully developed river
meandering implies an intricate balance between sediment erosion and deposition. If a
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
stream is sufficiently wide, it will braid rather than meander, dividing into several inter-
twining channels.
Rivers create morphological structures at much larger scales as well. These include
canyons, alluvial fans, and deltas. Turbidity currents create similar structures in the ocean-
ic environment. In the coastal environment, the beach profile itself is created by the inter-
action of water and sediment. On a larger scale, offshore bars, spits, and capes constitute
rhythmic features created by wave-current-sediment interaction. The boulder levees often
created by debris flows provide another example of a morphologic structure created by a
sediment-bearing flow.
The floodplains of most sand-bed rivers often contain copious amounts of silt and clay
finer than approximately 50 . This material is often called wash load because it moves
through the river system without being present in the bed in significant quantities.
Increased wash load does not cause deposition on the bed, and reduced wash load does
not cause erosion because it is transported well below capacity. This is not meant to imply
that the wash load does not interact with the river system. Wash load in the water column
exchanges with the banks and the floodplain rather than the bed. Greatly increased wash
load, for example, can lead to thickened floodplain deposits, with a consequent increase
in bankfull channel depth.
The emphasis here is the understanding of bedload and suspended load transport in
rivers, with the goal of providing the knowledge needed to do sound sedimentation engi-
neering, particularly with problems involving stream restoration and naturalization.
6.5.2 Shields Regime Diagram
In the context of rivers, it is useful to have a way to determine what kind of sediment-
transport phenomena can be expected for different flow conditions and different charac-
teristics of sediment particles. In Fig. 6.10, the ordinates correspond to bed shear stresses
written in the dimensionless form proposed by Shields

R
b
D


R
H
D
S

(6.52)
and the particle Re
p
, defined by Eq. (6.37) is used for the abscissa values. There are three
curves in the diagram which make it possible to know, for different values of (
*
, Re
p
), if
the given bed sediment will go into motion, and if this is the case whether or not the pre-
vailing mode of transport will be in suspension or as bedload. The diagram also can be used
to predict what kind of bedforms can be expected. For example, ripples will develop in the
presence of a viscous sublayer and fine-grained sediment. If the viscous sublayer is dis-
rupted by coarse sediment particles, then dunes will be the most common type of bedform.
The Shields regime diagram also shows a clear distinction between the conditions
observed in sand-bed rivers and gravel-bed rivers at bankfull stage. If one wanted to mod-
el in the laboratory sediment transport in rivers, the experimental conditions would be dif-
ferent, depending on the river system in question. As could be expected, the diagram also
shows that in gravel-bed rivers, sediment is transported as bedload. In sand-bed rivers, on
the other hand, suspended load and bedload transport coexist most of the time.
The regime diagram is valid for steady, uniform, turbulent flow conditions, where the
bed shear stress
b
can be estimated with Eq. (6.1). The ranges for silt, sand, and gravel
also are included. In the diagram, the critical Shields stress for motion was plotted with
the help of Eq. (6.44). The critical condition for suspension is given by the following ratio:

u
v
*
s
1 (6.53)
6.24 Chapter Six
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.25
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
1
0
S
h
i
e
l
d
s

r
e
g
i
m
e

d
i
a
g
r
a
m
.

(
S
o
u
r
c
e
:
G
a
r
y

P
a
r
k
e
r
)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.26 Chapter Six
where u
*
is the shear velocity and v
s
is the sediment fall velocity. Equation (6.53) can be
transformed into

s


R
1
2
f

(6.54)
where

s


gR
u
2
*
D

(6.55)
and R
f
is given by Eq. (6.35a) and can be computed for different values of Re
p
with the
help of Eq. (6.38).
Finally, the critical condition for viscous effects (ripples) was obtained with the help
of Eq. (6.5) as follows:
11.6

u
*

1 (6.56)
which in dimensionless form can be written as

*
v

1
R
1
e
.
p
6

,
2
(6.57)
Relations (6.44), (6.54), and (6.57) are the ones plotted in Fig. 6.10. The Shields regime
diagram should be useful for studies concerning stream restoration and naturalization
because it provides the range of dimensionless shear stresses corresponding to bankfull
flow conditions for both gravel- and sand-bed streams.
6.6 BEDLOAD TRANSPORT
6.6.1 The Bed Load Transport Function
Bedload particles roll, slide, or saltate along the bed. The transport thus occurs tangential
to the bed. In a case where all the transport is directed in the streamwise, or s direction,
the volume bedload-transport rate per unit width (n direction) is given by q; the units are
length
3
/length/per time, or length
2
/time. In general, q is a function of boundary shear stress

b
and other parameters; that is,
q q(
b
, other parameters) (6.58)
In general, bedload transport is vectorial, with components q
s
and q
n
in the s and n direc-
tions, respectively.
6.6.2 Erosion Into and Deposition from Suspension
The volume rate of erosion of bed material into suspension per unit time per unit bed area
is denoted as E. The units of E are length
3
/length
2
/time, or velocity. A dimensionless sed-
iment entrainment rate E
s
can thus be defined with the sediment fall velocity v
s
:
E v
s
E
s
(6.59)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
In general, E
s
can be expected to be a function of boundary shear stress
b
and other para-
meters. Erosion into suspension can be taken to be directed upward normal: i.e., in the
positive z direction.
Let c

denote the volume concentration of suspended sediment (m


3
of sediment/m
3
of
sediment-water mixture), averaged over turbulence. The streamwise volume transport rate
of suspended sediment per unit width is given by
q
s


H
0
c

dz (6.60)
In a two-dimensional case, two components, q
Ss
and q
Sn
, result, where
q
Ss


H
0
c

dz (6.61a)
q
Sn


H
0
c

dz (6.61b)
Deposition onto the bed is by means of settling. The rate at which material is fluxed
vertically downward onto the bed (volume/area/time) is given by v
s
c
b
, where c
b
is a near-
bed value of c

. The deposition rate D realized at the bed is obtained by computing the


component of this flux that is actually directed normal to the bed:
D v
s
c
b
(6.62)
6.6.3 The Exner Equation of Sediment Mass Conservation for
Uniform Material
Consider a portion of river bottom, where the bed material is taken to have a (constant)
porosity
p
. Mass balance of sediment requires the following equation to be satisfied:

[mass of bed material] net mass bedload inflow rate


net mass rate of deposition from suspension.
A datum of constant elevation is located well below the bed level, and the elevation of the
bed with respect to such datum is given by . Then, bed level changes as a result of bed-
load transport, sediment entrainment into suspension, and sediment deposition onto the
bed can be predicted with the help of
(1
p
)

q
s
s

q
n
n

v
s
(c
b
E
s
) (6.63)
To solve the Exner equation, it is necessary to have relations to compute bedload transport
(i.e., q
s
and q
n
), near-bed suspended sediment concentration c
b
, and sediment entrainment
into suspension E
s
. The basic form of Eq. (6.63) was first proposed by Exner (1925).
6.6.4 Bedload Transport Relations
A large number of bedload relations can be expressed in the general form
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.27
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.28 Chapter Six
q
*
q
*
(
*
, R
ep
, R) (6.64)
Here, q
*
is a dimensionless bedload transport rate known as the Einstein number, first
introduced by H. A. Einstein in 1950 and given by
q
*

Rg
q
D D

(6.65)
The following relations are of interest. In 1972, Ashida and Michiue introduced
q
*
17(
*

*
c
) [(
*
)
1/2
(

c
)
1/2
] (6.66)
and recommend a value of
c
*
of 0.05. It has been verified with uniform material ranging
in size from 0.3 mm to 7 mm. Meyer-Peter and Muller (1948) introduced the following:
q
*
8(
*

*
c
)
3/2
(6.67)
where
*
c
0.047. This formula is empirical in nature and has been verified with data for
uniform gravel.
Engelund and Fredse (1976) proposed,
q
*
18.74(
*

*
c
) [(t
*
)1/2 0.7(

c
)
1/2
] (6.68)
where
*
c
0.05. This formula resembles that of Ashida and Michiue because the deriva-
tion is almost identical.
Fernandez Luque and van Beek (1976) developed the following,
q
*
5.7(
*

*
c
)
3/2
(6.69)
where

c
varies from 0.05 for 0.9 mm material to 0.058 for 3.3. mm material. The relation
is empirical in nature.
Wilson (1966):
q
*
12(
*

c
)
3/2
(6.70)
where

c
was determined from the Shields diagram. This relation is empirical in nature;
most of the data used to fit it pertain to very high rates of bedload transport.
Einstein (1950):
q
*
q
*
(
*
) (6.71)
where the functionality is implicitly defined by the relation
1
(0.143/
*
)
2
(0.413/
*
)
2
e
t
2
dt

1
43
4
.5
3
q
.5
*
q
*

(6.72)
Note that this relation contains no critical stress. It has been used for uniform sand and
gravel.
Yalin (1963):
q
*
0.635s(
*
)
1/2

1n(1
a

2
s
a
2
s)

1
1
]
(6.73)
where
a
2
2.45(R 1)
0.4
(

c
)
1/2
; s

*
c

*
c

(6.74)
1

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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.29
and

c
is evaluated from a standard Shields curve. Two constants in this formula have been
evaluated with the aid of data quoted by Einstein (1950), pertaining to 0.8 mm and 28.6
mm material.
Parker (1978):
q
*
11.2

(
*

0
*3
.03)
4.5

(6.75)
developed with data sets pertaining to rough mobile-bed flow over gravel.
Several of these relations are plotted in Fig. 6.11. They tend to be rather similar in
nature. Scores of similar relations could be quoted.
To date, only few research groups have attempted complete derivations of the bedload
function in water. They are Wiberg and Smith (1989), Sekine and Kikkawa (1992), Garca
and Nio (1992), Nio and Garca, (1994, 1998), and Nio et al., (1994).
FIGURE 6.11 Bedload transport relations. (Parker, 1990)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.30 Chapter Six
6.6.5 Bedload Transport Relation for Mixtures.
Relatively few bedload relations have been developed specifically in the context of mix-
tures (e.g., Bridge and Bennett, 1992). One of these is presented below as an example.
The relationship of Parker (1990) applies to gravel-bed streams. The data used to fit
the relation are solely from two natural gravel-bed streams: Oak Creek in Oregon and the
Elbow River in Alberta, Canada. The relation is surface-based; load is specified per unit
of fractional content in the surface layer. The surface layer is divided into N size ranges,
each with a fractional content F
i
by volume, and a mean phi size
i
; D
i
2

i
.
The arith-
metic mean of the surface size on the phi scale and the corresponding arithmetic stan-
dard deviation

are given by
F
i

i
;
2

F
i
(
i
)
2
(6.76a, b)
The corresponding geometric mean size D
sg
and the geometric standard deviation
sg
of
the surface layer are given by
D
sg
2


sg
2

(6.77a, b)
In the Parker relation, the volume bedload transport per unit width of gravel in the ith
size range is given by the product q
i
F
i
(no summation), where q
i
denotes the transport per
unit fraction in the surface layer. The total volume bedload transport rate of gravel per unit
width is q
T
, where
q
T
q
i
F
i
(6.78)
The relation does not apply to sand. Thus, before using the relation for a given surface
distribution, the sand content of the grain-size distribution must be removed and F
i
must
be renormalized so that it sums to unity over all sizes in excess of 2 mm.
If p
i
denotes the fraction volume content of material in the ith size range in the bed-
load, it follows that
p
i

q
q
i
F
i
F
i
i

(6.79)
The parameter q
i
is made dimensionless as follows:
W
*
si

(
b
R
/
g
)
q
3/
i
2
F
i

(6.80)
A dimensionless Shields stress based on the surface geometric mean size is defined as
follows:

*
sg

g
b
D
sg

(6.81)
Let
sgo
denote a normalized value of this Shields stress, given by

sgo

*
*
r
s
s
g
g
o
o

(6.82)
where

*
rsgo
0.0386 (6.83)
corresponds to a near-critical value of Shields stress. The Parker relation can then be
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.31
expressed in the form
W
*
si
0.0218 G [
sgo
g
o
(
i
)] (6.84a)
In the above relationship, g
o
denotes a hiding function given by
g
o
(
i
)
0.0951
i
;
i


D
D
s
i
g

(6.84b)
The parameter is given by the relationship
1

(
o
1) (6.84c)
where
o
and
o
are specified as functions of
sgo
in Fig. 6.12. The function G is speci-
fied as
5474(1 0.853/)
4.5
1.65
G[]

exp[14.2( 1) 9.28( 1)
2
] 1 1.65

M
o
1 (6.85)
and is shown in Fig. 6.13. Here, M
o
14.2 and is a dummy variable for the argument
in Eq. (6.84) and is not to be confused with the grain-size scale.
An application of Eq. (6.84) to uniform material with size D results in the relation
q
*
0.0218(
*
)
3/2
G

0.0

3
*
86

,
(6.86)
where
q
*

gR
q
D D

;
*

R
b
D

(6.87)
and q denotes the volumetric sediment transport per unit width. In Fig. 6.11, Eq. (6.86) is
compared to several other relations and selected laboratory data for uniform material. The
figure is adapted from Figs. 6b and 7 in Wiberg and Smith (1989), where reference to the
data and equations can be found. The data pertain to 0.5 mm sand and 28.6 mm gravel.
Equation (6.86) shows a reasonable correspondence with the data and with several other
relations for uniform material.
The Parker relationship (Eq. 6.84) can be used to predict mobile or static armor in
gravel streams. Note that there is no formal critical stress in the formulation; instead for
1, the transport rates become extremely small. For the computation of bedload trans-
port in poorly sorted gravel-bed rivers, the above formulation has been used to implement
a series of programs named ACRONYM (Parker, 1990). The program ACRONYM1
provides an implementation of the surface-based bedload transport equation presented in
Parker (1990). It computes the magnitude and size distribution of bedload transport over
a bed surface of given size distribution, on which a given boundary shear stress is
imposed. The program ACRONYM2 inverts the same bedload transport equation,
allowing for calculation of the size distribution at a given boundary shear stress. The pro-
gram was used to compute mobile and static armor size distributions in Parker (1990) and
Parker and Sutherland (1990).
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.32 Chapter Six
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
1
2
P
l
o
t
s

o
f

0
a
n
d

0
v
e
r
s
u
s

s
g
0
,
t
h
e

a
s
y
m
p
t
o
t
e
s

a
r
e

n
o
t
e
d

o
n

t
h
e

p
l
o
t
.

(
P
a
r
k
e
r
,
1
9
9
0
)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.33
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
1
3
P
l
o
t

o
f

G
a
n
d
G
T
v
e
r
s
u
s

5
0
.

(
P
a
r
k
e
r
,
1
9
9
0
)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
The program ACRONYM3 allows for the computation of aggradation or degrada-
tion to a specified active or static equilibrium final state. To this end, Parkers method
(1990) is combined with a resistance relation of the Keulegan type. In the program, both
constant width and water discharge are assumed.
The program ACRONYM4 is directed toward the wavelike aggravation of self-sim-
ilar form discussed in Parker (1991a, 1991b). It uses Parkers method and a resistance
relation of the Manning-Strickler type to compute downstream fining and slope concavi-
ty caused by selective sorting and abrasion.
6.7 BEDFORMS
The formation and behavior of sediment waves produced by moving water are, in equal
measure, intellectually intriguing and of great engineering importance. Because of the
central role they play in river hydraulics, fluvial ripples, dunes, and bars have received
extensive attention from engineers for at least the past two centuries, and even more inten-
sive descriptive study from geologists. Such studies can be divided into three categories
according to the approach followed: analytical, empirical, or statistical.
Analytical models for bedforms have been proposed since 1925 (Anderson, 1953;
Blondeaux et al., 1985; Colombini et al., 1987; Engelund, 1970; Exner, 1925; Fredsoe,
1974, 1982; Gill, 1971; Haque and Mahmood, 1985; Hayashi, 1970; Kennedy, 1963,
1969; Parker, 1975; Raudkivi and Witte, 1990; Richards, 1980; Smith, 1970; Tubino and
Seminara, 1990).
Empirical methods include the following works (Coleman and Melville, 1994;
Colombini et al., 1990; Garca and Nio, 1993; Garde and Albertson, 1959; Ikeda, 1984;
Jaeggi, 1984; Kinoshita and Miwa, 1974; Menduni and Paris, 1986: Ranga Raju and Soni,
1976; Raudkivi, 1963; van Rijn, 1984; Yalin, 1964; Yalin and Karahan, 1979).
Statistical models for bedforms have been advanced by the following authors
Annambhotla et al.,1972; Hino, 1968; Jain and Kennedy, 1974; Nakagawa and Tsujimoto,
1984; Nordin and Algert, (1966).
Despite all the research that has been done, there is presently no completely reliable
predictor for the conditions of occurrence and characteristics of the different bed config-
urations (ripples, dunes, flat bed, antidunes).
6.7.1 Dunes, Antidunes, Ripples, and Bars
The ripples, dunes, and antidunes illustrated in Fig. 6.14 are the classic bedforms of
erodible-bed open-channel flow. On the one hand, they are a product of the flow and
sediment transport; on the other hand, they profoundly influence the flow and sediment
transport. In fact, all the bedload formulas quoted previously are strictly invalid in
the presence of bedforms. The adjustments necessary to render them valid are discussed
later.
Ripples, dunes, and antidunes are undular (wavelike) features that have wavelengths
and wave heights that scale no larger than on the order of the flow depth H, as defined
below.
6.7.1.1 Dunes. Well-developed dunes tend to have wave heights D scaling up to about
one-sixth of the depth: i.e.,
6.34 Chapter Six
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.35



1
6

(6.88)
Dune wavelengths can vary considerably. A fairly typical range can be quantified as
dimensionless wave number k, where
k

2

(6.89)
This range is
0.25 k 4.0 (6.90)
Dunes invariably migrate downstream. Typically, they are approximately triangular in
shape and usually (but not always) possess a slip face, beyond which the flow is separat-
ed for a certain length. A dune progresses forward as bedload accretes on the slip face.
Generally, little bedload is able to pass beyond the face without depositing on it, whereas
most of the suspended load is not directly affected by it.
Let c denote the wave speed of the dune. The bedload transport rate can be estimated as
the volume of material transported forward per unit bed area per unit time by a migrating
dune. If the dune is approximated as triangular in shape, the following approximation holds:
q

1
2
c(1
p
) (6.91)
Dunes are characteristic of subcritical flow in the Froude sense. In a shallow-water (long
wave) model, the Froude criterion (Fr) dividing subcritical and supercritical flow is
FIGURE 6.14 Schematic of different bedforms. (Vanoni, 1975)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.36 Chapter Six
Fr 1 (6.92)
where
Fr (6.93)
Dunes, however, do not qualify as long waves because their wavelength is of the order of
the depth. A detailed potential flow analysis over a wavy bed yields the following (wave-
number dependent) criterion for critical flow over a bedform (Kennedy, 1963).
Fr
2


1
k

tanh(k) (6.94)
Note that as k 0( ) tanh(k) k, and condition (6.92) is recovered in the long-
wave limit. For dunes to occur, then, the following condition must be satisfied:
F
2


1
k

tanh (k) (6.95)


Both dunes and antidunes cause the water surface as well as the bed to undulate. In the
case of dunes, the undulation of the water surface is usually of much smaller amplitude
than that of the bed; the two are nearly 180
o
out of phase.
Dunes also can occur in the case of wind-blown sand. Barchan dunes are commonly
observed in the desert. In addition, they can be found in the fluvial environment in the case
of sand (in supply insufficient to cover the bed completely) migrating over an immobile
gravel bed.
6.7.1.2 Antidunes. Antidunes are distinguished from dunes by the fact that the undula-
tions of the water surface are nearly in phase with those of the bed. They are associated
with supercritical flow in the sense that
F
2


1
k

tanh (k) (6.96)


Antidunes may migrate either upstream or downstream. Upstream-migrating antidunes
are usually rather symmetrical in shape and lack a slip face. Downstream-migrating
antidunes are rarer; they have a well-defined slip face and look rather like dunes. The dis-
tinguishing feature is the water surface undulations, which are pronounced in the case of
antidunes.
The potential-flow criterion dividing upstream-migrating antidunes from downstream-
migrating antidunes is
F
2

k tan
1
h (k)

(6.97)
Values lower than the value in Eq. 6.97 are associated with upstream-migrating antidunes.
6.7.1.3 Ripples. Ripples are dunelike features that occur only in the presence of a vis-
cous sublayer. They look much like dunes because they migrate downstream and have a
pronounced slip face. They generally are much more three-dimensional in structure than
are dunes, however, and have little effect on the water surface.
A criterion for the existence of ripples is the existence of a viscous sublayer. Recalling
that the thickness of the viscous sublayer is given by
v
11.6v/u*, it follows that ripples
form when
U

gH
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.37

u
*

11.6 (6.98)
6.7.1.4 Bars. Bars are bedforms in rivers that scale the channel width. They include
alternate bars in straight streams, point bars in meandering streams, and pool bars in braid-
ed streams. In straight streams, the minimum channel slope S necessary for alternate-bar
formation is given by
S (6.99)
(Jaeggi, 1984), where B is the channel width, D
g
is the geometric mean size of the bed sed-
iment, as given by Eq. (6.82a), and M is a parameter that varies from 0.34 for uniform-
sized bed material to 0.7 for poorly sorted material.
Scour depth (S
d
) caused by alternate bar formation can be estimated with
S
d
0.76
AB
, (6.100)
where
AB
is the total height of the alternate bar.
6.7.1.5 Progression of bedforms. Various bedforms are associated with various flow
regimes. In the case of a sand-bed stream with a characteristic size less than about 0.5 mm,
a clear progression is evident as flow velocity increases. This is illustrated in Fig. 6.14.
The bed is assumed to be initially flat. At low imposed velocity U, the bed remains flat
because no sediment is moved. As the velocity exceeds the critical value, ripples are
formed first. At higher values, dunes form and coexist with ripples. For even higher veloc-
ities, well-developed dunes form in the absences of ripples.
At some point, the velocity reaches a value near the critical value in the Froude sense:
B

D
B
g

,
0.15
exp

1.07

D
B
g

,
0.15
M
1
1
]

12.9

D
B
g

,
Ripples
Bars
Wavelength less than
approx 1 ft; height less
than approx 0.1 ft.
Lengths comparable to
the channel width.
Height comparable to
mean flow depth.
Roughly triangular in
profile, with gentle,
slightly convex
upstream slopes and
downstream slopes
nearly equal to the
angle of repose.
Generally short-crested
and three-dimensional.
Profile similar to
ripples. Plan form
variable.
Move downstream with
velocity much less than
that of the flow.
Generally do not occur
in sediments coarser
than about 0.6 mm.
Four types of bars are
distinguished: (1)
point, (2) alternating,
(3) transverse, and (4)
tributary. Ripples may
occur on upstream
slopes.
Table 6.4 Summary of Bedform Effects on Flow Configuration
Bed Form or Behavior and
Configuration Dimensions Shape Occurrence
(1) (2) (3) (4)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.38 Chapter Six
Dunes
Transition
Flat bed
Antidunes
Wavelength and height
greater than ripples but
less than bars.
Vary widely

Wave length 2V
2
/g
(approx)* Height
depends on depth and
velocity of flow.
Similar to ripples.
Vary widely.

Nearly sinusoidal in
profile. Crest length
comparable to
wavelength.
Upstream slopes of
dunes may be covered
with ripples. Dunes
migrate downstream in
manner similar to
ripples.
A configuration
consisting of a
heterogeneous array of
bed forms, primarily
low amplitude ripples
and dunes interspersed
with flat regions.
A bed surface devoid
of bed forms. May not
occur for some ranges
of depth and sand size.
In phase with and
strongly interact with
gravity watersurface
waves. May move
upstream, downstream,
or remain stationary,
depending on properties
of flow and sediment.
Table 6.4 (Continued)
Bed Form or Behavior and
Configuration Dimensions Shape Occurence
(1) (2) (3) (4)
*
Reported by Kennedy (1969).
Source: Vanoni (1975).
i.e., Eq. (6.94). Near this point, the dunes often are suddenly and dramatically washed out.
This results in a flat bed known as an upper-regime (supercritical) flat bed. Further
increases in velocity lead to the formation of antidunes and, finally, to the chute and pool
pattern. The last of these is characterized by a series of hydraulic jumps.
In the case of a bed coarser than 0.5 mm, the ripple regime is replaced by a zone char-
acterized by a lower-regime (subcritical) flat bed. Above this lies the ranges for dunes, the
upper-regime flat bed, and antidunes.
The effect of bedforms on flow resistance is summarized in Table 6.4. As noted earli-
er for equilibrium flows in wide straight channels, the relation for bed resistance can be
expressed in the form

b
C
f
U
2
(6.101)
where C
f
denotes a bed-friction coefficient. If the bed were rigid and the flow were
rough, C
f
would vary only weakly with the flow, according to the logarithmic law
embodied in Eq. (6.12). As a result, the relation between
b
and U is approximately par-
abolic.
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.39
The effect of bedforms is to increase the bed shear stress to values often well above
that associated with the skin friction of a rough bed alone. In Fig. 6.15, a plot of
b
versus U is given for the case of an erodible bed. At extremely low values of U, the
parabolic law is followed. As ripples, then dunes are formed, the bed shear stress rises
to a maximum value. At this maximum value, the value of C
f
is seen to be as much
as five times the value without dunes. It is clear that dunes play an important role
regarding bed resistance. The increased resistance results from form drag in the lee of
the dune.
As the flow velocity increases further, dune wavelength gradually increases and dune
height diminishes, leading to a gradual reduction in resistance. At some point, the dunes
are washed out, and the parabolic law is again satisfied. At even higher velocities, the
form drag associated with antidunes appears; it is usually not as pronounced as that of
dunes.
6.7.2 Dimensionless Characterization of Bedform Regime
Based on the above arguments, it is possible to identify at least three parameters govern-
ing bedforms at equilibrium flow. These are Shields stress
*
, shear Reynolds number Re
u
*
D/, and Fr. A characteristic feature of sediment transport is the proliferation of
dimensionless parameters. This feature notwithstanding, Parker and Anderson (1977)
showed that equilibrium relations of sediment transport for uniform material in a straight
channel can be expressed with just two dimensionless hydraulic parameters, along with a
particle Re (e.g., Re
p
or Re) and a measure of the denstiy difference (e.g., R).
FIGURE 6.15 Variations of bed shear stress
b
and Darcy-Weisbach friction fac-
tor f with mean velocity U in flow over a fine sand bed. (Raudkivi, 1990)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.40 Chapter Six
FIGURE 6.16 Bedform predictor proposed by Simons and
Richardson (1966).
In the case of bedforms, then, the following classification can be proposed:
bedform type function (
1
,
2
; Re
p
, R) (6.102)
Here, any independent pair of hydraulic variables
1
,
2
applicable to the problem can be
specified because any one pair can be transformed into any other independent pair. For
example, the pair
*
and Fr might be used or, alternatively, S and H/D.
One popular discriminator of bedform type is not expressed in dimensionless form at
all. It is the diagram proposed by Simons and Richardson (1966), (Fig. 6.16). In the dia-
gram, regimes for ripples and dunes, transition to the upper-regime plane bed, and upper-
regime plane bed and antidunes are shown. The two hydraulic parameters are abbreviated
to a single one, stream power
b
U, and the particle Re is replaced by grain size D. The dia-
gram is applicable only for sand-bed streams of relatively small scale.
Lius discriminator (1957), shown in Fig. 6.17, uses one dimensionless hydraulic para-
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.41
FIGURE 6.17 Criteria for bedforms proposed by Liu (1957)
FIGURE 6.18 Bedform classification. (after Chabert and Chauvin,
1963)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.42 Chapter Six
FIGURE 6.19a Bed-form chart for R
g
= 4.510 (D
50
= 0.12 mm0.200 mm)
FIGURE 6.19b Bed-form chart for R
g
= 4.510 (D
50
= 0.12
mm0.200 mm)
meter u
*
/v
s
(a surrogate for
*
) and the particle Re
p
. The diagram is of interest because it
covers sizes much coarser than those of Simons and Richardson. It is seen that the vari-
ous regimes become compressed as grain size increases. In the case of extremely coarse
material, the flow must be supercritical for any motion to occur. As a result, neither rip-
ples or dunes are expected.
In fact, dunes can occur over a limited range in the case of coarse material. This is
illustrated in Fig. 6.18. The diagram shows that Re must be less than approximately 10(
v
D) for ripples to form. Recalling that
Re

u
*

(
*
)
1/2

R g

D D

(6.103)
and using a critical value of
*
of approximately 0.03, it is seen from Eq. (6.101) and the
conditions R 1.65, 0.01 cm
2
/s that the condition Re 10 corresponds to a value of
D of approximately 0.6 mm.
For coarser grain sizes, the dune regime is preceded by a fairly wide range consisting
of a lower-regime flat bed. Many gravel-bed rivers never leave this lower-regime flat bed
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Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.43
FIGURE 6.19d Bed-form chart for R
g
= 1626 (D
50
= 0.228 mm0.45 mm)
FIGURE 6.19e Bed-form chart for R
g
= 2448 (D
50
= 0.4
mm0.57 mm)
FIGURE 6.19c Bed-form chart for R
g
= 4.510 (D
50
= 0.15 mm0.32 mm)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.44 Chapter Six
region, even at bankfull flow. The diagram in Fig. 6.18 is not suited to the description of
upper-regime flow.
A complete set of diagrams for the case of sand is shown in Fig. 6.19a to f, (Vanoni,
1974). The two hydraulic parameters are Fr and H/D; the particle Re used in the plot is
equal to Re
p
/R, and constant R is set at 1.65. Note how the transition to upper regime
FIGURE 6.20 Bedform classification (after van Rijin, 1984)
FIGURE 6.19f Bedform chart. A, B, C, D, E, F (after Vanoni, 1974)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.45
occurs at progressively lower values of Fr for relatively deeper flow (in the sense that H/D
becomes large).
A bedform classification scheme that includes both the lower and the upper regime
was proposed by Van Rijn (1984). The scheme is based on a dimensionless particle diam-
eter D
*
and the transport-stage parameter T defined, respectively, as
D
*
D
50

g
2

,
1/3
R
2/3
ep (6.104)
and
T

*
s

*
c

*
c

(6.105)
where
s
*
is the bed shear stress caused by skin or grain friction, and
c
*
is the critical shear
stress for motion from the Shields diagram.
Van Rijn (1984) suggested that ripples form when both D
*
10 and T 3, as shown
in Fig. 6.20. Dunes are present elsewhere when T 15, dunes wash out when 15 T
25, and upper flow regime starts when T 25.
In the lower regime, the geometry of bedforms refers to representative dune height
and wavelength as a function of the average flow depth H, median bed particle diame-
ter D
50
, and other flow parameters such as the transport-stage parameter T, and the grain
shear Reynolds number Re. The bedform height and steepness predictors proposed by van
Rijn (1984) are
FIGURE 6.21a,b Bedform height and steepness (after van Rijn,
1984)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.46 Chapter Six

0.11

D
H
50

,
0.3
(1 e
0.5T
)(25 T) (6.106)
and

0.015

D
H
50

,
0.3
(1 e
0.5T
) (25 T) (6.107)
The bedform length obtained from dividing these two equations, 7.3H, is close
to the theoretical value 2H, derived by Yalin (1964). The agreement with labora-
tory data is good, as shown in Fig. 6.21a and b, but both curves tend to underestimate the
bedform height and steepness of field data (Julien, 1995; Julien and Klaasen, 1995). For
instance, lower-regime bedforms are observed in the Mississippi River at values of T well
beyond 25. Large dunes on alluvial rivers often display small dunes moving along their
stoss face (Amsler and Garca, 1997; Klaasen et al., 1986), resulting in additional form
drag that is not accounted for in relations derived from laboratory observations. What is
needed is a predictor for bedforms in large alluvial rivers based on field
observations,
6.7.3 Effect of Bedforms on River Stage
The presence or absence of bedforms on the bed of a river can lead to some curious effects
on a rivers stage. According to a standard Manning-type relation for an nonerodible bed,
the following should hold:
U

1
n

H
2/3
S
1/2
(6.108)
FIGURE 6.22 Flow velocity versus hydraulic radius for
the Rio Grande (after Nordin, 1964)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Here, the channel is assumed to be wide enough to allow the hydraulic radius to be
replaced with the depth H. According to Eq. (6.108), if the energy slope remains relative-
ly constant, depth should increase monotonically with increasing velocity. This would
indeed be the case for a rigid bed. In a sand-bed stream, however, resistance decreases as
U increases over a wide range of conditions.
At equilibrium,

b
C
f
U
2
gHS (6.109)
This decrease in resistance implies that depth does not increase as rapidly in U as it would
for a rigid-bed open channel. In fact, as transition to upper regime is approached, the bed-
forms can be wiped out suddenly, resulting in a dramatic decrease in resistance. The result
can be an actual decrease in depth as velocity increases (Fig. 6.22).
It is often found that the discharge at which the dunes are obliterated is a little below
bankfull in sand-bed streams. As a result, flooding is not as severe as it would be other-
wise. The precise point of transition is generally different, depending on whether the dis-
charge is increasing or decreasing. This can lead to double-valued stage-discharge rela-
tions, (Fig. 6.22).
6.8 EFFECT OF BEDFORMS ON FLOW AND
SEDIMENT TRANSPORT
6.8.1 Form Drag and Skin Friction
As was seen in Sec. 6.7.3, bedforms can have a profound influence on the flow resistance
and thus on the sediment transport in an alluvial channel. To characterize the importance
of bedforms in this regard, it is of value to consider the forces that contribute to the drag
force on the bed.
Consider, for example, the case of normal flow in a wide rectangular channel. In the
presence of bedforms, Eq. (6.1) must be amended to

b
gHS (6.110)
where
b
is an effective boundary shear stress, where the overbear denotes averaging over
the bedforms and can be defined as the streamwise drag force per unit area, where H now
represents the depth averaged over the bedforms.
In most cases of interest, the two major sources of the effective boundary shear stress

b
are skin friction, which is associated with the shear stresses, and the form drag, which
is associated with the pressure. That is,

b

bs

bf
(6.111)
where
bs
is the shear stress caused by skin friction and
bf
is the shear stress caused by
form drag.
The important thing to realize is that form drag results from a net pressure distribution
over an entire bedform. At any given point along the surface of the bedform, the pressure
force acts normal to the body. For this reason, form drag is ineffective in either moving
bedload sediment or entraining sediment into suspension. In the case of dunes in rivers,
because the flow usually separates in the lee of the crest, the form drag is often substan-
tial. The part of the effective shear stress that governs sediment transport is thus seen to
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.47
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.48 Chapter Six
be the skin friction.
To render any of the bedload formulas presented in Sec. 6.6.4 valid in the presence of
bedforms, it is necessary to replace the Shields stress
*
by the Shields stress
*
s
associat-
ed with skin friction only:

*
s

b
g
s
D

(6.112)
The fact that the form drag needs to be excluded to compute sediment transport does
not by any means imply that it is unimportant. It is often the dominant source of bound-
ary resistance and thus plays a crucial role in determining the depth of flow. This will be
considered in more detail below.
6.8.2 Shear Stress Partitions
6.8.2.1 Einstein partition. Einstein (1950) was among the first to recognize the neces-
sity to distinguish between skin friction and form drag. He proposed the following simple
scheme to partition the two. Equation (6.101) is amended to represent an effective bound-
ary shear stress averaged over bedforms:

b
C
f
U
2
(6.113)
where C
f
now represents a resistance coefficient that includes both skin friction and form
drag. For a given flow velocity U, Einstein computed the skin friction as follows:

bs
C
fs
U
2
(6.l14)
where C
fs
is the frictional resistance coefficient that would result if bedforms were absent.
For example, in the case of rough turbulent flow, Eq. (6.15) may be used:
C
fs

1
1n

11

H
k
s
s

,
1
1
]
2
(6.115)
(In fact, Einstein presented a slightly different formula, which allows for turbulent smooth
and transitional flow as well.) The parameter H
s
denotes the depth that would result in the
absence of bedforms (but with U held constant). This depth is per force less than H
because the resistance is less in the absence of bedforms.
The remaining problem is how to calculate H
s
. Einstein restricted his arguments to the
case of normal flow. In this case, Eq. (6.15) holds: that is,

b
C
f
U
2
gHS (6.116a)
and

bs
C
fs
U
2
gH
s
S (6.116b)
Now, between Eqs. (6.113) and (6.116b), the following relation is obtained for H
s
:
H
s


U
gS
2

1
1n(11

H
k
s
s

)
1
1
]
2
(6.117)
For given values of U, k
s
, and S (averaged over bedforms), Eq. (6.117) is easily solved
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
iteratively for H
s
. Once H
s
is known, it is not difficult to complete the partition. From Eq.
(6.109), it follows that

bf

b

bs
. (6.118)
In analogy to Eqs. (6.111), (6.112), and (6.114), the following definitions are made:

bf
C
ff
U
2
gH
f
S (6.119)
from which it follows that
C
f
C
fs
C
ff
(6.120a)
and
H H
s
H
f
(6.120b)
Here, C
ff
denotes the resistance coefficient associated with form drag and H
s
denotes the
extra depth (compared to the case of skin friction alone) that results from form drag.
Up to this point, it is assumed the U, S, and k
s
are given. If, for example, H also is
known,
b
can be calculated from Eq. (6.110). After H
s
, C
fs
, and
bs
are computed from
Eqs. (6.113) to (6.115), it is possible to compute
bf
, H
f
, and C
ff
from Eqs. (6.116) and
(6.118).
6.8.2.2 Example of the Einstein partition. Consider a sand-bed stream at a given cross
section with a slope of 0.0004, a mean depth of 2.9 m, a value of median bed sediment
size of 0.35 mm, and a discharge per unit width of 4.4 m
2
/s. Assume that the flow is at
near-normal conditions. Compute values of
bs
,
bf
, C
fs
, C
ff
, H
s
, and H
f
.
Solution: U 4.4/2.9 1.52 m/s. An appropriate estimate of k
s
for a sand-bed stream is
k
s
2.5D
50
(6.121)
Solving Eq. (6.115) by successive approximation, it is found the H
s
1.047 m. The
following values then hold:

bs
4.11 newtons/m
2
(
*
s
0.725)

bf
7.27 newtons/m
2
(
*
f
1.283)

b
11.38 newtons/m
2
(
*
2.008)
C
fs
0.00178
C
ff
0.00315
C
f
0.00493 (C
f
1/2
14.5)
H
s
1.047 m
H
f
1.842 m
H 2.9 m
In the above relations,

*
f

g
bf
D

(6.122)
denotes a form Shield stress. In the above case, only some 30% of the total Shields stress
(skin form) contributes to moving sediment.
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.49
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The Einstein method provides a way of partitioning the boundary shear stress if the
flow is known. It does not provide a direct means of computing form drag. A method pro-
posed by Nelson and Smith (1989) overcomes this difficulty.
6.8.2.3 Nelson-Smith partition. Nelson and Smith considered flow over a dune; the
flow is taken to separate in the lee of the dune. On the basis of experimental observations,
they use the following relation for form drag:
D
f
B

1
2

c
D
U
2
r
(6.123)
Here, D
f
denotes that portion of the streamwise drag force D
fs
that is caused by form drag,
B is the channel width, and U
r
denotes a reference velocity to be defined below. They eval-
uate the drag coefficient c
D
as
c
D
0.21 (6.124)
It follows that

bf


1
2

c
D

U
2
r


B
D

(6.125)
The reference velocity U
r
is defined to be the mean velocity that would prevail between
z k
s
and z if the bedforms were not there. From the logarithmic profile represent-
ed by Eq. (6.7), this is found to be given by

r
s
/

[ln(30

) 1] (6.126)
It is now assumed that a rough logarithmic law with roughness k
s
prevails from z k
s
to
z D, and a different rough logarithmic law with roughness k
c
prevails from z D to z
H. Here k
c
represents a composite roughness length, including the effects of both skin
friction and form drag. The two laws are thus

(
b

z
s
)
/

ln

30

k
z
s

, k
s
z (6.127a)
and

ln

30

k
z
c

, z H (6.127b)
Nelson and Smith (1989) matched the above two laws at the level z . After some
manipulation, it is found that

bs

bs

bf

l
l
n
n
(
(
3
3
0
0

/
/
k
k
c
s
)

2
(6.128)
The partition requires a prior knowledge of total boundary shear stress
b

bs

bf
as
well as roughness height k
s
, dune height , and dune wavelength . Between Eqs. (6.123)
and (6.124),

bs/f

b

bs

1
2

c
D

ln

30

k

bs
(6.129)
This equation can be solved for
bs
, and thus
bf
. The value of k
c
is then obtained from Eq.
(6.128).
6.8.2.4 Example of the Nelson-Smith Partition. The example is chosen to be rather
u

(z)

(
bs

b

f
)/
6.50 Chapter Six
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.51
similar to the previous one: H 2.9 m, S 0.0004, k
s
2.5 D
50
, D
50
0.35 mm,
0.4 m, and 15 m. The technique, which requires no iteration, yields the following
results:

bs
4.45 newtons/m
2
(
*
s
0.785)

bf
6.93 newtons/m
2
(
*
f
1.223)

b
11.38 newtons/m
2
(
*
2.008)
k
c
0.0311 m
C
fs
0.00130
C
ff
0.00203
C
f
0.00333 (C
1/2
f
17.3)
H
s
1.134 m
H
f
1.766 m
H 2.9 m
In computing friction coefficients, the following relationship was used for the depth-aver-
aged flow velocity:

(
bs

U

bf
) /

1
1n

11

H
k
c

,
(6.130)
The Nelson-Smith method does not require the assumption of quasi-normal flow.
6.8.3 Empirical Formulas for Stage-Discharge Relations
To use either the Einstein or Nelson-Smith partitions, it is necessary to know in advance
the total effective boundary shear stress
b
. In general, this is not known. As a result, the
relations in themselves cannot be used to predict the boundary shear stress (as well as the
contributions from skin friction and form drag), and thus depth H, for a flow of, say, giv-
en slope S and discharge per unit width q
w
.
A number of empirical techniques have been proposed to accomplish this. Only three
are presented here; they are known to perform well for sand-bed streams with dune
resistance.
6.8.3.1 Einstein-Barbarossa Method. The method of Einstein and Barbarossa (1952) is
applicable for the case of dune resistance in a sand-bed stream. It assumes an empirical
relation of the following form:
C
ff
fn

*
s35
_

,
(6.131)
Here,

*
s35

g
b
D
s
35

(6.132)
The Einstein-Barbarossa plot is shown in Fig. 6.23. Note that it implies that C
ff
declines
for increasing
*
s35
. That is, the relation applies in the range for which increased intensity
of flow causes a decrease in form drag.
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In the Einstein-Barbarossa method, C
fs
is computed from a relation similar to Eq.
(6.113). That relation is used here to illustrate the method, which uses the Einstein parti-
tion for skin friction and form drag.
6.8.3.2 Application of the Einstein-Barbarossa Method. The Einstein-Barbarossa
method is now used to synthesize a depth-discharge relation: that is, a relation between H
and water discharge Q is obtained. It is assumed that the river slope S and the sizes D
50
and D
35
are known. The river is taken to be wide enough so that the hydraulic radius R
h

H; otherwise, R
h
should be used in place of H. In addition, the cross-sectional shape is
known, allowing for specification of the following geometric relation:
B B(H) (6.133)
(It also is assumed that auxiliary relations for area A, wetted perimeter P and R
h
as func-
tions of H are known.)
A range of values of H
s
is arbitrarily assumed, ranging from an extremely shallow
depth to nearly bankfull depth (recall that H
s
H). For each value of H
s
, the calculation
proceeds as follows:
H
s
C
fs
Eq. (6.115)
C
fs
, H
s
U Eq. (6.116b)
H
s

bs

*
s35
Eq. (6.116b), (6.132)

*
s35
C
ff
Eq. (6.131); use the diagram
C
ff
, U H
f
Eq. (6.119)
6.52 Chapter Six
FIGURE 6.23 Flow resistance due to bedforms. [after Einstein et al. (1952).]
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.53
H H
s
H
f
Eq. (6.120b)
Q UH B(H) Eq. (6.133)
The result can be plotted in terms of H versus Q.
The analysis can be continued for bedload transport rates. That is, the parameter
bs
can
be computed from

*
s

g
b
D
s
50

(6.134)
and this parameter can be substituted into an appropriate bedload transport equation to
obtain q. The volume bedload transport rate Q
b
is then computed as
Q
b
qB (6.135)
6.8.3.3 Engelund-Hansen Method. The method of Engelund and Hansen (1967) also
applies specifically for sand-bed streams. It is generally more accurate than the method of
Einstein and Barbarossa, to which it is closely allied. The method assumes quasi-uniform
material; it is necessary to know only a single grain size D. Roughness height k
s
is com-
puted from Eq. (6.121).
The method uses the Einstein partition. Skin friction is computed using Eq. (6.112).
Form drag is computed from the following empirical relation:

*
s
f(
*
) (6.136)
where

g
b
D

;
*
s

b
g
s
D

(6.137a, b)
Equation (6.134) is shown graphically in Fig. 6.24. It has two branches, each correspond-
ing to lower-regime and upper-regime flows. The two do not meet smoothly, implying the
possibility of a sudden transition. The point of transition is not specified, which suggests
the possibility of double-valued rating curves. The lower-regime branch of Eq. (6.136) is
given by

*
s
0.06 0.4(
*
)
2
(6.138)
The upper branch satisfies the relation

s

*
(6.139)
over a range; this implies an upper-regime plane bed. For higher values of Shields stress,

*
again exceeds
*
s
implying antidune resistance.
6.8.3.4 Application of the Engelund-Hansen Method. The procedure parallels that of
Einstein-Barbarossa relatively closely. It is assumed that the values of S and D as well as
the cross-sectional geometry are known. Values of H
s
are selected, ranging from a low val-
ue to near bankfull. The calculation then proceeds as follows:
H
s
C
fs
U Eq. (6.115) and (6.116b)
H
s

bs

*
s
Eq. (6,116b), (6.137b)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.54 Chapter Six
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
2
4
R
e
l
a
t
i
o
n

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

g
r
a
i
n

s
h
e
a
r

s
t
r
e
s
s

a
n
d

t
o
t
a
l

s
h
e
a
r

s
t
r
e
s
s

(
a
f
t
e
r

E
n
g
e
l
u
n
d

a
n
d

H
a
n
s
e
n
,
1
9
7
6
)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS

*
s

*
Eq. (6.134); use Equation (6.136) or plot

*

b
H Eq. (6.137b) and (6.116a)
Q = UH B(H) Eq. (6.133)
The value of
*
s
can then be used to calculate bedload transport rates in a fashion that is
completely analogous to the procedure outlined for the Einstein-Barbarossa method.
6.8.3.5 Brownlie method. There are almost as many empirical resistance predictors for
rivers as there are sediment transport relations. A fairly comprehensive summary of the
older methods can be found in ASCE Manual No. 54 (Vanoni, 1975). A recent empirical
method offered by Brownlie (1981a) has proved to be relatively accurate. It does not
involve a decomposition of bed shear stress; instead it gives a direct predictor of depth-
discharge relations.
The complete method can be found in Brownlie (1981a), where the relation is
presented for the case of lower-regime dune resistance in a sand-bed stream. It takes
the form

D
H
5
S
0

0.3724( qS)
0.6539
S
0.09188

0.1050
g
(6.140)
where
g
denotes the geometric standard deviation of the bed material, and q denotes a
dimensionless water discharge per unit width, given by
q
Rg
q
D
w
50
D
50
(6.141)
For known S, D
50
, and
g
, q
w
, and thus Q q
w
B is computed directly as a function of
depth H.
6.9 SUSPENDED LOAD
6.9.1 Mass Conservation of Suspended Sediment
Suspended sediment differs from bedload sediment in that it can be diffused throughout
the vertical column of fluid via turbulence. Here, the local mean volume concentration of
suspended sediment is denoted as c

. As long as the suspended sediment under considera-


tion is coarse enough not to undergo Brownian motion (i.e., silt or coarser), molecular
effects can be neglected. Suspended particles are transported solely by convective fluxes.
For an arbitrary volume of sediment-water mixture in the water column, the equation
of mass balance of suspended sediment can be written in words as

[mass in volume] [net mass inflow rate] (6.142)


Insofar as the choice of volume V is entirely arbitrary, the following sediment conserva-
tion equation, averaged over turbulence-induced fluctuations about the mean, can be
obtained:
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.55
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.56 Chapter Six

n
c

(w

v
s
)

u
s
c

v
n
c

z
c

(6.143)
where u

, v

, and w

are the mean flow velocities in the s, n, and z directions, respectively,


and the terms uc, vc, and wc are sediment fluxes caused by turbulence, also known
as Reynolds fluxes. The simplest closure assumption for these terms is
uc D
d

(6.144a)
vc D
d

n
c

(6.144b)
and
w c D
d

(6.144c)
where the kinematic eddy diffusivity D
d
is assumed to be a scalar quantity. To solve Eq.
(6.143), boundary conditions are needed.
6.9.2 Boundary Conditions
Equation (6.143), when closed with a Fickian assumption, such as Eq. (6.144a, b, and c),
represents an advection-diffusion equation for suspended sediment. The condition of van-
ishing flux of suspended sediment across (normal to) the water surface defines the upper
boundary condition.
If uniform steady flow over a flat (when averaged over bedforms) bed is considered,
the surface boundary condition for the net vertical flux of sediment reduces to
F
sz

z H
0 (6.145)
where
F
sz
v
s
c

w c (6.146)
is the net vertical flux of sediment.
The boundary condition at the bed differs from the one at the water surface because it
must account for entrainment of sediment into the flow from the bed and for deposition
from the flow onto the bed. The mean flux of suspended sediment onto the bed is given
by D, where
D v
s
c
b
(6.147)
denotes the volume rate of deposition of suspended sediment per unit time per unit bed
area. Here c
b
denotes a near-bed value of c

.
The component of the Reynolds flux of suspended sediment near the bed that is direct-
ed upward normal to the bed may be termed the rate of erosion, or more accurately,
entrainment of bed sediment into suspension per unit bed area per unit time. The entrain-
ment rate E is thus given by
E w c (6.148)
where w and c denote turbulent fluctuations around both the mean vertical fluid veloci-
ty and the mean sediment concentration, respectively. The overbar denotes averaging
over turbulence. The term near bed used to avoid possible singular behavior at the bed
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.57
(located at z 0).
It is seen from the above equations that the net upward normal flux of suspended sed-
iment at (or rather just above) the bed is given by
F
sz

near bed
v
s
(E
s
c
b
) (6.149a)
where
E
s


v
E
s

(6.149b)
denotes a dimensionless rate of entrainment of bed sediment into suspension. The required
bed boundary condition, then, is a specification of E
s
. Typically, a relation of the follow-
ing form is assumed:
E
s
E
s
(
bs
, other parameters) (6.150a)
where
bs
denotes the boundary shear stress caused by skin friction.
Furthermore, it is assumed that an equilibrium steady, uniform suspension has been
achieved. It follows that there should be neither net deposition on (F
sz
0) nor erosion
from (F
sz
0) the bed. That is, F
sz
0, yielding
E
s
c
b
(6.150b)
This relation simply states that the entrainment rate equals the deposition rate; thus,
there is no net normal flux of suspended sediment at the bed.
6.9.3 Equilibrium Suspension in a Wide Rectangular Channel
Consider normal flow in a wide, rectangular open channel. The bed is assumed to be
FIGURE 6.25 Definition diagram for sediment entrainment and deposition
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.58 Chapter Six
erodible and has no curvature when averaged over bedforms. The z-coordinate is quasi-
vertical, implying low channel slope S. Similarly, the suspension is assumed to be in equi-
librium. That is, c

is a function of z alone (Fig. 6.25). The flow and suspension are uni-
form in s and n and steady in time; thus, Eq. (6.143) reduces to
w c v
s
c

0 (6.151)
It is appropriate to close this equation with the assumption of an eddy diffusivity, as in Eq.
(6.144c); thus, Eq. (6.151) becomes
D
d

d
d
c

v
s
c

0 (6.152)
Equation (6.152) has a simple physical interpretation. The term v
s
c

represents the
rate of sedimentation of suspended sediment under the influence of gravity; it is always
directed downward. If all the sediment is not to settle out, there must be an upward flux
that balances this term. The upward flux is provided by the effect of turbulence, acting to
yield a Reynolds flux. According to Eq. (6.144c), this flux will be directed upward as long
as dc

/dz 0. It follows that the equilibrium suspended-sediment concentration decreases


for increasing z: therefore, turbulence diffuses sediment from zones of high concentration
(near the bed) to zones of low concentration (near the water surface).
6.9.4 Eddy Diffusivity
Further progress requires an assumption for the kinematic eddy diffusivity D
d
. The simple
approach taken here is that of Rouse (1957), which involves the use of the Prandtl analo-
gy. The argument is as follows: Fluid mass, heat, momentum, and so on should all diffuse
at the same kinematic rate because of turbulence and thus have the same kinematic eddy
diffusivity because each is a property of the fluid particles, and the fluid particles are what
is being transported by Reynolds fluxes.
Although the Prandtl analogy is by no means exact, it has proved to be a reasonable
approximation for many turbulent flows. Its application to sediment is more of a problem.
Inertial effects might cause the sediment particles to lag behind the fluid, resulting in a
lower eddy diffusivity for sediment than for the fluid. Furthermore, the mean fall veloci-
ty of sediment grains should reduce their time of residence in any given eddy, again reduc-
ing the diffusive effect. If the particles are not too large, however, it may be possible to
equate the vertical diffusivity of the sediment with the vertical eddy viscosity (eddy dif-
fusivity of momentum) of the fluid as the first approximation. This is done here.
The velocity profile is approximated as logarithmic throughout the depth. To account
for the possible existence of bedforms, the turbulent rough law embodied in Eq. (6.127b)
is used:

u
(z
*
)

1
ln

30

k
z
c

,
(6.153)
Here k
c
is a composite roughness chosen to include the effect of bedforms, as outlined in
Sec. 6.8.2.3. Furthermore, according to Eq. (6.2), the bed shear stress is given by
u
2
*

b
(6.154)
where b is chosen to be close to the bed: i.e.,
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Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.59

H
b

1 (6.155)
Now the kinematic eddy viscosity D
d
is defined as
D
d

d
d
u

(6.156)
where the distribution of fluid shear stresses is given by

b

1

H
z

,
(6.157)
From the above equations, it is quickly found that
D
d
u
*
z

1

H
z

,
(6.158)
where 0.4 is Von Karmans constant.
The above relation is the Rousean relation for the vertical kinematic eddy viscosity.
The form predicted is parabolic in shape. Although strictly applying to the turbulent dif-
fusion of fluid momentum, it is equated to the eddy diffusivity of suspended sediment
mass below. If D
d
is averaged in the vertical, the following result is obtained:
D
d

u
*
H 0.0667 u
*
H (6.159)
FIGURE 6.26 Vertical suspended sediment distribution (after Vanoni, 1961).
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.60 Chapter Six
This relation is useful to estimate the longitudinal dispersion of fine-grained sediment
in rivers and streams.
6.9.5 Rousean Distribution of Suspended Sediment
The nominal near bed elevation in applying the bottom boundary condition is taken to
be z b, where b is a distance taken to be extremely close to the bed: i.e., satisfying con-
dition Eq. (6.155). In the Rousean analysis, this value cannot be taken as z 0 because
Eq. (6.153) is singular there.
Equation (6.158) is now substituted into Eq. (6.152), which is then integrated from the
nominal bed level to distance z above the bed in z. The resulting form can be cast as

z
b

d
c

Z

z
b

z(H
Hd

z
z)

ln

H
z
z

,
Z1
1
]

z
b
(6.160)
where Z denotes the Rouse number, a dimensionless number given by
Z

v
u
s
*

(6.161)
Further reduction yields the following profile:
c

c
b

(
(
H
H

b
z)
)
/
/
z
b

1
1
]
Z
(6.162)
Some sample profiles of suspended sediment plotted in Rousean form are provided in
Fig. 6.26.
Note that from Eq. (6.150b), c
b
is equal to the dimensionless sediment entrainment rate
E
s
in the case of the present equilibrium suspension. This provides an empirical means to
evaluate E
s
as a function of
bs
and other parameters, as will be shown.
6.9.6 Vertically Averaged Concentrations: Suspended Load
Assuming that a value of near-bed elevation b is chosen approximately, Eq. (6.162) can be
used to evaluate a depth-averaged volume suspended-sediment concentration C, defined by
C

H
1

H
b
c

(z)dz (6.163)
Using Eq. (6.162), then
C c
b
I
1
(Z,
b
) (6.164a)
where
I
l


z

(
(
1
1

)
b
)
/
/

Z
d;
b


H
b

(6.164b, c)
In the above relation, z/H; the integral is evaluated easily by means of numerical tech-
niques. Einstein (1950) represented I
1
in the form
I
l
(0.216)
1

b
I
l
(6.165)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.61
FIGURE 6.27a Function I
1
in terms of
b
= b/H for values of Z:
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.62 Chapter Six
FIGURE 6.27b Function I
2
in terms of
b
= b/H for values of Z:
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.63
where I
1
is given in tabular form in the attached Fig. 6.27a.
The streamwise suspended load q
s
was seen in Eq. (6.61a) to be given by the relation
q
s


H
b
c

(z)u

(z)dz (6.166)
Reducing with the aid of Eqs. (6.153) and (6.162), we find that
q
s

1
c
b
u
*
H

I
l
ln

30

H
k
c

,
I
2
(6.167)
Here,
I
2
(Z,
b
)

1

(
(
1
1

b
)
)
/
/

Z
1n()d. (6.168)
The integral I
2
is again evaluated easily numerically: Einstein provides the relation
I
2
(0.216)
1

b
I
2
(6.169)
where I
2
is given in tabular form in Fig. 6.27b. Brooks (1963) also proposed an interest-
ing way to calculate suspended load discharge from velocity and concentration parameters.
It is apparent that further progress is predicated on a method for evaluating the refer-
ence concentration c
b
, or equivalently (for the case of equilibrium suspensions) the
sediment entrainment rate E
s
Such a relation is necessary to model transport of suspend-
ed sediment (e.g., Celik and Rodi, 1988).
6.9.7 Relation for Sediment Entrainment
A number of relations are available in the literature for estimating the entrainment rate of
sediment into suspension E
s
(and thus the reference concentration c
b
for the case of equi-
librium). Table 6.5 summarizes all the relations that are available. Garca and Parker
(1991) performed a detailed comparison of eight such relations against data. The relations
were checked against a carefully selected set of data pertaining to equilibrium suspensions
of uniform sand. In this case, it is possible to measure c
b
directly at some near-bed eleva-
tion z b, and to equate the result to E
s
according to Eq. (6.150b)
The data consisted of some 64 sets from 10 different sources, all pertaining to labora-
tory suspensions of uniform sand with a submerged specific gravity R near 1.65.
Information about the bedforms was typically not sufficient to allow for a partition of
boundary shear stress in accordance with Nelson and Smith (1989). As a result, the shear
stress caused by skin friction alone
bs
and the associated shear velocity caused by skin
friction u
*s
, given by

bs
u
2
*s
(6.170)
were computed using Eq. (6.114) and the following relation for k
s
,
k
s
2 D (6.171)
or a similar method.
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.64 Chapter Six
E
i
n
s
t
e
i
n
(
1
9
5
0
)
E
n
g
e
l
u
n
d

a
n
d
F
r
e
d
s
o
e

(
1
9
7
6
;
1
9
8
2
)
S
m
i
t
h

a
n
d
M
c
L
e
a
n

(
1
9
7
7
)
I
t
a
k
u
r
a

a
n
d

K
i
s
h
i
(
1
9
8
0
)
V
a
n

R
i
j
n

(
1
9
8
4
)
C
e
l
i
k

a
n
d

R
o
d
i
(
1
9
8
4
)
A
k
i
y
a
m
a

a
n
d
F
u
k
u
s
h
i
m
a
(
1
9
8
6
)
G
a
r
c

a

a
n
d
P
a
r
k
e
r

(
1
9
9
1
)
Z
y
s
e
r
m
a
n

a
n
d
F
r
e
d
s
o
e

(
1
9
9
4
)
b

2
D
s
b

2
D
s
b

*s

D
s

k
s

o
=

2
6
.
3
b

0
.
0
5
H
b


2
b

i
f

b
k
n
o
w
n
e
l
s
e
b

k
s
*
b
m
i
n

0
.
0
1
H
b

0
.
0
5
H
b

0
.
0
5
H
b

0
.
0
5
H
b

2
D
s
c
b

2
3
.
2
q
*
s *

0
.
5

c
b

(
1

0
.
6
5
b

1
)
3

c
b

1 0
.
6
5

o0
TT

c
b

k
1

k
2
uv
*s

c
b

0
.
0
1
5
D
b
s

D T
1* 0
.. 53

c
b

k
0
CI
m

E
s

0
;
Z

Z
c
E
s


1
0

1
2
Z
1
0

Z
Z
c

;
Z
c

Z
m
E
s

0
.
3
;
Z

Z
m
E
s

c
b

0
.
3
3
1
(

'

0
.
0
4
5
)
1
.
7
5

0
0
.
3.
4
3
6
1

'

0
.
0
4
5
)
1
.
7
5
A
Z
5u

0
A
.
3


Z
5u

0
.
5
;
p

1

+

0
.
2
5
;

1
.
0
T


*s

*c

*c

2
.
4

1
0

k
*3

k
4
+

1
;
A
o
=
k
* 3

k
4
;
k
1

0
.
0
0
8
;
k
2

0
.
1
4
;
k
3

0
.
1
4
3

;

k
4

2
.
0
D
*

D
s

g
v
R
2

1
/
3
;

b
i
s

t
h
e

m
e
a
n

d
u
n
e

h
e
i
g
h
t
C
m

0
.
0
3
4

H k
s

0
.
0
6

g
R u
2*H

U
v
s m

;
I
=

10
.
0
5

b
b

v
s
/
0
.
4
u
*
d

z
/
H
;

0
.
0
5
;
k
o

1
.
1
3
Z

uv
*s

R
p 0
.
5
;
Z
c

5
;
Z
m

1
3
.
2
Z
u

u
v
*
s
s

R
np
;
u
*
s

g
C
0
.' 5

U
m
;
C
'

1
8

l
o
g

1
3
2
D
R
s
b

;
n

0
.
6
;
A

1
.
3

1
0
-
7

'

R (
u
g
*
D s
)
2
s

e
x
p
(

A
2
o
)

A
o
e
x
p
(

2
)
d

*s

0
.
0
6

*s

0
.
0
6


p6

0
.
0
2
7
(
R

1
)

*s
T
A
B
L
E

6
.
5
E
x
i
s
t
i
n
g

f
o
r
m
u
l
a
s

t
o

e
s
t
i
m
a
t
e

s
e
d
i
m
e
n
t

e
n
t
r
a
i
n
m
e
n
t

o
r

n
e
a
r
-
b
e
d

c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

u
n
d
e
r

e
q
u
i
l
i
b
r
i
u
m

c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
s
.
A
u
t
h
o
r
F
o
r
m
u
l
a
P
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s
R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

H
e
i
g
h
t
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.65
The data covered the following ranges:
E
s
: 0.0002 0.06
u
*s
/v
s
: 0.70 7.50
H/D: 240 2400
Re
p
3.50 37.00
The range of values of Re
p
corresponds to a grain size ranging from 0.09 mm to 0.44
mm. Except for the relatively small values of H/D, the values cover a range that includes
typical field sand-bed streams.
Three of the relations for E
s
performed particularly well and are presented here. The
first is the relation of Garca and Parker (1991). The reference level is taken to be 5 per-
cent of the depth: that is,

H
b


b
0.05. (6.172)
FIGURE 6.28 Sediment entrainment function (after
Garca and Parker, 1991).
E
s
Z
u
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.66 Chapter Six
The good performance of this relation is not overly surprising because the relation was fit-
ted to the data. The relation takes the form
E
s
(6.173a)
where
A 1.3 10
7
(6.173b)
and
Z
u


u
v
*
s
s

Re
p
0.6
(6.173c)
Equation (6.173a) is compared against the data in Fig. 6.28. Predicted values of E
s
are
compared with observed values in Fig. 6.29.
A second relation that performed well is that of Van Rijn (1984), which takes the form
E
s
0.015

D
b

(
*
s
/
*
c
1)
1.5
Re
p
0.2
(6.174)
where
*
s
denotes the Shields stress caused by skin friction, given by Eq. (6.112). For the
purposes of the present comparison, b was again set equal to 5 percent of the depth: i.e.,
Eq. (6.172) was used. Van Rijn computed
bs
from relations that are similar to Eqs. (6.115)
and (6.116b). Van Rijn's relations are
C
fs

ln

12

H
k
s

2
(6.175a)
AZ
5
u

1

0
A
.3

Z
5
u
FIGURE 6.29 Comparison of predicted and observed near-bed concentration for
Garca-Parker function
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.67
FIGURE 6.31 Comparison of predicted and observed
near-bed concentration for Smith-McLean function.
FIGURE 6.30 Comparison of predicted and observed
near-bed concentration for van Rijn function
where, for uniform material,
k
s
3 D (6.175b)
Note that in Eq. (6.175), the total depth His used, in contrast to Eq. (6.115) where H
s
is used.
In performing the comparison, Garca and Parker (1991) estimated
*
s
from a fit to the
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Shields curve due to Brownlie (1981a). This fit is given by Eq. (6.44). Predicted and
observed values of E
s
are presented in Fig. 6.30.
A third relation that performs well is that of Smith and McLean (1977) which can be
expressed as
E
s
0.65 (6.176a)
where

o
0.0024 (6.176b)
The value b at which E is to be evaluated is given by the following relation:
b 26.3(
*
s
/
*
c
1)D k
s
(6.176c)
where k
s
denotes the equivalent roughness height for a fixed bed.
For the purpose of comparison, Garca and Parker used Eq. (6.171) to evaluate k
s
and
used Eq. (6.115) to evaluate
bs
. Critical Shields stress was evaluated with Eq. (6.44).
Predicted and observed values of E
s
are shown in Fig. 6.31.
6.9.8 Entrainment Relation for Sediment Mixtures
Garca and Parker (1991) provided a generalized treatment for the entrainment rate in the
case of mixtures. Let the grain-size range of bed material be divided into N subranges,
each with mean size
j
on the phi scale and geometric mean diameter D
j
2

j
where j
1...N. Let F
j
denote the volume fraction of material in the surface layer of the bed in the
jth grain range. In analogy to Eq. (6.148), it is assumed that
E
j
v
sj
F
j
E(Z
uj
) (6.177a)
where E
j
denotes the volume entrainment rate for the jth subrange and the functional rela-
tion between E
s
and Z
uj
is given by Eq. (6.173a). The parameter Z
uj
is specified as
Z
uj

m

u
v
*
sj
s

Re
pj
0.6

D
D
5
j
0

0.2
(6.177b)
In the above relations, v
sj
denotes the fall velocity of grain size D
j
in quiescent water, D
50
denotes the median size of the surface material in the bed
Re
pj
(6.177c)
and the parameter
m
is given by

m
1 0.288

(6.177d)
Here,

denotes the arithmetic standard deviation of the bed surface material on the phi
scale, given by Eq. (6.30).
The Garca-Parker relation for mixtures reduces smoothly to the relation for uniform
material in the limit as

0. It was developed and tested with three sets of data from


two rivers: the Rio Grande and the Niobrara River. Recently, the Garca-Parker formula-
tion also has been used to interpret observations of sediment entrainment into suspension
by bottom density currents (Garca and Parker, 1993).
RgD
j
D
j

o
(
*
s
/
*
c
1)

1
o
(
*
s
/
*
c
1)
6.68 Chapter Six
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.69
6.9.9 Example of Computation of Sediment Load and Rating Curve. Consider the
example of a stream in Sec. 6.8.2. For this stream, S 0.0004 and D 0.35 mm (uni-
form material). At bankfull flow, the stream width is 75 m. For flows below bankfull, the
following relation holds:

B
B
bf

Q
Q
bf

0.1
where the subscript bf denotes bankfull. Assume that the stream is wide enough to equate
the hydraulic radius R
h
with the cross-sectionally averaged depth H.
Compute the depth-discharge relations for flows up to bankfull (lower regime only)
using the Engelund-Hansen method. Plot H versus Q. Use the results of the Engelund-
Hansen method to compute values of
s
*
as well.
Use the values of
s
*
to compute the bedload discharge Q
b
q
b
B using the Ashida-
Michiue formulation. For each value of H and U, back-calculate the composite roughness
k
c
. Then compute the suspended load Q
s
q
s
B from the Einstein formulation and the
relation for E
s
by Garca and Parker. Plot Q
b
, Q
s
, and Q
T
Q
b
Q
s
as functions of water
discharge Q.
Solution: In this example, the flow depth, bedload discharge, and suspended load dis-
charge are computed as a function of flow discharge for a stream with the following prop-
erties:
S = 0.0004
D
s
= 0.35 mm = 3.5 10
-4
m
R = 1.65
B = 75 m at bankfull
H = 2.9 m at bankfull
The calculations are performed for flows up to bankfull. For flows below bankfull, the
following relation is used to calculate the stream width:

B
B
bf

Q
Q
bf

0.1

U
Q
H
b
B
f

0.1
(i)
where the subscript bf indicates bankfull values. Solving for the stream width B,
B

B
bf

U
Q
H
bf

0.1

1/0.9
(ii)
The methods used to determine Q, Q
b
, Q
s
, and Q
bf
are described below. A computer
program can be written, or a spreadsheet can be used, to perform the necessary calcula-
tions. All computations and results are summarized in Table 6.6.
6.9.9.1 Depth-discharge calculations. The depth-discharge relation is computed using
the Engelund-Hansen method. The calculations are performed by assuming a value for H
s
(the flow depth that would be expected in the absence of bedforms), then calculating the
actual flow depth (H) and the flow discharge (Q). H
s
is varied between 0.22 m and the
bankfull value of 2.9 m. The first step in calculating the depth-discharge relation is to
compute the resistance coefficient caused by skin drag (C
fs
) from H
s
:
C
fs

1n

11

H
k
s
s

2
(iii)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
H
s
C
f
s
U

*
s

*
F
l
o
w

W
i
d
t
h
D
i
s
c
h
a
r
g
e
q
*
b
q
b
Q
b
k
c
Z
u
E
s
u
*
R
o
u
s
e
I
1
2
I
2
q
s
Q
s
Q
t
(
m
/
s
)
D
e
p
t
h

H
(
m
)
B


(
m
)
(
m
3
/
s
)

Q
N
o
.
Z
0
.
1
0
0
.
0
0
3
1
4
0
.
3
5
3
0
.
0
6
9
0
.
1
5
2
0
.
2
2
4
5
.
2
8
3
.
5
2
0
.
0
1
2
9
6
3
.
4
1
E
-
0
7
0
.
0
0
0
0
1
5
5
0
.
0
1
9
6
0
2
2
.
5
1
9
9
7
1
.
3
2
E
-
0
5
0
.
0
2
9
3
6
4
.
7
6
4
5
4
8
6
5
2
0
.
0
4
8
0
.
1
3
7
.
3
6
#
-
0
9
3
.
3
3
E
-
0
7
0
.
0
0
0
0
1
5
8
0
.
2
0
0
.
0
0
2
6
1
0
.
5
4
8
0
.
1
3
9
0
.
4
4
3
0
.
6
4
5
3
.
5
4
1
8
.
7
8
0
.
2
2
3
6
2
5
.
8
9
E
-
0
6
0
.
0
0
0
3
1
5
4
0
.
0
8
8
3
1
4
3
.
5
6
3
7
8
7
.
4
7
E
-
0
5
0
.
0
5
0
1
2
.
7
9
2
3
2
4
5
1
1
0
.
1
0
5
0
.
2
6
4
.
2
3
E
-
0
7
2
.
2
6
E
-
0
5
0
.
0
0
0
3
3
8
0
0
.
3
0
0
.
0
0
2
3
6
0
.
7
0
6
0
.
2
0
8
0
.
6
0
8
0
.
8
8
5
7
.
0
4
3
5
.
3
6
0
.
6
2
2
9
6
1
.
6
4
E
-
0
5
0
.
0
0
0
9
3
6
0
0
.
0
7
8
2
6
7
4
.
3
6
4
7
2
0
.
0
0
0
2
0
6
0
.
0
5
8
6
8
2
.
3
8
4
0
1
6
9
0
2
0
.
1
3
0
.
3
2
2
.
6
8
E
-
0
6
0
.
0
0
0
1
5
3
0
.
0
0
1
0
8
8
7
0
.
4
0
0
.
0
0
2
2
0
0
.
8
4
4
0
.
2
7
7
0
.
7
3
7
1
.
0
6
5
9
.
4
3
5
3
.
3
6
1
.
1
6
8
6
2
3
.
0
8
E
-
0
5
0
.
0
0
1
8
2
9
7
0
.
0
6
2
8
2
5
5
.
0
3
9
9
5
0
.
0
0
0
4
2
2
0
.
0
6
4
6
2
.
1
6
5
6
0
4
4
0
9
0
.
1
4
0
.
3
8
8
.
2
6
E
-
0
6
0
.
0
0
0
4
9
1
0
.
0
0
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0
.
0
3
3
1
5
8
0
.
1
0
6
4
8
1
.
3
1
3
8
1
3
4
5
2
0
.
2
8
0
.
5
9
0
.
0
1
3
7
1
6
1
.
0
2
7
7
8
2
1
.
0
8
5
4
4
7
2
2
.
4
1
6
0
.
0
0
1
5
0
2
.
5
1
2
1
.
6
7
3
2
.
0
0
8
2
.
9
0
7
5
.
0
0
5
4
6
.
3
5
2
9
.
5
3
0
0
2
0
.
0
0
0
7
7
8
0
.
0
5
8
3
4
2
9
0
.
0
0
2
5
8
3
1
2
.
3
8
6
4
0
.
0
3
3
6
5
1
0
.
1
0
6
6
7
1
.
3
1
1
5
5
1
5
3
8
0
.
2
8
0
.
5
9
0
.
0
1
4
0
2
7
1
.
0
5
2
0
0
7
1
.
1
1
0
3
4
9
6
T
A
B
L
E

6
.
6
C
o
m
p
u
t
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

T
o
t
a
l

S
e
d
i
m
e
n
t

L
o
a
d
.
6.70
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.71
where is the von Karman constant (0.4) and k
s
is given by
k
s
2.5 D
s
2.5(3.5 10
4
) 8.75 10
4
m (iv)
The depth-averaged flow velocity (U) can be found from C
fs
and H
s
:
U

C
H

f
s
s
S

(v)
The Shields stress caused by skin friction (
s
*
) is given by

*
s

R
bs
D
s


R
H
D
s
S
s

(vi)
According to Engelund-Hansen, the total Shields stress for the lower regime can be found
from the following relation:

.4
0

.0

(vii)
The flow depth can be calculated from the Shields stress as follows:
H

*
R
S
D
s

(viii)
Finally, the discharge can be calculated from the results of Eqs. (v) and (viii):
Q UHB (ix)
where B must be adjusted according to Eq. (ii) for flows less than bankfull. A plot of the
depth-discharge relation is shown in Fig. 6.32.
6.9.9.2 Bedload discharge calculations. The dimensionless bedload transport rate (q
*
)
is found from the Ashida-Michiue formulation:
q
*
17(
*
s

*
c
)[(

s
)
0.5
(
*
c
)
0.5
] (x)
where
s
*
is calculated in Eq. (vi) and
c
*
is taken to be 0.05. The bedload transport rate
per unit width (q
b
) is given by
q
b
q
*
gRD
s
D
s
(xi)
Therefore, the bedload transport rate (in m
3
/s) is given by
Q
b
q
b
B (xii)
Again, B must be adjusted according to Eq. (ii) for flows less than bankfull.
6.9.9.3 Sediment load discharge calculations. The Einstein formulation is used to
compute the suspended load transport rate per unit width (q
s
):
q
s

c
b
u
*
H

I
1
ln

30

H
k
c

I
2
(xiii)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.72 Chapter Six
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
3
2
E
x
a
m
p
l
e

o
f

f
l
o
w

d
i
s
c
h
a
r
g
e

r
a
t
i
n
g

c
u
r
v
e
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.73
where
u
*
g HS (xiv)
If the suspension is assumed to be at equilibrium, c
b
E
s
. The dimensionless rate of
entrainment (E
s
) is calculated with the relation of Garca and Parker (1991):
E
s
(xv)
where A is equal to 1.3 10
-7
and
Z
u


u
v
*
s
s

Re
p
0.6
(xvi)
u
*s
g H
s
S (xvii)
and
Re
p

Rg

D
s
D
s

(xviii)
Notice that for the entrainment formulation, the shear velocity associated with skin
friction u
*s
must be used. The temperature is assumed to be about 20C; therefore, the
kinematic viscosity is about 10
6
m
2
/s. An iterative method, or Eq. (6.38), is used to
calculate the terminal fall velocity of the sediment particles v
s
, which is found to be 5.596
10
2
m/s. The composite roughness (k
c
) is calculated according to the following
relation:
k
c
11 H exp

u
U
*

(xix)
The parameters I
1
and I
2
are found by numerical integration of the following equations:
I
1

1
b

1
b

Z
d (xx)
and
I
2

1
b

Z
ln()d (xxi)
where
b
is taken to be 0.05 and
Z

v
u
s
*

(xxii)
The numerical integrations can be performed with Numerical Recipes subroutines
(Press et al., 1986) or can be obtained from Figs. 6.27a and b. The suspended load trans-
port rate per unit width calculated according to Eq. (xiii) is used to compute the suspend-
ed load transport rate (in m
3
/s):
Q
s
q
s
B (xxiii)
AZ
5
u

1

0
A
.3

Z
5
u
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For flows less than bankfull, B must be adjusted according to Eq. (ii).
6.9.9.4 Determination of bankfull flow discharge (Q
bf
). The flow discharge at bankfull
(Q
bf
) is determined by assuming that up to bankfull flow, lower regime conditions exist.
The bankfull flow depth for this stream is assumed to be 2.9 m. Then, for bankfull flow,
the total shear stress
*
is


R
H
D
S
s

1.6
2
5
.9
3

.5
.0

00
1
4
0
4

2.01 (xxiv)
From Engelund-Hansen,

*
s
0.06 0.4(
*
)
2
0.06 0.4 (2.01)
2
1.67 (xxv)
Hs

*
s
R
S
D
s

2.42 m (xxvi)
C
fs

ln

11

H
k
s
s

0
1
.4

ln

11

8.75
2

.42
10
4

2
1.5 10
3
(xxvii)
U

C
H

f
s
s
S

.8

1
1

5
2

0
0

.
3
0

2.51 m/s (xxviii)


and
Q
b
UHB 2.51 2.9 75 546.35 m
3
/s (xxix)
A plot of Q
b
, Q
s
, and Q
T
Q
b
Q
s
as functions of water discharge are shown in Fig.
6.33. For flows up to 100 m
3
/s, the bedload discharge is larger than the suspended load
discharge. As the flow discharge increases, the suspended load is much larger than the
bedload all the way up to bankfull flow conditions.
Also notice that the composite roughness k
c
increases first with flow discharge for low
flows but, from then on, decreases monotonically as the bedforms begin to be washed out
by the flow. For bankfull conditions, the bedforms have a small effect on flow resistance
in this particular problem.
6.10 DIMENSIONLESS RELATIONS FOR TOTAL BED
MATERIAL LOAD IN SAND-BED STREAMS
6.10.1 Form of the Relations
In the analysis presented in previous sections, the guiding principle has been the develop-
ment of mechanistically accurate models of the bedload and suspended load components
1.67 1.65 (3.5 10
4
)

0.0004
6.74 Chapter Six
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.75
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
3
3
E
x
a
m
p
l
e

s
e
d
i
m
e
n
t

d
i
s
c
h
a
r
g
e

r
a
t
i
n
g

c
u
r
v
e
s

f
o
r

b
e
d
l
o
a
d
,
s
u
s
p
e
n
d
e
d

l
o
a
d
,
a
n
d

t
o
t
a
l

l
o
a
d
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.76 Chapter Six
of bed material load. The total bed material load is then computed as the sum of the two.
That is, where q denotes the volume bedload transport rate per unit width and q
S
denotes
the volume suspended load transport rate per unit width (bed material only), the total vol-
ume transport rate of bed material per unit width is given by
q
t
q q
s
(6.178)
Another simpler approach is to ignore the details of the physics of the problem and
instead use empirical techniques, such as regression analysis, to correlate dimensionless
parameters involving q
t
to dimensionless flow parameters inferred to be important for sed-
iment transport. This can be implemented in the strict sense only for equilibrium or qua-
si-equilibrium flows: i.e., for near-normal conditions. The resulting relations are no better
than the choice of dimensionless parameters to be correlated. They also are less versatile
than physically based relations because their application to nonsteady, nonuniform flow
fields is not obvious. On the other hand, they have the advantage of being relatively sim-
ple to use and of having been calibrated to sets of both laboratory and field data often
deemed to be trustworthy.
Here, four such relations are presented, those of Engelund and Hansen (1967),
Brownlie (1981a), Yang (1973), and Ackers and White (1973). They apply only to sand-
bed streams with relatively uniform bed sediment. The first two relations are the most
complete because each is presented as a pair of relations for total load and hydraulic resis-
tance. The latter two are presented as relations for total load only. In most cases, it will be
necessary for the user to specify a relation for hydraulic resistance as well to perform actu-
al calculations; the latter relations for load give no guidelines for this.
The importance of using transport and hydraulic resistance relations as pairs cannot be
overemphasized. Consider, for example, the simplest generalization beyond the assump-
tion of normal flow: i.e., the case of quasi-steady, gradually varied, one-dimensional flow.
The governing equations for a wide rectangular channel can be written as

d
d
s

2
V
g
2

H
_

,
S S
f
(6.179a)
UH q
w
(6.179b)
where the friction slope S
f
is given as
S
f

g
b
H

C
f

g
U
H
2

(6.180)
A slightly more general form for nonrectangular channels is

d
d
s

1
2


g
Q
A
2
2

b
S S
f
(6.181a)
UA Q (6.181b)
where A is the channel cross-sectional area and the friction slope S
f
is given as
S
f

R
b
h

C
f

g
U
R
2
h

(6.182)
In the above equations, R
h
denotes the hydraulic radius and
b
denotes the water surface
elevation above the deepest point in the channel.
Note that in the case of normal flow, the momentum equations reduce to S
f
S, or
b
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
gHS for the wide rectangular case and
b
gR
h
S for the nonrectangular case.
However, in the case of gradually varied flow, S
f
S; in this case, the bed slope S cannot
be used as a basis for calculating sediment transport. The appropriate choice is S
f
, so that
from Eq. (6.182), for example,

b
gR
h
S
f
(6.183)
For the case of gradually varying flow, then, it should be apparent that the friction slope
necessary to perform sediment transport calculations must be obtained from a predictor of
hydraulic resistance.
A few parameters are introduced here. Let Q denote the total water discharge and Q
st
denote the total volume bed material sediment discharge. Furthermore, let B
a
denote the
active width of the river over which bed material is free to move. In general, B
a
is usu-
ally less than water-surface width B as a result of the common tendency for the banks to
be cohesive, vegetated, or both. Thus, it follows that
Q Bq
w
(6.184a)
and
Q
st
B
a
q
t
(6.184b)
One dimensionless form for dimensionless total bed material transport is q
t
*:
q
*
t
(6.185)
where D is a grain size usually equated to D
50
. Another commonly used measure is con-
centration by weight in parts per million, here called C
s
, which can be given as
C
s
10
6

s
Q

st
s
Q
st

(6.186)
6.10.2 Engelund-Hansen Relations
6.10.2.1 Sediment transport. This relation is among the simplest to use for sediment
transport and also among the most accurate. It was determined for a relatively small set of
laboratory data, but it also performs well as a field predictor. It takes the form
C
f
q
t
*
0.05 (
*
)
5/2
(6.187)
where C
f
is the total resistance coefficient (skin friction plus form drag) and
*
denotes the
total (skin friction plus form drag) Shields stress based on the size D
50
.
6.10.2.2 Hydraulic resistance. The hydraulic resistance relation of Engelund and
Hansen (1967) has already been introduced; it must be written in several parts. The key
relation for skin friction is
C
1/2
fs

g
U
R
hs
S

2.5 1n

11

R
k
h
s
s

(6.188a)
where k
s
(2 2.5) D
50
. Here, R
hs
denotes the hydraulic radius caused by skin friction,
which often can be approximated by H
s
. The relation for form drag can be written in the fol-
lowing form:
q
t

RgD D
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.77
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS

*
s
f(
*
) (6.188b)
where for lower regime,

*
s
0.06 0.4 (
*
)
2
(6.188c)
and for upper regime,

*
1

*
s

[0.298 0.702 (
*
)
1.8
]
(1/1.8)

*
1

(6.188d)
An approximate condition for the transition between lower and upper regime is

*
s
0.55 (6.188e)
Computational procedure for normal flow. The water discharge Q, slope S, and grain
size D
50
must be known. In addition, channel geometry must be known so that B, B
a
, A,
H, P, and R
h
are all known functions of stage (water-surface elevation) . The procedure
is best outlined assuming that R
hs
is known and that Q is to be calculated, rather than vice
verse. For any given value of R
hs
(or H
s
), U can be computed from Eq. (6.188a). Noting
that
s
*
R
hs
S/(RD
50
) and
*
R
h
S/(RD
50
),
*
, and thus R
h
can be computed from Eq.
(6.188b-e). The plot of R
h
versus is used to determine , which is then used to determine
B, B
a
, H, A, P, and so on. Discharge Q is then given by Q UBH. In actual implementa-
tion, this process is reversed (Q is given and R
hs
and so forth are computed). This requires
an iterative technique; Newton-Raphson is not difficult to implement.
Once the calculation of hydraulic resistance is complete, it is possible to proceed to the
computation of total bed material load Q
st
. The friction coefficient C
f
is given by
(gR
h
S)/U
2
. Putting the known values of C
f
and
*
into (6.187), q
t
*
, and thus q
t
can be com-
puted. It follows that Q
st
q
t
B
a
.
Computational procedure for gradually varied flow. To implement the method for
gradually varied flow, it is necessary to recast the above formulation into an algorithm for
friction slope S
f
, which replaces S everywhere in the formulation of Eqs. (6.188a-e). The
formulation is then solved in conjunction with Eqs. (6.179a and b) or Eqs. (6.181a and b)
to determine the appropriate backwater curve. Once C
f
and
b
are known everywhere, the
sediment transport rate can be calculated from Eq. (6.187).
6.10.3 Brownlie Relations
6.10.3.1 Sediment transport. The Brownlie relations are based on regressions of more
than 1000 data points pertaining to experimental and field data. For normal or quasi-nor-
mal flow, the transport relation takes the form
C
s
7115c
f
(F
g
F
go
)
1.978
S
0.6601

D
R
5
h
0

0.3301
(6.189a)
where
F
g

R
U
gD
50

(6.189b)
6.78 Chapter Six
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.79
F
go
4.596(
*
c
)
0.5293
S
0.1045

g
0.1606
(6.189c)

c
0.22Y 0.06 10
7.7Y
(6.189d)
and
Y Re
p
0.6
(6.189e)
In Eq. (6.189a), c
f
1 for laboratory flumes and 1.268 for field channels. The para-
meters

c
and Re
p
are the ones previously introduced in this chapter.
6.10.3.2 Hydraulic resistance. The Brownlie relations for hydraulic resistance were
determined by regression from the same set of data used to determine the relation for sed-
iment transport. The relation for lower regime flow is

D
R
5
h
0

S 0.3724( qS)
0.6539
S
0.09188

g
0.1050
(6.190a)
The corresponding relation for upper regime flow is

D
R
5
h
0

S 0.2836( qS)
0.6248
S
0.08750

g
0.08013
(6.190b)
In the above relations,
q (6.190c)
The distinction between lower and upper regime is made as follows. For S 0.006, the
flow is always assumed to be in upper regime. For S 0.006, the largest value of F
g
at
which lower regime can be maintained is taken to be
F
g
0.8F
g
(6.190d)
and the smallest value of F
g
for which upper regime can be maintained is taken to be
F
g
1.25F

g
(6.190e)
In the above relations,
F

g
1.74S
1/3
(6.190f)
6.10.3.3 Computational procedure for normal flow. It is necessary to know Q, S, D
50
,

g
, and cross-sectional geometry as a function of stage. The computation is explicit,
although trial and error may be required to determine the flow regime. Hydraulic radius
is computed from Eq. (6.190a) or Eq. (6.190b), and the result can be substituted into Eq.
(6.189a) to determine the concentration C
s
in parts per million by weight. The transport
rate Q
st
is then computed from Eq. (6.186).
6.10.3.4 Computational procedure for gradually varied flow The Brownlie relation is
not presented in a form which obviously allows for extension to gradually varied flow. The
most unambiguous procedure, however, is to replace S with S
f
in the resistance relation,
and couple it with a backwater calculation on order to determine S
f
. The friction slope is
then substituted into Eq. (6.189a) in place of the bed slope in order to determine the sed-
iment transport rate.
q
w

gD
50
D
50
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.80 Chapter Six
6.10.4 The AckersWhite Relation Like the Brownlie relation for sediment transport,
this relation is based on a massive regression. Several years after is was presented, a cor-
responding relation for hydraulic resistance was also presented. The relation for hydraulic
resistance, however, does not appear to be among the best predictors. As a result, only the
load equation is presented here. I
t
takes the form
C
s
10
6

s

D
R
5
h
0

u
U
*

A
F
a
g
w
r

m
(6.191a)
where
F
gr
; U
*

(6.191b,c)
The parameters n, and A
aw
are determined as a functions of D
gr
, where
D
gr
R
ep
2/3
(6.191d)
in the following fashion. If D
gr
60, then
n 0; m 1.5 (6.191e and f)
and
A
aw
0.17; c 0.025 (6.191g and h)
If 1 D
gr
60, then
n 1 0.56log(D
gr
); m

9
D
.6
g
6
r

1.34 (6.191i and j)


A
aw

0.
D
23
gr

0.14 (6.191k)
log(c) 2.86log(D
gr
) [log(D
gr
)]
2
3.53 (6.191)
Note that all logarithms here are base 10, and u
*
retains its previously introduced mean-
ing as shear velocity.
6.10.5 Yang Relation
This relation also was determined by regression. Its form is
log(C
s
) a
1
a
2
log

U
v
s
S



U
v
c
s
S

(6.192a)
where
a
1
5.435 0.286 log

v
s
D

50

0.457 log

u
v
*
s

(6.192b)
U

32 log

10

D
R
5
h
0

U
*
n
U
*
1n

RgD
50

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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.81
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
3
4
a
R
a
t
i
o

o
f

c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

c
a
l
c
u
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.82 Chapter Six
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
3
4
b
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a
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i
o

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f

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9
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a
.
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.83
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
3
4
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r
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w
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(
1
9
8
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b
)

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.
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.84 Chapter Six
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
3
4
d
R
a
t
i
o

o
f

c
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1
9
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1
b
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.
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.85
F
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E

6
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3
4
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A
c
k
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r
s

a
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d

W
h
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t
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(
1
9
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3
)

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.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.86 Chapter Six
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
3
4
f
R
a
t
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o

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f

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.
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.87
F
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E

6
.
3
4
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(
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.88 Chapter Six
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
3
4
h
R
a
t
i
o

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f

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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.89
a
1
1.799 0.409 log

v
s
D

50

0.314l og

u
v
*
s

(6.192c)
and U
c
denotes a critical flow velocity given by
2.05 if

u
*
D

50

70

U
v
s
c

if 1.2

u
*
D

50

70. (6.192d)
Not that the logarithms are all base 10 and that v
S
retains its previous meaning as fall
velocity.
6.10.6 Comparison of the Relations Against Data
In the following eight diagrams (Fig. 6.34a-h) taken from Brownlie (1981b) all four rela-
tions are compared against first laboratory, then field data. The plots are in terms of the
ratio of calculated versus observed concentration as a function of observed concentration
C
s
in parts per million by weight. In the case of a perfect fit, all the data would fall on the
line corresponding to a ratio of unity. The middle dotted line on each diagram shows the
median value of this ratio; the upper and lower dotted lines correspond to the 84th per-
centile and the 16th percentile. The closer the median value is to unity and the smaller the
spread is between the two dotted lines, the better is the predictor.
The Engelund-Hansen relation is seen to be a good predictor of both laboratory and
field data despite its simplicity. The Brownlie relation gives the best fit of both the labo-
ratory and field data shown. This is partly to be expected because the relation was deter-
mined by regressing against the data shown in the figures. The Ackers-White relation pre-
dicts the laboratory data essentially as well as the Brownlie relation does, but its predic-
tions of field data are relatively low. The Yang equation does a good job with the labora-
tory data but a rather poor job with the field data.
6.11 HYDRAULICS OF RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION
6.11.1 Introduction
The construction of reservoirs allows for the controlled storage of water.To develop a suc-
cessful reservoir, the characteristics of the sites sediment transport must be considered. As
a matter of course, water backed up behind a dam will experience a marked decrease in
sediment-carrying capacity. As a result, if site characteristics are correct, large quantities
of sediment will be deposited within the reservoir basin. Over time, the reservoir will, in
effect, fill with sediment, greatly decreasing its storage capacity. In 1988, Morris and Fan
published an excellent handbook on reservoir sedimentation.
When designing a reservoir, it is important to predict the progress of sedimentation. In
practice, these predictions are often carried out using empirical and semiempirical meth-
ods that have been developed through observation and measurements of operating reser-
voirs. Although these methods do provide helpful design information, the drawback is that
2.5

log

u
*
D

50

0.06
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
they are not firmly rooted in the physics of sediment transport. Instead, they provide a pre-
diction based on a synthesis of past observations. As a result, an engineer conducting these
calculations easily loses touch with the basic mechanisms governing reservoir sedimenta-
tion. Sedimentation is treated as a bulk process, and the relative role of bed-load versus
suspended-load transport is not always fully understood.
The following exercise presents a view of reservoir sedimentation based on theoretical
relations. A gorgelike reservoir is considered to allow for a 1-D model (Hotchkiss and
Parker, 1991). The following conditions are given: the flow per unit width q
w
1.427 m
2
/s
is taken as constant. The stream has an initial slope S 0.0003. The sediments mean
diameter and fall velocity are D
s
0.3 mm and v
s
4.25 cm/s respectively. Suppose a
reservoir is placed at some point on the river so that the water surface is raised and held
at an elevation equal to 10 m above the elevation of the initial bed at the dam site.
Obviously, the dam will generate a backwater effect, which in turn will reduce the flows
ability to transport sediment through the reservoir. The quasi-steady state approximation
will be used to develop a model of reservoir sedimentation based on the governing equa-
tions of conservation of momentum, bedload and suspended-load relations, and the Exner
equation. The model will be used to predict the level of reservoir sedimentation and delta
progression for time intervals of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 years. First, the model will be run
considering bed-load transport only; second, suspended load also will be included to help
identify the relative roles these two forms of transport play.
The flow discharge per unit width q
w
used herein is equivalent to the dominant water
discharge which, if continued constant for an entire year, would yield the mean annual
sediment discharge.
Of course, it is impractical to assume that a model as simple as the one presented here
could replace the empirical methods of predicting reservoir sedimentation. After all, a
steady flow, 1-D, constant reservoir-elevation model seriously limits the models applica-
tion, and transport relations are not easily transposed from site to site. Still, the following
provides an understanding of the physical mechanisms causing reservoir sedimentation.
An ideal reservoir-sedimentation model would be based in sediment transport physics
while respecting (and matching) the vast quantity of empirical observations available.
6.11.2 Theoretical Considerations
As in any sediment transport study, it is first necessary to identify the appropriate resis-
tance and bedload transport relations that hold for the site under consideration. For this
model, the following relations have been chosen:
q
*
b
11.2
*1,5

*
*
c

4.5
(6.193)
and
C
f
1/2
8.1

k
h
s

1/6


u
U
*

(6.194)
where
*
is the Shields Stress;
c
*
is the critical Shields stress, which is taken to have a val-
ue of 0.03; h stands for the flow depth; and k
s
is the roughness height. C
f
is the resistance
coefficient, and q
b
*
is the Einstein dimensionless bedload transport defined below:
q
*
b

gR
q
b
D D

(6.195)
where q
b
is the volumetric bedload transport per unit width having the dimensions of m
2
/s,
6.90 Chapter Six
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.91
where q
b
is the volumetric bedload transport per unit width having the dimensions of m
2
/s,
R is the submerged specific gravity (taken as 1.65 for quartz), and D is the mean diame-
ter of the sediment particles.
The following conservation relation can be used for suspended-load sediment routing:

dU
d
h
x
C

q
w

d
d
C
x

v
s
(E
s
r
o
C) (6.196)
where x is the coordinate in the streamwise direction, q
w
Uh, C is the average volu-
metric suspended sediment concentration, and r
o
C c
b
near-bed sediment concentra-
tion. The shape factor r
o
is given by the approximate relationship (Parker et al., 1987):
r
o
1 31.5

u
v
*
s

1.46
(6.197)
Therefore, the suspended load transport (volume per unit width per unit time) through a
section can be evaluated as the product of the average sediment concentration and the flow
discharge per unit width:
q
s
q
w
C (6.198)
All that remains is to evaluate E
s
, the sediment-entrainment coefficient. This is accom-
plished with the Garca-Parker relation:
E
s
(6.199a)
where
A 1.3 10
7
(6.199b)
and
Z
u


u
v
*
s

Re
p
0.6
(6.199c)
With the above equations and the assumption of a rectangular cross section (q
w
Uh),
one can calculate the normal flow and equilibrium transport conditions for the river. These
calculations, shown next, will serve as the initial conditions for the sedimentation study.
6.11.3 Computation of Normal Flow Conditions
From the Manning-Strickler relation (Eq. 6.194),

q
h
w

U 8.1

k
h
s

1/6
(ghS)
1/2
where k
s
2.5 D
s
and
h

0.6
0.987m
Now, q
b
can be computed:


R
h
D
S
s


0.
1
9
.
8
6
7
5
m
0

.
0
0
.
0
0
0
0
3
03
0.5982
1.427m
2
/s (2.5 0.0003)
1/6

8.19.8 0 .0 003
q
w
(2.5D
s
)
1/6

8.1gS
AZ
5
u

1

0
A
.3

Z
5
u
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.92 Chapter Six
Then
q
b
*
11.2
*1.5

*
*
c

4.5
q
b
11.2(0.5982)
1.5

0
0
.5
.0
9
3
82

4.5
4.108
q
b
*
q
b
*
RgD
s
D
s
4.1081 .6 5 9 .8 m/s
2
0.0 003 0.0003
q
b
8.58 10
5
m
2
/s
Estimation of C, E
s
and r
o
:
u
*s

*
s
R gD 0 .5 98 1 .6 5 9 .8 m/s
2
0.0 003m 0.0538 m/s
Re
p
R gD D/

.8

/s

.6

.0

1
0.0
1
0
0
0

3
6
m
m
2
/s

Re
p
20.98
Z
u


u
v
*
s
s

Re
p
0.6

0.
4
0
.
5
2
3
5
8m

/s
1
(
0
2

0
2
.
m
89
/s
)
0.6

7.841
r
o
1 31.6

u
v
*
s

1.46
1 31.5

4.2
0
5
.0

53
1
8
0
m

/
2
s
m/s

1.46
r
o
23.33.
Then
E
s
3.8 10
3
For equilibrium conditions, entrainment and deposition rates are the same thus, with the
help of Eq. (6.196),
C

E
r
o
s

3.8
2

3.3
1
3
0
3

1.63 10
5
and, finally, q
s
can be computed as
q
s
UCH q
w
C 1.427m
2
/s 1.63 10
5
q
s
2.33 10
4
m
2
/s
6.11.4 Governing Equations
1.3 10
7
(7.841)
5

1.3
0.3
10
7

(7.841)
5
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.93
Next, it is necessary to identify the governing equations. Raising the water surface through
a control structure results in the development of backwater effects. The backwater profile
can be calculated using the standard 1-D St. Venant equation expressed in terms above
parameters, with U being the flow velocity in x, the streamwise direction. The symbol
stands for the elevation of the bed above the datum:

U
t

U
x

x
h)

C
f

U
h
2

. (6.200)
The backwater change in the water depth will cause a change in the transport of sedi-
ment. This phenomenon can be captured using the Exner equation with
p
being the poros-
ity of the bed sediment (taken at 0.3):

(1
1

p
)

(q
b
q
s
) (6.201)
Notice that a time differential appears in both of the above equations; this reflects the
fact that both hydraulic and transport conditions change continuously in time. The two
equations are coupled through , the bed elevation. Of course, a simultaneous solution of
both equations, including the time derivative, is difficult.
To simplify the model and expedite a solution, the quasi-steady-state approximation
can be used. Not surprisingly, analysis has shown, that the time scale for sedimentologi-
cal changes is much larger than that for changes in flow condition. Simply put, if the time
changes of hydraulic conditions are driven by changes in sediment transport, they will
occur slowly. Within an appropriate time step, the flow conditions can be considered to be
steady. In this way, it is possible to drop the time differential in the St. Venant equation:
U

d
d
U
x

d(
d

x
h)

C
f

U
h
2

(6.202)
Equations (6.201) and (6.202), in conjunction with continuity (q
w
Uh), provide the
theoretical basis for the following analysis. In the quasi-steady-state analysis, the back-
water curve resulting from a forced raise in water elevation is calculated first, (Eq. 6.202).
The new water depths for the time step are used to calculate a new bed position (Eq.
6.201), and these values are used in the next time step to determine a new backwater pro-
file. The procedure repeats for each time step.
6.11.5 Discussion of Method
As discussed in a previous section, initial normal flow conditions can be calculated
through consideration of the resistance and transport relations. Far away from the dam,
where backwater effects are negligible, normal flow and equilibrium transport conditions
will exist.
A numeric scheme and computational grid must be chosen to evaluate the quasi-
steady-state governing equations as they relate to reservoir sedimentation. First, it is nec-
essary to develop a spatial computational grid. The grid used in this numerical experiment
begins 40 km upstream of the front near the dam face. The length is divided into reaches
of 200 m, resulting in 201 nodes to be evaluated. This length allows for initial backwater
computation to very nearly reach the normal depth at the upstream end.
Using this grid, it is possible to develop a numerical scheme for solving the governing
equations. To begin the simulation, a backwater calculation starting at the downstream end
of the grid must be conducted. Combining the momentum equation (Eq. 6.202) and water
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.94 Chapter Six
FIGURE 6.35 Water surface elevation before and after reservoir construction
continuity (q
w
Uh) yields:

d
d
H
x

S
f
(6.203)
where
H

2
q
g
2
h
w
2

h (6.204)
and the friction slope S
f
is given by
S
f

C
g
f
h
q
3
w
2

(6.205)
If the value of h (and thus H) is known at node i 1, its value at node i (upstream) can
be calculated using the following finite difference scheme:
H
i
H
i1


1
2

(S
f,i 1
S
f,i
)x (6.206)
The above expression can be expanded and written as a function of h
i
:
D(h
i
)

2
q
g
w
h
2
i
2

h
i

i
H
i 1

1
2

S
f,i 1
x

1
2

xC
f

g
q
h
w
2
i
3

0 (6.207)
Now, a Newton-Raphson method can be used to evaluate h
i
. In this method, an arbi-
trary guess at h
i
can be refined by h
i
using the expression
h
i

D
D

(
(
h
h
i
i
)
)

(6.208)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.95
FIGURE 6.36 Development of delta for bedload only.
FIGURE 6.37 Development of delta for both bedload and suspended load
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.96 Chapter Six
FIGURE 6.38a Delta location and height after 30 years; (A) bedload only.
where
D(h
i
)

d
d
D
h
i

1 F
r,i
2

3
2

x

S
h
f
i
,i

(6.209)
The computation begins at the downstream end of the problem, where the initial bed
elevation must be specified according to the normal flow conditions that existed before
raising the water surface by 10 m. The first jump is x 200 m, and each subsequent
jump is from node, to node with x 200 m. Once the computation has progressed to the
final node, the hydraulic conditions for the initial bed condition are known. Variables such
as U, q
b
, and q
s
can be calculated easily for each node once the water depth is known.
Knowing the hydraulic conditions, the next necessary step is to evaluate the corre-
sponding change in bed elevation. This is accomplished with the Exner equation written
in the backward finite difference form

i,j1

i,j

x(1

p
)

[(q
b,i1
q
s,i1
) (q
b,i
q
s,i
)] (6.210)
where j is the current time step, j 1 is the next time step, and i 1 is the node imme-
diately upstream of the node being calculated. The calculation proceeds in the down-
stream direction. For the first node, the same technique is used, and the initial normal
bedload and suspended-load transport feed rate are used for the upstream values. It is
crucial to choose a time step that upholds the assumptions inherent to the quasi-steady-
state approximation. Here, for bedload transport only, a time step of 0.01 year (3.65
days) is used, and for runs with both suspended and bedload transport, a time step of
0.001 year (365 days) is used. These time steps are small enough to maintain theoreti-
cal integrity and numeric stability. The calculated elevations are fed into the next time
step for the adjustment of hydraulic conditions. The above procedure is continued for
each time step.
To complete the numerous computations necessary for this procedure, a computer pro-
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.97
FIGURE 6.39 Turbidity current flowing into a laboratory reservoir. (Bell, 1942)
FIGURE 6.38b Delta location and height after 30 years.
gram must be written to facilitate the numerical computations.
6.11.6 Results
The initial conditions for the water surface profile and bed elevation are shown in Fig.
6.35. Changes in river profile with time under the consideration of bedload transport only
are shown in Fig. 6.36. The initial condition and the conditions after 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30
years are plotted. Figure 6.37 presents the same data, taking into account both bed and
suspended sediment transport. Not surprisingly, the delta formation is accelerated consid-
erably when total load (bed and suspended) is considered.
Both the heights and lengths of deltas are greater for total load calculations for all time
steps. Of course, varying delta formations result in a variation in backwater effects. When
both bedload and suspended-load are considered, the backwater effects are more dramatic.
The delta formed after 30 years are shown in Fig. 6.38A and B. After 30 years, the total
load condition produces a delta reaching a length of approximately 36 km. Considering only
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.98 Chapter Six
bedload results in a prediction of a delta only 28.2 km long. Holding the downstream eleva-
tion constant results in a considerable backwater effect driven by sedimentation. Although
this elevation assumption is not wholly realistic, the results serve to illustrate the threat of
flooding associated with reservoir sedimentation. As the reservoir silts in, it will be unable
to hold the same amount of water without producing a commensurate increase in water stage.
If one is interested in estimating the amount of time necessary to fill a reservoir, it is
possible to simply divide the reservoirs filling volume per unit width by the normal sed-
iment inflow at the upstream end. To determine the filling volume, it is necessary to con-
sider the initial bed condition and the full bed conditions. The filling volume per unit width
is estimated at 360,000 m
3
/m. Assuming bedload only and dividing the filling volume by
the normal bedload inflow results in an approximate filling time of approximately 130
years. If total load is considered, an approximate filling time of 35 years is determined. This
agrees well with the results of the model; Fig. 6.38b shows that the total-load model pre-
dicts that the reservoir will be approximately full around 40 years. Neither the above cal-
culation nor the developed computer model considers the effect of sediment compaction,
which may play an important role in increasing the time required to fill a reservoir.
In general, the above results clearly indicate that suspended load plays a major role in
reservoir sedimentation. Not considering suspended-load results in a considerable under-
estimation of the progress and effects of reservoir sedimentation. If the suspended load of
the incoming flows is high, plunging may occur and turbidity currents will develop.
Turbidity flows can transport fine-grained sediment for long distances, hence having a
profound effect on reservoir sedimentation and water quality.
6.12 HYDRAULICS OF TURBIDITY CURRENTS
6.12.1 Introduction
Turbidity currents are currents of water laden with sediment that move downslope in oth-
erwise still bodies of water. Consider the situation illustration in Fig. 6.39. After plunging,
a turbidity current moves along the bed of a laboratory reservoir (Bell, 1942). It is seen
that when the flow goes from the sloping portion onto the flat portion, there is a two-fold
increase in current thickness, indicating a change in flow regime through a hydraulic
jump. There are a number of field situations where a similar slope-induced hydraulic jump
can take place (Garca, 1993, Garca, and Parker, 1989).
An important engineering aspect of turbidity currents concerns the impact these flows
have on the water quality and sedimentation in lakes and reservoirs. Turbidity flows were
observed in lakes and man-made reservoirs long before their occurrence in the ocean
became apparent. This situation usually occurs during flood periods, when rivers carry a
large amount of sediment in suspension. In China, where the suspended load in most
rivers is extremely large, the venting of turbidity currents through bottom outlets to reduce
the siltation of reservoirs has become common practice. Even though the bed slopes of
lakes and reservoirs are orders of magnitude smaller than those in the ocean, turbidity cur-
rents are still capable of traveling long distances without losing their identities: e.g., more
than 100 km in Lake Mead. An excellent account of numerical methods to model turbid-
ity currents in reservoirs can be found in Sloff (1997).
The ability of turbidity currents to transport sediment also has been put to use for the
disposal of mining tailings (Normark and Dickson, 1976) and ash from power station boil-
ers. Environmental concern has reduced waste disposal into lakes, but in the ocean, the
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.99
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
4
0
T
u
r
b
i
d
i
t
y

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

f
l
o
w
i
n
g

d
o
w
n
s
l
o
p
e

t
h
r
o
u
g
h

a

q
u
i
e
s
c
e
n
t

b
o
d
y

o
f

w
a
t
e
r
.

(
a
f
t
e
r

G
a
r
c

a
,
1
9
9
4
)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.100 Chapter Six
dumping of mining tailing continues (Hay, 1987a, 1987b).
6.12.2 Governing Equations
A detailed derivation of the governing equations for two-dimensional turbidity currents
can be found in Parker et al. (1986). Here, the equations of motion are presented in layer-
averaged form. The situation described in Fig. 6.40 is considered. A steady, continuous
turbidity current is flowing downslope through a quiescent body of water, which is
assumed to be infinitely deep and unstratified except for the turbidity current itself. The
cross section is taken to be rectangular, with a width many times longer than the under-
flow thickness; therefore, variation in the lateral direction can be neglected. The bed has
a constant small slope S and is covered with uniform sediment of geometric mean diam-
eter D
sg
and fall velocity v
s
; the x coordinate is directed downslope tangential to the bed,
and the z coordinate is directed upward normal to the bed. The submerged specific grav-
ity of the sediment is denoted by R (
s
/ 1), where
s
is the density of the sediment
and is the density of the clear water. Local mean downstream-flow velocity and volu-
metric sediment concentration are denoted as u and c, respectively. The suspension is
dilute, hence c 1 and Rc 1 are assumed to hold everywhere. The parameters u and c
are assumed to maintain similar profiles as the current develops in the downslope direc-
tion. The layer-averaged current velocity U and volumetric concentration C and the layer
thickness h are defined via a set of moments (Parker et al., 1986):
Uh

0
udz (6.211a)
U
2
h

0
u
2
dz (6.211b)
UCh

0
ucdz (6.211c)
The equation of fluid mass balance integrates in the upward normal direction to yield

d
d
U
x
h

e
w
U (6.212)
where e
w
is the coefficient of entrainment of water from the quiescent water above the cur-
rent. The equation of sediment conservation takes the layer-averaged form

dU
d
C
x
H

v
s
(E
s
c
b
) (6.213)
where c
b
is the near-bed concentration of suspended sediment evaluated at z 0.05h and
E
s
is a dimensionless coefficient of bed sediment entrainment into suspension. The inte-
gral momentum balance equation takes the form

dU
dx
2
h

gRChS

1
2

gR

d
d
x

(Ch
2
) u
2
*
(6.214)
where u
*
denotes the bed-shear velocity. The equations of sediment mass, fluid mass, and
flow momentum balance must be closed appropriately with algebraic laws for e
w
, u
*
, E
s
,
and c
b
. The water entrainment coefficient e
w
is known to be a function of the bulk
Richardson number (Ri), which can be defined as
Ri

gR
U
C
2
h

(6.215)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.101
FIGURE 6.41 Water entrainment coefficient as a function of Richardson number
(After Parker et al., 1987)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.102 Chapter Six
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
4
2
P
l
o
t

o
f

b
e
d

f
r
i
c
t
i
o
n

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

c
D
v
e
r
s
u
s

R
e
y
n
o
l
d
s

n
u
m
b
e
r
.

(
a
f
t
e
r

P
a
r
k
e
r

e
t

a
l
.
,
1
9
8
7
)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.103
FIGURE 6.43 Plot of shape factor ro versus u*/V
s
. (after
Parker et al., 1987)
FIGURE 6.44 Plot of the sediment entrainment coefficient Es
for both open-channel suspensions and density currents. (after
Garca and Parker, 1993)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.104 Chapter Six
FIGURE 6.45 Plot of plunging flow depth versus (q
2
/g)
1/3
, includ-
ing field and laboratory data Garca (1996)
and is equal to one over the square of the densimetric Fr U/(gRCh)
1/2
, often used in
stratified flow studies. A useful equation for the water entrainment coefficient plotted in
Fig. 6.41 is the following (Parker et al., 1987):
e
w

(1
0
7
.
1
0
8
7
R
5
i
2.4
)
0.5

(6.216)
It is customary to take the bed shear stress to be proportional to the square of the flow
velocity so that u
*
2
C
D
U
2
, where C
D
is a bed friction coefficient. Values of C
D
for tur-
bidity currents have been found to vary between 0.002 and 0.05, as shown in Fig. 6.42
(Parker et al., 1987). The near-bed concentration c
b
can be related to the layer-averaged
concentration C by a shape factor r
o
c
b
/C, which is approximately equal to 2 for sedi-
ment-laden underflows, as shown in Fig. 6.43 (Parker et al., 1987). The sediment entrain-
ment coefficient E
s
is known to be a function of bed shear stress and sediment character-
istics (Garca and Parker, 1991). The formulation of Garca and Parker (Eq. 6.173a) is
plotted in Fig. 6.44, where data on sediment entrainment by sediment-laden density cur-
rents also are included (Garca and Parker, 1993).
6.12.3 Plunging Flow
The necessary conditions for plunging to occur in a reservoir may vary as a function of
the physical parameters that produce flow stratification. These parameters are sometimes
known in advance from measurements in the field. Akiyama and Stefan (1984) general-
ized several expressions that were derived from laboratory experiments, field measure-
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.105
ments, or theoretical analysis as a function of the parameters involved in plunging:
h
p

F
1
r
2
p

g
q
R
2
w
C

1/3
(6.217)
where h
p
flow depth at plunging, q
w
flow discharge per unit width, and Fr
p
densi-
metric Fr at plunging defined by
Fr
p

(gRC
U
h
p
)
1/2

(6.218)
The value of Fr
p
has been found to range from 0.2 to 0.8 (Morris and Fan, 1998). If there
is not enough suspended sediment, plunging will not occur and a turbidity current will not
develop. Figure 6.45 shows field and laboratory data for the flow depth at plunging as a
function of the inflow parameters (Garca, 1996).
6.12.4 Internal Hydraulic Jump
The bulk Ri, given by Eq. (6.215), is an important parameter governing the behavior of
stratified slender flows, such as turbidity currents (Turner, 1973). This parameter has a crit-
ical value Ri
c
near unity so that the range Ri Ri
c
corresponds to a high-velocity super-
critical turbid flow regime, and the range Ri Ri
c
corresponds to a low-velocity subcriti-
cal turbid flow regime. The change from supercritical flow to subcritical flow is accom-
plished via an internal hydraulic jump, as illustrated in Fig. 6.39. Therein, a turbidity cur-
rent undergoes a hydraulic jump induced by a change in bed slope in the proximity of a lab-
oratory reservoir. Conservation of momentum gives the following relation (Garca, 1993):

h
h
2
1



1
2

1 8 Ri
1

1
1
1
1
]
(6.219)
which is analogous to Belangers equation for open-channel flow hydraulic jumps. For a
known prejump Ri
1
, Eq. (6.219) gives the ratio of the sequent current thickness h
2
to the
initial current thickness h
1
. The subcritical flow, forced by some type of control acting far-
ther downstream, will influence the location of the jump and thus the length of the water-
entraining supercritical flow upstream of the jump. In laboratory experiments, the down-
stream boundary conditions are usually imposed by the experimenter (e.g., weir, sluice
gate, outfall) because of the finite length of experimental facilities. In the ocean or lakes,
where a current may travel several hundred kilometers without losing its identity, the con-
trol of the flow will operate through deposition of sediment and bed friction.
6.12.5 Application: Turbidity Current in Lake Superior
As an example, the case of turbidity currents produced by the discharge of taconite tail-
ings by the Reserve Mining Company into Lake Superior at Silver Bay, Minnesota, is con-
sidered. Over a period of 20 years, the man-made turbidity currents formed a delta with a
steep front followed by a depositional fan. Normark and Dickson (1976) used field obser-
vations to infer that the transition from the delta slope to the fan slope took place through
a hydraulic jump, whereas Akiyama and Stefan (1985) used numerical modeling to show
a clear tendency by the flow to become supercritical shortly after reaching the fan region.
However, the lack of knowledge about the role played by the hydraulic jump has made
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
6.106 Chapter Six
F
I
G
U
R
E

6
.
4
6
S
i
m
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

t
u
r
b
i
d
i
t
y

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

u
n
d
e
r
g
o
i
n
g

a

h
y
d
r
a
u
l
i
c

j
u
m
p

i
n

L
a
k
e

S
u
p
e
r
i
o
r
,
M
i
n
n
e
s
o
t
a
.

(
a
f
t
e
r

G
a
r
c

a
,
1
9
9
3
)
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 6.107
flow computations along the subcritical region practically impossible. Such computations
can now be simplified through the knowledge gained in laboratory experiments (Garca,
1994). This is illustrated by the following numerical experiment.
The lake bed topography at Silver Bay in Lake Superior is modeled in a one-dimen-
sional configuration, as illustrated in Fig. 6.46. The delta slop angle is 17, and the fan
slope is 1.5. The delta-fan slope transition takes place between 600 m to 900 m from the
shore. The equations of motion (6.212), (6.213), and (6.214) are solved using a simple
standard step method (Garca and Parker, 1986). The water entrainment e
w
and sediment
entrainment E
s
coefficients are estimated with relationships proposed by Parker et al.
(1987) and Garca and Parker (1991; 1993), respectively. A constant bed friction coeffi-
cient C
D
0.02 and a shape factor r
o
2 are used. Initial flow conditions at the tailings
discharge point similar to those used by Akiyama and Fukushima (1986) are used: i.e., U
o
0.6 m/s, h
o
1 m,
o
0.1 m
2
/s, and Ri
o
0.5. The tailings have a mean particle size
D
sg
40 mm and a submerged specific gravity R 2.1. Particle fall velocity is estimat-
ed to be v
s
0.14 cm/s. Lateral spreading of the flows is ignored. The computations
march downslope starting at the head of the delta, and at approximately 0.6 km from the
tailings discharge point, the flow starts to slow down because of the slope transition. If
the current depth at the end of the fan region could be known, the jump location could be
determined with a simple backwater computation. Because this information is not avail-
able, the hydraulic jump is assumed to take place at 0.9 km from the inlet. According to
the laboratory observations, water entrainment from above, as well as bed sediment
entrainment into suspension, can be neglected after the jump. Under these assumptions,
Eq. (6.213) can be integrated with the help of Eq. (6.212), and an expression for the spa-
tial variation of the volumetric layer-averaged sediment concentration C is obtained,
C C
j
e

v
s
q
r
o
w
x

(6.220)
where C is the value of C
j
at the hydraulic jump and x is distance measured from the
jumps location. Since the flow discharge per unit width q
w
is constant in the subcritical
flow region (e
w
0), Eq. (6.220) can be used to compute the volumetric sediment trans-
port rate per unit width CUh, at any location after the jump. The variation in current thick-
ness between the jumps location and a point located 2.2 km from the inlet is shown in
Fig. 6.46. The profile is obtained by first computing the value of C at 2.2 km with the help
of Eq. (6.220), then by doing a backwater computation in an iterative manner until the
computed current thickness at 0.9 km coincides with the current thickness obtained with
the supercritical flow computation and the hydraulic jump Eq. (6.219). The flow discharge
per unit width computed at the jumps location is q
w
48 m
2
/s. For such flow discharge,
Eq. (6.220) predicts that the turbidity current, after experiencing a hydraulic jump, will
travel approximately 80 km before dying out as a result of deposition of sediment.
REFERENCES
Akiyama and Fukushima, 1986, Entrainment of noncohesive sediment into suspension. 3
rd
Int.Symp. on River Sedimentation, S. Y. Wang, H. W. Shen, and L. Z. Ding, eds., Univ. of
Mississipi, 804813.
Akiyama and Stefan, 1984, Plunging Flow into a Reservior: Theory, (American Society of Civil
Engineer. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering) 110(4), 484499
Akiyama and Stefan, 1985, Turbidity Current with Erosion and Deposition, (American Society of
Civil Engineering), Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 111(12), 14731496.
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Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
Ackers, P., and W. R. White, Sediment Transport: New Approach and Analysis, Journal of
Hydraulic Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineer 99:20412060, 1973.
Allen, J. R. L., Physical Processes of Sedimentation, Elsevier, New York, 1970.
Amsler, M. L., and M. H. Garca, Discussion of Sand-Dune Geometry of Large Rivers During
Floods, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineer 123:582584,
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SEDIMENTATION AND EROSION HYDRAULICS
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.1.1 Uncertainties in Hydraulic Engineering Design
In designing hydraulic engineering systems, uncertainties arise in various aspects includ-
ing, but not limited to, hydraulic, hydrologic, structural, environmental, and socioeco-
nomical aspects. Uncertainty is attributed to the lack of perfect knowledge concerning the
phenomena and processes involved in problem definition and resolution. In general,
uncertainty arising because of the inherent randomness of physical processes cannot be
eliminated and one has to live with it. On the other hand, uncertainties, such as those asso-
ciated with the lack of complete knowledge about processes, models, parameters, data,
and so on, can be reduced through research, data collection, and careful manufacturing.
Uncertainties in hydraulic engineering system design can be divided into four basic
categories: hydrologic, hydraulic, structural, and economic (Mays and Tung, 1992).
Hydrologic uncertainty for any hydraulic engineering problem can further be classified
into inherent, parameter, or model uncertainties. Hydraulic uncertainty refers to the uncer-
tainty in the design of hydraulic structures and in the analysis of the performance of
hydraulic structures. Structural uncertainty refers to failure from structural weaknesses.
Economic uncertainty can arise from uncertainties in various cost items, inflation, project
life, and other intangible factors. More specifically, uncertainties in hydraulic design
could arise from various sources (Yen et al., 1986) including natural uncertainties, model
uncertainties, parameter uncertainties, data uncertainties, and operational uncertainties.
The most complete and ideal way to describe the degree of uncertainty of a parameter,
a function, a model, or a system in hydraulic engineering design is the probability densi-
ty function (PDF) of the quantity subject to uncertainty. However, such a probability func-
tion cannot be derived or found in most practical problems. Alternative ways of express-
ing the uncertainty of a quantity include confidence intervals or statistical moments. In
particular, the second order moment, that is, the variance or standard deviation, is a mea-
sure of the dispersion of a random variable. Sometimes, the coefficient of variation,
defined as the ratio of standard deviation to the mean, is also used.
CHAPTER 7
RISK/RELIABILITY-BASED
HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
DESIGN
7.1
Yeou-Koung Tung
Department of Civil Engineering
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Clear Water Bay Kowloon,
Hong Kong
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Source: HYDRAULIC DESIGN HANDBOOK
The existence of various uncertainties (including inherent randomness of natural
processes) is the main contributor to the potential failure of hydraulic engineering sys-
tems. Knowledge of uncertainty features of hydraulic engineering systems is essential for
assessing their reliability.
In hydraulic engineering design and analysis, the decisions on the layout, capacity, and
operation of the system largely depend on the system response under some anticipated
design conditions. When some of the components in a hydraulic engineering system are
subject to uncertainty, the systems responses under the design conditions cannot be
assessed with certainty. An engineer should consider various criteria including, but not
limited to, the cost of the system, failure probability, and consequences of failure, such
that a proper design can be made for the system.
In hydraulic engineering design and analysis, the design quantity and system output
are functions of several system parameters not all of which can be quantified with absolute
certainty. The task of uncertainty analysis is to determine the uncertainty features of the
system outputs as a function of uncertainties in the system model and in the stochastic
parameters involved. Uncertainty analysis provides a formal and systematic framework to
quantify the uncertainty associated with the system output. Furthermore, it offers the
designer useful insights with regard to the contribution of each stochastic parameter to the
overall uncertainty of the system outputs. Such knowledge is essential in identifying the
important parameters to which more attention should be given to better assess their val-
ues and, accordingly, to reduce the overall uncertainty of the system outputs.
7.1.2 Reliability of Hydraulic Engineering Systems
All hydraulic engineering systems placed in a natural environment are subject to various
external stresses. The resistance or strength of a hydraulic engineering system is its abil-
ity to accomplish the intended mission satisfactorily without failure when subject to load-
ing of demands or external stresses. Failure occurs when the resistance of the system is
exceeded by the load. From the previous discussions on the existence of uncertainties, the
capacity of a hydraulic engineering system and the imposed loads, more often than not,
are random and subject to some degree of uncertainty. Hence, the design and operation of
hydraulic engineering systems are always subject to uncertainties and potential failures.
The reliability, p
s
, of a hydraulic engineering system is defined as the probability of
nonfailure in which the resistance of the system exceeds the load; that is,
p
s
P(L R) (7.1)
where P() denotes the probability. The failure probability, p
f
, is the compliment of the
reliability which can be expressed as
p
f
P[(L R)] 1 p
s
(7.2)
In hydraulic engineering system design and analysis, loads generally arise from natur-
al events, such as floods and storms, which occur randomly in time and in space. A com-
mon practice for determining the reliability of a hydraulic engineering system is to assess
the return period or recurrence interval of the design event. In fact, the return period is
equal to the reciprocal of the probability of the occurrence of the event in any one time
interval. For most engineering applications, the time interval chosen is 1 year so that the
probability associated with the return period is the average annual probability of the
occurrence of the event. Flood frequency analysis, using the annual maximum flow series,
is a typical example of this kind of application. Hence, the determination of return period
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RISK/RELIABILITY-BASED HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING DESIGN
depends on the time period chosen (Borgman, 1963). The main disadvantage of using the
return period method is that reliability is measured only in terms of time of occurrence of
loads without considering the interactions with the system resistance (Melchers, 1987).
Two other types of reliability measures that consider the relative magnitudes of resis-
tance and anticipated load (called design load) are frequently used in engineering prac-
tice. One is the safety margin (SM), defined as the difference between the resistance (R)
and the anticipated load (L), that is,
SM R L (7.3)
The other is called the safety factor (SF), a ratio of resistance to load, which is
defined as
SF R/L (7.4)
Yen (1979) summarized several types of safety factors and discussed their applications to
hydraulic engineering system design.
There are two basic probabilistic approaches to evaluate the reliability of a hydraulic
engineering system. The most direct approach is a statistical analysis of data of past failure
records for similar systems. The other approach is through reliability analysis, which con-
siders and combines the contribution of each factor potentially influencing the failure. The
former is a lumped system approach requiring no knowledge about the behavior of the facil-
ity or structure nor its load and resistance. For example, dam failure data show that the over-
all average failure probability for dams of all types over 15 m height is around 10
3
per dam
year (Cheng, 1993). In many cases, this direct approach is impractical because (1) the sam-
ple size is too small to be statistically reliable, especially for low probability/high conse-
quence events; (2) the sample may not be representative of the structure or of the popula-
tion; and (3) the physical conditions of the dam may be nonstationary, that is, varying with
respect to time. The average risk of dam failure mentioned above does not differentiate con-
crete dams from earthfill dams, arch dams from gravity dams, large dams from small dams,
or old dams from new dams. If one wants to know the likelihood of failure of a particular
10 yearold doublecurvature arch concrete high dam, one will most likely find failure data
for only a few similar dams, this is insufficient for any meaningful statistical analysis. Since
no dams are identical and dam conditions change with time, in many circumstances, it may
be more desirable to use the second approach by conducting a reliability analysis.
There are two major steps in reliability analysis: (1) to identify and analyze the uncer-
tainties of each contributing factor; and (2) to combine the uncertainties of the stochastic
factors to determine the overall reliability of the structure. The second step, in turn, may
proceed in two different ways: (1) directly combining the uncertainties of all factors, or
(2) separately combining the uncertainties of the factors belonging to different compo-
nents or subsystems to evaluate first the respective subsystem reliability and then com-
bining the reliabilities of the different components or subsystems to yield the overall reli-
ability of the structure. The first way applies to very simple structures, whereas the sec-
ond way is more suitable for complicated systems. For example, to evaluate the reliabili-
ty of a dam, the hydrologic, hydraulic, geotechnical, structural, and other disciplinary reli-
abilities could be evaluated separately first and then combined to yield the overall dam
reliability. Or, the component reliabilities could be evaluated first, according to the differ-
ent failure modes, and then combined. Vrijling (1993) provides an actual example of the
determination and combination of component reliabilities in the design of the Eastern
Scheldt Storm Surge Barrier in The Netherlands.
The main purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate the usage of various practical
uncertainty and reliability analysis techniques through worked examples. Only the essen-
tial theories of the techniques are described. For more detailed descriptions of the meth-
ods and applications, see Tung (1996).
Risk/ReliabilityBased Hydraulic Engineering Design 7.3
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RISK/RELIABILITY-BASED HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING DESIGN
7.2 TECHNIQUES FOR UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS
In this section, several analytical methods are discussed that would allow an analytical
derivation of the exact PDF and/or statistical moments of a random variable as a function
of several random variables. In theory, the concepts described in this section are straight-
forward. However, the success of implementing these procedures largely depends on the
functional relation, forms of the PDFs involved, and analysts mathematical skill.
Analytical methods are powerful tools for problems that are not too complex. Although
their usefulness is restricted in dealing with real life complex problems, situations do exist
in which analytical techniques could be applied to obtain exact uncertainty features of
model outputs without approximation or extensive simulation. However, situations often
arise in which analytical derivations are virtually impossible. It is, then, practical to find
an approximate solution.
7.2.1 Analytical Technique: Fourier and Exponential Transforms
The Fourier and exponential transforms of a PDF, f
x
(x), of a random variable X are
defined, respectively, as

x
(s) E[e
isx
]

e
isx
f
x
(x) dx (7.5a)
and

x
(s) E[e
sx
]

e
sx
f
x
(x) dx (7.5b)
where i 1 and E() is the expectation operator; E[e
isX
] and E[e
sX
] are called, respec-
tively, the characteristic function and moment generating function, of the random variable
X. The characteristic function of a random variable always exists for all values of the argu-
ments whereas for the moment generating function this is not necessarily true.
Furthermore, the characteristic function for a random variable under consideration is
unique. In other words, two distribution functions are identical if and only if the corre-
sponding characteristic functions are identical (Patel et al., 1976). Therefore, given a char-
acteristic function of a random variable, its probability density function can be uniquely
determined through the inverse transform as
f
x
(x)

2
1

e
isx

x
(s) ds (7.6)
The characteristic functions of some commonly used PDFs are shown in Table 7.1.
Furthermore, some useful operational properties of Fourier transforms on a PDF are given
in Table 7.2
Using the characteristic function, the r
th
order moment about the origin of the random
variable X can be obtained as
E(X
r
)

i
1
r

d
r
d

s
x
r
(s)

s = 0
(7.7)
Fourier and exponential transforms are particularly useful when random variables are
independent and linearly related. In such cases, the convolution property of the Fourier
transform can be applied to derive the characteristic function of the resulting random vari-
able. More specifically, consider that W X
1
X
2
. . . X
N
and all Xs are independent
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RISK/RELIABILITY-BASED HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING DESIGN
random variables with known PDF, f
j
(x), j 1, 2, . . . , N. The characteristic function of
W then can be obtained as

w
(s)
1
(s)
2
(s)
. . .

N
(s) (7.8a)
and

w
(s)
1
(s)
2
(s)
. . .

N
(s) (7.8b)
which is the product of the characteristic and moment generating functions of each
individual random variable. The resulting characteristic function or moment generating
function for W can be used in Eq. (7.7) to obtain the statistical moments of any order for
Risk/ReliabilityBased Hydraulic Engineering Design 7.5
TABLE 7.1 Characteristic Functions of Some Commonly Used Distributions
Distribution PDF, f
X
(x) Characteristic Function
Binomial
n
C
x
p
x
q
nx
(q p
is
)
n
Poisson

x
v
!
v
x

exp{v(e
is
1)}
Uniform

b
1
a

i
e
(
i
b
bs

a
e
i
)
a
s
s

Normal
2
1

e

1
2
(

)
2
exp {is 0.5 s
2

2
}
Gamma

(x)
1
e
x

is

Exponential e
x

is

Extreme

exp

exp

e
is
(1 is)
TABLE 7.2 Operation Properties of Fourier Transform on a PDF
Property PDF Random Fourier
Variable Transform
Standard f
X
(x) X
x
(s)
Scaling f
X
(ax) X a
1

x
(s/a)
Linear af
X
(x) X a
x
(s)
Translation 1 e
ax
f
X
(x) X
x
(s ia)
Translation 2 f
X
(x a) X e
ias

x
(s)
Source: From Springer (1979).
Value I
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RISK/RELIABILITY-BASED HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING DESIGN
the random variable W. Furthermore, the inverse transform of
W
(s), according to Eq.