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Yorkshire and the Humber Medicines Management Training Scheme for Pharmacy Technicians

Yorkshire and the Humber Pharmacy Technical and Support Staff Development Unit 2.08, Baines Wing School of Healthcare University of Leeds Leeds, LS2 9UT

Pharmacy Calculations

Contents

Introduction Aims and Objectives Page 1. Formulae 1.1 Basic Calculations 1.1.1 Conversion of Units 1.1.2 Expressions of Concentration 1.1.3 Percentages 1.1.4 Displacement Values 1.2 Calculating Doses for Children 1.3 Formulae Calculations 1.3.1 Formulae 1.3.2 Long Hand Practice Questions 2.1 Conversion of Units 2.2 Surface Area 2.3 Calculating Doses 2.4 Drug Strengths or Concentrations 2.5 Moles and Millimoles Paediatric Oral Dose Calculations Intravenous Clinical Calculations Miscellaneous Calculations Reference Sources Confirmation of Completion CPD Sheets 5 6 6 7 8 9 9 9 10 13 14 15 18 19 24 27 32 33 34

2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Pharmacy Calculations

This module has been produced by the Yorkshire Medicines Management Technicians Group to assist in the training and development of the Medicines Management Technicians role. This module incorporates formulae and examples of calculations that you may come across and be expected to carry out in your role. You may wish to also include examples from your workplace. It is designed to help you practice your calculation skills and develop confidence in your role. N.B. You must always be aware of local SOPs and checking procedures for all calculations made in the workplace. This module is one of the core modules within the Yorkshire Region Medicines Management Work-Based Learning Programme for Pharmacy Technicians. This is your learning programme to develop your knowledge and skills, therefore there is no fixed timescale for completion. It is in your interest to ensure you understand each section before moving on to the next. You will find it helpful to have a nominated learning mentor to support you through this module. This mentor may be a different member of the Pharmacy team for each module. Your mentor may be a Technician or Pharmacist. Assessment Your tutor will assess you. You must have achieved 100% to complete the module. It is recognised that you may need some support from your mentor, however to pass the unit, all questions should be answered by you. At the end of this module there is a CPD evaluation sheet which you should complete as evidence for RPSGB CPD. It is recommended that you keep up to date with your skills through CPD. Ask your mentor to complete the Conformation of Module Completion form and forward it to the YPTSSDU. A certificate will be issued to confirm successful completion of modules of Yorkshire Medicines Management Programme.

Pharmacy Calculations

Aim To be able to develop the skills necessary to perform pharmaceutical calculations accurately and consistently. Objectives On completion the expected learning outcomes are that technicians be able to: Competently perform clinical calculations in the workplace Accurately convert units Perform basic dosage calculations Calculate drug strengths/concentrations Calculate paediatric or complex doses Calculate surface area Develop skills in researching information and using resources

NHS Knowledge and Skills Framework This package may assist you in achieving:

Core 2 People and Personal Development Level 2: Develop own skills and knowledge and provide information to others to help their development

The worker: a) assesses and identifies: feedback from others on own work how s/he is applying knowledge and skills in relation to the KSF outline for the post own development needs and interests in the current post what has been helpful in his/her learning and development to date b) takes an active part in the development review of own work against the KSF outline for the post with their reviewer and suggests areas for learning and development in the coming year c) takes responsibility for own personal development and takes an active part in learning opportunities d) evaluates the effectiveness of learning opportunities and alerts others to benefits and problems e) keeps up-to-date records of own development review process f) offers information to others when it will help their development and/or help them meet work demands

HWB10

Products to meet health and wellbeing needs Level 3 - Prepare and supply specialised products

The worker: e) accurately calculates or measures the correct quantities of components/ingredients and combines and processes them correctly and in a way which maintains their quality is consistent with legislation, policies and procedures minimises risks to self, others and the work environment

Pharmacy Calculations

1.1.1 Conversion of Units Units commonly used in Pharmacy are: microgram, milligram, gram & kilogram There are 1000 micrograms in 1 milligram 1000 milligrams in 1gram 1000 grams in 1kilogram However, there are others which may be used: Name 1 kilogram 1 gram 1 milligram 1 microgram 1 nanogram 1 picogram Abbreviation kg g mg g g pg Equivalent 1000g 1000mg 1000(mcg) g 1000g 1000pg 1/1000ng

Good Practice Guidelines: Micrograms should always be written in full (may see mcg or g) Nanograms should always be written in full (may see ng or g) Decimal places should be avoided i.e. 0.5g should be written as 500mg. To convert from smaller units to larger ones, we need to divide by 1000, or to convert from a larger unit to a smaller unit, we need to multiply by 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

Nanograms

Micrograms

Milligrams

Grams

Kilograms

x 1000

x 1000

x 1000

x 1000

Volume Units commonly used are millilitre and litre 1 litre (L) = 1000millilitre 1 millilitre (mL) = 1000 micro litre Drops There are approximately 20 drops per mL of water. N.B. This will be different for more viscous liquids. 5

Pharmacy Calculations

1.1.2 Expressions of Concentration Unit % weight in weight % volume in volume % weight in volume % volume in weight Molar 1 part per 100 (solid in liquid) 1 part per 100 (solid in solid) 1 part per 100 (liquid in liquid) 1 part to 4 parts 1 part in 4 parts Expression % w/w % v/v % w/v % v/w M 1 in 100 1 in 100 1 in 100 1:4 1 in 4 Example 1% w/w = 1g in 100g 1% v/v = 1mL in 100mL 1% w/v = 1g in 100mL 1% v/w = 1mL per 100g 1molar = 1mole in 1 litre 1 in 100 = 1g in 100mL 1 in 100 = 1g in 100g 1 in 100 = 1mL in 100mL 5 parts in total 4 parts in total

e.g. Ceftriaxone infusion is prepared as 1000mg (1g) in 20mL w/v. A dose of 600mg would be calculated as: 1000mg in 20mL 100mg in 2mL Therefore: 600mg in 12mL

1.1.3 Percentages Percent means per hundred. To calculate a percentage, put the figure above 100. e.g. 15% becomes 15 100 e.g. 15% of 300 is: 15 x 300 100 15 x 3 1 15 x 3 = 45

To calculate a percentage proportion (e.g. what percentage is 50g out of 250g) use the following formula: e.g. 50 x 100 250 5 x 100

Pharmacy Calculations

1. 2. 3. 4.

How much is 28% of 250g? What percentage is 160g of 400g? How much is 62% of 450g? What percentage is 125mg of 25g?

1.1.4 Displacement Volume What is a displacement volume? A Displacement volume is the volume occupied by the powder when a suitable diluent is added during reconstitution. This is particularly important to take into account , e.g.: for children when the dose needed is only a proportion of the vial content. If we look at amoxicillin injection as an example: The displacement volume for amoxicillin 250mg is 0.2mL. Therefore if 4.8mL of diluent is added to a 250mg vial, the resulting solution is amoxicillin 250mg in 5mL (NB: the displacement volume is different for each drug, for each strength of drug and for different brands/manufacturers formulae). Practice finding information on drugs commonly used in your workplace. Examples of where to find this information are: Manufacturers information leaflets or Specification of Product Characteristics(SPC) Medicines for Children

Pharmacy Calculations

1.2

N.B. Your organisation may have an agreed primary reference source e.g. BNF under chapter Prescribing for Children, BNF for Children or Medicines for Children. Check with your mentor/senior member of staff. Doses for children may be calculated using a formula based on: Body Surface Area (BSA) Or Weight basis e.g. mg/kg Or Proportion of Adult dose 1. To work out the dose for the patient, you multiply: Number of mg (or g) x number per m So if the dose of drug is 1.5g/m and the patients BSA is 0.8m, the dose for that child is: 1.5 x 0.8 = 1.2g 2. Doses as mg/kg To work out the dose for the patient you multiply: number of mg x number of kg So if the dose of a drug is 5mg /kg and the child weighs 20kg, the dose for that child is 5 x 20 = 100mg

Pharmacy Calculations

1.3

Formulae Calculations

The best and safest method to use is the one you understand! 1.3.1 Formulae dose required strength available x volume = volume required

or more often said as: what you want what youve got x volume = volume required

e.g. We want to give a child 350mg Flucloxacillin IV. We have to make a concentration of 500mg in 10mL. How is this calculated? 35 x 10mL = ?mL 50 35 x 10mL = ?mL 50 35 x 1mL = ?mL 5 35 x 1 = ?mL 5 7 x 1 = 7mL Therefore, you would give the child 7mL of reconstituted solution. 1.3.2 Long-hand Method It is often easier to work out how many milligrams are contained in 1mL. If we look at an example where there are 500mg drug in 10mL: Therefore: Therefore: Therefore: 500mg in 10mL 100mg in 2mL 50mg in 1mL 350mg in 7mL

Or if you want 35mg of a drug, 1mg is contained in x amount, therefore 35mg will be contained in 35 times x amount. 9

Pharmacy Calculations

1.

Conversion of Units

Express the following in grams or parts of a gram a. 125milligrams b. 1200 milligrams c. 3 milligrams d. 14 milligrams e. 250 milligrams = = = = = ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

2.

Express the following as milligrams a. 3.5 grams b. 0.9 grams c. 0.01 grams d. 10.5 grams e. 0.002 grams = = = = = ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

3.

Express the following as parts of a milligram a. 750 micrograms b. 30 micrograms c. 1.5 micrograms d. 55 micrograms e. 125 micrograms = = = = = ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

4.

Express the following in micrograms a. 0.044 milligrams b 0.75 milligrams = = ________________________ ________________________ 10

Pharmacy Calculations

c. 0.1 milligrams d. 0.05 milligrams e. 0.001 milligram 5. How many milligrams in a. 1gram b. 0.8 grams c. 0.001 grams d. 0.05 grams 6. How many micrograms in a. 5 milligrams b. 0.5 milligrams c. 0.001 milligrams d. 0.075 milligrams 7.

= = =

= = = =

= = = =

Tablets of 125 milligrams. How many are needed if prescribed a. 0.125 grams b. 0.375 grams = = ________________________ ________________________

8.

Tablets of 5 milligrams. How many are needed if prescribed a. 0.02 grams b. 0.1 grams = = ________________________ ________________________

9.

Tablets of 250 micrograms. How many are needed if prescribed a. 1 milligram b. 0.25 milligram = = ________________________ ________________________

Pharmacy Calculations

11

10.

Drug 200 micrograms in 5 millilitres. How many millilitres are needed if prescribed a. 0.2 milligrams b. 1 milligram c. 0.04 milligrams = = = ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

11.

0.05 milligrams in 1 millilitre. How many millilitres needed if prescribed a. 25 micrograms b. 0.5 milligrams c. 100 micrograms d. 0.2 milligrams = = = = ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

Pharmacy Calculations

12

2.2

The formula for as a guide to conversion from pounds (lb) to kilograms (kg) is: 1 pound = 0.45 kilogram 1 inch = 2.54 cm (see BNF for guidance on conversion) In the calculations below please state your reference source and/or the formula used.

1.

Calculate the surface area of the following patients (N.B. Nomograms or body surface area calculations may be found in many reference sources e.g. Martindale 28th Edition, BNF and electronic BNF or http://www.patient.co.uk/showdoc/40024931/) Mosteller Method: BSA (m) = (Height (cm) x Weight (kg) / 3600) e.g. BSA = square root of (height (cm) x weight (kg) / 3600)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Use an adult nomogram to calculate BSA of a patient: Patients Weight: 72kg Height: 172cm Surface Area = ________________________

Pharmacy Calculations

13

2.3

Calculating Doses

Sometimes the dose required is expressed on a body weight basis or in terms of body surface area. 1. Dose = 3 mcg/kg/min Weight = 73kg

How many mL would you give? _____________________________________ 4. Syrup 200mg in 5mL, prescribed 550mg

How many mL would you give? _____________________________________ 5. You have an aminophylline injection 250mg in 10mL Amount required = 350mg 6. Dose = _____________________________

You have a digoxin injection 500mcg/2mL Amount required = 0.75mg Dose = _____________________________

7.

You have morphine sulphate elixir 10mg/mL Amount required = 15mg Dose = _____________________________

8.

You have Disopyramide injection 10mg/mL, 5mL ampoules Amount required = 300mg How many ampoules? ________________

Pharmacy Calculations

14

2.4

1.

How much sodium chloride (in grams) is there in a 500mL infusion of sodium chloride 1.8% w/v? ______________________________________________________________

2.

How many g of Dextrose are contained in 30mL of a 10% w/v Dextrose solution? ______________________________________________________________

3.

You need to add 2g of potassium chloride to a litre of sodium chloride 0.9% w/v. You have 10mL ampoules of 30% w/v potassium chloride. What volume of potassium chloride do you draw up? ______________________________________________________________

4.

What is the concentration (in mg/mL) of an 8.4% sodium bicarbonate infusion? ______________________________________________________________

5.

You need to give a 50mg dose of oral morphine sulphate to a patient. You have a bottle of morphine sulphate elixir at a concentration of 2mg/mL. How much do you need for your dose? ______________________________________________________________

6.

You have a 10mL ampoule of adrenaline 1 in 10, 000. How much adrenaline (in milligrams) does the ampoule contain? ______________________________________________________________

7.

You have a 1mL ampoule of adrenaline 1 in 10, 000. How much adrenaline (in milligrams) does the ampoule contain? ______________________________________________________________

Pharmacy Calculations

15

2.5

What is a Mole? The Mole A mole is simply the name given to a certain number. Just like a million is this many: 1 000 000 or a billion is this many: 1 000 000 000, so, a mole is this many atoms: 602 300 000 000 000 000 000 000 or 6.023 x 10 The Millimole 1 mole (mol) = 1000 millimole (mmol)

Millimoles are used to describe amounts of substance and are usually the units for body electrolytes (e.g. sodium 138 mMol/L) To understand a mole or a millimole, we need to firstly look at individual elements from the Periodic Table. Atomic Mass and Mass Number Each element on the table has two numbers beside it, as in this example for sodium. Mass Number

23

Na

Atomic Number

11

Sodium Relative Atomic Mass, Ar The relative atomic mass, Ar, is nothing more than the mass number of the element. On the periodic table, the elements all have two numbers as shown above in the sodium example. The smaller one is the atomic number (how many protons it has). The bigger one is the mass number (how many protons and neutrons it has). Relative Formula Mass, M r If you have a compound like NaCl then it has a relative formula mass, M r, which is just all the relative atomic masses added together. For NaCl the Relative Formula Mass, M r, would be:

NaCl

M r: 23 + 35.5 = 58.5 16

Pharmacy Calculations

MgCl

M r: 24 + 35.5 x 2 = 95 A mole of atoms or molecules of any substance will have a mass in grams equal to the Relative Formula Mass (A r or Mr) for that substance.

Carbon has an A r of 12 Iron has an A r of 56 Nitrogen gas, N, has an Mr of 28 (2 x 14) Carbon dioxide, CO, has an Mr of 44 So one mole of carbon weighs exactly 12g So one mole of iron weighs exactly 56g So one mole of Nweighs exactly 28g So one mole of COweighs exactly 44g

This means that 12g of carbon, or 56g of iron, or 28g of N, or 44g of COall contain the same number of atoms, namely ONE MOLE or 6 x 10 atoms or molecules. As an example: One mole of Potassium Sulphate K2 SO4 has a Mr of 174 [i.e. (2 x 39) + 32+ (4 x 16)] The formula for finding the Number of Moles in a given mass: Number of Moles = Mass in g (of element or compound) Mr (of element or compound) Example: Answer: How many moles are there in 42g of carbon? No. of moles = Mass (g) / Mr = 42/12

= 3.5 moles

So, to find out how many millimoles of a substance are contained in a given volume: Work out how many grams of a substance are in the given volume Use the above formula Multiply the answer (in moles) by 1000 to give the number of millimoles

Pharmacy Calculations

17

Moles and Millimoles - Questions 1. Approximately how many millimoles of sodium are there in a 10mL ampoule of sodium chloride 30% injection? ______________________________________________________________

2.

Approximately how many mmol per litre of sodium are there in an infusion containing 1,800 mg of sodium chloride per litre? ______________________________________________________________

3.

How many millimoles of sodium & potassium are there in a 500mL infusion containing 9 mg / sodium chloride and 3mg / mL potassium chloride (Remember: molecular masses: sodium 23, potassium 39, chloride 35.5) ______________________________________________________________

3.

Approximately how many millimoles of sodium bicarbonate are there in a litre infusion containing 25.2g / litre sodium bicarbonate? (molecular mass: sodium bicarbonate 84) ______________________________________________________________

4.

You need to draw up 35 mmol of potassium chloride and to add this to a litre infusion. You have an ampoule containing 2g of potassium chloride in 10 mL. How much do you need to draw up? ______________________________________________________________

Pharmacy Calculations

18

Calculate the volumes for each dose of the examples given below. 1. A child is prescribed Azithromycin 130mg OD. The syrup is 200mg in 5mL. What volume would you give?

______________________________________________________________ 2. A baby is prescribed Ibuprofen 30mg 6hrly PRN. The syrup is 100mg in 5mL. What volume would you give?

______________________________________________________________ 3. A patient was taking Phenytoin at a dose of 200mg in capsule form but had a gastrostomy and now requires syrup. has

A 100mg capsule is equivalent to 90mg of syrup. Phenytion syrup is 30mg in 5mL. How much Syrup should be given?

______________________________________________________________ 4. A teenager is prescribed Sodium Valproate 650mg BD. She has had a tonsilectomy and requires syrup which comes as 200mg in 5mL. What volume would you give?

______________________________________________________________

Pharmacy Calculations

19

5.

A child is commenced on Lamotrigine 1mg on alternate days. Pharmacy has supplied 5mg dispersible tablets. How could this dose be achieved?

______________________________________________________________ 6. A child is prescribed iron 30mg TDS. On the ward you have Sytron syrup which contains 27.5mg/5mL Iron. What volume should you give?

______________________________________________________________ 7. A child is prescribed Cefalexin 180mg BD. The syrup is 250mg in 5mL. What volume would you give?

______________________________________________________________ 8. A baby is prescribed Paracetamol 100mg 6 hourly PRN. The syrup is 120mg in 5mL. What volume would you give?

______________________________________________________________ 9. A child is commenced on Diclofenac 20mg TDS. Pharmacy has supplied 50mg dispersible tablets. How would you give this dose?

______________________________________________________________

Pharmacy Calculations

20

10.

A teenager is prescribed Sodium Valproate 430mg BD. Syrup comes as 200mg in 5mL. What volume would you give?

______________________________________________________________ 11. A child is prescribed Furosemide 15mg OM. On the ward you have Furosemide syrup that contains 50mg in 5mL. What volume would you give?

______________________________________________________________ 12. A patient is prescribed Trimeprazine 20mg via PEG. Trimeprazine is available as a syrup as 30mg in 5mL. What volume would you give?

______________________________________________________________ 13. You need to give trimethoprim to a 7 year old child weighing 25kg at a dose of 4mg/kg twice a day. Trimethoprim suspension is available as 50mg/5mL. How much do you need for each dose?

______________________________________________________________ 14. Special care baby unit requires to give a baby 60mg of Sodium Valproate by oral syringe. A stock solution of Sodium Valproate 200mg in 5mLs is available. What volume should be given?

______________________________________________________________

Pharmacy Calculations

21

15.

You want to give a baby 50mg of Amoxycillin syrup. You have a solution of 125mg in 5mLs. What volume would you give?

______________________________________________________________ 16. A 10kg child requires Alfacalcidol at a dose of 30 nanograms per kg. What dose of Alfacalcidol does the child require?

The stock bottle of Alfacalcidol is 2mcg in 1mL. What volume would you give?

______________________________________________________________ 18. An 18kg child requires Alfacalcidol at a dose of 30 nanograms per kg. What dose of Alfacalcidol does the child require?

The stock bottle of Alfacalcidol is 2mcg in 1mL. What volume would you give?

Pharmacy Calculations

22

19.

_____________________________________________________ A 1 month old baby requires a Salbutamol Nebuliser. The dose prescribed is 1.25mg. The stock supply on the ward is 5mg in 2.5mL. What volume of the nebuliser solution would be needed? Pharmacy then sends extra supplies but the strength is 2.5mg in 2.5mL. What volume of the nebuliser solution would be required for a 1.25mg dose?

______________________________________________________________ 20. A 3 month old baby weighing 5.6kg requires Clarithromycin and is prescribed a dose of 7.5mg/kg. What dose of Clarithromycin should the child be given?

Pharmacy sends a bottle of Clarithromycin syrup 125mg in 5mL. What volume would you give?

______________________________________________________________

Pharmacy Calculations

23

This section contains some more complex questions you may find in the workplace. You may want to refer to manufacturers data sheets to help you understand the problem. You may also wish to include additional examples from your workplace. Indicate the reference sources you have used. 1. You need to give benzylpenicillin at a dose of 35mg/kg four times a day to a six month old baby weighing 8kg. How much do you need to draw up from each dose assuming each 600mg vial is to be reconstituted to 6mL?

2.

______________________________________________________________ A child is prescribed 250mg of Flucloxacillin. A 0.4mL displacement is stated in the literature when 10mL WFI is added to a 500mg vial. Calculate the total volume to be administered to the child.

3.

______________________________________________________________ A child is prescribed 350mg of Ceftazidime. When 5mLs of diluent is added to a 500mg vial, a dilution of 90mg per mL is stated in the data sheet. Calculate the total volume to be administered to the child.

4.

______________________________________________________________ A child is prescribed 675mg of Cefotaxime. The data sheet advises the addition of 4mL of diluent to a 1g vial. No displacement values are given. Calculate the total volume to be administered to the child.

______________________________________________________________

Pharmacy Calculations

24

5.

A patient weighing 700g is prescribed Vancomycin 15mg/kg every 24 hours. How many milligrams will each dose be?

6.

______________________________________________________________ The displacement volume of Ceftazidime 500mg is 0.5mL. What volume of diluent would you add to a 1g vial to give a concentration of 100mg/mL? What volume of this solution would you administer, per dose, to a 1.4kg baby prescribed 60mg/kg/day, to be administered every 12 hours?

8.

______________________________________________________________ A patient weighing 1.3kg is prescribed 6mg per kilogram per day of Aminophylline to be administered by continuous infusion. If a solution containing 250mg Aminophylline in 500mL Dextrose 5% is prepared, what volume of this solution would you require to administer the daily dose and at what rate would you set the syringe driver?

9.

______________________________________________________________ A patient is to receive 120mL per kg per day of fluid. If the patient weighs 800g, what volume of fluid is required and at what rate (in mL/hr) should the infusion be set?

______________________________________________________________

Pharmacy Calculations

25

10.

Using the following formula: [0.0476 x wt x (14.8-Hb)] + 6 a. Calculate the dose of Iron infusion for a patient given the following details: Female Pregnant Weight 72kg Hb 9.2 N.B. Add 10mL to final calculation as patient is pregnant. Show all working out with this information.

______________________________________________________________ 11. Calculate the dose of Etoposide for a patient, given the following details: Dose/m Patients weight Patients height Male - 75mg - 10st 10lb - 5ft 8

______________________________________________________________

Pharmacy Calculations

26

Clexane Formulae: Males: Females: 1.23 x (140-Age) x weight (kg) = Creatinine Clearance mL/min Serum Creatinine (micromol/L) 1.04 x (140-Age) x weight (kg) = Creatinine Clearance mL/min Serum Creatinine (micromol/L)

1a.

A 73 year old male patient weighing 82kg with a SrCr of 123 needs treating for unstable angina. Calculate the creatinine clearance, and the dose.

______________________________________________________________ 1b. A 55 year old female patient weighing 65kg with a SrCr of 150 needs treating for unstable angina. Calculate the Creatinine clearance, and the dose.

______________________________________________________________ 2. Prednisolone reducing dosing. reduced by 5mg/wk until stop. The patient is prescribed 40mg/day, to be

Calculate the number of tablets needed to complete the course and attach a steroid reducing chart.

______________________________________________________________

Pharmacy Calculations

27

3.

A patient is written up for Tinzaparin injection at a dose of 11,000units. The pre-filled syringes are 14,000units in 0.7mL. What volume would you need to give the required dose? The dose was prescribed at 175 units/kg, therefore what weight is this patient?

______________________________________________________________ 3. What volume of phenytoin suspension needs to be given for the prescription below? NB This is a stronger concentration - the preparation referred to (90mg/5ml) below isn't available commercially. Phenytoin syrup cannot be interchanged dose for dose with the caps. 90mg syrup = 100mg caps

Phenytoin

Route Start Finish 0600 1000 1200 1400 Signature Print Name Pharm 1800 2200

5. Drug Dose

225mg po

Special Directions

4/8

Bleep

A.Jones 911

A. Jones X

PHENYTOIN SUSPENSION 90mg/5mL (Sugar Free) ------------------------------------Each 5mL Phenytoin BP. Dosage as prescriber. contains directed by 90mg the

Pharmacy Calculations

28

______________________________________________________________

5.

5. Drug Dose

Digoxin

Route Start Finish

200

microgram

IV

4/8

Bleep

A.Jones 911

A. Jones

Lanoxin

digoxin

0.5mg Injection

------------------------------------Each 2mL contains: Digoxin 500 micrograms (0.5mg) Also contains: Ethanol, propylene glycol, citric acid monohydrate, sodium phosphate anhydrous, Water for injections 5 ampoules

---------------------------------------------

0.5 mg in 2 mL

______________________________________________________________ 6. A patient on Temazepam Syrup (10mg/5mL) is reducing the dose weekly as follows: Week 1 9mg nocte Week 2 8mg nocte Week 3 7.5mg nocte For each week, calculate the quantity in mL required: a. b. For each dose For a weeks supply

Pharmacy Calculations

29

______________________________________________________________ 6. A child requires a dose of 4.5g of L-Arginine. It comes in vials containing 12.5% of L-Arginine. What volume would you need to give the required dose?

______________________________________________________________ Infusion Rates Flow rate (drops/min) 7. = volume fluid (mL) x 20 total infusion time (min)

A patient requires 1 litre of saline over 8 hours. Calculate the flow rate in drops/mL (Calibration 20 drops/mL)

______________________________________________________________ 8. Mr Wheeze has COAD. On the current admission the Drs have added aminophylline to his current therapy. This has been prescribed as an infusion of 0.56mg/minute. The pharmacy supplies infusion bags containing 1g aminophylline per litre. What rate (mLs/hr) should the infusion be se to run at?

______________________________________________________________ 9. Mrs Kidney is a 70kg lady on your ward who has been prescribed dopamine at a rate of 4micrograms/kg/minute. The pharmacy buys in pre-made syringes containing 200mg dopamine in 50mL. What rate should you set the pump at (mL/hour)?

Pharmacy Calculations

30

______________________________________________________________ Supply Questions 1. The patient is prescribed Amiodarone tablets. A loading dose is required as follows: 200mg tds 200mg bd 200mg od F 7/7 then F 7/7 then thereafter

4. Furosemide (furosemide) Infusion 250mg/25mL These are available in boxes of 10 x 25ml ampoules A patient is prescribed a dose of 380mg OD. Calculate how many ampoules you would need to send for 1 weeks suppy (round up to the nearest full box). The infusion should be given at a rate of 4mg/min. How long will it take to give the 380mg dose? What infusion rate would you use?

3.

A 92kg patient is prescribed Epoprostenol 5nanograms/kg/minute. A 500microgram vial with 50mL diluent is available. Calculate: i) ii) The prescribed dose per day What volume of reconstituted solution would be used?

Pharmacy Calculations

31

iii)

A 5 day course is indicated in the patients notes. How many 500microgram vials would you need to supply?

______________________________________________________________

Pharmacy Calculations

32

Reference Sources

BNF BNF for Children Martindale Medicines for Children Introduction to Pharmaceutical Calculations 2nd edition Judith Rees & Ian Smith Practical Pharmacy Calculations, MC Bonner, DJ Wright & B George, 1999, Petroc Press Electronic Medicines Compendium (http://emc.medicines.org.uk/) www.patient.co.uk

Pharmacy Calculations

33

I confirm that this candidate has completed the above module and passed all relevant assessments. Signed (Senior Technician/Pharmacist): Name (Please print): Signed (Candidate): ______________________________

Please return this sheet to Jasmine Salmon, YPTSSDU, 2.08 Baines Wing, School of Healthcare, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9UT

A certificate will be issued and forwarded to the workplace address as stated above.

Pharmacy Calculations

34

Having completed this module you may wish to use this page to reflect on your learning experience and add it to your RPSGB CPD record. CPD No.: _____________________________ Entry No.: _____________

U1

(Describe the activity you carried out, being specific about the details)

U2

(Answer this question with reference to Appendix 4. If you cannot find any competences that match, write your own.)

U3

(Briefly describe what you learnt from doing the activities.)

U4 Please describe an example of how you have applied this learning.

(Give an example of how you have used what you have learnt.)

U5

(This might include users of your services/products, staff and colleagues. The learning may have had an impact on you, for example by affecting your confidence or motivation, and you should record this. Feedback may come in many forms, for example, verbally, through surveys, or through statistics on performance.)

U6

Have you identified any learning needs as a result of undertaking this activity? (Tick box)

(If so, start a new CPD record that starts with Reflection)

Yes

No

Pharmacy Calculations

35

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