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DOUBLE ACTION LIFTING JACK DESIGN

As Designed by
Dan Radulescu
ID 17211
Transilvania University of Brasov
1.Establishing the loads acting upon the elements of the jack
M
m
= F
m
L
c
M
m
= M
insI
+M
insII
M
m
- the moment with which the user acts
Is2 = HI+HpI
= H (PI / PI+PII) +HpI
Is2 = HII+HpII
= H (PII / PII+PI) +HpII
Is1 - main screw's length
ls2 - secondary screw's length
INPUT DATA
Type of mechanism - double action lifting jack
Maximum load Q - 17800 N
Elevation - 235 mm
Q 17800N :=
H 235mm :=
1
2. Main Screw Design
2.1 Material
The element will be made out of OL 37 STAS 500/2
Flow limit R
e
H (R
p02
) -> 230 MPa ( for diameter a , 16 < a <= 40 )
Resistance to breaking from traction R
m
- 360....440
2.2 Predimensioning Calculus
Calculus load Q
c
, N
- the turn's tilt = 1.25 .... 1.3 for double acting lifting jack
Q 17800N =
1.3 :=
Qc Q :=
Qc 23140 N =
Thread's interior diameter - d
3
ac 60 MPa :=
d
3
4 Qc
ac
:=
d
3
22.16 mm =
d
3STAS
>= d
3 calculated
d3I 22.5mm :=
Nominal diameter - d
Pitch - P
Median diameter - d
2
=D
2
Exterior diameter - D
4
Interior diameter - d
3
Interior diameter - D
1
we will choose the following thread -> TR 28x5 SR ISO 2904
dI 28mm := PI 5mm := D4I 28.5mm :=
d2I 25.5mm := D1I 23mm :=
d3I 22.5 mm = D2I 25.5mm :=
2
2.3 Self Locking Condition Checking
- friction coef. = 0.11 .... 0.12 - for steel/steel
I 0.11 :=
30deg :=
1I
180

atan
I
cos

2
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
:=
2I
180

atan
PI
d2I
|

\
|
|
.
:=
Condition -> 2 < 1
2I 3.571 =
1I 6.497 =
2.4 Checking to composed loads calculus
Torque on the main screw - MinsI, Nmm
Compression tension - c , MPa
Torque tension - t, MPa
Equivalent tension - e, MPa
argumentI 1I 2I + ( )deg :=
MinsI Q
d2I
2
tan argumentI ( ) :=
c 4
Q
d3I
2

:=
t 16
MinsI
d3I
3

:=
c 45 MPa =
t 18 MPa =
e c
2
4 t
2
+ :=
MinsI 40296 N mm =
condition -> e <= ac
e 57 MPa =
ac 60 MPa =
3
2.5 Buckling checking
m 30mm :=
- slenderness ratio
Lf=Kl - lungime de flambaj
K - it is choosen from buckling scheme
H
l
- actual lifting height of the main screw
( measured on the drawing )
m - measured on the drawing
Hl 90mm :=
K 0.5 :=
l Hl m + :=
lf K l 60 mm = :=
imin
d3I
4
:=
imin 5.63 mm =
buckling domain
>=
0
- elastic buckling
<
0
- plastic buckling

0
=105 - for OL 37

0
=89 - for OL 50

lf
imin
:=
10.667 =
0 105 :=
buckling safety coeficient - c
E 215000MPa :=
c
a
= 3...5 - admited safety coeficient
ca 5 :=
<
0
=> we have plastic buckling

f
=310 - 1.14 - pentru OL 37

f
=335 - 0.62 - pentru OL 50
f 310 1.14 ( )MPa :=
c
f
c
:=
condition -> c >= c
a

c 6.65 =
ca 5 =
4
3. Secondary Screw Design
3.1 Material
The element will be made out of OL 42 STAS 500/2
Flow limit R
e
H (R
p02
) -> 250 MPa ( for diameter a , 16 < a <= 40 )
Resistance to breaking from traction R
m
- 410....490
3.2 Number of turns of main screw's nut
The nut is situated on the inside of the secondary screw
p
a
= 7...13 MPa - admited crushing pressure of lubricant layer between the turns
HpI - internal nut lenght
6<= z <= 10
pa 10MPa := zI 4
Q
dI
2
D1I
2

( )
pa
:=
zI 8.888 =
we choose zI 9 :=
HpI zI PI :=
therefore => HpI 45 mm =
3.3 External Thread
choosing the secondary screw's internal diameter - d
3
D0 D4I 5mm + :=
d
3
=D
0
+ (8..10) mm
D
0
=D
4
+ (4..6) mm ( diameter of the unthreaded area )
d3II D0 9mm + := d3II 42.5 mm =
D0 33.5 mm =
Therefore we choose the external thread -> TR 52x8 SR ISO 2904
Nominal diameter - d
Pitch - P
Median diameter - d
2
=D
2
Exterior diameter - D
4
Interior diameter - d
3
Interior diameter - D
1
dII 52mm := PII 8mm := D4II 53mm :=
d2II 48mm := D1II 44mm :=
d3II 43mm := D2II 48mm :=
5
3.4 Self Locking Condition Checking
II 0.11 := = 0.11 .... 0.12 - for steel/steel
30deg :=
2II
180

atan
PII
d2II
|

\
|
|
.
:=
1II
180

atan
II
cos

2
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
:=
Condition -> 2 < 1
2II 3.037 =
1II 6.497 =
3.5 Checking to composed loads calculus
Torque on the main screw - MinsII, Nmm
Compression tension - c , MPa
Torque tension - t, MPa
Equivalent tension - e, MPa
argumentII 1II 2II + ( )deg :=
MinsII Q
d2II
2
tan argumentII ( ) :=
MinsII 71747 N mm =
c 4
Q
d3II
2
D0
2

( )

:=
t
MinsII

16 d3II
d3II
4
D0
4

( )

:= c 31.2 MPa =
t 7 MPa =
e c
2
4 t
2
+ := condition -> e <= ac
e 34 MPa =
ac 60 MPa =
6
4. Fixed Nut Design
4.1 Material
The element will be made out of FC 200 SR ISO 185
Resistance to breaking from traction R
m
= 200 MPa
Part's section diameter - from 2.5 mm .....50 mm
4.2 Number of turns calculus
z - number of turns
HpII - lenght of the nut
pa - 7...13 MPa for steel/steel
- 5...6 MPa for steel/ cast iron
Condition
6 <= z <= 10
pa 5MPa :=
zII 4
Q
dII
2
D1II
2

( )
pa
:=
zII 5.902 = we choose z to be
zII 9 :=
HpII zII PII := HpII 72 mm =
4.3 Turn checking
the turn checking for bending and shearing
for bending
h 0.634 PII :=
ai 45MPa :=
Condition

i
<=
ai
i 3
Q D4II d2II ( )
D4II h
2
zII
:=
i 7 MPa =
for shearing
af 35MPa :=
Condition
f <= af
f
Q
D4II h zII
:=
f 2.3 MPa =
7
4.4 Choosing the nut's dimensions
D
e
- external diameter
- D
e
= D
4
+(8...10 mm)
D
g
- external diameter of the neck
- D
g
=D
e
+(16...20 mm )
h
g
- neck's height ( 8..10 mm )
De D4II 9mm + :=
Dg De 17mm + :=
De 62 mm =
hg 10mm :=
Dg 79 mm =
hg 10 mm =
4.5 Checking the nut for composed loads

i
- traction tension , MPa
i - torsion tension, MPa

e
- equivalent tension, MPa
t 4
Q
De
2
D4II
2

( )
22 MPa = :=
t
MinsII

16De
De
4
D4II
4

( )
3 MPa = :=

at
- 60..80 MPa - for steel
- 40..45 MPa - for cast iron or bronze
at 45MPa :=
e t
2
4 t ( )
2
+ 26 MPa = :=
Condition :
e
<=
at
4.6 Neck checking

s
- reistance to crushing

as
- allowed resistance to crushing

f
- resistance to shearing

af
- allowed resistance to crushing
s 4
Q
Dg
2
De
2

( )
:=
f
Q
De hg
:=
as 60MPa :=
af 35MPa :=
s 9.5 MPa = conditions

s
<=
as

f
<=
af
f 9.1 MPa =
8
4.7 Choosing and checking the threaded
bolt that fill fix the nut on the body
We will choose a M5,M6 or M8 threaded bolt with cilindrical head
We choose the M5x25 STAS 10422 with the below mentioned characteristics
d = 5 mm t = 1.62 mm n = 0.8 mm c1 = 1.2 mm d4 = 3.5 mm
c3 = 3 mm d1= 2.5 mm m = 2 mm
Mg - friction moment on the support surface of the neck
Ms - moment on the threaded bolt
= 0.15...0.20 - for steel/steel
= 0.12...0.15 - for steel / cast iron
cast iron / cast iron
bronze / cast iron
0.15 :=
Mg
1
3
Q
Dg
3
De
3

( )
Dg
2
De
2

( )
:=
Ms MinsII Mg :=
MinsII 71747 N mm =
Mg 94574 N mm =
Ms 22827 N mm =
Ms has a negative value so the bolt checking calculus is unnecessary
9
5. Body Design
lsI - main screw's lenght
lsII - secondary screw's lenght
HII H
PII
PII PI +
|

\
|
|
.
144.62 mm = :=
lsII HII HpII + 216.62 mm = :=
Dci = De+ (2..6) mm
- 5...7 degrees
- 7...8 mm
t - 10...12 mm
Dbe = Dbi+(30..50) mm
Dbi - measured on the drawing
H1 = HII+ (30...50) mm
HII - how much the secondary screw rises
Hc -=H1+HpII-hg+(0...10) mm
Dci De 4mm + :=
7deg :=
7mm :=
t 10mm :=
Dbi 111.34mm :=
Dbe Dbi 40mm + :=
HI HII 40mm + :=
c = body compression checking
s = crushing checking for the support surface
ac = allowed body compression checking 60...80 MPa
as = allowed crushing checking for the support surface 2...2.5 MPA
Hc HI HpII + hg 10mm + :=
acc 70MPa :=
c 4
Q
Dg
2
Dci
2

( )

:= s 4
Q
Dbe
2
Dbi
2

( )

:=
as 2.5MPa :=
Dci 66 mm =
conditions

c
<=
acc

s
<=
as
Dbi 111.34 mm =
c 12 MPa =
Dbe 151.34 mm =
s 2.16 MPa =
HI 184.62 mm =
Hc 256.62 mm = lsI HI HpI + 229.62 mm = :=
10
6. Cup calculus
Choosing the bolt
ds=(0.15...0.25)dc
dc= d+(2..4) mm
d = nominal diameter
of the main screw's thread
A bolt standardized cilindrical bolt
must be used with d >= ds
We choose the M8x18 STAS 10422 with the following characteristics expressed in mm
d = 5 t = 1.6 n = 0.8 c1 = 1.2 d4 = 3.5 c3 = 3 d1 = 2.5 m = 2
d 28mm :=
dc d 4mm + 32 mm = :=
ds 0.25 dc 8 mm = :=
Checking the bolt for shearing and crushing
af 80MPa :=
as 120MPa :=
shearing
af= 65...80 MPa
as= 100...120 MPa
Dc= (1.4...1.6)dc
f 4
MinsI
dc ds
2

:=
f 25 MPa =
crushing - cup
Dc 1.4 dc 44.8 mm = := s 4
MinsI
ds Dc
2
dc
2

( )

:=
s 20 MPa =
crushing - end of the screw
s 6
MinsI
ds dc
2

:= conditions

f
<=
af

s
<=
as
s 30 MPa =
11
Checking the minimized section of the screw's head to composed loads e , MPa
c
Q

dc
2
4
ds dc
:=
t 16
MinsI
dc
3
1
ds
dc

\
|
|
.

:=
e c
2
4 t
2
+ :=
ac 60 MPa =
c 32 MPa =
t 8 MPa =
e 37 MPa =
condition

e
<=
ac
e 37 MPa =
ac 60 MPa =
7. Efficiency calculus

d2I tan 2I ( ) d2II tan 2II ( ) + ( )


d2I tan argumentI ( ) d2II tan argumentII ( ) +
:=
0.53 =
12
8. Horizontal ratchet actioning mechanism calculus
b - gear thickness

1 - ratchet gear
2 - ratchet
3 - pin
4 - splint
5 - washer
6 - board
7 - pusher
8 - spring
9 - adjustment
screw
10 - sheath
13
8.1 Crank length
M
m
- total moment
F
m
- force with which the user acts
(150 - 300 N)
L
c
- calculus length of the crank
Mm MinsI MinsII + 112043.18 N mm = :=
Fm 300N :=
k 1 :=
l
0
- user grabing length
(50 mm for n=1 and 100mm for n =2)
n 1 :=
l0 50mm :=
n - number of workers ( 1 or 2 )
K - unsimultaneity of users action
(K=1 for n=1 and K=0.8 for n=2
Lc
Mm
k n Fm
373 mm = :=
L Lc l0 + :=
Actual crank length L 423.48 mm =
8.2 Extension calculus
extension length - L
p
L
p
- extension length
L>200..200mm
=> L
m
=(0.3 .. 0.4)L and L
p
=L-L
m
+l
l - guidance length of the extension
=50..80 mm
Lm 0.3 L 127.043 mm = :=
l 50mm :=
Lp L Lm l + :=
Lp 346.434 mm =
extension diameter - d
pe
ai 120MPa :=
dpe
3
32 k n Fm Lp l0 l ( ) [ ]
ai
18.445 mm = :=
dpe 19mm :=
We will use comercial pipe 19 / OL45 STAS 333
14
8.3 Ratchet wheel calculus
8.3.1 Material
The element will be made out of OLC 45 STAS 880
Flow limit R
e
H (R
p02
) -> 370 - 500 MPa
- heat treated : tempering and high temperature tempering
- Resistance to breaking from traction R
m
- 630..850 MPa
8.3.2 Choosing the dimensions
d D4II :=
d 53 mm =
Dm 1.6 d 84.8 mm = :=
z 10 :=
Dm
2z
13.3 mm =
b 12mm :=
h 0.7 b 8.4 mm = :=
Dm = (1.6....1.8)d
b<= *D
m
/2z
h=(0.6 .... 0.8)b
a <= 0.5*d - (1..2)mm for hexagonal profile
Di Dm h :=
De Dm h + :=
a 0.5 d 2mm :=
b 12 mm =
Di 76.4 mm =
h 8.4 mm =
De 93.2 mm =
a 24.5 mm =
Dm 84.8 mm =
z 10 =
8.3.2 Checking the gear for loads and stresses
tooth checking for bending
i
MPa - tooth thickness =(6...10)mm
9mm :=
F1
2 Mm ( )
Dm
2643 N = :=
condition

i
<=
ai
i
3 F1 h ( )
b
2

51 MPa = := i 51 MPa =
ai 120MPa :=
15
tooth checking for shearing
1
MPa
f
F1
b
:= condition

f
<=
af
f 24 MPa =
af 100MPa :=
af 100 MPa =
tooth contact surface checking for crushing
s
MPa
s
F1
h
:= condition

s
<=
as
as 120MPa := s 35 MPa =
as 120 MPa =
checking of polygonal contour assembly for crushing
s
MPa
n 6 := n = 6 for hexagonal profile assembly
t 2mm + 11 mm = :=
s 2
Mm
n a
2
t
:=
condition

s
<=
as
s 5.66 MPa =
as 120 MPa =

16
8.4 Ratchet calculus
8.4.1 Material
The element will be made out of OLC 45 STAS 880
Flow limit R
e
H (R
p02
) -> 370 - 500 MPa
- heat treated : tempering and high temperature tempering
- Resistance to breaking from traction R
m
- 630..850 MPa
8.4.2 Choosing the dimensions
Dm 84.8 mm =
l
1
= (0.85..1.0)D
m
= +(3...5)deg
d
b
= 6...12mm
m = (1.75 ....2.25)d
b
l1 0.85Dm 72.08 mm = :=
db 10mm :=
z 10 =
R db :=
m 1.8 db :=
2
180

atan

4 z
tan
180

asin
Dm
2l1
|

\
|
|
.
deg
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.

(
(

(
(

6.539 = :=
4 + :=
m 18 mm =
g 14.16mm := l1 72.08 mm = 9 mm =
e 7.97mm := db 10 mm = 6.539 =
sa 1.72mm := R 10 mm = 10.539 =
De 93.2 mm =
Di 76.4 mm =
Dm 84.8 mm =
z 10 =
b 12 mm =
h 8.4 mm =
17
8.4.3 Checking the ratchet to excentric compression
Total tension
tot

condition

tot
<=
ai
tot
6 F1 e ( )
g
2

F1
g
+ :=
tot 90.762 MPa =
ai 120MPa :=
ai 120 MPa =
8.5 Actual crank calculus
8.5.1 Material
The element will be made out of OL 50 STAS 500/2
Flow limit R
e
H (R
p02
) -> 250 MPa ( for diameter a , 16 < a <= 40 )
Resistance to breaking from traction R
m
- 410....490
8.5.2 Choosing the dimensions

1
- (0.5...0.6)*
D - d
pe
+ (6..10)mm
1 0.5 :=
1 4.5 mm =
D dpe 6mm + :=
D 25 mm =
b1 D :=
b1 25 mm =
8.5.3 Checking the crank to loads and stresses
number of workers = 1 => n 1 :=
bending tension from section C - C ,
i
, MPa
condition

i
<=
ai
i
k n Fm Lc Lm l + ( ) [ ]

32 D
D
4
dpe
4

( )
:=
i 87 MPa =
ai 120MPa :=
bending tension from section B - B ,
i
, MPa
i
k n Fm Lc l1 ( ) [ ]
2 b1 db ( )
2
1

6
:= condition

i
<=
ai
i 268 MPa =
ai 120MPa :=
18
8.6 Bolt of the ratchet calculus
pin checking for shearing
f
, MPa
f
F1
2
db
2

( )
4

(
(

:=
condition

f
<=
af
f MPa =
af 80MPa :=
pin checking for crushing
s
, MPa
condition

s
<=
as
s
F1
db t
:=
s 24 MPa =
as 80MPa :=
pin checking for bending
i
, MPa
condition

i
<=
ai
i
8 F1

2
1 +
|

\
|
|
.

(
(

db
3

:= i 61 MPa =
ai 120MPa :=
19
8.7 Elicoidal compresion spring calculus
the spring that mantains the ratchet in contact with the ratchet gear's teeth
i - spring's index
k - shape coeficient
k=1.2 - for i=8
k=1.17 - for i=9
k=1.16 - for i=10
d - winding's diameter
recommended d=0.8...1.5mm
d=0.8 ; 1 ; 1.2 ; 1.4 ; 1.5
D
m
- average winding diameter
d 1.2mm :=
i 8 :=
Dm i d :=
k 1.2 :=
Dm 9.6 mm =
F1 - fitting strength
F1 5N :=
n - active number of windings
n
t
- total number of windings
n
c
- end windings number
n 6 :=
nc 1.5 :=
nt n nc + :=

1
- fitting arrow, mm

max
- maximum arrow, mm
- measured on drawing
G 85000MPa := sa 1.72 mm =
1
8 F1 Dm
3

( )
G d
4

n 1.2 mm = :=
max 1 sa + :=
max 2.92 mm =
F
max
- maximum working
force
Fmax F1
max
1
12N = :=

t
- torsion stress, MPa

at
=650MPa for OLC65
condition
t <=at

t 8 MPa =
t
8 k Fmax Dm ( )
d
3

:=
at 650MPa :=
20
c - spring's rigidity, MPa
c
G d
4

( )
8 n Dm
3

:=
c 4.15 10
3
m MPa =
H
b
- length of blocked spring
Hb nt d :=
Hb 9 mm =
t - loaded spring's pitch

>=0.1d - windings play of
the spring loaded by Fmax
0.1 d 2mm + :=
t d
max
n
+ + :=
2.12 mm =
t 3.807 mm =
H
0
- unloaded spring length, mm
H
1
- length according to fitting force, mm
H
m
- length according to Fmax
H0 Hb n t d ( ) + := H0 24.645 mm =
H1 H0 1 := H1 23.44 mm =
Hm H0 max := Hm 21.72 mm =
F
b
- force of blocked spring ( winding on winding )

b
= max+n
b max n + := b 15.64 mm =
Fb Fmax
b
max
:=
Fb 65N =
D - external diameter
D
1
- interior diameter
D Dm d + := D 10.8 mm =
D1 Dm d := D1 8.4 mm =
21

0
- winding's tilt angle of unloaded spring
l
s
- semifabricated length
0 atan
t
Dm
deg
|

\
|
|
.
:=
ls
Dm nt ( )
cos 0 deg ( )

(
(

:=
0 0.002 =
ls 226.19 mm =
22