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Typography Manual

Table of Contents 1.11.11 Type Classication

Typography Manual

5.15.8 Punctuation & Microtypography

2.12.3 Terminology & Anatomy of the Type

6.16.9 Text References

3.13.11 Alignment & Composition

7 Emphasis & Structure 8.18.9 Numerals & Symbols

4.14.9 Page Formats & Grids

9 Type Technology

Annotated Contents

Typography Manual

Old Style 1.1 Transitional 1.2 Modern 1.3 Neo-Grotesque 1.4 Humanist Sans Serif 1.5 Geometric Sans Serif 1.6 Slab Serif 1.7 Monospace 1.8 Blackletter 1.9 Script 1.10 Decorative Display 1.11

Leading 4.7 Construction of the Type Area 4.8 Construction of the Type 4.9

Elipsis 5.1 Hyphen, En Dash, Em Dash 5.2 Quotation Marks 5.3 Apostrophe 5.4 Kernings 5.5 Ligatures 5.6 Colon, Semicolon 5.7 Brackets 5.8

Type Characteristics 2.1 Optical Illusion 2.2 Type Classications 2.3 Content Page 6.1 Page Numbers 6.2 Running Heads 6.3 Readability 3.1 Type Area 3.2 Centered Text 3.3 Tracking 3.4 Indent 3.5 Widow and Orphan 3.6 Ragged Text 3.7 Justied Text 3.8 Hyphenation 3.9 Word Space 3.10 Leading 3.11 Numerals 8.1 Lining & Non-Lining Numerals 8.2 Grid and Design Philosophy 4.1 The Typographic Grid 4.2 Sizes of Paper 4.3 The Type Area 4.4 Margin Proportions 4.5 Width of Column 4.6 Type Technology 9 Rules For Numbers & Numerals 8.3 Superscript 8.4 Symbols 8.5 Emphasis & Structure 7 Marginal Notes 6.4 Foot Notes 6.5 Cross-References 6.6 Directional Language 6.7 Counting Systems 6.8 Line Count 6.9

1 Margot Holtman, Camilla Martinsen, Zara Zerny

Typography Manual

5 Victor Brangolo, Jasmin Peco, Martino Morandi

2 Mariko Kuwahara, Mathias Ringgenberg, Lotte Schrder 6 Christofer Goertz, Anthony Salvador, Tanguy Wermelinger 3 Eva Brndsted, Christian Isberg, Yael Wicki

7 Julia Bendeler, Elki Boerdam, Daniel Rother 8 Byrthe Lemmens, Killian Loddo, 4 Marine Delgado, Dorotka Potyka, Michel Keppel Esther Willering

9 Amber van den Eeden, Marteen Kanters, Karoline Swiezynski, Rutger de Vries

1 C L F I
Camilla Martinsen Margot Holtman Zara Zerny




Giovanni Dario, 1480, Venice




James Gibbs, 1720, Oxfordshire

Ditchley Park



Jean Chalgrin, 1806, Paris

Arc de Triomphe



Le Corbusier, 1957, Berlin

Unit DHabitation


Gill Sans

London Underground HQ
Charles Holden, 1928, London



Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud, 1925, Rotterdam

Caf de Unie



George Gilbert Scott, 1861, London

Midland Grand Hotel



Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson, 1958, New York

The Seagran Building


Lucinda Blackletter

Maurice de Sully, 1210-15, Paris

Notre Dame



Louis Sullivan, 1904, Chicago

The Sullivan Building



Antoni Gaudi, 1904-06, Barcelona

Casa Batllo

Terminology & Anatomy of the Type
2.1 Type Characteristics 2.2 Optical Illusion 2.3 Type Classications

turn 90o

2.1 Type Characteristics 7

Typographic Terms

1. Cap Height 2. Overshoot* 3. Undershoot* 4. Descender 5. X-height 6. Ascender 7. Baseline

* See chapter Optical Illusion



Serif: the small feet at the top or bottom of the strokes


GA eo

Counter: the white space inside of an open or closed letter



Ear: the drop that hangs out of the main stroke of the letter



Flesh : the white space between two letters

2.2 Optical Illusion

Optical Correction


1. Geometric Futura 2. Futura Regular

Type designers apply optical corrections to letterforms to make letters appear geometric

Stroke Contrast

Weight Comparison

2.3 Type Classications

Bold Medium


1. SF Old Republic 2. Futura (T1) 3. Gill Sans

Type weights are differently dened by each type designers

Fake Italic



Type Family

Medium Condensed

Extra Bold
Bold Medium
Light Oldstyle



Bold Condensed Extra Bold Condense

Figures Light Light Extended

Light Condensed



Bold Extended

Medium Condensed Italic

Extra Bold Condensed Italic


Medium Italic


Bold Italic

Bold Extended Italic

Mariko Kuwahara Lotte Schrder Mathias Ringgenberg

3.10 Word Space

3.2 Type area

3. Alignment and Composition

3.6 Widow and Orphan

3.5 Indent

3.4 Tracking

3.8 Justified Text

3.1 Readability Type size, leading and line length have the most effect on the readability of a text.

A short story by Friedrich Drrenmatt

The Tunnel

A twenty-four-year-old man, fat, who in order to prevent the horror he saw behind the scenes from coming too close (that was his ability, perhaps his only ability) liked to stop up the holes in his flesh, since it was through them that the monstrousness could stream in, and did so by smoking cigars, Ormond Brasil 10, and by wearing a pair of sunglasses over his regular glasses, and wads of cotton in his ears; this young man, still dependent on his parents, and enrolled in some nebulous course of study at a university that could be reached by railroad in two hours, boarded his usual train one Sunday afternoon, time of departure 5:50 p.m., time of arrival 7:27 p.m., in order on the following day to attend a seminar that he had already decided to cut.

The sun was shining in a cloudless sky when he left his place of residence. It was summer. The train ran between the Alps and the Jura mountains, past rich villages and small towns, then alongside a river, and after a little less than twenty minutes, shortly after Burgdorf, it dipped into a small tunnel. The train was overcrowded. Having entered in the front of the train the twentyfour-year-old man laboriously worked his way through the crowds to the back, sweating and making a somewhat befuddled impression. The travelers were crowded together; many of them sat on suitcases. The second-class compartments were filled up as well; only the firstclass cars were sparsely booked. When the young man had finally struggled through the tangle of families, recruits, students, and lovers, constantly tossed back and forth by the train, thrown against one body and then another, lurching against stomachs and breasts, he found some room in the last car, indeed so much room that in this third-class sectionwhere cars with compartments are rarely foundhe had a whole bench to himself. Directly opposite 3.2 Type area him in the dosed chamber sat a man who was even fatter than he, playing chess by himself, and in the corner of the same bench, Is defined by column near the aisle, sat a red-haired girl who was reading a novel. Thus width. Around 66 he was already sitting by the window and had just lit an Ormond characters per line is considered ideal. Brasil 10 when the tunnel came, which seemed to last longer than usual. He had traveled this line many times before, almost every Saturday and Sunday for the past year, and had sensed the tunnels presence but never really taken note of it. A few times he had intended to give it his full attention, but each time it came, he would be thinking of something else and not catch the brief dip into darkness, and when he would remember to look, determined to notice this time, the tunnel had already passed; thats how short the tunnel was and how quickly the train passed through it. It was no different now: once again he had not taken off his sunglasses when they entered, since he w a s n t thinking of the tunnel.

3.3 Centered Text

Is often used for classic text and to create different shapes in the text.

Just a moment before, the sun had been shining with full intensity, and the landscape trough which they were traveling (the hills and forests, the distant Jura mountains, and the houses of the small town) have looked like gold, so brightly had everything shone in the evening light, so brightly that now he became conscious of the abrupt change to darkness. Probably that was the reason why the passage trough the tunnel seemed longer to him. It was completely dark in the compartment, since, due to the tunnels shortness, the lights had not been turned on; for, any second, the first glimmer of sun would surely appear in the window, and widen with lightning swiftness, and burst in mightily with a full, golden radiance; but when the darkness continued, he took off his sunglasses.

At the same moment, the girl lit a cigarette, evidently annoyed that she couldnt go on reading her novel, or so it appeared to him in the reddish flare of the match; his wrist-watch with the phosphorescent dial showed him then after six. He leaned back into the corner between the wall of the compartment and the window and busied himself with his confused studies, which no one quite believed in, with the seminar he had to attend the next day and which he would stay away from (everything he did was just a pretext for achieving order behind the facade of his activities, not the order itself, just the sense of a possible order, in view of the horror against which he padded himself with fat, stuck cigars in his mouth, stuffed wads of cotton in his ears), and when he looked back at his watch, it was six fifteen and the were still in the tunne l.

The tunnel had to end at any moment,any second;his wristwatch indicated almost six twenty; he was annoyed at himself for not ever having noticed the tunnel,which had been going on for fifteen minutes already and was evidently a very significant tunnel, considering the speed at which the train was runningprobably one of the longest tunnels in Switzerland.It seemed rather likely,therefore,that he had taken the wrong train, even though for the moment he couldnt remember a tunnel of this length and importance just twenty minutes away from his hometown by rail.So he asked the fat chess player whether this was the train to Zurich,which he confirmed.

3.4 Tracking

T h e y o u n g m a n r e p l i e d t h a t h e d h a d n o i d e a there was such a sizable tunnel on this route, but the chess player retorted, somewhat ang r i l y, s i n c e t h i s w a s t h e s e c o n d t i m e h e h a d been interrupted in the middle of a difficult calculation, that there were lots of tunnels in Switzerland, a very large number of them indeed, and that even though this was his f i r s t v i s i t t o t h i s c o u n t r y, i t w a s s o m e t h i n g one noticed right away; and besides, he had read in a statistical yearbook that there were more tunnels in Switzerland than in any othe r c o u n t r y. B u t n o w, h e s a i d , h e w a s a w f u l l y s o r r y, b u t h e h a d t o g i v e a l l h i s a t t e n t i o n t o an important problem in the Nimzovich defense, so he must ask to be left undisturbed.

Isalsocalledletter spacing andisthe equalspace between eachcharacter.

The chess players reply was polite but unequivocal; the

3.4 Tracking The correct value of tracking is depending on size and design of the typeface itself.

young man realized he could not expect an an-

swer from him. He was convinced that his

ticket would not be accepted; and

when the conductor, a pale, gaunt

man, remarked, rather ner-

vously it seemed, to the girl,

that she had to change


trains in Olten, the

man still did not

abandon hope, so



was he that he had


wrong train.


Im sure I owe something. Im supposed to be going to Zurich, he said without taking the Ormond Brasil 10 out of his mouth, and handed the conductor his ticket. Youre in the right train, sir, the conductor replied after examining the ticket. But were driving through a tunnel! the young man exclaimed with annoyance and quite forcefully, for now he was determined to clear up this bewildering situation. The conductor said that they had just passed Herzogenbuchsee and were approaching Langenthal. Its true, sir, its twenty past six now, But we have been driving through a tunnel for the past twenty minutes, the young man insisted. The conductor seemed not to understand. This is the train to Zurich, he said, glancing at the window himself now. Twenty after six, he said again, somewhat uneasily this time, it seemed; Oltens coming up soon, time of arrival six thirty-seven p.m. There must have been bad weather all of a sudden, that would account for the night, maybe a storm, yes, that must be it. Nonsense. The remark came from the man occupied with the problem of the Nimzovich defense, who was annoyed because he was still holding out his ticket without the conductors taking any notice. Nonsense, we are driving through a tunnel. You can see the rock wall clearly. Looks like granite. There are more tunnels in Switzerland than anywhere in the world. I read it in a statistical yearbook.
3.5 Indent The space one uses to separate one paragraph from another is called indent. It can be used positive or negative relative to the text.

The conductor, finally taking the chess players ticket, assured the passengers again, almost pleadingly, that the train was heading for Zurich, whereupon the twenty-four-year-old demanded to speak to the chief conductor. He was at the front of the train, the conductor said, and besides the train was heading for Zurich, it was six twenty-five now, and in twelve minutes theyd be stopping in Olten, according to the summer schedule; he traveled on this train three times a week, he said. The young man set out toward the

front of the train. He found it even harder to walk in the overcrowded train than he had earlier going in the opposite direction. The train must have been running at great speed, for it was making a fearsome thundering noise. He had removed the cotton wads from his ears when he entered the train; now he replaced them. The people he passed behaved calmly. The train was in no way different from other trains he had taken on Sunday afternoons, and he could see no signs of alarm anywhere.

3.6 Widow and Orphan

In a second-class car, an Englishman

They dont look nice, harm reading, dont make sense and should always be avoided.

stood in the aisle by the window with a radiant smile, tapping his pipe against the glass. Simplon, he said. In the dining car, too, everything was normal, even though all the seats were taken and anyone of the travelers or the waiters serving cutlets and rice could have noticed the tunnel. The young man found the chief conductor, whom he recognized by his red pouch, at the exit of the dining car. The young man found the chief conductor, whom he recognized by his red pouch, at the exit of the dining car.

May I help you asked the chief conductor, a tall, calm man with a carefully tended black moustache and rimless eyeglasses. We have been in a tunnel for the past twenty-five minutes, said the young man. The chief conductor did not look at the window, as the twenty-four-year-old had expected; he turned to the waiter instead. Give me a box of Ormond 10. he said, I smoke the same brand as this gentleman here. But that brand of cigars was not available, so the young man, happy to have found a point of contact, offered the chief conductor a Brasil. Thanks, said the chief conductor. Ill hardly have any time to buy one in Olten, so youre doing me a big favor. Smoking is important. May I ask you to follow me? He led the twenty-four-year-old into the baggage car, which was in front of the dining car. After this comes the engine, the chief conductor said as they entered the room. Were at the head of the train.
3.7 Ragged Text The ragged text creates uneven line length. Avoid distracting shapes in the rag.

A feeble yellow light was shining in the baggage car. The greater part of the car was only vaguely discernible. The side doors were locked, and the darkness outside only penetrated through a small barred window. There were suitcases standing about, many of them with hotel stickers pasted on them, and some bicycles and a baby carriage. The chief conductor hung his red pouch on a hook.

May I help you? he asked again, without looking at the young man; he began instead to fill out forms in a booklet he had taken from his pouch. Weve been in a tunnel since Burgdorf, replied the twenty-fouryear-old with determination. There is no such tunnel on this line. I know the route. I take it both ways every week. The chief conductor kept writing. Sir, he finally said, stepping up close to the young man, so close that their bodies nearly touched, sir, there is not much I can tell you. I dont know how we got into this tunnel; I have no explanation for it. But I ask you to consider that we are moving on tracks. The tunnel therefore must lead somewhere. There is no evidence of there being anything wrong with the tunnel, except of course that it doesnt end.

The chief conductor, still holding the Ormond Brasil 10 between his lips without smoking, had spoken extremely softly, but with such dignity and so clearly and emphatically that his words were audible despite the wads of cotton and even though the roaring sound of the train was many times louder here than in the dining car.

3.8 Justified Text

All the lines have the same length from left to right.

3.9 Hyphenation

Allow your program to hyphenate. Dont hyphenate more than two times in a row. Hyphenation will have a grammar impact on the text.

In that case I must ask you to please stop the train, said the young man impatiently. I dont understand a word youre saying. If something is not right about this t u n n e l , the existence of which you yourself cant explain, then its your duty to stop the train. S t o p t h e t r a i n ? the chief conductor slowly replied. This, he said, had certainly crossed his mind too. Where upon he closed his booklet and put it back into the red pouch, which was swinging back and forth on its hook. Then he carefully lit his Ormond. Should I pull the emergency brake? the young man asked and was about to reach for the brake handle above his head when he lurched forward and banged into the wall. A baby carriage rolled toward him, valises came sliding along, and the chief conductor, too, staggered oddly through the baggage car with his arms s t r e t c h e d out before him. Were going down hill the chief conductor said, leaning against the front wall of the car next to the twenty-four-year-old man, but the anticipated crash of the hurtling train against a rock wall, the telescoping of jammed, crumbled cars, did not happen. Istead the tunnel appeared to resume a level course. The door at the other end of the car opened. In the glaring light of the dining car they could see people raising glasses to each other; then the door closed again. Come into the engine room, the chief conductor said, looking into the twenty-fouryear-old mans face with a pensive and, it suddenly seemed, threatening expression. Then he unlocked the door next to which they were leaning against the wall. A storm like, hot blast of air struck them with such force that they staggered against the wall.

At the same time a terrifying tumult filled the baggage car. We have to climb over to the engine, the chief conductor screamed almost inaudibly into the young mans ear, and disappeared in the rectangle of the open door, through which one could see the brightly lit windowpanes of the locomotive swinging back and forth. The twenty-four-year-old followed with determination, even though he couldnt see what the sense of this climbing was. He clung to one of the iron railings that were attached to either side of the platform he had stepped on, but the terrifying thing was not the horrendous wind, which abated as the young man approached the engine, but the close proximity of the walls or the tunnel, which he couldn't see, since he had to fully concentrate on the engine, but which he could sense as he stood there, shaken to his bones by the pounding of the wheels and the whistling of the air.

3.10 Word Space

When justifying text, the white space between words is essential for good readability.

He felt as if he were rocketing with the speed of stars into a world of stone. A narrow ledge ran along the side of the locomotive, and above it an iron railing curved around the length of the engine: This must be the way, he concluded; he would have to risk a leap of about three feet. And so he succeeded in grasping hold of the railing, and inched his way along the ledge, with his body pressed against the locomotive; but this gradual advance did not become truly terrifying until he had reached the side of the engine, where he was now fully exposed to the impact of the roaring hurricane and the menacing walls of stone,which came sweeping in,brightly lit by the engine. Exhausted, the young man leaned against a wall, when all of a sudden it became quiet, for as soon as the chief conductor shut the door, the steel plates of the giant locomotive muted the racket so that it could hardly be heard. We lost the Ormand Brasil as well, said the chief conductor. It wasnt smart to light one before all that climbing, but they break easily if you dont have a box with you, on account of their length. After the perilous proximity of the stone walls, the young man was glad to be distracted by something that reminded him of his ordinary life less than half an hour ago, of those changeless days and years (changeless because he had only been living toward the moment at which he had now arrived, this moment of caving in, of the earths surface suddenly giving way, of plunging precipitously to the bowels of the earth).

He pulled one of the brown cartons from his right coat pocket and offered the chief conductor another cigar, put one in his own mouth as well, the chief conductor offered a light, and carefully they both drew on the flame. I think very highly of this Ormond, the chief conductor said, but you have to draw hard, otherwise they go out, words that made the twenty four-year-old suspicious, because he sensed that the chief conductor didnt like to think about the tunnel either, which was still continuing outside (it was still conceivable that it would suddenly end, as a dream can suddenly end).

Six forty p.m. said the young man after looking at the luminous dial of his watch.

3.11 Leading The white space between the lines is essential for good readability.

Were supposed to be in Olten by now. And he thought of the hills and forests that had still been there recently, showered with gold by the setting sun. Thus they stood, smoking, leaning against the wall of the engine room.
Kellers my name, the chief conductor said, drawing on his Brasil. The young man did not relent. All that climbing around the engine was pretty dangerous, he remarked, at least for someone like me who isnt used to it. So Id like to know why you brought me here. The chief conductor replied that he didnt know, that he had only wanted to give himself time to think. Time to think, repeated the twenty-four-year-old. Yes, said the chief conductor, thats it, and continued smoking. The engine seemed to tilt forward again. We could go into the engineers cabin, Keller suggested; how ever, he remained standing irresolutely by the engine wall. Thereupon the young man walked down the aisle. When he opened the door to the engineers cabin, he stood still. Empty, he said to the chief conductor, who joined him at the door, the engineers cabin is empty. They entered the room, lurching due to the enormous speed with which train along with it. See for yourself, said the chief conductor, the engine did not obey. They had done everything to stop it as soon as they had noticed the change in the trains route, Keller assured him, but the machine had just raced on and on, Itll keep on racing, said the twenty-four-yearold, pointing to the speedometer. Ninety. Has this engine ever done ninety? No more than sixty-five, replied the chief conductor. Precisely, said the young man Precisely. The speed is increasing. Its pointing to a hundred and twelve now. Were falling.

He stepped up to the window, but was unable to hold himself upright. His face was pressed against the glass, due to the fantastic speed of their descent. The engineer? he shouted, staring at the masses of rock that soared upward in the glaring arc lights, zooming toward him and vanishing above and beneath him and on both sides of the engineers cabin. Jumped off, Keller shouted hack. He was sitting on the floor now, leaning against the switchboard, When? asked the twenty-four-year-old stubbornly. The chief conductor hesitated a little and had to light another Ormond, his legs level with his head, since the train was tilting more and more steeply. Five minutes after it started, he said then, A rescue was out of the question by then. The man in the baggage room jumped off too, And you? asked the twenty-four-year-old, Im the chief conductor. Besides, I have always lived without hope. Without hope, repeated the young man, who now lay snug against the glass pane of the engineers cabin, his face pressed over the abyss. We were still sitting in our compartments and had no idea it was all over, he thought. It seemed as if nothing had changed yet, but actually the shaft leading down had already swallowed us up. I have to go back, the chief conductor shouted now, theyre probably panicking in the cars, trying to climb back as far as possible. Im sure, replied the twenty-four-year-old man, thinking of the fat chess player and the girl with the novel and the red hair. He offered the chief conductor his remaining cartons of Ormond Brasil 10. Take them, he said, youll just lose your Brasil again while climbing back. Arent you coming along? the chief conductor asked. He had raised himself up and with a great effort began to crawl up the funnel of the aisle. The young man looked at the meaningless instruments, at the ridiculous levers and switches surrounding him in the glaring light of the cabin. A hundred and thirty, he said. I dont think youll be able to reach the cars above us at this speed. It is my duty, the chief conductor shouted. Certainly, the twenty-four-year-old man replied, without looking back to witness the chief conductors senseless undertaking. I must at least try, shouted the chief conductor, who had climbed to the far end of the car by now, pressing his thighs and elbows against the metal walls for support, but as the loco-motive tilted down further, plunging straight toward the earths core with terrifying speed, so that the chief conductor found himself dangling directly over the twenty-four-year-old, who was lying face down at the bottom of the engine on the silver window of the engineers cabin, his strength gave way. The chief conductor dropped and fell onto the switchboard. There he lay, bleeding profusely, next to the young man, gripping his shoulders. What shall we do? the chief conductor shouted once more into the young mans ea through the echoing roar of the walls hurtling toward them, while the young man, his fat body useless and no longer protection, lay glued to the window of the engineers cabin, sucking in the abyss with his eyes, which he had opened wide for the first time. What shall we do? screamed the chief conductor again: to which, without turning his face from the spectacle as the two wads of cotton were blown upward with arrow like swiftness by the monstrous draught that burst in of a sudden, the twenty-four-year-old replied with spectral serenity: Nothing.

3.1 Readability

3.9 Hyphenation

3.4 Tracking

3.7 Ragged Text

3.3 Centered Text

3.11 Leading

5.6 5.5

Punctuation & Microtypography

5.2 5.1 Ellipsis 5.4 5.2 Hyphen, en dash, em dash 5.3 Quotation marks 5.4 Apostrophe 5.5 Kernings 5.6 Ligatures 5.1 5.7 Colon, Semicolon 5.8 Brackets


Its coffee break... finally. Ill take a coffee with sugar


Reminder The ellipsis in a text are used to make a pause. At the end of a sentence, its to leave something unnished. The ellipsis uses periods but its a glyph that is only one character. It cannot be made with three periods.


Shortcut alt+;

Punctuation & Microtypography 5.1

One sugar cube or three spoons? One cube please.

hyPhen, en Dash & em Dash -

Reminder Hyphens and endashes are important tools. You have to know their meaning and their function. The hyphen is a connector and the en dash a separator. The hyphen is the smallest stroke and it is used for compound names and line breaks. While the en dash (this stroke is the lentgh of the letter N) is used as a parenthesis, or to insert a comment in a text. It is also used to make ranges between numbers. In Europe the em dash (lentgh of the letter M) is used as a symbol for text references and titles (as seen in the top right corner of this page).

I just wanted to create a link, but obviously it went wrong at 5.15.2.

hyphen for line break

en dash to insert

en dash insert a half space before and after

Shortcut en dash alt+em dash alt+shift+-

Punctuation & Microtypography 5.2

When you use a hyphen rather than an en dash, or the opposite, its like using the wrong tool there is a conict between the structure of the text and its meaning.

qUotation marks

Reminder Quotation marks are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, a phrase, or a word. They come as a pair of opening and closing marks. Every language has its own different marks. There is usually two types of marks that you can nest one into each other when necessary. In most cases, insert a thin space inside the quotation marks. In French its a rule, in other languages its an aesthetical choice.

Theres a thin space between typography and orthography Un espace ne spare la typographie et lorthographie.
When quoting, the punctuation is out of the quotes if its not part of the sentence, as the period in the example above.

English single and double quotation marks

Shortcut alt+] shift+alt+] alt+[ shift+alt+[

French guillemets In case of a nested quote use double quotation marks or repeat the guillemets.

Shortcut alt+\ shift+alt+\ thin space shift+ alt+cmd+m

Punctuation & Microtypography 5.3

Ein kleiner Raum trennt Typografie und Orthografie! C uno spazio sottile fra la tipografia e lortografia?
The punctuation goes inside the quotation marks, instead, when its part of the quote itself, as in the two examples in this page.

German gnsefchen Its also common to use inwardpointed guillemets, double and single, like in swiss. Shortcut shift+alt+, alt+[ , alt+]

Swiss virgolette, guillemets, anfrungszeichen

Shortcut shift+alt+\ alt+\ shift+alt+3 shift+alt+4


I like rocknroll but not drum'n'roll

Reminder The apastrophe is a small character that symbolizes the disappearance of a letter and its used to connect a word with a contract form of another. By default, with a lot of fonts and programs, when you press the button apostrophe key the program inserts the symbol for minutes('), which is wrong.


minutes inches

Shortcut sometimes the word processors correct it automatically, If this is not the case use shortcut alt+shift+]

Punctuation & Microtypography 5.4

Similar in appearance, and situated on the same key, these two symbols have complete different uses and meanings.


Reminder Kerning is the adjustment of the space between a couple of letters. The goal of it is to give the blank space between this pair of letters a consistent white space. Finding the right kerning depends on the typeface, the x-height and the size. Tracking differs from kerning in that tracking is the adjustment of space for large groups of letters and entire blocks of text. Use tracking to change the overall appearance and readability of the text, making it more open or dense. In Indesign, the symbol of kerning is A\V and tracking is AV.

Will you please sit. Look, this chair is quite fara way fr om the table. But Ill fix this problem.
-95 -103 -103 70 70 42 75 73 134 70 +49 +46 +85 +72 +64 +85 +12 +44 +54 +29 +205 +25 +134 +119

the letters are too close to each other. Its create stains in the word.

this kerning is too wide, its create holes, the reading is affected.

When the kerning is correct, there is an equilibrium between the black and white, in order to make the reading easiest.

Shortcut to quickly x the kernings, put the curser between two letters, press alt and switch with the left and right arrows.

Punctuation & Microtypography 5.5

A word will looks wrong wherever the kerning is not equal. In many cases an uneven kerning is the cause of misunderstanding and disturbance of reading.


An efficient use of space. When using a ligature its like looking for the finest detail.

Ligatures typeface Times

Reminder A Ligature is an aesthetical and graphical link between letters. It occurs when two or more characters are connected into a new glyph. The most common is . In serif fonts the dot of the i would come in contact with the terminal of the f. The ligature was invented to avoid this problem. The most common ligatures have been drawn for lower-case: fl, ff, ffi, ffl, , fj, ct, st. Some ligatures exist only in certain languages such as in Norwegian, in German and in French.

Shortcut Ligatures dont have shortcuts. Sometimes the wordprocessor corrects them automatically, otherwise you should always refer to the glyph window and change them manually.

Punctuation & Microtypography 5.6

A ligature merges two letters together for better readability and use.



Reminder Colon informs the reader that what follows proves and explains, or simply provides elements of, what is referred to before. Semicolon is used to make a pause that is longer than a comma and shorter than a period; or in lists. At personal taste you can add a thin space before colons. In the same way you can add a double space after colons or semicolons.

To Do List: cover, still to prepare; kerning and ligatures, on the way; new photo shoot; and its done!

Use semicolon between items in a list con taining punctuation, especially commas, so the semicolons function as serial commas.


Punctuation & Microtypography 5.8

Theres parentheses (round brackets) and parenthesis (all the text inside two round brackets [or square brackets]).

Reminder Parentheses are used to add supplementary information in a text, in a way you can remove it without altering the meaning of a sentence. Usually round brackets are information that is part of the original text, while the square brackets are used to show that the comment is added by someone other than the original author. Another use for square brackets is to refer to a strucure like page numbers, captions etc.

You can nest parentheses in your text by using different types of brackets (round, square, braces) or just all round brackets.

Victor Brangoleau Martino Morandi Jasmin Peco

Text References


Content Page

Chapter and section titles in order of appearance in the text along with the respective page number.

A simple representation of a content page from the book Le partage du sensible. The content page first lists the number of the section, followed by the title and finally followed by the page number in reference to where the chapter is located in the book.


Le partage du sensible

Jrme Saint-Loubert Bi

La Fabrique-ditions




Page Numbers

A system used to number the pages of a book. This includes blank pages and sometimes the front and back covers.



Jonas Staal
Publsher Notes

Fonds BKVB


In Post-Propaganda, the page number is contained in the bottom left of the right hand printed page. As an observation, right hand pages are seen first, left hand pages second. (1) Page numbering starts from the book cover, however it is not commonly printed on the cover. Printing of the page numbers typically starts after the content page.


Running Heads

The title of a section or chapter of a book that runs continuously throughout the printed pages and is separated from the main body of text.


Sheila Hicks, Weaving as Metaphor


Irma Boom

Yale University Press




Running heads on a printed page should be discernible and easily found when scanning through the pages. Running heads are also referenced in the content page alongside the beginning page number of the section.


Marginal Notes

A note used for references, citations or commentary written by the author and set within the margins of the printed page.

It is best to distinguish notes from the text by way of position, scale, typeface or color. In Open Cities, notes are set in the margin of the page in a type size that is two points smaller than the body text. The line length is also shorter than that of the body text. Where a note is a general observation by the author, a cross-reference is not needed.


Open Cities

Mevis & Van Deursen Werkplaats Typografie


Martien de Vletter, SUN




Foot Notes

Similar to marginal notes, however foot notes are set at the foot of the printed page instead of the margin. Useful when there is not enough space for notes to be set within the margin



Letter to Robin Kinross


Sam de Groot

True True True


In Letter to Robin Kinross, the foot note is contained within the bottom area of the printed page and is set in a smaller type size than the body text to create a separation between the two. The cross-reference is set as a superscript number within the text and referenced in the foot note the same size as the foot note text. (1) Take care not to confuse foot-notes with end-notes which are placed at the end of the text instead of within the foot of the page.




A tool for referencing related material elsewhere in the same document. Used to ag text in reference to images, citations, or comments to support the text.


The World of Madelon Vriesendorp



Kasia Korczak

Architectural Association


Notes that reference text should include a cross-reference within both the text and within the note so that the reader can link the two together. It is common to see the referenced image on the same spread as the reference, however this could also link to an Index of images somewhere else in the book. (1) Cross-references deal with phrases or words in a text that relate to other relevant material located within the book.


Directional Language

Used in conjunction with images, or related gures, to connect the material to images elsewhere in the text by describing its location without the need for cross-references.

Common terms used as directional language: Top, Bottom, Left, Right, Top Right, Top Left, Bottom Left, Bottom Right, Middle, Middle Top, Middle Bottom, Opposing Page, This Page etc These are used in conjunction with the location of where the image is placed on the page. (1) In Ways of Seeing, the images situated within the text have no captions. Rather, the captions are all contained within an index of images with this directional language to help the viewer understand which image refers to which caption.


Ways of Seeing

Richard Hollis

Penguin Books



Counting Systems

A writing system developed to express order using a consistent format. These systems can be applied throughout a text where a sequential system is needed.

Numbering systems are helpful when dealing with lots of various material such as pages, images, tables, graphs or any material that will benefit from the use of a sequence. In Dot Dot Dot 16, there are various graphs that the authors reference using both numbers and letters. (1)  Common numbering systems:
Hindu-Arabic numeral system. [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]  [01, 02, 03...10] [001, 002, 003...100]

Dot Dot Dot 16


[1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 2-1...3-1...4-1...]  [1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1...3.1...4.1...]  Roman numerals I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X] Alphabetical systems [A B C D E F...Z] Alpha + Numerical systems [A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3...]

Stuart Bailey David Reinfurt Raimundas Malasauskas


Dexter Sinister




Numbers typically found in the margin of a text, usually in increments of ve or ten, to assist the reader with their position within a paragraph.

Line-counting is typically found in poetry, dictionaries, encyclopedias, lexicons or other reference material. This can be applied to any text, however it is most beneficial when a text has lots of heavy information and it will benet the reader to be able to scan the lines. In the Dictionary and Encyclopedia of paper and paper-making, the line-count system is found to the right of the text within the margin.

Dictionary and Encyclopedia of paper and paper-making


E.J. Labarre

Swets & Zeitlinger, Amsterdam


None Available


The image used for the title page of this chapter, 6: Text References, is a scan from the chapter six title page of John Bergers Ways of Seeing.

Christofer Goertz Anthony Salvador Tanguy Wermelinger

Emphasis and Structure

A visual investigation about text hierarchy and emphasis


Some things are important. Some things are not. In this world there is a oversupply of information. Information is everywhere and accessible to anyone. People are getting lost. But thats why we, graphic designers, are here! We stand in between the pile of information and the consumer of that information. We work as translators, translating this information into accesible codes and formats. In order to distinguish the most important from the least important, we must structure the information intelligently. Using these structures we attract interest and help the viewer to capture the most important information at once. Hierarchy in a text helps the viewer nd connections, reasons and explanations.


To make things as clear as possible you should identify the different levels a text has and apply only exactly that amount of typographical levels. Not more and not less. The information should communicate effectively to the audience it wants to reach. Next to typographical information, certain codes (symbols, images) are used to help the viewer nd the information he is identyng with. These differ vastly according to the audience that is being adressed. One important tool to create hierarchy is using emphasis. There are no written rules to express what it is to emphasize. We should just try it, compare it and show it.

Original Invitation

Original Hierachy

Restructured Hierachy

Restructured Invitation

Original Informative sign

Consider installing an automatic fire sprinkler system in your residence. Ask your local fire department to inspect your residence for fire safety and prevention.

Last Modified: Thursday, 06-Apr-2006 09:48:55 EDT

What to do During a Fire

If your clothes catch on fire, you should:

Stop, drop, and roll - until the fire is extinguished. Running only makes the fire burn faster.

To escape a fire, you should:

Check closed doors for heat before you open them. If you are escaping through a closed door, use the back of your hand to feel the top of the door, the doorknob, and the crack between the door and door frame before you open it. Never use the palm of your hand or fingers to test for heat - burning those areas could impair your ability to escape a fire (i.e., ladders and crawling). Hot Door Cool Door Open slowly and ensure fire and/or smoke is not blocking your escape route. If your escape route is blocked, shut the door immediately and use an alternate escape route, such as a window. If clear, leave immediately through the door and close it behind you. Be prepared to crawl. Smoke and heat rise. The air is clearer and cooler near the floor.

Do not open. Escape through a window. If you cannot escape, hang a white or light-colored sheet outside the window, alerting fire fighters to your presence.

Crawl low under any smoke to your exit - heavy smoke and poisonous gases collect first along the ceiling. Close doors behind you as you escape to delay the spread of the fire. Stay out once you are safely out. Do not reenter. Call 9-1-1.

Original Hierachy

Restructured Hierachy

Restructured Informative Sign

Original School Announcement

Original Hierachy

Restructured Hierachy

Restructured School Announcement

by Elki Boerdam Julia Bendeler Daniel Rother

Numerals & Symbols

Roman numerals might have derived from handsigns.



Numerals are signs that represent a number, like 8 or VIII. Numbers stand for a quantity, like eight. The most commonly used systems of num erals are the Roman and Arabic systems. Roman numerals are represented by letters of the latin alphabet:


Its a system thats based on cumulative quantities and doesnt include a zero. Roman numerals are commonly used in numbered lists, clock faces, page numbering, months of the year and the numbering of annual events.

Numerals & Symbols

Arabic numerals are the graphic symbols from 0 to 9. Today they are the most common representation of numerals in the world. They descended from Indian numerals.

Via Arabic trade they reached Europe in the middle ages. Colonialism spread the system over other large parts of the world. The system was revolutionary because it includes a zero and positional notation.



First the zero wasnt part of the numeral system. It evolved from a little cross to the ellipse shape as we know it now.

Numerals & Symbols

Lining & Non-Lining Numerals


Arabic numerals are represented in lining and non-lining numerals. Lining numerals have the same height as capitals and they all have the same character width, therefore they allign in tables, fomulas and alongside capitals.

Non-lining numerals, also known as hanging-, old style-, lowercase- or text figures, have individual heights and character width, this enables them to blend in with text and small caps. They are included in some serif fonts and can be found in the glyphs.

Numerals & Symbols

Lining figures are big and solid unlike letters. They appear like grey bars in a text. Therefore some fonts have slightly smaller designed numerals. If not, you could scale the numerals down to a 98%.

Because numerals are set in a certain monospace this can give an incoherent look, especially the small shape of the 1 and combinations like 74. This can be solved by kerning.

For dimension settings use a multiplication sign and not a lowercase x.

Lining & Non-Lining Numerals


Numerals & Symbols

Rules for Numbers & Numerals


Its common to see 14:00 in Europe and 2 p.m. in the USA. The expression oclock is only used when numbers are spelled out. In Europe it is normal to order day-monthyear. In America its common to order yearmonth-day.

Large numbers are separated with a period, the Brits use a comma.

Spell out numerals under 10.

Dont start a sentence with a numeral.

Numerals & Symbols

Superscript numerals are commonly used for footnotes. They are set in superscript as an expression of their relative importance. Itkeeps them out of the flow of the main text and makes them easier to find when looking quickly through a page. They are put at the end of phrases or sentences. The superscript is meant to have a little distance from the letter and for readability it might be necessary to increase the weight. Many fonts include a set of superscript numbers, however not all of them are well designed. In that case, numerals set at a reduced size and an elevated baseline are theonly choice. For the actual footnoot you use normal sized numerals, not superscript.



The smaller the type, the more space you need between the letter and the superscript.

Numerals & Symbols

First Zapf dingbats, then Windings and in the bottom Webdings.



A symbol is pictorial representation of an idea. Symbols are supposed to be universal and dont need translation on the contrary of words. Every font includes some everyday symbols:

@ # $ %&

But there are several type families which only consist out of symbols; called dingbats. We are most familiar with Zapf dingbats, Wingdings and Webdings.

Numerals & Symbols

Byrthe Lemmens Killian Loddo Esther Willering

On the frontcover of this chapter is an image of the Cosmic Egg. All Arabic numerals are contained within the ellipse of the zero.

Chapter 9 Type technology



Idea & Design

Doris Boerman Karel Martens Heidrun Osterer Stefan Seigmeister Wolfgang Weingart Job Wouters

David Bennewith Linn Eriksen Na Kim Kalle Mattsson Gerard Unger

Amber van den Eeden Maarten Kanters Karoline Swiezynski Rutger de Vries



p. 1 p. 2 p. 3 p. 5

Chapter Page. Image by Kalle Mattsson, 2009. Image by Linn Eriksen, 2009. Image by Na Kim Young, 2009. Museum Stichting Lettergieten 1983 te Zaandam. Image by David Bennewith, 2009.

p. 4 Photo by Amber van den Eeden, 2009.

p. 6 Brunner, L. & Wlchli, T. (2009). The Schnsten Livres Svizzeri 2008. The Present Issue. p. 7 uploads/Main/Otlet_Univers_Livre.jpg

p. 8 Newspaper article contributed by Gerard Unger, 2009. p. 9 Text by David Bennewith, 2009. p. 10 Brunner, L. & Wlchli, T. (2008). Die Plus Beaux Libri Swiss 2007. The Past Issue. p. 11 Brunner, L. & Wlchli, T. (2009). The Schnsten Livres Svizzeri 2008. The Present Issue. p. 12 Unknown. p. 13 Image contributed by Gerard Unger, 2009. p. 14 Image by Na Kim Young, 2009. p. 15 Image by David Bennewith, 2009. p. 16 Text contributed by Na Kim Young, 2009. p. 17 Gantois, J.M., De Loore & Camiel W.H. (1979). UFOs en andere vreemde natuurverschijnselen. Zutphen, Thieme. p. 18 Index.