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RESISTANCE WELDING

Resistance welding is a quite older welding technique. Here the heat is generated by the passage of an electric current through the resistance formed by the contact between two metal surfaces. In resistance welding methods, current density is so high that a local pool of molten metal is formed, joining the two parts. The current is often in the range 1 000-1 00 000 A, and the voltage in the range 1-30 V

WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY

Dr. Caner BATIGN

RESISTANCE WELDING
Different types of resistance welding: spot welding seam welding projection welding resistance butt welding (upset welding) flash welding Common properties: Generally fast, efficient and low polluting. No filler materials are required. Generally each machine can be used for one type of welding.

WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY

Dr. Caner BATIGN

RESISTANCE WELDING
SPOT WELDING: Spot welding is the best-known resistance welding method. It is used for joining thin sheet materials (up to 3 + 3 mm) by overlap joints, and is widely used, e.g. in the automotive industry. An ordinary private car can have up to 5 000 spot-welded joints.

WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY

Dr. Caner BATIGN

RESISTANCE WELDING
SPOT WELDING: Advantages
Little deformation of the workpiece, as the thermal energy is more or less restricted to the immediate vicinity of the weld. Very high rate of production for mechanised processes. Easy to automate, with high consistency, which is therefore suitable for mass production. Low energy requirement and little pollution. Fast: resistance welding of 1 + 1 mm sheet, for example, takes 0.20 s. No filler materials required. Little special training required. Less environmental impact than when welding with an arc.

WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY

Dr. Caner BATIGN

RESISTANCE WELDING
SPOT WELDING: Important parameters The welding current Squeeze time The clamping force Welding time Hold time The electrode area

WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY

Dr. Caner BATIGN

RESISTANCE WELDING
SEAM WELDING: Seam welding is similar to spot welding, and operates with the same principle. The difference is that two wheel-shaped electrodes are used, which are rolling along (and usually feeding) the workpiece.

WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY

Dr. Caner BATIGN

RESISTANCE WELDING
SEAM WELDING:
The two wheels should be of the same size, in order to prevent the part from being deflected towards one of them. The current may flow continuously while welding is being carried out, or intermittently to produce a series of spots, so closely positioned as to produce a single, continuous weld. An unavoidable problem of seam welding is that some of the current 'leaks' through the completed weld. As the electrode rollers rotate, they do not need to be lifted between each spot, as with spot welding. If the weld does not have to be continuous, seam welding can be used therefore to position spots some regular distance from each other, which can be carried out quicker than ordinary spot welding.

WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY

Dr. Caner BATIGN

RESISTANCE WELDING
SEAM WELDING: Advantages
GAS-TIGHT OR LIQUID-TIGHT JOINTS CAN BE PRODUCED (NOT POSSIBLE WITH SPOT WELDING OR PROJECTION WELDING). SEAM WIDTH MAY BE LESS THAN THE DIAMETER OF SPOT WELDS, BECAUSE THE ELECTRODE CONTOUR CAN BE CONTINUOUSLY DRESSED AND IS THEREFORE OF A STABLE SHAPE. HIGH-SPEED WELDING (ESPECIALLY ON THIN STOCK) IS POSSIBLE. COATED STEELS ARE GENERALLY MORE WELDABLE USING SEAM WELDING THAN SPOT WELDING, BECAUSE COATING RESIDUE CAN BE CONTINUOUSLY REMOVED FROM THE ELECTRODE WHEELS IF SPECIAL PROVISIONS ARE MADE.

WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY

Dr. Caner BATIGN

RESISTANCE WELDING
PROJECTION WELDING: As with seam welding and spot welding, projection welding is used to join two overlapping sheets of relatively thin metal. The process involves pressing a number of 'dimples in one of the plates, welding the two plates together at the same time. The method can also be used for welding metal sheet to the ends of bars, rods or pipes, or for welding nuts to sheets. An advantage of the process, relative to spot welding, is that there is less wear and tear on the electrodes due to the greater contact area.
WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY
Dr. Caner BATIGN

RESISTANCE WELDING
RESISTANCE BUTT (UPSET) WELDING: Resistance butt welding is used for end-to-end welding of rods or wires, e.g. when welding wire baskets, shopping trolleys or wire racks for use in ovens. The ends of the material are pressed together and a current is passed through them: the temperature across the contact resistance becomes so high that the metal softens to a plastic state and the two parts can be joined together.

WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY

Dr. Caner BATIGN

RESISTANCE WELDING
RESISTANCE BUTT (UPSET) WELDING: Butt welding can be used for welding steel, copper, aluminium and its alloys, as well as for gold, silver and zinc. The maximum contact area is usually stated to be about 150 mm2: the upward limit is determined by the ability of the welding machine to ensure even distribution of the heat across all parts of the joint. The lower limit is determined by the purely practical ability of handling the material: for steel wire, the smallest size is generally regarded as being about 0.2 mm diameter.
WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY
Dr. Caner BATIGN

RESISTANCE WELDING
FLASH WELDING: Flash welding is a method in which the ends of the workpiece are pressed together and welded. It is used for welding thicker workpieces such as heavy anchor chain, rails and pipes. The process starts by preheating the components, by moving the parts forwards and backwards, into and out of contact with each other a number of times, while current is passing, so that the contact points heat up and heat the body of the metal behind them. When the temperature is sufficiently high, this is followed by the next stage, of flashing.
WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY
Dr. Caner BATIGN

RESISTANCE WELDING
FLASH WELDING: The parts are slowly brought together and pressed firmly in contact, which causes rapid melting and gasification, with spectacular ejection of molten material in a rain of sparks. The molten metal of the two surfaces joins, and the process continues with application of forging pressure so that molten material and any trapped oxides or contamination are pressed out of the joint into a surrounding collar or upset.

WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY

Dr. Caner BATIGN