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Analisa Analisa Uji Uji Sumur Sumur Analisa Analisa Uji Uji Sumur Sumur

201 20122 201 20122


RS. Trijana Kartoatmodjo
DepartemenTeknikPerminyakan Departemen Teknik Perminyakan
Basis Basis Nilai Nilai::
Absensi Absensi 10% 10% Absensi Absensi 10% 10%
Pekerjaan PekerjaanRumah Rumah/Quiz /Quiz 20% 20%
UUTTSS 330% 0% UUTTSS 330% 0%
UAS UAS 40 40% %
Total =100% Total =100% Total = 100% Total = 100%
Uji Sumur Uji Sumur
(Well Testing) (Well Testing) ( g) ( g)
References References References References
1. 1. Matthews, C. S., and Russell, D. G., Matthews, C. S., and Russell, D. G.,
P B ild d Fl T t i P B ild d Fl T t i W ll W ll Pressure Buildup and Flow Tests in Pressure Buildup and Flow Tests in Wells, Wells,
Monograph Series, No. 1, SPE, Dallas, TX Monograph Series, No. 1, SPE, Dallas, TX
1967 1967
2. 2. Earlougher Earlougher, R. C, J r., , R. C, J r., Advances in Well Advances in Well 2. 2. Earlougher Earlougher, R. C, J r., , R. C, J r., Advances in Well Advances in Well
Test Analysis, Monograph Test Analysis, Monograph Series, No. 5, Series, No. 5,
SPE Dallas TX 1977 SPE Dallas TX 1977 SPE, Dallas, TX, 1977. SPE, Dallas, TX, 1977.
3. Well Test Analysis: The Use of Advanced
I t t ti M d l Dominq eBo rdet Interpretation Models, Dominque Bourdet,
Elsevier 2002.
4. Well testing, Interpretation Method, Gilles
Bourdarot, EcoleduPetrol, IFP, 1998 Bourdarot, Ecole du Petrol, IFP, 1998
5. Well Testing, J hon Lee, Texas A&M
Tujuan Tujuan Tujuan Tujuan
Uraikan tujuan utama suatu uji sumur. Uraikan tujuan utama suatu uji sumur. j j j j
Uraikan persamaan difusivitas (diffusivity Uraikan persamaan difusivitas (diffusivity
equation) dengancaramenerangkan: equation) dengancaramenerangkan: equation) dengan cara menerangkan: equation) dengan cara menerangkan:
tujuan dan aplikasinya tujuan dan aplikasinya
i d j b i d j b asumsi dan cara penjabarannya asumsi dan cara penjabarannya
bentuk persamaan untuk satu dimensi dan bentuk persamaan untuk satu dimensi dan
aliran radial (one aliran radial (one- -dimensional radial flow). dimensional radial flow).
Parameter yang diperlukan untuk well test. Parameter yang diperlukan untuk well test.
Kompresibilitas total untuk berbagai fluida Kompresibilitas total untuk berbagai fluida
reservoir (undersaturatedoil, saturatedoil, gas). reservoir (undersaturatedoil, saturatedoil, gas). reservoir (undersaturated oil, saturated oil, gas). reservoir (undersaturated oil, saturated oil, gas).
Apakah Well Test itu? Apakah Well Test itu? Apakah Well Test itu? Apakah Well Test itu?
M k l t t k l i d t k M k l t t k l i d t k Merupakan alat untuk evaluasi dan menentukan Merupakan alat untuk evaluasi dan menentukan
karakterisasi reservoir karakterisasi reservoir
Investigasi volumereservoir jauhlebihbesar dari Investigasi volumereservoir jauhlebihbesar dari Investigasi volume reservoir jauh lebih besar dari Investigasi volume reservoir jauh lebih besar dari
rekaman log maupun analisa core batuan rekaman log maupun analisa core batuan
Memperkirakan Memperkirakan Memperkirakan Memperkirakan
Permeabilitas di keadaan yang sebenarnya Permeabilitas di keadaan yang sebenarnya
Keadaandi sekitar lubang Keadaandi sekitar lubang--bor bor Keadaan di sekitar lubang Keadaan di sekitar lubang--bor bor
J arak ke batas reservoir J arak ke batas reservoir
Tekananrata Tekananrataratareservoir ratareservoir Tekanan rata Tekanan rata--rata reservoir rata reservoir
BagaimanaWell Test Dilakukan? BagaimanaWell Test Dilakukan? Bagaimana Well Test Dilakukan? Bagaimana Well Test Dilakukan?
qq
q
Sumur
di d k
t
q
diproduk-
sikan
Produksi
konstan
t
p
Sensor
Tekanan
p
Sensor
masuk ke
dalam
e a a
stabil
t
sumur
Bagaimana Well Test Dilakukan? Bagaimana Well Test Dilakukan? g We es u ? g We es u ?
q = 0
P d k i 0
q 0
q
Sumur
Produksi = 0
t
q
ditutup
t
pp
Tekanan
naik
t
Sensor
diturunkan
naik
ke dekat
pelubangan
KonsepDasar KonsepDasar Konsep Dasar Konsep Dasar
Aplikasi dan tujuan well test Aplikasi dan tujuan well test
Pengembangan persamaan diffusivity Pengembangan persamaan diffusivity
Definisi dan sumber data untuk well test Definisi dan sumber data untuk well test
J enisdanTujuanWell Test J enisdanTujuanWell Test J enis dan Tujuan Well Test J enis dan Tujuan Well Test
Uji t k t i t ( t ) Uji t k t i t ( t ) Uji tekanan transient (sentara) Uji tekanan transient (sentara)
Dihasilkan tekanan berubah dengan waktu Dihasilkan tekanan berubah dengan waktu Dihasilkan tekanan berubah dengan waktu Dihasilkan tekanan berubah dengan waktu
Deliverability test (Uji kemampuan produksi) Deliverability test (Uji kemampuan produksi) y j p p y j p p
Sumur dikontrol produksinya Sumur dikontrol produksinya
(Analisa Produksi) (Analisa Produksi)
Hasil suatu analisa well test adalah analisa produksi Hasil suatu analisa well test adalah analisa produksi
sumur sumur sumur sumur
Analisa AnalisaData DataProduksi Produksi Analisa AnalisaData Data Produksi Produksi
Data reservoir (permeabilitas skin factor rekah Data reservoir (permeabilitas skin factor rekah Data reservoir (permeabilitas, skin factor, rekah Data reservoir (permeabilitas, skin factor, rekah
panjang separuh, dll). panjang separuh, dll).
Volume pori batuan reservoir (mengirakan dari Volume pori batuan reservoir (mengirakan dari
i f ) i f ) long long--term production performance). term production performance).
Mengkirakan ultimate recovery (EUR) Mengkirakan ultimate recovery (EUR)volume volume Mengkirakan ultimate recovery (EUR) Mengkirakan ultimate recovery (EUR) volume volume
fluida reservoir yang dapat bergerak. fluida reservoir yang dapat bergerak.
Aplikasi Aplikasi Well Test Well Test pp
Aplikasi Aplikasi Well Test Well Test
E l i
Aplikasi Aplikasi Well Test Well Test .... ....
Exploration
Is this zone economic?
How large is this reservoir?
Reservoir engineering Reservoir engineering
What is the average reservoir pressure?
How do I describe this reservoir in order to
estimate reserves?
forecast future performance?
optimize production? p p
Tujuan TujuanWell Test Well Test
Menentukan Menentukanbatas batasreservoir reservoir
Tujuan TujuanWell Test Well Test
Menentukan Menentukanbatas batasreservoir reservoir
Mengkirakan Mengkirakantekanan tekanandi di daerah daerahpengurasan pengurasan Mengkirakan Mengkirakantekanan tekanandi di daerah daerahpengurasan pengurasan
Karakterisasi reservoir Karakterisasi reservoir
Diagnosa masalah produktivitas sumur Diagnosa masalah produktivitas sumur
Evaluasi efektivitas stimulasi ( Evaluasi efektivitas stimulasi (perangsangan perangsangan))
Tujuan TujuanWell Test Well Test Tujuan TujuanWell Test Well Test ...... ......
Define reservoir limits Define reservoir limits
Distances to boundaries Distances to boundaries Distances to boundaries Distances to boundaries
Drainage area Drainage area
Estimate average drainage area pressure Estimate average drainage area pressure
Characterizereservoir Characterizereservoir Characterize reservoir Characterize reservoir
Permeability Permeability
Skin factor Skin factor
Dual porosity or layered behavior Dual porosity or layered behavior p y y p y y
Tujuan TujuanWell Test Well Test Tujuan TujuanWell Test Well Test..... .....
Diagnose productivity problems Diagnose productivity problems
Permeability Permeability
Skin factor Skin factor
Evaluate stimulation treatment effectiveness Evaluate stimulation treatment effectiveness
Ski f t Ski f t Skin factor Skin factor
Fracture conductivity Fracture conductivity
Fracture half Fracture half- -length length
Single Single Multiwell Tests Multiwell Tests Single Single--, Multiwell Tests , Multiwell Tests
qq
Sumur
di d k i diproduksi
Sensor
masuk ke
dalam
sumur sumur
Single Single-- Multiwell Tests Multiwell Tests Single Single, Multiwell Tests , Multiwell Tests
Sumur ditutup,
Tekanan dasar
sumur diukur
Single Single Multiwell Tests Multiwell Tests Single Single--, Multiwell Tests , Multiwell Tests
Sumur Sumur
ditutup
. . . Tekanan
diukur di
Sensor
masuk ke
sumur
diukur di
sumur lainnya
sumur
pengamat
J enis Well Test J enis Well Test J enis Well Test J enis Well Test
q
Produksi
pada laju
Plot
respon
pada laju
tetap
respon
tekanan
P
wf
Sensor
t
masuk ke
sumur
t
J enisWell Test J enisWell Test
Sumur ditutup
J enis Well Test J enis Well Test
Produksi
pada laj
Sumur ditutup
Plot
respon
pada laju
konstan
respon
tekanan
Sensor
P
ws
kedalam
sumur
tt
J enisWell Test J enisWell Test J enis Well Test J enis Well Test
Plot
respon
Injeksi fluida
pada laju
respon
tekanan
p
pada laju
tetap
tt
J enisWell Test J enisWell Test
q=0
J enis Well Test J enis Well Test
Measure
Shut in well
Inject fluid
into well at

pressure
response
p
constant rate
tt
Test Multi Sumur Test Multi Sumur Test Multi Sumur Test Multi Sumur
. . . Ukur tekanan di
sumur lainnya
Produksi
sumur
pada laju
konstan
p
konstan . . .
t
Test Multi Sumur Test Multi Sumur
q
Test Multi Sumur Test Multi Sumur
. . . Tekanan
di k di
q
diukur di
sumur lainnya
Buka tutup di
satu sumur satu sumur . .
p
t
Well Test Satu Sumur Well Test Satu Sumur
Respon tekanan suatu sumur diukur dari perubahan Respon tekanan suatu sumur diukur dari perubahan
laju produksi. laju produksi.
b ild b ild pressure buildup test pressure buildup test
Tutup sumur setelah diproduksikan konstan Tutup sumur setelah diproduksikan konstan
d d fl d d fl drawdown or flow test drawdown or flow test
(disebut juga test batas reservoir) (disebut juga test batas reservoir)
f ll ff f ll ff pressure falloff test pressure falloff test
seperti pressure buildup test, namun dilakukan di seperti pressure buildup test, namun dilakukan di
sumur injeksi sumur injeksi sumur injeksi sumur injeksi
injectivity test injectivity test
Uji i j k i di d l j d t k b b h Uji i j k i di d l j d t k b b h Uji injeksi di sumur pada laju dan tekanan berubah Uji injeksi di sumur pada laju dan tekanan berubah
terhadap waktu terhadap waktu
Analogi dari pressuredrawdowntest. Analogi dari pressuredrawdowntest. Analogi dari pressure drawdown test. Analogi dari pressure drawdown test.
Test Multi Sumur Test Multi Sumur
Laju produksi dirubah di suatu sumur Laju produksi dirubah di suatu sumur j p j p
Respon tekanan diukur di sumur lainnya Respon tekanan diukur di sumur lainnya
Variasi arah dari sifat reservoir (orientasi rekahan Variasi arah dari sifat reservoir (orientasi rekahan
alami) alami) alami) alami)
Ada atau tidak adanya komunikasi antar sumur di Ada atau tidak adanya komunikasi antar sumur di
reservoir reservoir
R i it R i it ibilit d i t i d ibilit d i t i d Rasio porositas Rasio porositas--compressibilitas dari matrix dan compressibilitas dari matrix dan
sistem rekahan sistem rekahan
Test Multi Sumur: Test Multi Sumur: Test Multi Sumur: Test Multi Sumur:
Interference tests Interference tests Interference tests Interference tests
Sumur Sumur produksi produksi pada pada laju laju tetap tetap diukur diukur selama selama test test
((Sumur Sumur lainnya lainnya harus harus ditutup ditutup agar agar pengaruh pengaruh ((Sumur Sumur lainnya lainnya harus harus ditutup ditutup agar agar pengaruh pengaruh
produksi produksi hanya hanya dari dari satu satu sumur sumur saja saja.) .)
Pulse tests Pulse tests Pulse tests Pulse tests
Sumur Sumur aktif aktif dibuka dibuka kemudian kemudian ditutup ditutup berulang berulang kali kali
Buka Buka tutup tutup sumur sumur tersebut tersebut dilakuka dilakukann masing masing--masing masing Buka Buka tutup tutup sumur sumur tersebut tersebut dilakuka dilakukann masing masing masing masing
beberapa beberapa jam jam
Respon Respon tekanan tekanan di di sumur sumur monitor monitor dapat dapat dianalisa dianalisa
dengan dengan baik baik ((meskipun meskipun terdapat terdapat sumur sumur lain yang lain yang
sedang sedang berproduksi berproduksi juga juga) )
Deliverabilitytest (DT) Deliverabilitytest (DT) Deliverability test (DT) Deliverability test (DT)
Kemampuan produksi suatu sumur pada Kemampuan produksi suatu sumur pada
kondisi reservoir tertentu kondisi reservoir tertentu
Terutama dilakukan untuk sumur gas Terutama dilakukan untuk sumur gas
Ab l O Fl (AOF) i l Ab l O Fl (AOF) i l Absolute Open Flow (AOF) potential Absolute Open Flow (AOF) potential
Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) ow e o ce e o s p( ) ow e o ce e o s p( )
ataupun gas backpressure curve ataupun gas backpressure curve
(GBPC) (GBPC) (GBPC) (GBPC)
DT: Flow DT: FlowAfter After FlowTests FlowTests DT: Flow DT: Flow--After After--Flow Tests Flow Tests
(gas backpressure test ataupun test 4 titik) (gas backpressure test ataupun test 4 titik) (g p p ) (g p p )
Produksikan sumur pada beberapa laju produksi stabil yang Produksikan sumur pada beberapa laju produksi stabil yang
berbeda berbeda
Mengukur tekananalir stabil bawahsumur (stabilized Mengukur tekananalir stabil bawahsumur (stabilized Mengukur tekanan alir stabil bawah sumur (stabilized Mengukur tekanan alir stabil bawah sumur (stabilized
bottomhole flowing pressure @ sandface) bottomhole flowing pressure @ sandface)
Biasanya, dilakukan dengan produksi yang naik bertahap Biasanya, dilakukan dengan produksi yang naik bertahap
DT: Single DT: Single- -Point Tests Point Tests gg
Formasi berpermeabilitas rendah Formasi berpermeabilitas rendah
Alirkan sumur pada kecepatan konstan sampai Alirkan sumur pada kecepatan konstan sampai
tekanan di dasar lubang sumur stabil tekanan di dasar lubang sumur stabil
Dilakukan sesuai peraturan Dilakukan sesuai peraturan
Perlu data DT yang terdahulu pernah dilakukan Perlu data DT yang terdahulu pernah dilakukan
(dari test terdahuluataukorelasi dengansumur sejenisd (dari test terdahuluataukorelasi dengansumur sejenisd (dari test terdahulu atau korelasi dengan sumur sejenis d (dari test terdahulu atau korelasi dengan sumur sejenis d
lapangan yang sama dan kondisi sumur yang sama) lapangan yang sama dan kondisi sumur yang sama)
DT: Isochronal Tests DT: Isochronal Tests DT: Isochronal Tests DT: Isochronal Tests
Suatu serial single Suatu serial single- -point tests untuk memperkirakan point tests untuk memperkirakan
karakteristik stabilized deliverability tanpa karakteristik stabilized deliverability tanpa
memproduksikansumur tersebut padawaktuyang memproduksikansumur tersebut padawaktuyang memproduksikan sumur tersebut pada waktu yang memproduksikan sumur tersebut pada waktu yang
lama untuk memperoleh kondidi stabil lama untuk memperoleh kondidi stabil
Isochronal test dilakukan dgn membuka sumur Isochronal test dilakukan dgn membuka sumur
kemudian menutupnya berulang kemudian menutupnya berulang--ulang, kemudian ulang, kemudian p y g p y g gg
menutup sumur untuk mencapai tekanan rata menutup sumur untuk mencapai tekanan rata- -rata rata
reservoir kemudianmembukalagi untukperiode reservoir kemudianmembukalagi untukperiode reservoir, kemudian membuka lagi untuk periode reservoir, kemudian membuka lagi untuk periode
panjang. panjang.
Isue Isue Isue Isue
S P b S Ek l i S P b S Ek l i Sumur Pengembangan vs. Sumur Eksplorasi Sumur Pengembangan vs. Sumur Eksplorasi
Sumur Produksi vs. Sumur Injeksi Sumur Produksi vs. Sumur Injeksi
S D k l S D l S D k l S D l Sumur Dangkal vs. Sumur Dalam Sumur Dangkal vs. Sumur Dalam
Sumur Distimulasi vs. Sumur Tidak Distimulasi Sumur Distimulasi vs. Sumur Tidak Distimulasi
Ef kSif Ef kSif Sif R i Sif R i Efek Sifat Efek Sifat- -Sifat Reservoir Sifat Reservoir
Permeabilitas Rendah vs. Permeabilitas Tinggi Permeabilitas Rendah vs. Permeabilitas Tinggi
l l i l l l i l Zone Tunggal vs. Zone Multiple Zone Tunggal vs. Zone Multiple
Pertimbangan Keselamatan dan Lingkungan Pertimbangan Keselamatan dan Lingkungan
Sweet Gas vs. Sour and Corrosive Gases Sweet Gas vs. Sour and Corrosive Gases
Masalah Lingkungan Lainnya Masalah Lingkungan Lainnya
AnalisaDataProduksi AnalisaDataProduksi Analisa Data Produksi Analisa Data Produksi
Karakteristik Karakteristik reservoir ( reservoir (permeabilitas permeabilitas, skin , skin
ff k h k h hh jj dll dll)) factor, factor, rekah rekahseparuh separuh--panjang panjang, , dll dll). ).
V l V l ii i ( i (di ki k di ki k d i d i ji ji Volume Volume pori pori reservoir ( reservoir (diperkirakan diperkirakandari dari uji uji
jangka jangkapanjang panjang). ). jangka jangkapanjang panjang). ).
Perkiraan Perkiraanperolehan perolehanoptimal (EUR) optimal (EUR) pp p ( ) p ( )
volume volume fluida fluidayang yang dapat dapat bergerak bergerak..
PersamaanDiffusivity PersamaanDiffusivity Persamaan Diffusivity Persamaan Diffusivity
Uraianaliran Uraianaliran Uraian aliran Uraian aliran
fluida slightly compressible fluida slightly compressible
viskositas yang konstan viskositas yang konstan
dalam media berpori dalam media berpori pp
pada suhu konstan pada suhu konstan
Dit k d i Dit k d i Diturunkan dari persamaan Diturunkan dari persamaan--persamaan persamaan
persamaan kontinuitas persamaan kontinuitas
persamaan aliran (hukum Darcys) persamaan aliran (hukum Darcys)
persamaankeadaan persamaankeadaan persamaan keadaan persamaan keadaan
Persamaankontinuitas Persamaankontinuitas Persamaan kontinuitas Persamaan kontinuitas
(Av)
1
(Av)
2
v A v A m

2 1
v A v A m =
Persamaan kontinuitas adalah pernyataan lain dari hukum Persamaan kontinuitas adalah pernyataan lain dari hukum
kekekalan massa. Yaitu, laju akumulasi dari fluida pada kekekalan massa. Yaitu, laju akumulasi dari fluida pada
suaturuang suaturuang volumeadalahjumlahfluidayangmengalir volumeadalahjumlahfluidayangmengalir suatu ruang suatu ruang--volume adalah jumlah fluida yang mengalir volume adalah jumlah fluida yang mengalir
menuju ruang menuju ruang- -volume tersebut dikurangi fluida yang volume tersebut dikurangi fluida yang
keluar meninggalkan ruang keluar meninggalkan ruang- -volume. volume.
dimana dimana
AA == luaspenampangyangdialiri ft luaspenampangyangdialiri ft
22
A A == luas penampang yang dialiri, ft luas penampang yang dialiri, ft
mm = = kecepatan akumulasi massa dalam ruang kecepatan akumulasi massa dalam ruang - -
volume, lbm/sec volume, lbm/sec
v v == kecepatan fluid, ft/sec kecepatan fluid, ft/sec
== Densitas fluida, lbm/ft Densitas fluida, lbm/ft
33
Persamaanaliran(hukumDarcy) Persamaanaliran(hukumDarcy) Persamaan aliran (hukum Darcy) Persamaan aliran (hukum Darcy)
p kA
L
p kA
q
atau dalam bentuk persamaan diferensial atau dalam bentuk persamaan diferensial
L
p k
x
x
p k
u
x
x
x
A A == luas penampang yang dialiri, cm luas penampang yang dialiri, cm
22
k k == Permeabilitas, darcies Permeabilitas, darcies ,,
L L = = Panjang yg dilewati aliran, cm Panjang yg dilewati aliran, cm
p p == Tekanan, atm Tekanan, atm
AAp p == Beda tekanan di hulu dan di hilir aliran, Beda tekanan di hulu dan di hilir aliran,
atm atm
L j li L j li
33
// q q == Laju aliran, cm Laju aliran, cm
33
/sec /sec
uu
xx
== Kecepatan aliran, cm/sec Kecepatan aliran, cm/sec
xx Koordinat Spatial cm Koordinat Spatial cm x x == Koordinat Spatial, cm Koordinat Spatial, cm
== Viskositas, cp Viskositas, cp
P K d t k P K d t k Persamaan Keadaan untuk Persamaan Keadaan untuk
FluidaSlightlyCompressible FluidaSlightlyCompressible Fluida Slightly Compressible Fluida Slightly Compressible
o
p p c
e
o
e
dimana dimana
c c = = Kompresibilitas, psi Kompresibilitas, psi- -11 p , p p , p
p p == Tekanan, psi Tekanan, psi
== Densitas fluida, lbm/ft3 Densitas fluida, lbm/ft3
P Diff i it P Diff i it Persamaan Diffusivity Persamaan Diffusivity
Satu Satu dimensi aliran radial dimensi aliran radial Satu Satu--dimensi, aliran radial : dimensi, aliran radial :
p c p
r
t
1
t k r
r
r r
Diperoleh dengan menggabungkan : Diperoleh dengan menggabungkan :
1. 1. Persamaan Kontinuitas Persamaan Kontinuitas
2. 2. Persamaan Keadaan utk fluida slightly compressible Persamaan Keadaan utk fluida slightly compressible
3. 3. Hukum Darcy Hukum Darcy
FormationVolumeFactor FormationVolumeFactor Formation Volume Factor Formation Volume Factor
res
V
B
surf
res
V
V
B =
surf
V
Minyak:
V
Air:
V
Gas:
surf
res
o
V
V
B =
surf
res
w
V
V
B =
surf
res
g
V
V
B =
Air
surf
surf
Minyak
1 2 res bbl/STB, Black oil
Gas
05 res bbl/Mscf @9000 psi
Air
1 1.1 res bbl/STB
2 4 res bbl/STB, Volatile oil
0.5 res bbl/Mscf, @9000 psi
5 res bbl/Mscf, @680 psi
30 res bbl/Mscf, @115 psi 30 res bbl/Mscf, @115 psi
Vis Viskkosit ositas as Vis Viskkosit ositas as
v + dv v dv
dy
v
F
dv
A
F

dy
A
Viskositas Viskositas Viskositas Viskositas
K t k li K t k li Keengganan untuk mengalir Keengganan untuk mengalir. .
RRaas sio ioshear stress shear stress terhadap aliran karena terhadap aliran karena strain strain dari fluida dari fluida..
SSiimbol mbol

oo
, ,
gg
, ,
ww
Satuan Satuan cp cp
Sumber Sumber Pengukuranlaboratorium korelasi Pengukuranlaboratorium korelasi Sumber Sumber Pengukuran laboratorium, korelasi Pengukuran laboratorium, korelasi
Kisaran harga Kisaran harga
025 025 10000cp 10000cp Minyak Minyak -- 0.25 0.25 10,000 cp 10,000 cp, Minyak , Minyak
-- 0.5 0.5 1.0 cp, 1.0 cp, Air Air
-- 0.012 0.012 0.035 cp, Gas 0.035 cp, Gas p, p,
KompresibilitasFluida KompresibilitasFluida Kompresibilitas Fluida Kompresibilitas Fluida
V V
c
ln 1
p p V
c
Symbol Symbol cc
oo
, c , c
gg
, , cc
ww
Units Units psi psi
--11
microsips microsips(1 (1microsip microsip=1x10 =1x10
--66
psi psi
--11
))
Gas
Units Units psi psi , , microsips microsips(1 (1 microsip microsip= 1x10 = 1x10 psi psi ))
Source Source Lab measurements, correlations Lab measurements, correlations
Minyak
15x10
-6
psi
-1
, undersaturated oil
180x10
-6
psi
-1
, saturated oil
Ai
Gas
1/p, Ideal gas
60x10
-6
psi
-1
, at 9000 psi
1.5x10
-3
psi
-1
, at 680 psi
Air
4x10
-6
psi-1
1.5x10 psi , at 680 psi
9x10
-3
psi
-1
, at 115 psi
Porositas Porositas Porositas Porositas
Porositas adalah rasio volume rongga pori terhadap Porositas adalah rasio volume rongga pori terhadap Porositas adalah rasio volume rongga pori terhadap Porositas adalah rasio volume rongga pori terhadap
volume bulk batuan. volume bulk batuan.
Simbol Simbol -- ||
Satuan Satuan
Fraksi atau % Fraksi atau %
Diperoleh dari Diperoleh dari
Logs sumur , analisa core batuan Logs sumur , analisa core batuan
Kisaran besaran Kisaran besaran
30%, unconsolidated well 30%, unconsolidated well- -sorted sandstone sorted sandstone
20% clean well 20% clean well sorted consolidated sandstone sorted consolidated sandstone 20%, clean, well 20%, clean, well--sorted consolidated sandstone sorted consolidated sandstone
8%, low permeability reservoir rock 8%, low permeability reservoir rock
0.5%, natural fracture porosity 0.5%, natural fracture porosity 0.5%, atu a actu e po os ty 0.5%, atu a actu e po os ty
Permeabilitas Permeabilitas Permeabilitas Permeabilitas
L q L q
k
p A
k
p A
Permeabilitas adalah ukuran kapasitas batuan p
untuk mengalirkan fluida melaluinya
Simbol: k
S t D t illid ( d t D) Satuan: Darcy atau millidarcy (md atau mD)
Sumber: Well test, Analisa core, {Log-sumur}
Kisaran harga: 0 001 md - 10 000 md Kisaran harga: 0.001 md - 10,000 md
KompresibilitasPori KompresibilitasPori Kompresibilitas Pori Kompresibilitas Pori
ln
c
f
1
p p
c
f
Kompresibilitas Pori adalah perubahan fractional dari pori
sebagai akibat perubahan tekanan.
Simbol c Simbol c
f
Satuan psi
-1
Sumber Pengukuran laboratorium, korelasi, perkiraan
Ki h Kisaran harga
4x10
-6
psi
-1
, well-consolidated sandstone
30x10
-6
psi
-1
, unconsolidated sandstone
4 to 50 x 10
-6
psi
-1
consolidated limestones
KetebalanNet Pay KetebalanNet Pay Ketebalan Net Pay Ketebalan Net Pay
h
h
h
1
h h + h + h
Shale
h
h
2
h = h
1
+ h
2
+ h
3
Pasir
h
3
h
(Tidak ada perforasi di
pasir ini)
h
4
Tebal Net Pay Tebal Net Pay eb Ne y eb Ne y
Sumur vertikal,
formasi horizontal
Sumur vertikal,
formasi miring
formasi horizontal
formasi miring
Sumur berarah,
formasi horizontal
Sumur berarah,
formasi miring
formasi horizontal
formasi miring
Saturasi Saturasi Saturasi Saturasi
Saturasi adalahfraksi ruangpori yangterisi suatufluida Saturasi adalahfraksi ruangpori yang terisi suatufluida
tertentu.
Simbol S
o
, S
w
, S
g

o
,
w
,
g
Satuan fraksi atau%
Sumber logs Sumber logs
Kisaranharga
15 to 25% connate water saturation in well sorted coarse 15 to 25% connate water saturation in well-sorted, coarse
sandstones
40 to 60% connate water saturation in poorly sorted, fine-
i d h l l bilit i k grained, shaly, low-permeability reservoir rock
RadiusLubangSumur RadiusLubangSumur Radius Lubang Sumur Radius Lubang Sumur
r
ww
Radiuslubangsumur adalahukuranlubangsumur Radiuslubangsumur adalahukuranlubangsumur Radius lubangsumur adalah ukuran lubang sumur. Radius lubangsumur adalah ukuran lubang sumur.
Simbol Simbol
rrrr
ww
Satuan Satuan
feet feet eet eet
Sumber Sumber
Diameter pahat bor : 2 Diameter pahat bor : 2 pp
Caliper log Caliper log
Kisaran harga Kisaran harga gg
2 to 13 in. 2 to 13 in.
KompresibilitasTotal KompresibilitasTotal Kompresibilitas Total Kompresibilitas Total
g g w w o o f t
c S c S c S c c
g g w w o o f t
c S c S c S c c
Kompresibilitastotal adalahjumlahkompresibilitas
pori + perkaliansaturasi dengankompresibilitas
Simbol c
t
1
Satuan psi
-1
Sumber - perhitungan
Modeling Radial Flow Modeling Radial Flow gg
I t ti l Obj ti I t ti l Obj ti Instructional Objectives Instructional Objectives
StatetheEi StatetheEi--functionsolutiontothediffusivity functionsolutiontothediffusivity State the Ei State the Ei function solution to the diffusivity function solution to the diffusivity
equation, and list all the assumptions on which it equation, and list all the assumptions on which it
isbased Statepractical rulesfor determiningthe isbased Statepractical rulesfor determiningthe is based. State practical rules for determining the is based. State practical rules for determining the
numerical values of the Ei numerical values of the Ei- -function. function.
Givenformationandfluidproperties beableto Givenformationandfluidproperties beableto Given formation and fluid properties, be able to Given formation and fluid properties, be able to
calculate the radius of investigation at a given calculate the radius of investigation at a given
timeandthetimenecessarytoreachagiven timeandthetimenecessarytoreachagiven time and the time necessary to reach a given time and the time necessary to reach a given
radius of investigation. radius of investigation.
D ib h ff f i i h D ib h ff f i i h Describe the effects of reservoir properties on the Describe the effects of reservoir properties on the
radius of investigation. radius of investigation.
Radial FlowReservoir Model Radial FlowReservoir Model Radial Flow Reservoir Model Radial Flow Reservoir Model
Bulk
formation
Assumptions Assumptions
Single Single--phase liquid with phase liquid with
constant constant , c, B , c, B
F ti ith t t F ti ith t t ||
r
Formation with constant Formation with constant ||, ,
hh
Well completed over entire Well completed over entire
sand thickness sand thickness
h
r
w
sand thickness sand thickness
Infinite reservoir containing Infinite reservoir containing
only one well only one well
Uniform pressure in Uniform pressure in
i i t d ti i i t d ti
r
reservoir prior to production reservoir prior to production
Constant production rate q Constant production rate q
beginning at time t=0 beginning at time t=0
Homogeneous reservoir Homogeneous reservoir
r
Homogeneous reservoir Homogeneous reservoir
Ei Ei FunctionSolution FunctionSolution Ei Ei--Function Solution Function Solution
to the Diffusivity Equation to the Diffusivity Equation
|
|
|

|
+ =
r c
Ei
qB
p p
t
2
948
6 70
|
|
.

\
+ =
kt
Ei
kh
. p p
i
6 70



u
du
e
x Ei
x
du
u
x Ei
The Ei The Ei- -function solution to the diffusivity equation assumes line source function solution to the diffusivity equation assumes line source
well (finite size of wellbore can be neglected). well (finite size of wellbore can be neglected).
This solution is valid only for r This solution is valid only for r >>rw . rw .
It predicts the pressure response in the reservoir as a function of both time It predicts the pressure response in the reservoir as a function of both time
tt and distance from the center of the wellbore and distance from the center of the wellbore r. r.
Ei Ei- -Function Graph Function Graph u c o G p u c o G p
6
Log approximation
44
Ei-function
d t
2
drops to zero
0 001 0 01 0 1 1 10 100
0
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
-x
Th t f th Ei Th t f th Ei f ti i i b f ti i i b The argument of the Ei The argument of the Ei--function, x, is given by: function, x, is given by:
Short times or large distances Short times or large distances large x large x
Long times or short distances Long times or short distances small x small x
For short times, x > 10, pressure response predicted by the For short times, x > 10, pressure response predicted by the
Ei Ei- -function is negligible. function is negligible.
For long times, x < 0.01, pressure response may be For long times, x < 0.01, pressure response may be
calculated using the logarithmic approximation to the Ei calculated using the logarithmic approximation to the Ei- -
function. function.
For intermediate times, 0.01 < x < 10, the full Ei For intermediate times, 0.01 < x < 10, the full Ei- -function function
must be used to calculate the pressure response. must be used to calculate the pressure response.
W kt W kt P d k k i i P d k k i i Waktu Waktu--Pendek aproksimasi Pendek aproksimasi
untuksolusi Ei untuksolusi Ei--FunctionSolution FunctionSolution untuk solusi Ei untuk solusi Ei Function Solution Function Solution
p p
i
p p
10
948
2
>
kt
r c
t
|
Berlaku untuk
kt
(radius besar atau waktu yang pendek)
At any given point in the reservoir, at sufficiently early At any given point in the reservoir, at sufficiently early
times, the pressure response is essentially negligible. times, the pressure response is essentially negligible.
Thi i ti li h Thi i ti li h This approximation applies whenever This approximation applies whenever
LL W kt k i i d i W kt k i i d i Log Log--Waktu aproksimasi dari Waktu aproksimasi dari
solusi Ei solusi Ei--Function Function solusi Ei solusi Ei Function Function
|
|

|
r c B q
t
2
1688 |
|
|
.

\
+ ~
kt
r c
log
kh
B q
. p p
t
i 10
1688
6 162
|
Berlaku untuk
01 0
948
2
.
kt
r c
t
<
|
kt
(radius kecil atau waktu yang lama)
At any given point in the reservoir, at sufficiently late times, At any given point in the reservoir, at sufficiently late times,
the pressure response is approximately logarithmic in time. the pressure response is approximately logarithmic in time.
Thi i i li h Thi i i li h This approximation applies whenever This approximation applies whenever
Profil Tekanan Uji Drawdown Profil Tekanan Uji Drawdown Profil Tekanan, Uji Drawdown Profil Tekanan, Uji Drawdown
t = 0
2000
r
i
r
i
r
i
r
i
t = 0.01 jam
Tekanan,
psi
t = 1 jam
t = 100 jam t 100 jam
t = 10000 jam
1000
1 10 1000 100 10000
Jarak dari pusat lubang bor, ft
1 10 1000 100 10000
Consider the pressure profile in an infinite Consider the pressure profile in an infinite--acting reservoir acting reservoir
during drawdown. during drawdown.
At t =0thepressureisuniformthroughout thereservoir At t =0thepressureisuniformthroughout thereservoir At t = 0 the pressure is uniform throughout the reservoir. At t = 0 the pressure is uniform throughout the reservoir.
At t = 0.01 hours only a small region within 10 ft of the At t = 0.01 hours only a small region within 10 ft of the
wellbore has shown the effects of the transient. wellbore has shown the effects of the transient.
Sometime later, at t =1 hour, the pressure transient has Sometime later, at t =1 hour, the pressure transient has
moved into a larger region, perhaps 100 ft from the moved into a larger region, perhaps 100 ft from the
wellbore. wellbore. wellbore. wellbore.
Still later, at t =100 hours, the pressure transient has moved Still later, at t =100 hours, the pressure transient has moved
even further from the wellbore. even further from the wellbore.
A d ti ti th t i t ti A d ti ti th t i t ti As production continues, the pressure transient continues As production continues, the pressure transient continues
to move through the reservoir until it has reached all of the to move through the reservoir until it has reached all of the
boundaries of the reservoir. boundaries of the reservoir.
Profil Tekanan Uji Buildup Profil Tekanan Uji Buildup Profil Tekanan, Uji Buildup Profil Tekanan, Uji Buildup
2,000
t 10 000 h
r
i
1 600
1,800
t = 100 hrs
t = 10,000 hrs
r
i
r
i
1,600
1,400
t = 100 hrs
r
i
1,200
1,400
t = 1 hr
r
i
i
1,000
1 10 1 000 100 10 000
t = 0.01 hrs
t = 0
r
i
Jarak dari pusat lubang bor, ft
1 10 1,000 100 10,000
Consider what happens when we shut in the well from Consider what happens when we shut in the well from
the previous slide for a buildup. the previous slide for a buildup.
At the instant of shutin, At the instant of shutin, AAtt=0, the pressure begins to =0, the pressure begins to
buildupinthewell. However, thisriseinpressuredoes buildupinthewell. However, thisriseinpressuredoes build up in the well. However, this rise in pressure does build up in the well. However, this rise in pressure does
not affect the entire reservoir at once. not affect the entire reservoir at once.
At At AAt t = 0.01 hours, the pressure buildup has affected = 0.01 hours, the pressure buildup has affected
onlythat part of thereservoir withinabout 10ft of the onlythat part of thereservoir withinabout 10ft of the only that part of the reservoir within about 10 ft of the only that part of the reservoir within about 10 ft of the
wellbore. A pressure gradient still exists in the bulk of wellbore. A pressure gradient still exists in the bulk of
the reservoir. This means that fluid continues to flow in the reservoir. This means that fluid continues to flow in
most of thereservoir evenduringbuildup most of thereservoir evenduringbuildup most of the reservoir, even during buildup. most of the reservoir, even during buildup.
At At AAt t =1 hour, the pressure has built up in a larger area, =1 hour, the pressure has built up in a larger area,
within about 100 ft of the wellbore. within about 100 ft of the wellbore.
As the shutin period continues, the region within which As the shutin period continues, the region within which
the pressure has built up grows until the entire reservoir the pressure has built up grows until the entire reservoir
isat uniformpressure. isat uniformpressure. is at uniform pressure. is at uniform pressure.
PersamaanRadiusInvestigasi PersamaanRadiusInvestigasi Persamaan Radius Investigasi Persamaan Radius Investigasi
Radius investigasi untuk waktu t:
i
c
kt
r
| 948
=
t
c | 948
Waktu yang diperlukan untuk
r c
2
948|
y g p
mencapai radius r
i
:
k
r c
t
i t
948|
=
Assumptions Assumptions pp
Radial flow Radial flow
Infinite Infinite- -acting reservoir acting reservoir
Homogeneous reservoir Homogeneous reservoir
Effect of reservoir properties Effect of reservoir properties
Increasing porosity, viscosity, or total compressibility Increasing porosity, viscosity, or total compressibility
increases increases the time required to reach a given radius of the time required to reach a given radius of
investigation. investigation. gg
Increasing permeability Increasing permeability decreases decreases the time required to the time required to
reach a given radius of investigation. reach a given radius of investigation.
Changingtherate Changingtheratehas no effect has no effect ontheradiusof ontheradiusof Changing the rate Changing the rate has no effect has no effect on the radius of on the radius of
investigation. investigation.
K kt i i D d K kt i i D d Karakterisasi Damage dan Karakterisasi Damage dan
Stimulasi Stimulasi Stimulasi Stimulasi
I t ti l Obj ti I t ti l Obj ti Instructional Objectives Instructional Objectives
Li f h ki d i ki f Li f h ki d i ki f List factors that cause skin damage or geometric skin factor. List factors that cause skin damage or geometric skin factor.
Calculate skin factor for a given additional pressure drop due to Calculate skin factor for a given additional pressure drop due to
damage; conversely calculateadditional pressuredropfor a damage; conversely calculateadditional pressuredropfor a damage; conversely, calculate additional pressure drop for a damage; conversely, calculate additional pressure drop for a
given skin factor. given skin factor.
Calculate flow efficiency given the skin factor, wellbore Calculate flow efficiency given the skin factor, wellbore yg yg
pressure, and average drainage area pressure. pressure, and average drainage area pressure.
Express skin factor as an apparent wellbore radius; conversely, Express skin factor as an apparent wellbore radius; conversely,
t llb di ki f t t llb di ki f t express apparent wellbore radius as a skin factor. express apparent wellbore radius as a skin factor.
Express a given skin factor as an equivalent fracture half-length Express a given skin factor as an equivalent fracture half-length
(for aninfinite (for aninfinite--conductivityfracture); conversely express conductivityfracture); conversely express (for an infinite (for an infiniteconductivity fracture); conversely, express conductivity fracture); conversely, express
fracture half fracture half- -length as an equivalent skin factor. length as an equivalent skin factor.
Drilling Fluid Damage Drilling Fluid Damage Drilling Fluid Damage Drilling Fluid Damage
Butiran kecil dapat Butiran kecil dapat Butiran kecil dapat Butiran kecil dapat
menyumbat pori, menyumbat pori,
mengurangi permeabilitas mengurangi permeabilitas
f ktif f ktif efektif efektif
Invasi filtrat Invasi filtrat
lumpur lumpur
Flitrat dapat menjadikan Flitrat dapat menjadikan
lempung mengembang, lempung mengembang, lempung mengembang, lempung mengembang,
dan menyumbat sumur dan menyumbat sumur
DamageProduksi DamageProduksi Damage Produksi Damage Produksi
p < p p < p
bb
p > p p > p
bb
p > p p > p
dd
P< p P< p
dd
Gas Condensate Gas Condensate
Oil Reservoir Oil Reservoir
Gas bebas mengurangi Gas bebas mengurangi
permeabilitas efektif permeabilitas efektif
Reservoir Reservoir
Ring kondensat yg Ring kondensat yg
tidak mobil mengurangi tidak mobil mengurangi
permeabilitas efektif permeabilitas efektif
tidak mobil mengurangi tidak mobil mengurangi
permeabilitas efektif permeabilitas efektif
D I j k i Damage Injeksi
air air
kotor kotor
air yang air yang
incompatible incompatible
Model Reser oir Model Reser oir Model Reservoir Model Reservoir
Ef ek Sk i n
formation
bulk
Altered Altered
zone
h
k
k
a
r
w
k
r
a
Consider an undisturbed formation of thickness h and Consider an undisturbed formation of thickness h and Consider an undisturbed formation of thickness h and Consider an undisturbed formation of thickness h and
permeability k. permeability k.
A th t thi (d illi th ll d i fl id A th t thi (d illi th ll d i fl id Assume that something (drilling the well, producing fluid Assume that something (drilling the well, producing fluid
from the well, injecting fluid into the well) changes the from the well, injecting fluid into the well) changes the
permeability near the wellbore. One simple model of this permeability near the wellbore. One simple model of this
ff i h hi ff i h hi l d l d h if h if effect is to assume that this effect is to assume that this altered zone altered zone has uniform has uniform
permeability k permeability k
aa
and radius r and radius r
aa
, and that the rest of the , and that the rest of the
reservoir is undisturbed. reservoir is undisturbed.
For generality, we allow the permeability in the altered For generality, we allow the permeability in the altered
zonetobeeither smaller or larger thanthepermeabilityin zonetobeeither smaller or larger thanthepermeabilityin zone to be either smaller or larger than the permeability in zone to be either smaller or larger than the permeability in
the undisturbed formation. the undisturbed formation.
P fil T k R i P fil T k R i
2 000
Profil Tekanan Reservoir Profil Tekanan Reservoir
2,000
1,500
n
,

p
s
i
1 000
e
k
a
n
a
n
1,000
T
e
Ap
s
500
1 10 100 1 000 10 000 1 10 100 1,000 10,000
Jarak dari pusat lubang bor, ft
Ski d P D Ski d P D Skin dan Pressure Drop Skin dan Pressure Drop
p
h k .
s
00708 0
s
p
qB
s
q
We define the skin factor in terms of the additional pressure drop due to We define the skin factor in terms of the additional pressure drop due to
damage. damage. gg
As defined, the skin factor is As defined, the skin factor is dimensionless dimensionless -- -- it has no units. it has no units.
k= k= md md
B = B = bbl/STB bbl/STB
k = k = md md
h = h = ft ft
q = q = STB/D STB/D
AAps = ps = psi psi
== cp cp
qq
SkindanPress reDrop Skin dan Pressure Drop
qB .2 141
s
kh
qB .
p
s
2 141
kh
The skin factor equation may be rearranged to The skin factor equation may be rearranged to
givetheadditional pressuredropcausedbya givetheadditional pressuredropcausedbya give the additional pressure drop caused by a give the additional pressure drop caused by a
given skin factor. given skin factor.
SkinFactor danSifat AlteredZone SkinFactor danSifat AlteredZone Skin Factor dan Sifat Altered Zone Skin Factor dan Sifat Altered Zone
|
|
|

|
|
|
|

|
=
a
r k
s ln 1
|
|
.

\
|
|
.

\
=
w a
r k
s ln 1
r
r
ka < k (damage), skin is positive. ka < k (damage), skin is positive.
ka > k (stimulation), skin is negative. ka > k (stimulation), skin is negative.
r
h
r
w
r
ds
( ), g ( ), g
ka = k, skin is 0. ka = k, skin is 0.
r
Ski F t d Sif t Alt dZ Ski F t d Sif t Alt dZ Skin Factor dan Sifat Altered Zone Skin Factor dan Sifat Altered Zone
k
k
a
s
k
1
w a
r r ln
1
w a
If we know the reservoir permeability and the skin factor and If we know the reservoir permeability and the skin factor and
can estimate the depth of the altered zone, we can estimate the can estimate the depth of the altered zone, we can estimate the
permeability of the altered zone using this equation. permeability of the altered zone using this equation.
RadiusLubangEfektif RadiusLubangEfektif Radius Lubang Efektif Radius Lubang Efektif
s
w wa
e r r

wa w wa wa
wa
r
s ln
wa
w
r
s ln
SkinFactor Minimum SkinFactor Minimum Skin Factor Minimum Skin Factor Minimum
e
r
l
e
min
r
s ln
w
r
Ski F Mi i Ski F Mi i Skin Factor Minimum Skin Factor Minimum
| |
Contoh Contoh
ln
r
s
e
min
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
w
min
| |
|
.

\
3 7
5 0
745
ln . =
|
.
|

\
|
=
5 0.
. \
Ali j P f i C Ali j P f i C Aliran menuju Perforasi Convergence Aliran menuju Perforasi Convergence
Skin Geometrik Skin Geometrik
P t i P ti l P t i P ti l Penetrasi Partial Penetrasi Partial
h
p
h
Skin Geometrik Skin Geometrik
Interval yangdiperforasi terbatas Interval yang diperforasi terbatas
h
1
h
h
t
h
d
t
s s
h
s + =
h
p
p d
p
s s
h
s +
Skin Geometrik Skin Geometrik
Penetrasi Partial Apparent SkinFactor Penetrasi Partial Apparent SkinFactor Penetrasi Partial, Apparent Skin Factor Penetrasi Partial, Apparent Skin Factor
h h h
t D
h h h
1 1
=
4
1
1 pD D
h h
A
+
=
Geometric Skin
(
| |
1
t p pD
h h h =
1 pD D
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|

+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
1
1
2
ln
1
2
ln 1
1
B
A
h
h
h r h
s
pD
p
t
(

. \
+
|
.

\
1 2 2 B h h r h
pD pD D pD
1
1
| |
4 3
1
1 pD D
h h
B
+
=
2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
h
v
t
w
D
k
k
h
r
r
p
. \ h t
k h
L b b Mi i L b b Mi i Lubang bor Miring Lubang bor Miring
u sec h u
h
s s s
d
u sec h u
Skin Geometrik Skin Geometrik
Lubang Sumur Miring Lubang Sumur Miring g g g g
Apparent Skin Factor Apparent Skin Factor
|
|
|

|
=

w
v
'
w
tan
k
tan u u
1
|
.

\
w
h
w
tan
k
tan u u
|
|

|
|
|
|

|
|
|
|

|
= log
865 1 06 2
D
.
'
w
.
'
w
h
s
|
.

\
|
|
.

|
|
.

\
=
100
log
56 41
s
u
h
D
k
k h
h =
v w
D
k r
S di k hhid lik S di k hhid lik Sumur direkah hidrolik Sumur direkah hidrolik
wa f
r L 2
wa f
L
f
r
f
L
r
r
we
2
f
wa
r
Skin Geometrik
2
Skinkarenakomplesi Skinkarenakomplesi Skin karena komplesi Skin karena komplesi
r
w
+ +
r
dp
k
dp
r
p
dp d p
s s s s + + =
k
R
p
L
p
k
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
R
d
R
dp
dp
k
k
k
k
r
r
n L
h
s ln
k
d
r
|
.

\
|
.

\
|
.

\
d dp p p
k k r n L
r
d
SkinGravel Pack SkinGravel Pack Skin Gravel Pack Skin Gravel Pack
Cement
g R
hL k
2
2
g R
gp
r nk
hL k
s =
2
p gp
r nk
L
gg
ProductivityIndex ProductivityIndex Productivity Index Productivity Index
q
J
p p
q
J
wf
p p
The productivity index is often used to predict how changes The productivity index is often used to predict how changes
in average pressure or flowing bottomhole pressure pwf in average pressure or flowing bottomhole pressure pwf
will affect the flow rate q. will affect the flow rate q.
The productivity index is affected by The productivity index is affected by
Reservoir quality (permeability) Reservoir quality (permeability) Reservoir quality (permeability) Reservoir quality (permeability)
Skin factor Skin factor
FlowEfficiency FlowEfficiency Flow Efficiency Flow Efficiency
s wf
p p p
J
E
actual
f
s wf
f
p p
p p p
J
J
E
id l
actual
wf
p p J
ideal
We can express the degree of damage on stimulation with the We can express the degree of damage on stimulation with the
flow efficiency. flow efficiency.
ll i h i h d i l i f 1 ll i h i h d i l i f 1 For a well with neither damage nor stimulation, Ef =1. For a well with neither damage nor stimulation, Ef =1.
For a damaged well, Ef < 1 For a damaged well, Ef < 1
For a stimulated well, Ef >1 For a stimulated well, Ef >1 o ast uatedwe , o ast uatedwe ,
Fl Effi i d L j P d k i Fl Effi i d L j P d k i Flow Efficiency dan Laju Produksi Flow Efficiency dan Laju Produksi
E
new
ld
f
E
q q
old
old new
f
E
q q
o d f
qq
new new
== Flow rate after change in skin factor Flow rate after change in skin factor
qq
ld ld
== Flowratebeforechangeinskinfactor Flowratebeforechangeinskinfactor qq
old old
Flow rate before change in skin factor Flow rate before change in skin factor
EE
fnew fnew
== Flow efficiency after change in skin factor Flow efficiency after change in skin factor
EE
fold fold
== Flow efficiency before change in skin factor Flow efficiency before change in skin factor