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Full-Scaled Experiment for Behavior Investigation of Reinforced Concrete Columns with High-Strength Wire Ropes as Lateral Spiral Reinforcement

Kyu Won Kim, Jong Hwa Won, Sam Dong Jung, Jung Won Park and Moon Kyum Kim

Abstract This study performs the test with full-scaled models for each diameter to evaluate the behavior of the reinforced concrete columns using the spiral wire rope as a lateral reinforcement of the circular columns. This study performs the quasi-static test which induced binding shear destruction to review circular concrete columns bound with high strength wire rope. Three specimens of concrete columns with 700 and 800 mm diameter each were manufactured to evaluate the movement of reinforced circular columns with the wire rope. A hoop reinforced column and 2 spiral reinforced columns were manufactured to compare the bending history and the ductility reinforced with the wire rope to existing reinforced concrete columns. The peak strain of the longitudinal reinforcements is occurred at approximately 0.75 D from the bottom of the column. The spirally conned concrete columns with high-strength wire ropes showed that improve 2.5 % of the shear strength. Keywords Wire ropes

Spiral Ductility Columns Lateral reinforcements

K. W. Kim J. H. Won S. D. Jung (&) J. W. Park M. K. Kim Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea e-mail: sdjung@kictep.re.kr K. W. Kim e-mail: kyu_won@yonsei.ac.kr J. H. Won e-mail: exameve@yonsei.ac.kr J. W. Park e-mail: wildower@kictep.re.kr M. K. Kim e-mail: applymkk@yonsei.ac.kr

K. J. Kim and K.-Y. Chung (eds.), IT Convergence and Security 2012, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering 215, DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-5860-5_136, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

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1 Introduction
The ductility of reinforced concrete columns is improved by the connement force from lateral reinforcements including hoop or spiral reinforcements. The ductility of columns increases with an increase in the amount and strength of lateral reinforcements, but decreases with an increase in concrete compressive strength and axial load level. High transverse reinforcement ratio is not economic, causes dense rebar to make concrete construction difcult and becomes a reason of early spalling of the concrete cover due to planes of weakness between the core and concrete cover portions. Using high-strength stiffener subsequently decreases the volume ratio of the lateral reinforcements. In some cases, the transverse reinforcement plays a role in degrading the performance of the reinforced concrete columns. Meanwhile, the wire rope which is proposed as an alternative to the transverse reinforcement in the study has high-strength and high-exibility. Generally, the wire rope with higher than 1500 MPa of the tensile strength has high ductility and makes it possible to form spiral structure of the stiffener, showing the effect of existing hoop and spiral lateral reinforcements without additional tension in case of bending the concrete columns. Therefore, the wire rope facilitates the array of structural steels in the column as a lateral reinforcement shortens the construction period and improves bending performance of the column. The lateral reinforcements with the spiral shape using the wire rope are expected to be effective in enforcing ductility of the column and preventing the longitudinal reinforcement from buckling than existing binding method. The study performs the test with real models for each diameter to evaluate the movement of the reinforced concrete columns using the spiral wire rope as a lateral reinforcement of the circular columns, compares and analyzes the results to those of circular concrete columns with hoop-type lateral reinforcement.

2 Experimental Program 2.1 Specimen Specication


This study performs the quasi-static test which induced binding shear destruction to review circular concrete columns bound with high strength wire rope. Three pieces of concrete columns with 700 and 800 mm diameter each were manufactured to evaluate the movement of reinforced circular columns with the wire rope. One hoop reinforced column and 2 spiral reinforced columns were manufactured to compare the bending history and the ductility reinforced with the wire rope to existing reinforced concrete columns and the accuracy of the test and the test was performed under constant axial load and repetitive lateral load. The axial force ratio is xed to 0.1 and Table 1 summarizes the features of the tested specimens.

Behavior Investigation Table 1 Specication of test specimens Specimen D d Longitudinal steel Ratio (%) SP700-W1 SP700-W2 HP700-S1 SP800-W1 SP800-W2 HP800-S1 700 600 2.0 Connement Spiral Hoop Spiral Hoop

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Transverse steel Material Wire Steel Wire Steel Ratio (%) 0.16 0.33 0.14 0.29 Space (mm) 150/250

P fck A0 0.1

800

640

A stub with the top of 700 9 700 9 550 mm and the bottom of 1000 9 2400 9 900 mm was installed on the column with 700 mm diameter and 3000 mm height. The main rebar ratio is 2.11 % and 16 heterogeneous steel bars with 25 mm diameter are installed. A stub with the top of 800 9 800 9 550 mm and the bottom of 1100 9 2400 9 900 mm was installed on the column with 800 mm diameter and 3500 mm height, the main rebar ratio is 2.02 % and 20 heterogeneous steel bars with 25 mm diameter are installed. The hoop has 13 mm diameter and the wire rope has 9.53 mm nominal diameter. All the lateral reinforcements have the same interval and the stiffener ratios depending on the core volume ratio of the columns are 0.0045 for the hoop and 0.0025 for the wire rope. Specic tension is not introduced when applying lateral reinforcement with the wire rope. Figure 1 shows the cross-section of the test material and the rebar location of the stiffeners.

Fig. 1 Specimen details (mm)

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2.2 Material Properties


The design strength of the concrete is 27 MPa and the maximum size of the coarse aggregates is 25 mm. Ready-mixed concrete is used to construct the concrete. The wire rope is GAC 7 9 19 (9.53 mm) with the tensile strength of 1200 MPa and the longitudinal reinforcements is a deformed bar with 25 mm diameter and 300 MPa of yield strength.

2.3 Test Procedure and Instrumentation


The columns are tested under constant axial load and repetitive lateral loads. The lower stub in the column is completely xed by the steel angle blocks installed on both sides of the stub and 8 bolts which penetrated into the bottom sub to prevent the test material from moving under the inuence of the lateral load. The compressive force is added by 2 oil jacks with the capacity of 1000 kN from the steel loading beam installed on the top stub and 2 frames installed on the side of the test material. The center of the steel loading beam is the same with the central axis of the test material. The lateral load is added by the oil jack operated by the air pump. The center of the actuator is the same with the center of the top stub and completely xed by 4 bolts. The lateral load is actuated after applying the planned axial load and the test is completed when the buckling appears on the longitudinal reinforcement or the wire rope is fractured. Figure 2 shows the test specimen of the real model. The lateral load is controlled by the displacement history shown in Fig. 3. The load pattern is under the displacement control method and the increment is determined by the draft ratio of the column and 2 cycles are repeated in the

Fig. 2 Test specimen of the full-scaled Model

Behavior Investigation Fig. 3 Lateral displacement


2

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1.5

Drift Ratio

0.5

0 0
-0.5

10 11 12

-1

-1.5

Number of Cycle

displacement increase. As shown in Fig. 4, the ratio increases by 0.21 % to specially observe the movement of the initial column and difference in the column movement for the same amplitude is compared and analyzed through repetitive loading as the fatigue movement as 2 cycles increasing 0.5 % of the ratio after 1 %. The axial load is measured by the load controller and the lateral load and the displacement are recorded by the load cell installed between the oil jack and the hinge. The 200 mm displacement gauge is installed at 1/3H and 2/3H to measure the column displacement and the 5 mm displacement gauge is installed to check the movement of the bottom stub under the application of the lateral load. The distortion ratio of the longitudinal reinforcement is measured by the strain gauge at 0.1H, 0.75D, 0.3H, 0.5H and 0.8H.

3 Experiment Results
The Fig. 4 presents the strains on longitudinal reinforcement. The yielding occurs on the transverse reinforcement in 1 % of lateral displacement in the ratio of height/diameter with concrete cover spalling. Generally, the reinforcement began to buckle approximately at 0.75D from the bottom of the column. The buckling shape of the spirally reinforced column is larger than it of the column reinforced by existing method. Figure 5 shows the buckling shape of longitudinal reinforcement for each SP700-W1, SP700-W2 and HP700-S1.

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Fig. 4 Strains on longitudinal reinforcement. a SP700-W1 b HP700-S1 c SP800-W1 d HP800-S1

Fig. 5 Buckling shape of longitudinal reinforcement. a SP700-W1 b SP700-W2 c HP700-S1

4 Conclusion
In this study, the full scaled test is conducted for each diameter to evaluate the movement of the reinforced concrete columns using the spiral wire rope as a lateral reinforcement of the circular columns. A hoop reinforced column and 2 spiral reinforced columns were manufactured to compare the bending history and the ductility. The buckling on the longitudinal reinforcements arose at approximately 0.75D from the bottom of the column. The spirally conned concrete columns with high-strength wire ropes showed that improve 2.5 % of the shear strength.

Behavior Investigation

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References
1. Yang KH (2012) Flexural behavior of RC columns using wire ropes as lateral reinforcement. Mag Concr Res 63(3):269281 2. Budek AM, Priestley MJN, Lee CO (2002) Seismic design of columns with high-strength wire and strand as spiral reinforcement. ACI Struct J 99(5):660670 3. Priestley MHN, Park R (1987) Strength and ductility of concrete bridge columns under seismic loading. ACI Struct J 84(1):6176