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Kendra Wienke PSY 224 Topical Project Paper Popularity/Crowds 4/2/14 Popularity and crowds are a huge part

o high school! Throughout an adolescent"s teenage years# di erent social crowds and groups can ha$e a large e ect on %any aspects o li e# including how one &eha$es# who their riends are# and what choices they %ake! Thus# during high school# adolescents largely depend on their popularity and social crowds to help to de ine who they are as a person! The irst article entitled '(dolescent Peer Crowd ( iliation) *inkages With +ealth,-isk .eha$iors and Close /riendships0 ocused on analy1ing peer crowd a iliation in adolescents! The tri old purpose o this study was to) 213 e$aluate peer crowd di erences in adolescent"s health,risk &eha$iors# 223 e4a%ine whether adolescents ro% the $arious peer crowds reported di erences in the proportions o their close riends who engages in si%ilar health,risk &eha$iors# and 253 e$aluate aspects o adolescents" social adjust%ent as a unction o their peer crowd a iliation! The participants o this study included 267 high school students ro% 8ia%i,9ade County# /lorida that ranged ro% sopho%ores to seniors in high school# with an age range out 16 to 1: years o age! The adolescents participating were predo%inantly ro% %iddle,class socioecono%ic &ackgrounds# and since they resided in a large and di$erse %etropolitan area# the study included a wide range o ethnicities! The participating adolescents were asked to co%plete a Peer Crowd ;uestionnaire 2PC;3# a Sur$ey o -isk,Taking .eha$ior 2S-T.3# and a Sel ,Perception Pro ile or (dolescents 2SPP(3! The Peer Crowd ;uestionnaire categori1ed the students o &eing o the ollowing crowds) jocks# &rains# &urnouts# populars# noncon or%ists# or none/a$erage! The participants also categori1ed three o their &est riends into a crowd! The Sur$ey o -isk,Taking .eha$ior was used to assess adolescent"s cigarette s%oking# su&stance a&use# risky se4ual &eha$iors# and general risk,taking &eha$iors! <ach participant ranked on a nu%&er scale according to their re=uency in doing these risk,taking &eha$iors# ollowed &y a si%ilar# %odi ied sur$ey that e$aluated their riend"s risk,taking &eha$iors! /inally# the participants took the Sel , Perception Pro ile or (dolescents# which was used to %easure one"s percei$ed social acceptance!

-esearchers ound that the crowds o &urnouts and noncon or%ists had the highest a%ounts o risk,taking &eha$iors along with the greatest proportions o close riends who also engaged in si%ilar risk,taking &eha$iors! These groups also had a relati$ely low social acceptance ro% peers! The &rains crowd had e4tre%ely low le$els o risk,taking &eha$iors! The jocks and popular crowds had e$idence o selected areas o risk,taking &eha$iors# while ha$ing a high social acceptance ro% peers! >$erall# adolescent were within the sa%e peer crowds as their closest riends! This study had %any a$ora&le# positi$e aspects to it! /irst# it was a&le to success ully ind relationships &etween peer crowd a iliation and risk,taking &eha$iors# risk,taking &eha$iors o riends# the presence o close riends in the sa%e peer crowd# and adolescents" social acceptance! The researchers in$ol$ed in this study were a&le to o&tain clear results a&out each peer crowd that was in$ol$ed! (t the conclusion o the study# the three %ain purposes o this study were ulti%ately co%pleted! (lso# this study was a&le to in$ol$e a wide range o ethnic groups# %aking it a $ery di$erse study! The study was &roken down into the ollowing ethnicities) 46!?@ White# 5A!2@ +ispanic,(%erican# 12!:@ ( rican (%erican# and 4!4@ (sian or %i4ed! (long with race# the se4es in$ol$ed in this study were split so%ewhat e=uallyB 47!4@ o participants were %ale while 6:!?@ were e%ale! *astly# this was a good study due to the act that the results o this study were %easured using a $ariety o di erent research %ethods# including =uestionnaires# inter$iews# and sur$eys! With the use o these di erent research and data,collecting techni=ues# researchers were a&le to collect a large a%ount o data ro% each participant# which helped to create $ery clear and thorough results! (lthough the study had %any good points to it# there were also pro&le%s! >ne o the %ajor pro&le%s with the study was that the Peer Crowd ;uestionnaire only accounted or si4 di erent crowd a iliations) jocks# &rains# &urnouts# populars# noncon or%ists# or none/a$erage! With only si4 di erent crowds to &e categori1ed into# this study did not allow or all adolescent participants to &e included into a group! (lso# the none/a$erage crowd did not record any clear results since this group was co%posed o %any di erent adolescents that ranged ro% no crowd a iliation to an a iliation to a crowd that was not included! .oth o these issues could easily &e i%pro$ed &y adding other crowd a iliation groups to the

e4isting groups! -esearchers also did not account or adolescents that ell into %ore than one crowdB this needed to &e accounted or! (nother pro&le% was that a large nu%&er o the participants ca%e ro% a %iddle class socioecono%ic &ackground! Cn order to &etter this study# participants with a wider range o socioecono%ic &ackgrounds should ha$e &een used! The second article# which was called D(dolescents" <ating# <4ercise# and Weight Control .eha$iors) 9oes Peer Crowd ( iliation Play a -oleE0 e4a%ined the association &etween peer crowd a iliation and the eating# e4ercising# and weight control &eha$iors o adolescents! The participants o this study included A76 adolescents ro% si4 di erent pu&lic high schools that are located within a large %etropolitan area in the Southeast! The ages o the participants ranged ro% 14,1: years o age! (long with a &road ethnic co%position# the study also included participants ro% a wide range o socioecono%ic &ackgrounds! The adolescents that participated in this study co%pleted a Peer Crowd ;uestionnaire 2PC;3# as well as eating and e4ercise ite%s ro% the Youth -isk .eha$ior Sur$eillance Syste% 2Y-.SS3# and weight control &eha$iors ro% the <ating (ttitudes Test,12 2<(T,123! The Peer Crowd ;uestionnaire categori1ed the participants o &eing o the ollowing crowds) jocks# &rains# &urnouts# populars# noncon or%ists# or none/a$erage! The Youth -isk .eha$ior Sur$eillance Syste% sections that were used assessed the dietary &eha$iors o the adolescents including their health ul and unhealth ul eating ha&its! The e4ercise ha&its o the participants were also assessed using the Y-.SS! The <asting (ttitudes Test, 12 assessed weight control &eha$iors including dieting and restricti$e eating &eha$iors! -esearchers ound that the &urnout crowd reported %ore unhealth ul eating and &uli%ic &eha$iors! The &rains crowd o adolescents reported %ore health ul and less unhealth ul eating# along with %ore dieting! The jocks and popular crowds engaged in large a%ounts o e4erciseB howe$er the popular crowd also reported unhealth ul eating! >$erall# &oy participants e4ercised %ore# whereas girl participants reported %ore dieting and &uli%ic &eha$iors! This study was ull o good aspects! /irst o all# this study was a&le to capture a large =uantity o participants# which totaled to A76 adolescents o$erall! With such an e4tensi$e group o participants# the

results that were gathered had a lot o support ro% the copious a%ounts o research conducted! (lso# with such a large group o adolescence &eing studied# the participants" socioecono%ic status" $aried i%%ensely! >$erall# 2F!4@ o participants ca%e ro% low socioecono%ic status schools# 25!F@ ca%e ro% %iddle socioecono%ic status schools# and 4A!F@ ca%e ro% high socioecono%ic status schools! This wide range o econo%ic statuses allowed the researchers to collect %ore well,rounded results that could &e applied to all socioecono%ic &ackgrounds! *astly# this study a&le to capture a $ariety o di erent ethnicities) 66@ +ispanic/*atino# 2A@ ( rican (%erican/Cari&&ean (%erican# and 1?@ White! With such a wide range o ethnic groups included# the results o this study could &e $ery &roadly applied! >$erall# this was a $ery well conducted study! +owe$er# there were so%e pro&le%s with this study as well! >ne o the %ajor pro&le%s o this study was the sa%e as ro% the irst studyB only si4 di erent crowd a iliations were used to characteri1e the adolescent participants! This could &e# as stated a&o$e# i4ed &y including new crowds and also accounting or o$erlap in crowds that participants G&elonged" to! (nother pro&le% with this study was that o the A76 participants# only 54@ were %ales and ??@ were e%ales! This un&alance in gender should ha$e &een i4ed &y recruiting %ore %ale adolescents! The last si1a&le pro&le% with this study was that conclusi$e results were not ound or reported or each peer crowd included! (lthough so%e crowds did ha$e conclusi$e results# not all o the crowds had results! Since there were only i$e true crowds studied# it is a pro&le% that so%e crowds did not ha$e any results at all! To i4 this# %ore research %ethods could ha$e &een used to &etter assess the adolescents o each peer crowd! There are %any strong relationships &etween &oth o these article and topics that are discussed in adolescence and early adulthood psychology! /irst# there is a connection &etween Chapter 4) The Sel # Cdentity# <%otion# and Personality with these articles! Since the personality and identity o an indi$idual o ten de ines who each person is# peer crowd a iliation is o ten ti%es dri$en &y adolescent"s personality! (lso# the risk,taking &eha$iors and choices that adolescent"s %ake are a ected &y the %oral and $alues o the indi$idual# which are talked a&out in Chapter A! C an adolescent has good %orals and $alues# they are less likely to associate with a negati$ely $iewed peer crowd# and are less likely to participate in risk,

taking &eha$iors! (lso# the %anner in which an adolescent will eat and participate in weight controlling &eha$iors will depend on the $alues o each indi$idual! These articles also %ake a connection to schools# which are discussed in Chapter 17# along with peers and li estyles# which are talked a&out in Chapter :! Since schools are where these crowds a iliate with one another# and peers continually in luence one another# these chapters go hand,in,hand with this article! <4ercising# eating# and weight controlling &eha$iors are also largely a ected &y schools# peers# and li estyles! The way in which an adolescent eats is o ten in luenced &y the peers around the%B these in luences can &e &oth positi$e# where healthy eating and dieting is pro%oted# as well as negati$e# where unhealthy eating or dieting is pro%oted! (lso# one"s li estyle will direct the types o choices an adolescent %akes# which will a ect what kinds o risk,taking &eha$iors they will participate in# as well as their e4ercise and eating ha&its! Cn %y opinion# popularity and crowds are $ery rele$ant topics in psychology today! Since crowds are such a large part o %odern high schools# %any adolescents are a ected in %any ways &y this! The crowd that an adolescent a iliates the%sel$es with can positi$ely in luence the% in a couple ways# including getting the% in$ol$ed in e4tracurricular acti$ities# e4panding their riend groups# and guiding the% into %aking sa e# healthy choices! +owe$er# peer crowds can also negati$ely in luence adolescents also! '.ad0 peer crowds# or crowds that ha$e negati$e connotations can ha$e a $ery negati$e i%pact on adolescents# including pressuring teens into %aking unsa e# unhealthy choices and %aking riends that will pressure the% into %aking &ad decisions! Since the choices that adolescents %ake can ha$e a large i%pact on their uture# it is necessary or popularity and crowds to &e studied! With %ore in or%ation and research ound on this topic# it will &e easier or %ore help and %ore guidance to &e a$aila&le or students that struggle with itting into crowds and or adolescents that ind the%sel$es stuck in negati$e crowds! To urther this area o study# it would irst &e &ene icial to identi y the di erent peer groups that are o ten ti%es ound in high schools that were not used in these studies! With %ore peer groups a$aila&le# %ore research can &e done or each new crowd ound# gi$ing &etter data and results! (lso# this area o study on popularity and crowds could ocus on the reasoning &ehind the decisions adolescents %ake! -ather than si%ply reporting what adolescents are doing# it would &e &ene icially to ocus on why

adolescents do what they do and their %oti$es &ehind their actions! /urther%ore# C &elie$e that it would &e &ene icial to urther research the destructi$e &eha$iors# including risk,taking &eha$iors as well as unhealth ul and restricti$e eating# those adolescents participate in! With %ore research on these destructi$e &eha$iors# psychologists# parents# and teachers can ha$e a &etter understanding o these &eha$iors and can create progra%s and ideas that can &etter help trou&led adolescents! Cn the real world# popularity and a ect a wide range o people including adolescents the%sel$es# parents# and teachers! Ct is clear that crowds ha$e a su&stantial i%pact on adolescents# as they are the indi$iduals that these crowds are co%posed o ! Peer crowds and popularity is a $ery real part o an adolescent"s social li e during high school! Thus# &oth these articles and the o$erall topic o popularity and crowds ha$e strong relationship with adolescents and how they act! The parents o these adolescents are also greatly a ected &y popularity and crowds! Since the crowd that a teen is in will a ect how they act# parents ha$e to deal with and interact with their children on a daily &asis! The children# then# will act and treat their parents a certain way depending on how they are in luenced &y the peer group that they are in! Teachers# in the sa%e way as parents# also %uch interact with these adolescents! The &eha$ior o adolescents will then a ect the teachers in turn! Thus# popularity and crowds ha$e a su&stantial e ect on adolescents and those that surround the%!