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EIGRP Concepts in a Nutshell

EIGRP is an advanced distance-vector routing Features of EIGRP

protocol that relies on features commonly associated • Classless Routing Protocol (VLSM, CIDR)
with link-state protocols. • Faster convergence times
Administrative Distance
• Internal 90; Summary 5; External 170
• Multiprotocol support:
• Rapid Convergence and Better handling of
Metrics: Bandwidth, Delay, Reliability, Load routing loops – (DUAL)
• Efficient Use of Bandwidth
Default Metric – Partial, bounded updates: Incremental
bandwidth = (10,000,000/bandwidth kbps) * 256 updates only to the routers that need
delay = (delay/10) * 256 them.
32 bit metric for bandwidth and delay – Minimal bandwidth consumption: no
more that 50% of link’s bandwidth
Routing Table Metric: Slowest of bandwidth plus EIGRP packets.
the sum of the delays of all outgoing interfaces from • PDM (Protocol Dependent Module)
“this router” to the destination network. • Unequal-cost load balancing
External routes (redistributed) are tagged as Hellos
external routes (EX) • Used by the neighbor discovery and recovery
Automatic redistribution between IGRP and • Multicast
EIGRP as long as “AS” numbers are the same. • Unreliable delivery
• T1 and faster : Hello interval 5 seconds, hold
Operation of EIGRP time 15 seconds
• RTP, PDM, Neighbor Discovery, DUAL • slower than T1: Hello interval 60 seconds, hold
time 180 seconds
RTP • If a neighbor is not heard from for the duration of
• Reliable RTP is used for EIGRP queries, the hold time (three times hello interval), EIGRP
considers that neighbor down, and DUAL must
updates and replies (
step in to reevaluate the routing table.
• Unreliable RTP is used for EIGRP Hello’s and • EIGRP routers do not need to have the same
Ack’s hello intervals and hold down intervals
Neighbor Adjacency
• Dynamically learn of new routes that join their
• Identify routers that become either unreachable
or inoperable
• Rediscover routers that had previously been

Acknowledgements (ACK)
• Hello packets with no data
• Unicast
• Unreliable delivery

DUAL Updates
This engine contains all the logic used to calculate • Transmitted only when necessary
and compare routes in an EIGRP network • Unicast when sent to a specific router
• DUAL selects alternate routes quickly by using • Multicast when sent to multiple routers
the information in the EIGRP tables. • Reliable delivery
• If a link goes down, DUAL looks for a feasible
successor in its neighbor and topology tables.


PDM Queries and Replies
Different PDMs can be added to EIGRP as new • Used by DUAL FSM
routed protocols are enhanced or developed • Queries: Multicast or Unicast
• Replies: Unicast
• Reliable delivery
Successor – Current Route • A passive route is one that is stable and
Feasible Successor - A backup route available for use.
• An active route is a route in the process of
being recomputed by DUAL.

SIA (Stuck in Active) – When query does not get a If an EIGRP router loses its successor and cannot
reply. find a feasible successor for a route, DUAL moves
the route from passive state to active state.

Feasible distance (FD) is the minimum distance (metric) along a path to a destination network.

Reported distance (RD) is the distance (metric) towards a destination as advertised by an upstream
neighbor. Reported distance is the distance reported in the queries, the replies and the updates.

A neighbor meets the feasible condition(FC) if the reported distance by the neighbor is less than to the
current feasible distance (FD) of this router. "If a neighbors metric is less than mine, then I know the
neighbor doesn't have a loop going through me."

A feasible successor is a neighbor whose reported distance (RD) is less than or equal to the current
feasible distance (FD). Feasible successor is one who meets the feasible condition (FC).

Topology Table Neighbor Table

• Listing of all successors and feasible successors • Lists adjacent routers.

Router(config)#router eigrp autonomous-system-number
• This value must match all routers within the internetwork.

Router(config-router)#network network-number [wildcard-mask]

• The network command configures only connected networks.
Router(config-router)#eigrp log-neighbor-changes
• This command enables the logging of neighbor adjacency changes to monitor the stability of the
routing system and to help detect problems.

Router(config-if)#bandwidth kilobits
• When configuring serial links using EIGRP it is important to configure the bandwidth setting on the
interface. If the bandwidth setting is not changed for these interfaces EIGRP assumes the default
bandwidth on the link instead of the true bandwidth.

Router(config-if)#ip bandwidth-percent eigrp AS percentage

• By default, EIGRP is set to use only up to 50% of the bandwidth of an interface to exchange routing

Router(config-router)#no auto-summary
• To disable automatic summarization.
• EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary

Router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp autonomous-system-number ip-address mask administrative-


• Summary route is sourced from Null0, and not an actual interface

A Null0 route is created in the routing table whenever EIGRP includes subnetted routes and with the default
no auto-summary command. It is a type of discard route.
Bandwidth and Frame Relay: The links that have the same configured CIR are presented as a single
subinterface with a bandwidth reflecting the aggregate CIR of all the circuits.

EIGRP Commands in a Nutshell

Enabling EIGRP Routing
Router(config)# router eigrp AS number (Must be the same on all routers)

Router(config-router)# network network-address [wildcard mask]

EIGRP Interface commands

Router(config-if)# ip summary-address eigrp as-number network-address mask
• RTC(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 2446

Router(config-if)# no auto-summary
• auto-summary on by default. EIGRP summarizes automatically between
classful boundaries. Must be used for VLSM.

Router(config-if)#bandwidth kilobits
• Configures the bandwidth used by routing metrics on the outgoing

Router(config-if)#ip bandwidth-percent eigrp as-number bandwidth-percentage

• By default, EIGRP is set to use only up to 50% of the bandwidth of an
interface to exchange routing information.

Router(config-router)#eigrp log-neighbor-changes
• This command enables the logging of neighbor adjacency changes to monitor
the stability of the routing system and to help detect problems.

RTA(config-router)# variance number

• The variance command instructs the router to include routes with a metric
less than or equal to n times the minimum metric route for that
destination, where n is the number specified by the variance command.

Router(config-router)# default-metric 56 100 255 10 1500 {k values)

Show commands
Router# show ip eigrp neighbors {displays neighbors}
Router# show ip eigrp topology
Router# show ip eigrp topology all links
• displays topology, active/passive (well) state, successors
Router# debug eigrp fsm
Router# debug eigrp packet

Router# show ip route eigrp {EIGRP routes in routing table}

Router# show ip protocols
• AS number, filtering, redistribution, neighbors, distance
Router# show ip eigrp traffic EIGRP packets sent and received

Example 1: EIGRP and IGRP redistributes automatically as long as the same
process-id is used.

Router(config)# router eigrp 44 and Router(config)# router igrp 44