Anda di halaman 1dari 23

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks

THOMAS BOEHME, DNV KEMA

13 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

Content

Export cable installation

Picture source: DNV

Experience Action required Risks Assessment and management

Design Considerations
Conclusions

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks

IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

Part I
Experience to Date

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

Experience
A B

120 years
Power cables have been around for a long time. Designs have evolved, new materials are being used. Challenges offshore remain.
Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

7,000 km
More than 7,000 km of HV ( 60 kV) cables are in service (onshore, offshore), many more systemkilometres at 33 kV and below.
4

80% claims
Many offshore wind farms have experienced problems with subsea power cables. Claim amounts* related to cables top the list.

Data source: CIGR (2009); * Codan data, 2002-2011, claim cost

Experience: Offshore Wind


Barrow
Remedial burial

Problem

Blyth
Delays

Barrow Q7 North Hoyle


Planning deficiencies Vessel substitution Standing loops

Inter-array cables

Walney I
Regulator fine

Middelgrunden
3 damages

Robin Rigg
Barge evacuation

Greater Gabbard
Contractor bankruptcy

Damage

Horns Rev I
Cable damage

Utgrunden
Cable replacement

Alpha Ventus
Cable damage

Thanet
Remedial work

Walney
Outage of string

Bard Offshore I Burbo Bank


Diver fatality Cable damage

Thanet
Kink discovered

Problem

Barrow
Installation problems

Teesside
Installation delays

Export cables

Galloper Utgrunden
Cable replacement

Blyth
Cable damage

Lincs Burbo Bank


Cable damage

Route issues

Route problems

Damage

Gwynt y Mr
Cable damage

Arklow Bank
Anchor damage

Scroby Sands
Cable replacement

Lynn & Inner Dowsing


Cable repair

London Array
Cable damage

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

Data source: DNV research (Shown: Reported in public domain)

Offshore Wind Investigation


Strong focus on price

, not enough on risk

Incidents in virtually every wind farm


Most often during construction (95%*) Sometimes during operation (5%*)

Failure statistics not yet available

New staff

Lack of knowledge transfer

Industry best practice yet to be developed


Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

Data source: DNV stakeholder consultation * Codan data, 2002-2011, claim cost

Response: CableRisk Joint Industry Project


15 Participants

Objective
- Develop a guideline for subsea power cables in renewable energy applications which
- covers the cable lifecycle - provides technical guidance - improves communication between stakeholders - helps managing the risks

INCH CAPE

Application
- Inter-array cables - Export cables - (Interconnectors)

Timeline
- Project: Aug 2012 Jun 2013 - Industry review: May 2013
Project responsible:

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

Part II Adopting a Risk-Based View

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

Risk Basis
Environmental impact?

Substation

Subsea inter-array cable


6

Acceptable level of injuries / fatalities?


18 15 11 12 17 13 16 20 19

What targets exist describing good (or good enough) cable connections?

Subsea export cable

7 1 2 9 3 4 10 5 8

Wind turbine
14

Target MTTR (days)?

Damage

Different targets for - Construction phase? - Operations phase? Different targets for - Whole cable system? - Single cable? - Cable section?

to shore

NPV ()? Annual target failure rate (%)?

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

Hazards, Threats Risk


Hazard = Something that can cause harm (to people, environment, project) Event = Hazard realisation Risk = Event severity
(consequence)

event probability
(likelihood)

H&S E Q

Prevent barriers (facilities, processes, people)

Detect / control / mitigate / recover barriers

Root cause Causes


Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

Immediate cause

Escalation

Hazard realisation, event, incident

Consequences

10

Risk Assessment
Risk identification analysis evaluation treatment (ISO 31000)
Management: Plan Do Check Act Risk management to be integrated into project management
Higher
t In

Qualitative assessment
l to In

er ab le

Probability

l To

M
c Ac ep

er ab le

H&S, E, Q
M Severity H

simple, quick, provides an overview subjective, needs scrapping (Chapman & Ward)

Probability (log scale)

Quantitative assessment
Higher
100
Cumul. probability (%)

b ta le

Probability (log scale)

e ol e bl ra

H&S, E
Scenario A

Scenario A

50

Scenario B

Lower

Lower

Lower

Severity (log scale)

H&S (or) E (or) Q


Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

b ra le To le

Scenario B

pt ce Ac

Mitigation
Higher

Q
0 Lower Impact (, days) Higher

l ab e

Lower

Higher

Severity (log scale)

relatively objective, scientific backing requires effort, more suitable for focus areas

11

Sources: ISO 31000, ISO 31010, Chapman & Ward (2011), Kristiansen (2005)

Risks Health & Safety


Higher
Generally considered to be relatively low in cabling Mitigation (reduction) to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP)
Access & transfer to offshore units Working at height Diving activities

Probability

Work on cable laying vessel

Confined space work (TP, MP)

Diving fatality (2010)


Bard Offshore I, Germany

HV test work

A diver ... was diving at approximately 41 metres, and his air supply was cut off due to an unintended squeezing of his umbilical ... The task was to remove bottom material from the seabed [in front of J-tubes]. A dredger pipe was being positioned on the seabed, ... a job whose execution deviated from the method statement in which it is described it should be done by ROV.

Lower

Escalation during emergency response


All data: Illustrative only

Lower Severity
Sources: Maersk (2011) 12

Higher

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

Risks Environment
Higher
Risks require site-specific assessment Mitigation (reduction), e.g. to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP)

Disturbance of fauna

Seabed, mudflats disturbance

Probability

Thermal impact (?)


(esp. Germany)

Construction delays (2011-2012)


Lincs, United Kingdom

Magnetic fields

Introduction of new materials (e.g. rocks)

CREL ... tried to install two cable ducts under the salt marsh and sea defences last summer [2010], but this was not successful. As the saltmarsh is of high conservation value, a new solution was needed. Nessie is now [2012] laying the 2nd cable across the intertidal area, incorporating knowledge ... gained from laying the 1st cable in 2011.
Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

Lower

Construction noise
All data: Illustrative only

Lower Severity
Sources: Centrica (2011, 2012), Bridgewatch (2011) 13

Higher

Risks Project (Quality, Cost, Time)


Higher
Currently considered to be very high in cabling Optimisation to a desirable and appropriate level (threat vs. opportunity)
Weather delays

Unexpected soil conditions

Unsuitable burial tool

Probability

Poor WTG interface design

Fishing gear impact

Anchor impact Cable fault

Export cable repair (2012)


Thanet, United Kingdom

A section of the export link in the intertidal area of Pegwell Bay [has to be replaced] ... the radius of the loop is currently more acute (1.35 m) than the recommended 3.3 m. The problem was resolved on 13 April [2012]. The total cost to Vattenfall was about 5.6m.

Installation delays

Lower

Natural catastrophe

Free spans Sand waves


All data: Illustrative only

Lower Severity
Sources: Thanet Offshore Limited (2005), reNews (2011), Windpower Offshore (2012)

Higher

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

14

Part III

From Good Design to Successful Projects

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

15

Scope of Guideline Draft


General
- Introduction, references, definitions, abbreviations

Manufacturing & testing


Installation and commissioning
- Marine operations planning (vessels, anchoring, positioning, human factors) - Cable
Route preparation Pull-in at offshore structure Laying and protection Landfall Jointing, termination, testing As-built survey

Design philosophy
- HSEQ, risk basis, assessment and management - System design principles - Stakeholder interface management

Concept development and design


Field layout Regulatory requirements Site surveys Cable route engineering and burial assessment
- Marine conditions - Seabed properties, sand waves, - Infrastructure, navigation, living environment

Operation and maintenance


- Remote monitoring - Surveys, remedial work - Fault detection, repair planning and execution

- Cable specification for


- Site conditions - Offshore construction, O&M

Orange: Focus area Overall status: 90% completion

- Cable offshore structure interface design

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

16

Cable Projects Appreciating Complexity

Certifier, MWS

Quality checks
All relevant stakeholders consulted? Started early with the planning and design? Optimised and planned with contingencies?
Mechanical Electrical Thermal

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

17

Electrical Considerations
Wind turbine generator MV AC cable
3 x 1 x 240 mm2 Cu 33 (36) kV, 880 m

Offshore substation

HV AC cable
3 x 1 x 630 mm2 Cu 150 kV, 20,500 m 3 x 1 x 800 mm2 Cu 150 kV, 1,350 m

Onshore substation

Layout MW, kV

Topology selection
Length

Ampacity estimation
Data sheets Failure rate

Choice of mm2

Quality checks
Reliability targets set? Failure rates applicable?

Basic power flow


p.u., Mvar

Cable choice

R, XC

Reliability check

NPV ()

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

18

Thermal Considerations
Wind turbine generator MV AC cable Offshore substation HV AC cable Onshore substation

Pel

Losses

y
s

th

Constraints Data

Cable route desktop study


Proposed corridor

Survey
Hazards

Site parameters

Quality checks
Site data available?
y Example: 3 x 1 x 240 mm2 Cu, 33 (36) kV - Cable A: 467 A (< 20 C, < 1.0 K m / W) - Cable B: 590 A (< 10 C, < 0.7 K m / W)

th

Electrical losses

Burial assessment

Depth

Hotspots ok?
w

Cooling verification
Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

Back to electrical study?

- J-tubes - Soils with low conductivity - Landfall

19

Mechanical Considerations
Wind turbine generator MV AC cable
Radius, tension, friction Movement

Offshore substation

HV AC cable

Onshore substation

Fpull

Cable properties Site, vessel data

Foundation design Construction engineering Trials Warranty surveyor verification


Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

Back to electrical / thermal study?

Quality checks
Installation weather dependent?
Method statements

Optimised for smooth installation?

Insurance cover?

20

Example from Guideline: J-tubes


Distance between tubes

Draft Subject to project + industry review

Main text: When designing J-tubes, the following shall be considered:


- adequate tube sizing (pull-in forces, cooling of cable) - avoidance of multiple bends - smoothness of inner surface - ...

Bending radius Inner diameter

Guidance note:
Straight length Flange for cover

Angle to seabed

Smooth transition Bellmouth Distance to seabed

Seabed

- The inner diameter of the J-tube should not be less than 2.5 cable outer diameter D to facilitate cable cooling and avoid excessive pull-in forces. - The bending radius of the J-tube, measured at the centre of the J-tube, should not be less than 20 cable outer diameter D, or larger, if specified by the cable manufacturer in order to facilitate cable installation. - ...
21

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

Conclusions

Array cable pull-in

Picture source: DNV

Subsea power cabling is


- multi-disciplinary - has frequently been underestimated

Cable risks require assessment over whole life cycle


Industry guidance is being developed
22

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks

IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany

www.dnv.com
Joint Industry Project: CableRiskJIP@dnvkema.com

Managing Subsea Power Cable Risks IQPC Offshore Cabling, 13 - 15 May 2013, Bremen, Germany