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Portfolio Management

Project Report on Attractiveness of the MSME Sector as a destination for investor

Submitted To: Prof. Raju Majumdar

Submitted By: Rohit Gupta (FT-12-129)


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Introduction Indian SME- Current Scenario Economic Contribution of MSME MSME Industry in India MSME Growth Impacted by Multiple Constraints Flow of Finance to MSME Sector Demand of Finance in MSME Sector Government outlook on MSME RBI View on MSME Common Guidelines / Instructions for Lending to MSME Sector by RBI Finance Gap in the MSME Sector Enabling Environment for Growth of Finance to the MSME Sector MSME Performance Advantages of MSME Future of MSME : An Investor Perspective Current Performance of the Sector in terms of : Employment Output, Investments and Gross Income Generation Financial Infrastructure Support Potential Interventions to Increase Access to MSME Finance Other Intervention Conclusion

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The MSME sector plays a significant role in the Indian economy. A catalyst for socio-economic transformation of the country, the sector is critical in meeting the national objectives of generating employment, reducing poverty, and discouraging rural-urban migration. These enterprises help to build a thriving entrepreneurial eco-system, in addition to promoting the use of indigenous technologies. The term MSME is widely used to describe small businesses in the private sector. Regulators and financial institutions across the world use parameters such as employee strength, annual sales, value of fixed assets, and loan size proxies to define the sector in the context of finance. The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Development Act 2006 (MSMED Act) of the Government of India provides the definition of the MSME sector. An extension of the erstwhile definition of Small Scale Industry (SSI), this classification uses the investment metric to define MSMEs because investment in plant and machinery can be measured and verified. The MSMED Act broadly segments the MSME sector in the following manner:

Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) are the backbone of economy and also drivers of growth. With their inherent strength and resilience, SMEs weather adverse situations, and emerge successfully in a competitive environment. In order to sustain and grow, it is very important for the SMEs around the world not only to deal with big corporate and Government companies but also to interact amongst themselves to identify new business opportunities which are huge.

Indian MSME Current Scenario

As per the All India Census of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME), there are 36.176 million Micro, small and medium Enterprises employing 80 million people. Out of the total MSME units, 10.33 million units are in manufacturing sector comprising 28.56% while 25.84 million units belong to service sector which is a staggering 71.44%. They are the major creator of Employment, creating 1.13 million jobs per annum. As regards the contribution of MSME to the Indian economy, 40% of exports and 45% of industrial output are coming from this sector. Indian SME offer a variety of products and services and are well equipped to cater to the needs of National, Regional and World Markets.

Economic Contribution of MSME

It is important to note that in addition to helping catalyze the growth of the economy, MSMEs feed large local and international value chains as well as local consumer markets as suppliers, manufacturers, contractors, distributors, retailers and service providers. They account for a large share of industrial units, and contribute significantly to employment in the country.

Growing at 11.5 percent a year, the MSME sector has been performing better than the overall GDP (8 percent growth per annum) and overall industrial output (measured by Index of Industrial Production-IIP). Current estimates of MSME contribution to GDP do not take into consideration the contribution made by unorganized private enterprises, for which asset and sales data is not tracked by government agencies. MSMEs are also effective vehicles for employment generation. Indias cities have been experiencing the burden of a consistently growing population, comprising an ever increasing proportion of migrants in search of employment and livelihood. City infrastructure is already stretched, and policy makers are seeking solutions to mitigate issues arising from migrant population growth. Rural MSMEs and those based outside of the large cities, offer a viable alternative for employment to local labor, hence presenting an opportunity for people to participate in productive, non-farm activities, without needing to migrate to urban areas.

MSME Industry in India

There are over 6000 products ranging from traditional to high-tech items, which are being manufactured by the MSME sector in addition to provide wide range of services. The leading industries with their respective shares are as depicted below:

Total number of enterprises in MSME Sector was estimated to be 361.76 lakh with total employment of 805.24 lakh. The estimated numbers of enterprises and employment, as per Fourth All India Census of MSME, have increased at an annual compound growth rate of 28.02% and 26.42% respectively as compared to third All India Census of SSI. The ten leading States, in terms of enterprises, are Uttar Pradesh (44.03 lakh), West Bengal (36.64 lakh), Tamil Nadu (33.13 lakh), Maharashtra (30.63 lakh), Andhra Pradesh (25.96 lakh), Kerala (22.13 lakh), Gujarat (21.78 lakh), Karnataka (20.19 lakh), Madhya Pradesh (19.33 lakh) and Rajasthan (16.64 lakh). The ten leading industries, in terms of enterprises, (as per National Industry Classification 2004 2 digit ) are Retail Trade except of Motor Vehicles and Motorcycles; Repair of Personal and Household Goods (144.15 lakh), Manufacture of Wearing Apparel; Dressing and Dyeing of fur (31.65 lakh), Manufacture of Food Products and Beverages (25.12 lakh), Other Service Activities (22.43 lakh), Other Business Activities (13.64 lakh), Hotels and Restaurants(13.18 lakh), Sale, Maintenance and Repair of Motor Vehicles and Motorcycles; Retail Sale of Automotive Fuel(12.92 lakh), Manufacture of Furniture & Manufacturing not elsewhere classified (11.61 lakh), Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products, except Machinery and Equipment (8.42 lakh), Manufacture of Textiles (8.42 lakh).

MSME Growth impacted by Multiple Constraints

Although the MSME sector has been growing at a faster rate than the overall industrial sector, MSMEs experience multiple constraints that threaten to derail the sectors growth trajectory.

Inadequate market linkages: Except in the case of cluster-linked and ancillary MSMEs that have natural linkages with large enterprises, MSMEs tend to have poor market access. The non-cluster MSMEs are fragmented, and as a result, are unable to organize themselves in order to reduce procurement cost from large enterprises or streamline the output supply chain. What is worse, in the absence of adequate market linkages, any demand disruption in the supply chain can severely impact operations because the enterprise capital of these businesses tends to be locked in illiquid inventory and receivables. Lack of infrastructure: Limited access to infrastructure such as power, water and roads increases operational costs for MSMEs and makes their businesses uncompetitive. Inadequate access to support infrastructure discourages these units from adopting newer technologies, where available. In addition, poor infrastructure forces small and medium businesses to operate in select geographies, increasing the demand for natural resources in that region. Inadequate finance: MSMEs consider challenges in access to finance as one of the biggest constraints in growth. A study on the MSME sector also suggests that the multiple growth constraints (like those mentioned above) can be largely linked to inadequate access to finance. The Report of Working Group on Rehabilitation of Sick MSMEs by RBI also finds lack of adequate and timely access to working capital finance is one of the key reasons for sickness in the sector.

Lack of managerial competence: Micro and small enterprises in particular largely comprise first-generation entrepreneurs, who have had a limited structured training on resource planning, capital management and labor management. As a result, lack of managerial competence often shows in poor book-keeping and a limited knowledge of formal financial institutions, which further inhibits the growth of these enterprises. Obsolete technology: While industries such as automotive, forging, software development sector require advanced technologies in operations, the majority of the small and medium enterprises do not have that kind of technological edge. A low technology base results in low productivity, which makes these enterprises uncompetitive. Financial institutions associate lack of technology with uncompetitive businesses and therefore are wary of financing enterprises which are not technologically up-to-date in operations. These enterprises too have limited awareness about new technologies, or the technology financing schemes.

The 2007 MSME Census indicated that only 5 percent of enterprises in the sector had access to some form of formal finance, while over 92 percent of the units lacked access to any form of institutional finance. Studies on financing pattern in the sector and the MSME census suggest that MSMEs prefer self-financing, which not just includes the savings of the entrepreneurs, but also the finance availed from friends, family and relatives. However, the situation has been changing in recent years. As a result of greater focus on the MSME segment by the government and the regulator as well as by the financial sector, institutional finance to MSMEs has increased considerably. Building on the 2010 data from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the study estimates that financial institutions serve, to some extent or the other, nearly (33 percent) of the enterprises. However, despite the improved access, many micro and small enterprises remain unserved and underserved. Policymakers in India have always retained a focus on MSME finance, as indicated by the Priority Sector Lending (PSL) norms for commercial banks that were established, and have been in place, for several decades now. Establishing programs such as the Credit Guarantee Trust in recent times has given a renewed thrust to that objective. However, despite the policy efforts and a clearly more responsive formal financial sector, the MSME sector continues to face a financing gap due to inherent demand and supply-side constraints.

Flow of Finance to the MSME Sector

The overall finance demand of INR 32.5 trillion ($650 billion), 78 percent, or INR 25.5 trillion ($510 billion) is either self-financed or from informal sources. Formal sources cater to only 22 percent or INR 7 trillion ($140 billion) of the total MSME debt financing. Within the formal financial sector, banks account for nearly 85 percent of debt supply to the MSME sector, with Scheduled Commercial Banks comprising INR 5.9 Trillion (USD 118 Billion). Non-Banking Finance Companies and smaller banks such as Regional Rural Banks (RRBs), Urban Cooperative Banks (UCBs) and government financial institutions (including State Financial Corporation and State Industrial Development Corporations) constitute the rest of the formal MSME debt flow.

Within the informal financial sector non-institutional sources include family, friends, and family business, while institutional sources comprise moneylenders and chit funds. Formal sources of finance, i.e. banks and non-banking institutions, account for INR 6.97 trillion ($139.4 billion) of the overall formal finance supply, and commercial banks are the largest formal sources of finance, primarily providing debt capital to the MSMEs. It estimates that the supply of formal equity to the sector is INR 0.03 trillion ($0.6 billion). It estimates that informal sources account for an estimated INR 24.4 trillion ($488 billion) in finance to the sector. Informal sources include both institutional sources such as moneylenders and chit funds, and non-institutional sources such as family, friends, and family business In addition, entrepreneurs also leverage personal resources and contribute equity to the enterprise. Self-equity contributions are estimated to account for INR 1.1 trillion ($22 billion) of finance flow into the sector.

Demand of Finance in the MSME Sector

There is a total finance requirement of INR 32.5 trillion ($650 billion) in the MSME sector, which comprises of INR 26 trillion ($ 520 Billion) of debt demand and INR 6.5 trillion ($130 Billion) of equity demand. To estimate the debt demand that Financial Institutions would consider financing in the near term, it does not take into account the demand from the enterprises that are either not considered commercially viable by formal financial institutions, or those enterprises that voluntarily exclude themselves from formal financial services. Thus, after excluding (a) sick enterprises, (b) new enterprises (those with less than a year in operation), (c) enterprises rejected by financial institutions (d) micro enterprises that prefer finance from the informal sector, the viable and addressable debt demand is estimated to be INR 9.9 trillion ($198 billion), which is 38 percent of the total debt demand. The viable and addressable equity demand is estimated to be INR 0.67 trillion ($13.4 billion), after excluding: (a) Entrepreneurs equity contribution to enterprises estimated at INR 4.6 trillion ($92 billion) and, (b) Equity demand from micro and small enterprises that are structured as proprietorship or partnership, and are unable to absorb equity from external sources. The second is estimated to be worth INR 1.23 trillion ($24.6 billion).

Debt Demand
Financial institutions have traditionally limited their exposure to the sector due to the perception that these businesses carry high risk and high cost of delivery, and have limited access to immovable collateral. Although the overall debt demand in the sector is estimated to be INR 26 trillion ($520 billion), not all of it can be met immediately by the formal financial sector due to several reasons. To estimate the viable debt demand that can be addressed by financial institutions, the study does not take into account the demand from the enterprises that are either considered unviable in the near term, or those that voluntarily exclude themselves from formal financial services. Given Figure provides these exclusions and their share of the total debt demand.


It is clear from the above that almost 38 percent of the overall debt demand is not viable and addressable as it comprises enterprises that are sick, or with limited operational history, or suffer from poor financial health. A large number of micro services enterprises such as small retail trade and repair shops account for 25 percent of the debt demand. These enterprises prefer informal sources to the formal financial institutions due to the ease of access, speed of disbursal and need for negligible documentation. Additionally, the urgency of demand for finance often outscores the cost differential between the two sources. Based on the above exclusions, it is estimated that of the total debt demand of INR 26 trillion ($520 billion), at least 38 percent or INR 9.9 trillion ($198 billion) is the size of the viable demand that can be addressed by the formal financial sector in the near term.

Nearly 90 percent of the total viable and addressable debt demand (approximately INR 8.9 trillion or $178 billion) is from unregistered enterprises, and the balance demand of INR 1 trillion ($20 billion) is from registered MSMEs. What is interesting though is that registration of enterprises in no way impacts the access to finance from formal financial institutions.

Equity Demand
The overall equity demand in the sector is estimated to be INR 6.5 trillion ($130 billion), with short-term equity requirement accounting for INR 4 trillion ($80 billion), and longterm equity making up a demand of INR 2.5 trillion ($50 billion). Analysis of financing patterns in the MSME sector suggests that enterprises use internal accruals and informal sources to finance the short-term equity demand (INR 4 trillion; $80 billion) and 25 percent of the long-term equity demand (INR 0.6 trillion or $12 billion)[52].


Excluding entrepreneurs equity contribution (internal accruals and informal sources), the equity demand from external sources is estimated to be INR 1.9 trillion ($38 billion). However, all the equity demand may not be viable and addressable as 95.7 percent of enterprises are structured as either proprietorships or partnerships that are not amenable to external equity infusion. In the estimation, all the micro enterprises and a section of small enterprises are assumed to be structured as either proprietorships or partnerships. Excluding the equity demand totaling INR 1.23 trillion ($24.6 billion) from proprietorship and partnership enterprises, the viable and addressable equity demand is estimated to be INR 0.67 trillion ($13.4 billion).


Government Outlook on MSME

Giving the benefits to the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), government proposed a number of measures including, non-tax benefits for three years to MSMEs, more funds to SIDBI to support refinancing and factoring, extension of Technology Fund Scheme (TUFS) for textile industry, fund of Rs. 2200 crore for tool-room and technology development and loan at 6 percent interest rate for hand-loom weavers. The government has taken several measures to solve the problems faced by micro, small and medium enterprises and enable them to play an effective role in the country's economy. These measures may be broadly classified into: Protective Measures, which are designed to protect small scale industries from the competition of large firms. Promotional Measures, which have been undertaken to promote the growth of the small scale sector in the country. Institutional Measures, which have been taken by the government in the form of setting up of several institutions or agencies to provide liberal and manifold assistance to small scale industries. Recently, major initiatives have been taken by the government to revitalize the MSME sector. They include: Implementation of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006. A "Package for Promotion of Micro and Small Enterprises" was announced in February 2007. This includes measures addressing concerns of credit, fiscal support, cluster-based development, infrastructure, technology, and marketing. To make the Credit Guarantee Scheme more attractive, the following modifications have been made: (a) enhancing eligible loan limit from Rs. 25 lakh to Rs. 50 lakh; (b) raising the extent of guarantee cover from 75 per cent to 80 per cent for (1) micro enterprises for loans up to Rs. 5 lakh, (2) MSEs operated or owned by women and (3) all loans in the North-East Region; and (c) reducing one-time guarantee fee from 1.5 per cent to 0.75 per cent for all loans in the North-East Region.

The phased deletion of products from the list of items reserved for exclusive manufacture
by micro and small enterprises is being continued. 125 items were de-reserved on March 13, 2007, reducing the number of items reserved for exclusive manufacture in micro and small enterprise sector to 114. Further, 79 items were de-reserved on February 5, 2008, 14 items in October 2008, followed by a revision in July 2010. Click here to view the current list of items reserved.


RBI view on MSME

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has advised banks to improve credit flow to micro, small and medium Enterprises (MSMEs) with focus on entrepreneurs from minorities. Towards this, it has directed banks to open more branches dedicated to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in different micro, small enterprises clusters (MSE). Banks have been advised to take appropriate measures to improve the credit flow to the identified clusters of micro and small entrepreneurs from the minority communities residing in the minority concentrated districts of the country. Programs for the poor or micro-finance need to be inserted into the larger bank structure at the same time retaining flexibility, operational independence and autonomy. Banks need an appropriate financial methodology to work with efficiency. In order to increase penny economy, they need suitable financial methodology to service the micro enterprise sector and financial innovations that enable cost effective analysis of credit worthiness, monitoring of relatively poor clients and acceptance of effective collateral substitutes. Also, the problems of urban poverty can only be addressed by encouraging the small scale service and manufacturing enterprises which generate employment.

Common Guidelines / Instructions for Lending to MSME Sector by RBI:

Scheme of Small Enterprises Financial Centres (SEFCs): A scheme for strategic alliance between branches of banks and SIDBI located in clusters, named as Small Enterprises Financial Centres has been formulated. SIDBI has so far executed MoU with 15 banks so far. Disposal of Applications (a) All loan applications for MSE units up to a credit limit of Rs. 25,000/- should be disposed of within 2 weeks and those up to Rs. 5 lakh within 4 weeks provided, the loan applications are complete in all respects. (b) Collateral - It is mandatory for the banks not to accept collateral security in the case of loans upto Rs.10 lakh extended to units in the MSE sector. To extend collateral-free loans up to Rs. 10 lakh to all units financed under the Prime Minister Employment Generation Programme of KVIC. Banks may, increase the limit of dispensation of collateral requirement for loans up to Rs.25 lakh. (c) Composite loan - A composite loan limit of Rs.1 crore can be sanctioned by banks to enable the MSE entrepreneurs to avail of their working capital and term loan requirement through Single Window. Specialized MSME branches: Public sector banks have been advised to open at least one specialized branch in each district.


Delayed Payment: After the enactment of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED), Act 2006, the existing provisions of the Interest on Delayed Payment Act, 1998 to Small Scale and Ancillary Industrial Undertakings, have been strengthened. Guidelines for rehabilitation of SSI (now MSE) units: As per the definition, a unit is considered as sick when any of the borrowal account of the unit remains substandard for more than 6 months or there is erosion in the net worth due to accumulated cash losses to the extent of 50% of its net worth during the previous accounting year and the unit has been in commercial production for at least two years. The criteria will enable banks to detect sickness at an early stage and facilitate corrective action for revival of the unit. As per the guidelines, the rehabilitation package should be fully implemented within six months from the date the unit is declared as potentially viable/viable. During this six months period of identifying and implementing rehabilitation package banks/FIs are required to do holding operation which will allow the sick unit to draw funds from the cash credit account at least to the extent of deposit of sale proceeds. Debt Restructuring Mechanism for MSMEs: For stepping up credit to small and medium enterprises, a debt restructuring mechanism for units in MSME sector has been formulated. (a) All non-corporate MSMEs irrespective of the level of dues to banks. (b) All corporate MSMEs, which are enjoying banking facilities from a single bank, irrespective of the level of dues to the bank. (c) All corporate MSMEs, which have funded and non-funded outstanding up to Rs.10 crore under multiple/ consortium banking arrangement. (d) Accounts involving willful default, fraud and malfeasance will not be eligible for restructuring under these guidelines. Cluster Approach: Clusters of the state have been identified by the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, Government of India for focused development of Small Enterprises. Major Instructions issued to Public Sector banks subsequent to the policy announcements: (a) The banks were advised to fix their own targets for funding SMEs in order to achieve a minimum 20% year on year growth in credit to SMEs. (b) The banks were advised to follow a transparent rating system with cost of credit being linked to the credit rating of the enterprise. (c) All banks, may make concerted efforts to provide credit cover on an average to at least 5 new small/ medium enterprises at each of their semi-urban/ urban branches per year.


(d) The banks may ensure specialized MSME branches in identified clusters/ centers with preponderance of small Enterprises to enable the entrepreneurs to have easy access to the bank credit.

Finance Gap in the MSME Sector

Despite the increase in financing to MSMEs in recent years, there is still a considerable institutional finance gap of INR 20.9[9] trillion ($418 billion). After exclusions in the debt demand (62 percent of the overall demand) and the equity demand (from MSMEs that are structured as proprietorship or partnership), there is still a demand-supply gap of INR 3.57 trillion ($ 71.4 billion), which formal financial institutions can viably finance in the near term. This is the demand-supply gap for approximately 11.3 million enterprises. While a large number of these already receive some form of formal finance, they are significantly underserved with only 40-70 percent of their demand currently being met. With appropriate policy interventions and support to the MSME sector, a considerable part of the currently excluded demand can be made financially viable for the formal financial sector. Of the viable and addressable demandsupply gap, the debt gap is INR 2.93 trillion ($58.6 billion) and the equity gap is INR 0.64 trillion ($12.8 billion). The micro, small, and medium enterprise segments respectively account for INR 2.25 trillion ($45 billion), INR 0.5 trillion ($10 billion) and INR 0.18 trillion ($3.6 billion), of the debt gap that is viable and can be addressed by financial institutions in the near term. Micro and small enterprises together account for 97 percent of the viable debt gap and can be addressed by financial institutions in the near term. Available data and primary interviews indicate that medium enterprises in India are relatively well financed. The equity gap in the sector is a combined result of demand-side challenges such as the legal structures of enterprises, as well as supply-side gaps, such as a lack of investment funds focused on MSMEs. The equity requirements for the MSME sector are concentrated in the growth-stage enterprises (~70 percent).


Enabling Environment for Growth of Finance to the MSME Sector

Growth of MSMEs needs to be reinforced by holistic fiscal support and enabling policies. Similarly, improving the policy framework and incentivizing financial institutions to innovate can increase the penetration of formal financial services to the MSME sector. There have been significant efforts to strengthen the enabling environment for MSMEs, which have had a positive impact on the sector as a whole. However, challenges in formulating and implementing effective policy continue to impede the growth of MSMEs and MSME finance. There are several reports that address the overall policy environment for the MSME sector. For the purposes of this study, analysis has been restricted to policy and enabling environment as it relates to MSME finance specifically. The three main pillars of the enabling environment that the study has analyzed are: (a) Legal and regulatory framework (b) Government support (c) Financial infrastructure support.



MSME Performance
A dynamic global economic scenario has thrown up various opportunities and challenges to the MSME sector in India. On the one hand, numerous opportunities have opened up for this sector to enhance productivity and look at new national and international markets. On the other hand, these opportunities compel the MSMEs to upgrade their competences to contend with competition since obsolescence is rapid with new products being launched at an incredible pace and are available worldwide in a short time. Key Challenges faced by the MSME Sector: Lack of availability of adequate and timely credit High cost of credit Collateral requirements Limited access to equity capital Procurement of raw material at a competitive cost Problems of storage, designing, packaging and product display Lack of access to global markets Inadequate infrastructure facilities, including power, water, roads Low technology levels and lack of access to modern technology Lack of skilled manpower for manufacturing, services, marketing, etc Multiplicity of labour laws and complicated procedures associated with compliance of such laws Despite the various challenges it has been facing, the MSME sector has shown admirable innovation, adaptability and resilience to survive the recent economic downturn and recession.

Advantages of MSME
The Micro Small and Medium enterprises (MSMEs) have been accepted as the engine of economic growth and play an important role in the equitable economic development of country. The major advantage of the sector is its employment potential at low capital cost. The labour intensity of the MSME sector is much higher than that of large enterprises. MSMEs constitute more than 90% of total enterprises in most of the economies and are credited with generating the highest rates of employment growth and account for a major share of industrial production and exports. In India too, MSMEs play an essential role in the overall industrial economy of the country. In recent years, the MSME sector has consistently registered higher growth rate compared with the overall industrial sector. With its agility and dynamism, the sector has shown admirable innovativeness and adaptability to survive the recent economic downturn and recession. The MSME sector in India is highly heterogeneous in terms of the size of the enterprises, variety of products and services, and levels of technology. The sector not only plays a critical role in providing employment opportunities at comparatively lower capital cost than large industries but also helps in industrialization of rural and backward areas, reducing regional imbalances and assuring more equitable distribution of national income and wealth. MSMEs complement large


industries as ancillary units and contribute enormously to the socioeconomic development of the country.

Future of MSME : An Investor Perspective

We know that small-scale industries were the dream of our father of nation Mahatma Gandhi. He has supported the growth of small-scale industries in India, because he had the vision that it will help the poor people of India to come up. Small is beautiful - E. F. Schumachar, Economist, (1911-1977). MSMEs sector has consistently registered a higher growth rate than the rest of the industrial sectors. There are over 6000 products ranging from traditional to high-tech items, which are being manufactured by the MSMEs. In India, after agriculture, the MSMEs sector provides the maximum opportunities for both self-employment and jobs in the country. The MSMEs sector in India holds great potential for further expansion and growth in the future. In fact, the employment potential of the sector is un-matched by any other sector of the economy. CRISIL conducted a study on the funding patterns of 2000 Small and Medium Enterprises revealed that there is an opportunity for banks to increase their funding to SMEs to Rs 500 billion. Strengthening of infrastructure in rural India will help SME sector to record sustainable growth. On 5th November 2012 Tata Steel unveiled a new brand of its hot rolled products called Tata Austrum to meet demands in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). In 2013-14 Tata Steel targets nearly Rs 4000 crore revenue from the segment. Although the future may look promising due to manufacturing flexibility, abundance of raw materials and cheap labour, there are many problems that need to be addressed as the sector is still in its incubatory stage of growth. The sector is highly fragmented and is suffering from technological obsolescence and high cost of raw materials. The sector is threatened by stiff competition from developing economy and pricing pressure posed due to locational disadvantage. The emerging economy of India will help SME sector to grow due to end of quota regime and increasing disposable income. The credit policy of financing institutions like Oriental Bank of Commerce and SIDBI (Small Industries Development Bank of India) should be eased. In strategic association with SME Rating Agency of India Ltd (SMERA) has conceptualized a series of publications targeted to Emerging SMEs of India. The help from corporate such as (SME Mentor) and Dun and Bradstreet should inspire other corporates to contribute. Due to recent government initiatives by the Indian Government, many SMEs are planning to go international next year and future certain looks bright for the sector. As per the results of Fourth All India Census of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprise (MSME), the sector contributes significantly to the number of enterprises, employment and output of the country. Based on the data sets of Third and Fourth All India Census of SSI/MSME, augmented with data sets of EC, 2005 and growth rate observed during Fourth (1998) and Fifth (2005) Economic Census, the performance of SSI/MSME Sector is summarized as below: It may be


noted that for both the Third and Fourth All India Census of SSI/MSME, unregistered sector was assessed by conduct of sample survey of the sector.

Current Performance of the sector in terms of Employment Output, Investments and Gross Income Generation

Including activities of wholesale/retail trade, legal, education & social services, hotel & restaurants, transports and storage & warehousing (except cold storage) for which data were extracted Economic Census 2005, Central Statistics Office, M/o SPI.


* Estimated on the basis of per enterprises value obtained from sample survey of unregistered sector for activities wholesale/retail trade, legal, education & social services, hotel & restaurants, transports and storage & warehousing(except cold storage) which were excluded from Fourth All India Census of MSME, unregistered sector # Projected


Financial Infrastructure Support

In order to expand formal finance in the MSME sector, financial institutions require the support of a financial support infrastructure, including credit bureau, collateral registry, platform to settle nonperforming assets and platforms to raise equity. While both financial institutions and the government have undertaken several finance-support mechanisms, most of these interventions are in their infancy and have significant potential to scale up. Credit Bureau Studies in developed countries suggest that there is a strong correlation between the presence of Credit Bureaus and the penetration of formal finance in an economy. The enactment of the CIC Act has facilitated the formation of credit bureaus in India. The Credit Information Bureau (India) Limited (CIBIL) is the leading credit information company in the country. CIBILs database of credit information is based on the principle of reciprocity, i.e. only members who submit data to the database can access information. Currently, 146 credit guarantors, including 77 commercial banks (out of 169 commercial banks), are member of the bureau. CIBIL is segregated into two distinct bureaus: consumer and commercial. The consumer bureau tracks the individual finance data, while the commercial bureau tracks the finance data of enterprises. The other credit bureaus in the country are still relatively nascent.


Collateral Registry As a large share of current debt financing tends to be secured, access to information on collateral ownership, pledge history and seniority of charge in case of default minimizes the occurrences of adverse selection for financial institutions. The current asset registration regime is governed by multiple laws and regulations based on the type of the enterprise or the asset type. Some examples of registration regime include: The Companies Act 1956, The Registration Act 1908, Motor Vehicles Act 1988, The Patents Act 1970, and The Depositories Act 1996. The Ministry of Finance has spearheaded the establishment of a Centralized Collateral Registry for India, currently placed within the National Housing Bank (NHB). The Central Registry of Securitization Asset Reconstruction and Security Interest of India has been established under the provisions of the SARFAESI Act. Alongside, the RBI mandated in March 2011 that all financial institutions covered by the SARFAESI Act would be required to register any mortgages with CERSAI. Although CERSAI was focused on mortgages when established, its scope is now being broadened with the passing of the new Factoring Law. The registry will be expanded to include receivables as well.

Asset Reconstruction Company SIDBI has promoted the India SME Asset Reconstruction Company Limited (ISARC) to assist commercial banks in managing liquidation of non-performing assets. As non-performing assets management can be cumbersome, commercial banks seek the support of special entities such as the asset reconstruction companies to facilitate this process. This initiative is in partnership with 12 public sector banks, three state financial corporations, the Life Insurance Corporation of India and APITCO Limited. The objective of ISARC-like initiatives is to minimize the cost of managing non-performing assets. ISARC plans to acquire, manage and recover illiquid or non-performing portfolios of scheduled commercial banks and financial institutions. SME Stock Exchange In order to facilitate the flow of equity capital to the small and medium enterprises, and offer potential investors a platform for exit, the government and the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) proposed the formation of the SME Stock Exchange. Currently, two mainstream stock exchanges the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the National Stock Exchange (NSE) have started SME stock exchanges in India. Both the exchanges expect at least ten small and medium enterprises to list over a period of twelve months.


Potential Interventions to Increase Access to MSME Finance

Formal financing to the MSME sector has multiple constraints on both the demand and the supply side. Among the multiple challenges that the sector experiences there are a few common factors such as: (a) Inadequate capacity building support for enterprises (b) Financial asymmetry, or inadequate information infrastructure support (c) Gaps in the legal and regulatory framework and, (d) Conservative mindset of the financial institutions (particularly the large financial institutions). While policymakers are taking numerous steps to mitigate constraints experienced by MSMEs, this study proposes interventions that could reinforce some of these measures for reducing the financing gap in the sector. The proposed policy and institutional interventions address the following domains:


Other Interventions
Other areas where finance flow to the MSME sector could be increased include: Sales Turnover The current definition in the MSMED Act uses enterprise investment in plant and machinery to segment the market into micro, small and medium enterprise segments. The MSMED Act adopted the current definition with the objective of having a segmentation parameter that is both verifiable and consistent with earlier regulations. Financial institutions tend to adopt internal definitions such as enterprise sales turnover, as the MSMED Act definition provides limited information on the finance absorption capacity of enterprises. Also, the current government data on sector does not track sales revenues, making it difficult for financial institutions to use the data for any strategic purposes. To address this issue, the Ministry of MSME could consider gradual expansion of the MSME definition by including other globally accepted parameters such as sales turnover. This would increase the information available about the enterprise and allow for consistency with internal definitions of the financial institutions to some extent. Non-MFI NBFCs under the CGTMSE scheme to incentivize unsecured finance A dominant share (~80 percent) of the portfolio of non-microfinance NBFCs that have limited access to collateral is unsecured. Such NBFCs need regulatory incentives, such as refinancing or credit insurance, to continue supporting MSME enterprises. Financial stakeholders, including regulators and industry bodies should evaluate the potential and feasibility of NBFCs under the credit guarantee scheme, CGTMSE. Coverage under the credit guarantee could allow MSME-focused NBFCs to access additional debt funds from large financial institutions. A similar cover can be extended to RRBs, UCBs and revitalized SFCs (in case they are restructured as NBFCs). Promote intermediary entities to provide advisory support to enterprises during rehabilitation Enterprises in the sector have limited external support during sickness and rehabilitation. An external independent intermediary could be established to provide advisory support to enterprises in negotiating with financial and statutory stakeholders. The entity could offer services such as debt consolidation and restructuring of package terms and customized financial support. Financial institutions could also use the intermediarys services to assess the viability of sick enterprises and to design rehabilitation packages.


MSMEs, as a major contributor towards growth of domestic economy and employment generation, should get adequate support in terms of policy framework, incentives and other relevant aids. Steps like providing infrastructural facilities, developing various industrial parks and technology incubators under MSME cluster development programmes, creating networks of organizations that help provide training to skilled workforce to improve productivity, encourage entrepreneurship and competency in management, funding R&D investments, technology advancement may work for the betterment of the sector. The supply of formal finance to the MSME sector is constrained by multiple challenges on both the supply and demand sides. The demand-side is constrained by factors such as limited access to collateral that directly impact access to finance, as well as factors such as limited capacity of the entrepreneurs that indirectly impact access to finance. The supply-side is constrained by internal institutional challenges such as limited branch outreach and external operating environment challenges such as changes in macroeconomic scenario. Although, Indian MSMEs are finding it difficult to sell their products in the domestic and international markets because of increasing competition. To make their products globally competitive, Indian MSMEs need to up-grade their technology and put more emphasis on innovation.