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379 ISSN: 2319-1112

Antenna Theory -A comparative study


Awanish kumar kaushik 1, Anubhav kumar 2 Akhilesh Kr. Singh Yadav 3 1,2,3 Electronics and Telecommunication Deptt. Vishveshwarya Group of Institutions, Dadri Gr. Noida, India awanishkkaushik@gmail.com, Rajput.anubhav@gmail.com, yadavakhi@gmail.com,

Abstract this article presents an overview of the recent Frequency dependent and Frequency independent antenna theory. An antenna is defined by Websters Dictionary as a usually metallic device (as a rod or wire) for radiating (transmitting) or receiving radio waves or EM wave. The IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms for Antennas (IEEE Std 1451983) defines the antenna as a means for radiating or receiving radio waves. With the widespread use of Internet technology, the advancement of high-speed digital communication systems has spawned a requirement for high-frequency electronically controlled beam-forming antennas. The main concept of antenna has found the novel applications in different areas because of the need for a highly configurable, low mechanical vibration antenna. This paper explores the theory and application of antenna technology. Key-Words: Antennas, Turnstile array antenna, Spherical Triangular Array Antenna, S-Shaped Dipole Antenna, High Power Very Low Frequency/Low Frequency Transmitting Antennas, Small Antenna Superconducting Antennas I. INTRODUCTION

An antenna is a transducer device that converts guided electromagnetic energy in a transmission line to radiated electromagnetic energy in free space. Antennas may also be viewed as an impedance transformer, coupling between an input or line impedance, and the impedance of free space. There is a class of antennas whose pattern as well as impedance is practically independent of frequency for all (high and low) frequencies above a certain value. In other words the antenna is the transitional structure between free-space and a guiding device, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1- Antenna as a transition device

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380 Antenna Theory -A comparative study

The guiding device (medium) or transmission line may take the form of a coaxial line or a waveguide (hollow pipe), and it is used to transport or send the electromagnetic energy from the transmitting source to the antenna or from the antenna to the receiver. In the former case, we have a transmitting antenna and in the latter a receiving antenna. Among the factors influencing the choice of an antenna site for a microwave receiver operating on a line-of-sight path is the desirability of locating it in a region relatively free from space-wave fadeouts [l]. Although line-of-sight propagation is normally characterized by steady, high, dependable signals; deep, prolonged space-wave fadeouts are observed from time to time [2]. Since serious distributions occur during such fadeouts, a systematic discussion of fading phenomena is of considerable interest to the radio engineers. The frequency independent and frequency dependent antennas are used in applications requiring very wide bandwidths. Turnstile array, spherical triangular array antenna, the s-shaped dipole antenna, high power very low frequency/low frequency transmitting antennas, small antenna, superconducting antennas, antennas are generally classified as frequency independent and frequency dependent antennas. The term frequency-independent and frequency dependent is reserved for antennas that have no theoretical limitation on the bandwidth of operation [3]. Practically, however, the performance cannot be even approximately constant for all frequencies. There are physical bounds that limit the band over which the performance can be held almost constant. Between the band limits the performance varies in a manner that is periodic with the logarithm of the frequency. Some have shapes prescribed by equiangular spiral curves. These are called logarithmic spirals or log spirals. This paper presents an overview of the recent Frequency dependent and Frequency independent antenna theory. The paper is structured as follows. Section II presents the Turnstile array antenna. Section III presents the Spherical Triangular Array Antenna, in section IV, V, VI, define the S-Shaped Dipole Antenna, High Power Very Low Frequency/Low Frequency Transmitting Antennas, Small Antenna and Superconducting Antennas and references are drawn in section VII & VIII. II- Turnstile array The crossed-dipole antenna or the turnstile antenna invented in 1936 by Brown [4] is a valuable tool to create a circularlypolarized pattern (RHCP or LHCP). Since the invention much efforts have been made to design an efficient built-in phase shifting network [5]-[9], achieve a wider impedance bandwidth [7], nearly hemispherical coverage with droopy dipoles [10]-[14], and a good axial-ratio bandwidth [7],[9],[16]. The turnstile antenna usually operates at the fundamental (series) resonance of the dipolelike antenna. Some variations are known, such as a "rhombic" turnstile considered in [17] that in fact operate at the second (parallel) resonance. III- Spherical Triangular Array Antenna From a standpoint of radar applications of phased array antennas, hemispherical scanning with circular polarization is very important. A spherical array antenna is one of the well known examples of the fundamental conformal array antennas that are able to scan very widely with circular polarization. Conformal arrays, such as spherical arrays [l8]-[22] and conical arrays [23], [24] have the capability of hemi spherical scan coverage in the radar application. Recently, spherical arrays will be used very frequently as the antenna system of data communication between various satellites. Many research works concerning this type of array have been published [18] -[21]. Sengupta et al. [18] ~ [19] studied a spherical array of circularly polarized element, theoretically and experimentally. Stockton et al. [21] discussed a spherical array from a viewpoint of application. In these studies, however, the scanning property of the spherical array has not yet been thoroughly investigated, because of the difficulty in treating the polarizations. IV- The S-Shaped Dipole Antenna Wire antennas are of spread use in the HF, VIE and UHF frequency ranges. They can be made from either solid wire or tubular conductors. They are relatively simple in concept, easy to construct and inexpensive. They are most widely used antennas for

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IJAEEE, Volume1, Number 3 Awanish kumar kaushik et al. wireless mobile communication systems. Loop antennas can have various shapes, namely circular, angular, square, elliptical, etc. They are widely used in applications up to UHF band [25, 26]. All antenna performance parameters can be determined the derived current distribution. [27] is used to obtain all the radiation characteristics of the proposed S-shaped antennas. V- High Power Very Low Frequency/Low Frequency Transmitting Antennas The U. S. Navy uses the VLF/LF frequency range for communications from the shore to ships and submarines. One reason is that propagation is very stable, not being much disturbed by solar or other kinds of activity. Also, attenuation rates are low, allowing worldwide coverage with one or a few stations depending on the modulation format; the attenuation rate in sea water is modest, allowing submerged reception at limited depths. The low attenuation rates give rise to high background noise levels from worldwide lightning storms. Substantial transmitter power is required to provide signal levels above the noise for reception. The transmitter power levels vary from tens to hundreds of kilowatts (KW) and in a few cases, thousands of KW. The long wavelength in this frequency range results in most practical transmitting antenna designs being electrically short (i.e., much smaller than a wavelength). The antennas required for this high power, low frequency applications are physically large. All of the Navy's antennas presently being used for VLF and most of the antennas used for LF are electrically short toploaded monopoles. This type of antenna is characterized by three frequency independent parameters [Watt, Devaney]: (1) static capacitance CO, (2) effective height he, and (3) self resonant frequency fo. [28-31] VI- Small Antenna A small antenna is one whose size is a small fraction of the wavelength. It is a capacitor or inductor and it is tuned to resonance by a reactor of opposite kind. Its bandwidth of impedance matching is subject to a fundamental limitation measured by its radiation power factor which is proportional to its effective volume. The term radiation power factor is a natural one introduced by the author in 1947 [33]. A small bandwidth is logically expressed in terms of the power factor of its reactance, in the manner taught to the writer by Prof. Hazeltine just 50 years ago [32]. A Small Antenna is here defined as one occupying a small fraction of one radian sphere in space. Typically its greatest dimension is less than 4 wave length (including any image in a ground plane). Some of its properties and available performance are limited by its size and the laws of nature. An appreciation of these limitations has proved helpful in arriving at practical designs. The radian sphere is the spherical volume having a radius of 1/2n wavelength [35]. It is a logical reference here because, around a small antenna, it is the space occupied mainly by the stored energy of its electric or magnetic field. The wideband utilization of a small antenna was accomplished in a receiver about a half-century ago. That history is relevant to the more recent proposals using an amplifier in conjunction with a small antenna [36]. There are limitations on the frequency bandwidth of impedance matching between a resonant circuit (antenna) and a generator or load. A quarter-century has elapsed since these limitations were developed and clearly stated [34]. VII- Superconducting Antennas The applicability of superconductors to antennas is examined, with emphasis on the roles of external and internal fields. Six potential implementations have resulted. These are super directive arrays, millimeter wavelength arrays, electrically small antennas, matching of antennas, phasers for electronic scanning, and travelling wave array feeds. Most super directive arrays are still in practical, due to high Q and strict tolerances. Large nlillinieter arrays now appear feasible, due to a major reduction in feed losses. For electrically small antennas, high Q again limits applicability. The advent of high T, superconducting materials has prompted a reexamination of the opportunities for improving antenna performance. Areas where superconductors have been or should be considered include super directive arrays, large millimeter wavelength arrays, electrically small antennas, matching of electrically small antennas, including large transmitting antennas, and of super directive arrays, switched-line or single-line phasers for electronic scanning of arrays, and travelling wave arrays where the transmission line phase velocity controls the beam angle. The effects of using a superconductor in constructing an antenna can be easily understood by a careful consideration of the roles of external and internal fields. Take a cylindrical dipole antenna as an example. The radiated field and its associated radiation resistance, and the stored energy in the near-field and its associated reactance, are produced by the currents on the surface of the dipole; these are external fields. Fields internal to the dipole cylinder are important only in relating to the conduction loss, which is usually small. [37-43]

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382 Antenna Theory -A comparative study Conclusion The realization of frequency-independent and frequency-dependent performance from antennas, long considered by many to be impossible, was originally accomplished with rather impractical structures. REFERENCES
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[65] Neha gupta, Hashmat Usmani, Deepika Ramaiya, A novel approach of Microstrip Antenna for Dual Band operations, International Journal of Advances in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IJAEEE ,ISSN:2319-1112), Vol. 01, No. 03, pp.371-378(2012-2013).

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