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17.

0 Photosynthesis
1) 17.1 2) 17.2 3) 17.3 4) 17.4 5) 17.5 Overview of photosynthesis Absorption spectrum of photosynthesis pigments Light Dependent Reaction Light Independent Reaction/Calvin Cycle Alternative mechanisms of carbon Fixation : Hatch Slack (C4) and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) pathways

Learning outcomes :
17.3 Light Dependent Reaction Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in the conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced

NADP+

OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
The process of photosynthesis can be summarized by the equation : 6CO2 + 6H2O + LIGHT ----> C6H12O6 + 6O2 carbon water energy glucose oxygen dioxide In this equation the six-carbon glucose and oxygen are the products The energy stored in glucose and other carbohydrates can be used to produce ATP during Cellular Respiration.

Learning Outcomes :Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP +
17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP +

STAGES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
STAGE 1 : LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTIONS
Energy is captured from sunlight. Water is split into hydrogen ions, electrons, and oxygen (O2). The O2 diffuses out of the chloroplasts (by-product).

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced

NADP+

STAGE 2 : The thylakoids convert light energy into the chemical energy, which is temporarily stored in ATP (by

photophosphorylation for the Calvin cycle) and NADPH.

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced

NADP+

STAGE 3 : THE LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTIONS/ CALVIN CYCLE

The chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH powers the formation of organic compounds (sugars), CO2 are used

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced

NADP+

PHOTOSYSTEMS ARE LIGHT COLLECTING UNITS OF CHLOROPLASTS.

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced

NADP+

PHOTOSYSTEM
A photosystem composed of : Reaction centre (protein complex includes chlorophyll a & primary electron acceptor)

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced

NADP+

PHOTOSYSTEM
Surrounded by light-harvesting complexes (particular protein which bounded with chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid)

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced

NADP+

PHOTOSYSTEM
The chlorophylls and carotenoids are grouped in cluster of a few hundred pigment molecules in the thylakoid membranes Each cluster of pigment molecules is referred to as a PHOTOSYSTEM There are 2 types of Photosystems known as PHOTOSYSTEM I (PS I) and PHOTOSYSTEM II (PS II)

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced

NADP+

PHOTOSYSTEM
The chlorophyll a at reaction center of photosystem I is called P700 Most effectively absorbs light of wavelength 700nm The chlorophyll a at reaction center of photosystem II is called P680 Most effectively absorbs light of wavelength 680nm These two photosystems work together to use light energy to generate ATP, NADPH and O2

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced

NADP+

THE PHOTOSYSTEM I & PHOTOSYSTEM II

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced

NADP+

PHOTOACTIVATION
A photon/light energy strikes an antenna molecule of photosystem II and photosystem I Photon/light energy is transferred to the reaction center Photoactivation occurs to excite the electron to a higher energy level The excited electron received by the primary electron acceptor

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced

NADP+

PHOTOLYSIS OF WATER
Photolysis is a process of splitting water molecules using light energy with the release of electrons, protons and oxygen.
The proton (H+) combine with NADP+ to produce NADPH Oxygen is given off or used in respiration.

H2O

2H+ + 1 O2 2 The important of photolysis is to replace electron in photosystem II (non-cyclic photophosphorylation)

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced

NADP+

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION


Light dependent reaction occurs in thylakoid membrane/grana It consists of : - Non-cyclic photophosphorylation - Cyclic photophosphorylation

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION


(Thylakoid membrane/grana)

Non-cyclic photophosphorylation

Cyclic photophosphorylation

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

NON-CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION

In non-cyclic photophosphorylation, both photosystem I and II are used. Photolysis of water occurs which supply electron to reaction center Photon/light energy is absorbed by photosynthetic pigment (P680) Photon/light energy is transferred to the reaction center /chlorophyll a

Photoactivation occur

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

Non cyclic photophosphorylation

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

NON-CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
The excited electrons are received by the primary electron acceptor
Then are transferred along a series of electron carrier in Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Primary electron acceptor (Pq) cytochrome complex plastoquinone plastocyanin (Pc)

During this process, energy is released The energy released is used to synthesize ATP

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

Non cyclic photophosphorylation

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

NON-CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
At the same time, photon/light energy is also absorbed by chlorophyll within Photosystem I/P700 to excite the electron in the reaction center. The electron lost from PS I is replaced by electrons from PS II The electron in PS I are released and transferred to primary electron acceptor Then transferred to Feredoxin (Fd) Finally the electrons are received by (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) NADP+

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

Non cyclic photophosphorylation

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

NON-CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
At the same time, NADP+ also receives hydrogen ions from photolysis of water to form NADPH This reaction is catalysed by NADP+ reductase
Positively charged P680 chlorophyll is neutralized by electron derived from photolysis of water The O2 is a by-product and released into atmosphere throughout stomata

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

Non cyclic photophosphorylation

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
In cyclic photophosphorylati on, only involve of photosystem I
The P700 molecule on photosystem I absorbs a photon and become energized

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
The electrons are excited and accepted by the primary electron acceptor
Then passes its electron to the Feredoxin, plastoquinon cytochrome, and complex plastocyanin

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION

Then the electrons are returned back to PS I reaction center to neutralize its chlorophyll
Energy is released during transferring of electron Energy is used to generate additional ATP

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

Cyclic Photophosphorylation

Learning Outcomes : 17.3 : Explain the photoactivation of chlorophyll resulting in conversion of light energy into ATP and reduced NADP+

CYCLIC vs NON-CYCLIC
Similarities : Production of ATP by chemiosmosis Both involved in Light Dependent Reaction
Cyclic photophosphorylation Cyclic electron flow No NADPH produced Non-cyclic photophosphorylation Non-cyclic electron flow NADPH produced

Only ATP produced


Involve PS I Electron source : PS I reaction center

ATP and NADPH produced


Involve PS I AND PS II Electron source : Water

Final electron acceptor is PS I


Photolysis of water does not occur

Final electron acceptor is NADP+

Photolysis occurs