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Methadology:

In order to address the research problem (using interactive design to motivate children to read) and measuring the impact of the suggested solutions on users (children), I propose to use three different methodologies: usability testing, scenario-based design, and expert interview.

Usability Testing:
Usability testing is an evaluative method that allows teams to observe an individual experience with a digital tool with the purpose of identifying the parts of interface that frustrate or confuse users. referenceThis information can then inform any design or redesign of the interface. I propose to evaluate the users e-reading experience (UX) through observation. Three children between the ages of 6 and 12 who lack motivation to read will participate in the study. In order to provide a more natural and more comfortable environment for the participants, the facilitator and observer will visit the children at their place (school, book club or at the childs home). The instruments used for this usability testing equipment will include video cameras, laptops and the medium to test the prototype (iPad).

Methodology:
1- The facilitator will have a preliminary interview with the child. He or she will begin by introducing himself/herself and spending a few minutes chatting with the child. The goal of this initial discussion is to make the child comfortable. 2- The facilitator will then have the child reflect on his/her own motivation for reading, asking the following questions: - What do you think of reading? - Do you like to read? - Why do you/dont you like to read 3- Before the test, the facilitator will introduce the story without giving any information about the navigation. 4- During the usability test, the observer will note the following: - eye movement - facial expressions (looking for signs of interest, confusion, questioning, disinterest, fear, enthusiasm and any other feelings that may be expressed through facial ex pressions). - the number of the times the participant clicks on a page or touches the screen (for ex ample, if the default number for touching the screen is once, then more than a touch indicates an error) - any thinking aloud (Some children think aloud while they read or navigate, and this process will be documented as well.) - any requests for help during the usability test (Any facilitator intervention or assis

tance will be documented.) 5- After the test, the facilitator will do a follow-up interview with the participant and ask him/her about the experience. The questions will be communicated in simple language that matches their level. Examples of the questions are: - Did you like the story? Why or why not? - Did you enjoy the story? - Was the e-reading experience interesting? Why or why not? - Did you need help while reading the story? - Would you recommend it to your friends at school? - Would you ask your parents to give you more opportunities to do e-reading? - Did you change your opinion about reading after you were introduced to e-reading?

Note: The interview questions before the test should inform and support the research problem and the questions after the test should assure the solution efficacy. Otherwise, a further review should be done. The questions can be improved more and formulated along with an expert teacher in this field. The collected data will help me to improve the performance of the prototypel. I will be able to evaluate the decisions I made while designing the prototype. The data might inspire me to investigate another method for looking at the research problem. Gathered data will provide me with a better understanding of user needs and concerns within the given frame (the tested prototype). With this data, I will be able to make sound decisions as an editor in terms of what to features to include in the application and what to exclude.

How User Input Informs Design:

Scenario-based Design:
Scenario-based design is a narration that emphasizes the user and the users experience with a solution-first approach. Researcher insist on scenario-based design because it guides developers to co-operate in design action and reflection. I propose to create three scenarios based on the research problem.

Methodology:
1- I will identify the possible reason for the lack of motivation, and then accordingly, I will identify the involved people. 2- In each scenario, I will provide relevant background information such as their family, friends, hobbies and what they enjoy. 3- I will then build an environment around the created personas and describe what they will interact with, and where and how they will interact with it. 4- I will identify the goals that they want to achieve, the problems they want to overcome and rate them from most important to least important. 5- I will craft the scenario.

Scenario:
Annah is an 11-year-old girl. Her father is a diplomat. She goes to a school where she is not taught in her native language. The main language at the school is English. Annah is a smart girl. She learned the language very quickly. She understands when her friends and teachers talk, and she is able to process and digest the new words faster than her peers. However, Annah has a low level of phonological and phonemic awareness. In other words, she is not able to correctly pronounce the new words in the story. She often reads the word based on the first letter and not based on the phonological and phonemic rules. She always express her anger toward reading with the statement I HATE READING. Her mother realizes that Annah reads very slowly. She also notices that her daughter is distracted from understanding the reading because she is worried how to sound the new words. Unfortunately, the pronunciation problem not only affects her motivation to read, but it also affects her social life. Annah does not like to communicate or talk to her friends because they make fun of her when she mispronounces the word.

Solution:
One day, Annas mother is at the bookstore and she notices a childrens ebook that can solve her daughters problem. The ebook focuses on developing phonological and phonemic skills by clarifying the letter-sound relationship by sounding out the new words for the children. The features are offered through graphics and animation further maintaining the childrens engagement and motivation. Through scenario-based design, I will be able to control the flow of the proposed design solution. It will also provide me with different views and details of the interaction in order to control all the drawbacks that result from my design decisions.

How User Input Informs Design:

Expert Interview:
Expert interview focuses on the individuals knowledge and experience. It is important because it provides the researcher (designer) with more in-depth and technical information about the research.

Methodology:
1- I will frame and narrow the topic that I would like to cover in the interview. This will include estimating how long the interview will take. 2- I will contact the expert, introduce him to the topic, and inform him about the required time for the interview, and ask for permission to record the interview and use it in my research. 3- On the interview day, the expert will sign a consent form. The consent form will include information about recording permission, duration of interview, privacy of information and other details that protect the rights of both the expert and the researcher.

Examples of possible interview questions:


- We know that reading is an important skill for children. Could you please clarify its importance more specifically to children between the ages of 4 and 5? - How do children learn to read at this age? - What most interests children at this age? - What are the main problems that children face while reading, and how do these prob lems affect their attitude toward reading? - From your experience, how can we help children to overcome each of these problems? - What are your thoughts about edutainment theory for children (I will explain the theory, if required)? - Do you believe that we should be using technology in childrens education? Why/why not? - Do interactive ebooks (ereading) increase the level of motivation for children to read? - From your experience in teaching children, can you predict childrens attitudes toward ebooks and the features within ebooks?

How User Input Informs Design:


Interviewing an expert (an experienced teacher of children) will give more depth to the design from a technical viewpoint. It will also help me to form the language and the content of the questions that participants will be asked before and after the usability test. An expert might propose or improve a solution or point out a new problem to consider in future research. This person can also provide me with insight and many tips to effectively communicate with children.