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American Pageant Chapter 34 1933-1941

London Economic Conference 1933


Secretary of State: Cordell Hull International effort to stabilize currencies FDR worried about domestic recovery 1st

Wanted some inflationary policies,

etc. Sent scolding message to London Ended international economic cooperation for crisis

Philippines:

Economic drain Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934)


12 year economic

tutelage then withdrawal by 1946 Kept Navy bases but not army

Soviet Union

Recognized by U.S. 1933 Threat of Germany

Latin AmericaGood Neighbor Policy


Renounce Roosevelt Corollary of Monroe Doctrine 7th Pan American Conference

Endorsed non-intervention

Haititroops withdrew in 1934 Cubabetter terms than Platt Amendment Mexicoseized oil interest, but no armed intervention by U.S. FDR most popular U.S. president in Latin America Need goodwill for potential allies with growing European threat

Cordell Hull

Against high tariffs

Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act (1934)


Amended most objectionable rates from Smoot-Hawley Tariff President (w/o Senate) has power to lower rates up to 50%--speedier action Hull makes agreements with other 21 nations by 1939 U.S. foreign trade increases

Japanmilitaristic country
Terminated Washington Naval Treaty (1934) Withdrew from League of Nations (1935) Withdrew from naval disarmament conference in London & built more ships Joined Italy and Germany in Tripartite Act (1940)

Senate investigation of merchants who made $ during WWI-1934


Led by Senator Gerald Nye Sensationalized information Made illogical conclusion: If made money they caused the war

Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, 1937

If President proclaimed existence of foreign war:


No American can sail on

belligerent ship Cant sell munitions Cant make loans to a belligerent

No difference between aggressor nations or victim nation Abandoned policy of freedom of the seas

Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)


Republic government in power General Francisco Franco Fascist led revolt

U.S. refuses to sell needed arms to either side Spanish republican government fell w/o U.S. help

Aided by Hitler and Mussolini

America refused to build up armed forces and navy declined in strength

1938FDR finally gets congress to pass a billion-dollar naval construction act but it was too late

Japan
Invaded China 1937 FDR does not declare it a war so Neutrality Acts dont apply (Japanese buy war materials from US) Quarantine Speech Chicago, 1937

FDR suggest

quarantining aggressors isolationist backlash

Panay Incident December, 1937


Japanese sink U.S.

Gunboatkilling 2, wounding 30 Japanese quickly apologize & pay indemnity Sharp contrast to Maine incident

Germany

1935compulsory military service Jewish persecution March 1938bloodless occupation of Austria Munich Conference, September 1938

Hitler wants Sudetenland

(in Czechoslovakia) England & France cave to demandshope to appease Hitlers appetite March 1939Hitler takes rest of Czechoslovakia

Hitler-Stalin (aka Nazi-Soviet) Pact


(August 1939)

Soviet Union key to keeping peace Non aggression pact with Germanyshocked world Hitler now free to take Poland

September 1, 1939 Hitler invades Poland


World War II starts France & Britain declare war on Germany; U.S. neutral

Neutrality Act (1939)


European democracies can purchase war materials on a cash & carry basis Hurts Chinablockaded by Japan Demands helps recession of 1937-1939

Phony war -inactive few months followed by collapse of Poland

Soviets attack FinlandU.S. grants $30 million in nonmilitary supplies AprilJune 1940

Hitler takes Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium and

France fell late June 1940 (Hitler aided by Mussolini)

Dunkirk: French port where British were able to rescue the bulk of the French forces

Only England is left to fight (& only constitutional government left in Europe)
Constant air raids Winston Churchill: PM, inspires British over BBC

U.S. shocked to action


FDR asks for building of huge air fleet & navy Congress grants $37 billion for preparation
More than cost of WWI & 5

times the amount of New Deal

Conscription LawSeptember 19401st peace-time draft Havana Conferenceall American countries promote Monroe Doctrine

Battle of Britain German air raids over England.

Royal Air Forceheroic efforts to protect England Reports broadcast on radio to U.S. public sentiment starting to change

Isolationists v. Interventionists:

Charles A. Lindbergh; The Yanks are Not Coming. Committee to Defend America
Britain is

fighting our fight. or All methods short of war.

Destroyer Deal September 2, 1940

FDR (w/o Congress) agrees to transfer to British 51 U.S. destroyers left over from WWI Used simple presidential agreement Violation of neutrality Criticized by isolationists & some Republicans

British gave U.S. 8 valuable defense base sites for 99 years

Republicans: Wendell L. Willkie


Newcomer to politics Energetic, honest Previously a Democrat Only disagreed with FDRs methods for New Deal & foreign policy Focused on FDRs dictatorship

Democrats:

FDR3rd term Better a 3rd term than a 3rd rater FDR did not do much campaigning World crisis aided his victory
449 EV to 82 (Difference

of 5 million popular votes)

Hitler was his real opponent

Britishalmost no more $ for cash & carry FDR suggest Lend-Lease Act

Passed Congress March 1941 Worried about problems caused by WWI debts U.S. loan military supplies to Allies, who would return them after the war was over (Like a neighbor borrowing a hose to put out a fire.)

U.S. to become Arsenal of Democracy--$50 billion of supplies by wars end. Act risked war no longer neutral
Germany no

longer as careful to not target U.S. ships

Hitler & Stalinuneasy truce

Stalin didnt want Hitler to have control of Balkans

June 22, 1941Germany invades Soviet Union


Wanted oil & other resources Thought they could crush Russia in a few weeks

U.S. expands Lend-Lease to Soviet Union

$11 billion by wars end

August 1941--Roosevelt & Churchill meet on warship off coast of Newfoundland Atlantic Charter8 points on goals after war

Like Wilsons 14 points:


Opposed imperialistic annexations Self determination Right to choose government Disarmament Permanent system of general securityNew League of Nations

Isolationists criticize didnt


realize U.S. no longer neutral

Lend-lease shipments are targeted by German wolfpack submarines U.S. worried about being convoyed into war

July 1941FDR orders navy to escort shipments as far as Iceland

Sept. 1941--USS Greer attacked by undersea craft Oct. 1941USS Kearny lost 11 men in attack Oct. 1941USS Reuben James sunk off coast of Iceland with 100 officers & enlisted men

November 1941--Congress allows merchant ships to be armed & enter combat zones

September 1940: Japan formal military ally with Germany China incident: Japan could not withdraw from China with honor or victory Japan dependent on US oil, steel, scrap iron & aviation gasoline FDR delayed embargo worried about Dutch East Indies Late 1940: US embargo of Japan-bound supplies Mid-1941: Freeze all of Japanese assets

Japan desperate for oil November & December 1941tense negotiations between Washington & Japan US breaks Japanese codeknew Japan chose war NO ONE IN HIGH AUTHORITY THOUGHT ATTACK ON HAWAII WAS A POSSIBLITY (Beware of urban legends!)

December 7, 1941: Japanese attack Pearl Harbor Approximately 3000 casualties Numerous aircraft, 8 battleships, and other smaller vessels 3 Aircraft Carriershad left harbor U.S. declares war December 8, 1941 Germany & Italy declare war on U.S. December 11, 1941 Pacific fleet nearly destroyed but unified and angered the U.S.

Admiral Yamamoto

Japanese Spy photo

USS Arizona