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Evaluating Well Integrity

Dominic Dieseru Product Line Manager Wireline & TCP - United Kingdom
Decomworld - 28th Feb 2013 Ardoe House
2013 BAKER HUGHES INCORPORATED. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF USE: BY ACCEPTING THIS DOCUMENT, THE RECIPIENT AGREES THAT THE DOCUMENT TOGETHER WITH ALL INFORMATION INCLUDED THEREIN IS THE CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY PROPERTY OF BAKER HUGHES INCORPORATED AND INCLUDES VALUABLE TRADE SECRETS AND/OR PROPRIETARY INFORMATION OF BAKER HUGHES (COLLECTIVELY "INFORMATION"). BAKER HUGHES RETAINS ALL RIGHTS UNDER COPYRIGHT LAWS AND TRADE SECRET LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND OTHER COUNTRIES. THE RECIPIENT FURTHER AGREES THAT THE DOCUMENT MAY NOT BE DISTRIBUTED, TRANSMITTED, COPIED OR REPRODUCED IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY ANY MEANS, ELECTRONIC, MECHANICAL, OR OTHERWISE, WITHOUT THE EXPRESS PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF BAKER HUGHES, AND MAY NOT BE USED DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY IN ANY WAY DETRIMENTAL TO BAKER HUGHES INTEREST.

Agenda
Casing Inspection Services
Flux Leakage - Micro & High Resolution Vertilog Service Imaging Caliper Electromagnetic Measurements - Digital Magnelog Ultra Sonics

Advanced Cement Bond Log


Segmented Bond Tool

Combined Interpretation Solutions

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Casing Inspection Systems

What is the condition of your casing and tubing ?


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Casing Problems
Evaluate Condition Of Casing Strings
Mechanical
Evaluate Collapse Locate Splits Locate Separated pipe Locate Subs, Mandrels, Collars, and other Hardware. Locate Holes & Perforations Locating a Packer Seat Evaluate Tubing/Casing Prior to Workover

Corrosion
Determine Condition of casing due to Corrosion Monitor Corrosion Rate Determine Effectiveness of Corrosion Inhibition

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Features, Advantages & Benefits

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Magnetic Flux Leakage Measurement

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Micro Vertilog & Digital Vertilog - Benefits


Discriminates corrosion type :
isolated annular general corrosion.

Detects small corrosion pits on both the inside and outside Discriminates between actual corrosion and well completion equipment. Analysis provides a corrosion map, for easy Interpretation Provides depth and % penetration, as low as 3/8 @ 30% penetration Provides multiple overlapping measurements for complete 360 degree

circumferential analysis.

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Vertilog Pad Sensors


FL Passive Coils: Measure any Flux Leakage; EC active coils: Generate a 10 khz magnetic field to induce eddie currents on the internal surface of casing EC SIGNAL FL SIGNAL Signal Amplitude is proportional to % of penetration

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Acquisition & Field Deliverable


MV32 Data Acquisition MVRT-Type Deliverable Standard Log Format

Courtesy Texas Gas Transmission LLC Well # 15842

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Example Micro Vertilog

Several external pits interconnected, observe the response of EC discriminator


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Example Digital Vertilog

.148

.188

Two external pits. Lower pit real penetration is .188ins DVRT tool reading is 0.201ins 93%. accurate. Upper pit real penetration is 0.148ins tool reading is 0.155 ins 96% accurate.
Efficiency.Data accuracy.People-oriented service

Summary - Magnetic Flux Leakage


Advantages Internal/External Defects Fast - 120 ft/min 100% Coverage FL & DIS Safe
No Harm to Tubular or Coating

Disadvantages Indirect Measurement Poor Sensitivity to:


Axially Oriented Defects Mechanical Deformation

Speed dependent

Robust
Immune to Scale/Paraffin Works in any Fluid or Gas

Improving Signal/Noise with

Increasing Corrosion

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Features, Advantages & Benefits

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High Resolution FL Measurement


Speed independent

Increased logging speed (~200/min) means less time on the well Able to log slower through well head results in safer operation
Increased dynamic range of instrument allows for the operation in a

variety of downhole conditions Ability to operate in greater range of casing weights Ability to negotiate casing patches and provide inspection
No external wiring

Reduced tool maintenance Reduced down time on well site

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HR Vertilog
Increased circumferential and axial resolution

More sensors 144 FL , 48 DIS in 4 tool 144 FL , 48 DIS in 5 5 tool 288 FL , 96 DIS in 7 9 tool Smaller sensors (1 coil to 0.25 Hall Sensors) Multi-axial Sensors Results in better defect description Quantifiable defect description Field verifiable calibration Increased accuracy for length, width and depth of penetration determination Results in better input into burst pressure calculations Data base output for long term data storage and integration into other data systems

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HRVT - Tool Specifications


Length = 15.5 ft to 19.75ft Weight = 310 Lbs. Tool OD = 3 5/8 in to 5 in Maximum Temperature = 350 DegF. Maximum Pressure = 15000 psi. Minimum Casing ID = 4.5 in Maximum Casing OD = 9 5/8 in Maximum Logging Speed = 200 ft/min.

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HR Vertilog - Analysis
Advanced Analysis using information from three axes of MFL data to determine length, width and depth of penetration of features.
Depth Based Analysis Length, Width, Depth Of Penetration Pressures Based Analysis (Based on Client Selected Parameters) Four commonly used formulae to determine Casing Burst Pressure
Barlow, Canadian Z341, B31G, Modified B31G

The HR Vertilog Final Report provides detailed information on each feature in the well.

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High-Resolution Analysis
Axial

Radial

Circumferential

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Case History

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Features, Advantages & Benefits

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Image Caliper
Applications
Pipe Ovality Casing Deformation Total Metal Loss Max/Min Penetration Orientation and Inclination Pitting/Corrosion Splitting Collar Inspection Pipe Wear

Casing sizes 2 3/8 to 20

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Wellsite Log Output


Scale/Header Section All Curves displayed in raw data format

Casing collar response profile

Min / Max Presentation

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3D Image CD
Rotational Display On-Screen Data Reference Smaller ID Closure Port Sleeve Nominal ID Larger ID OD Reference

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3D Image CD

X-Sectioned Display

Nominal ID

Feature Identification

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Summary Imaging Caliper


Advantages Direct Contact with Pipe
If Caliper sees it, its there

Good Defect Depth Resolution Detection of Axially Oriented Metal

Loss such as Drill Pipe or Rod Wear Provides Direct Measurement of Pipe Geometry/Weight Changes

Disadvantages Internal Only Corrosion Products and Other Deposits Can Fill Defects Pits Can Fall Between Fingers Possible Damage to Pipe Coating/Inhibition Layer

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Features, Advantages & Benefits

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Electromagnetic Measurement

Eddy Current Phase Shift

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Digital Magnelog - Applications


Determines joints of casing with different weights and thickness. Locates casing collars ,shoe of outside casing strings and other

casing hardware on the inner string e.g. scratchers and centralizers.


Locates casing erosion and discriminates between external or internal

metal loss.
Locates casing holes larger than 2in diameter Locates severe anomalies on outside string of pipe when run alone

or when run in combination with other casing evaluation surveys.

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Digital Magnelog Tool Specifications


Tool Diameter

3.63in, 5.53 in or 8.0 in Temperature 350 DegF Pressure Rating 20,000 psi Measurement Range 4 in to 13 in Minimum Casing OD 4 in Maximum Casing OD 13 3/8 in Accuracy 10% in Single String 20% in Multiple Strings Repeatability within 5%

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Digital Magnelog
Visual Response to Severe Metal Loss from Field Data

Parted Casing

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Summary Electromagnetic Measurement


Advantages Internal/External Defects General Wall Thinning Detects Changes in Multi String Applications (Qualitative Only) Detection of Axially Oriented Metal Loss such as Drill Pipe or Rod Wear. Detects Pipe Weight Changes Disadvantages Poor Defect Resolution
Defects Must be Greater than Two (2) Inches

Defects Can not be Quantified Poor Circumferential Resolution

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Features, Advantages & Benefits

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Ultrasonic Measurement Principle of Operation


Rotating Acoustic Transducer:
Produces High Frequency Signal At or Near Resonate Frequency of Casing

Measurement Of:
Amplitude & Travel Time of Signal Impedance of Borehole Fluid

Detailed Images of:


Internal Radius Casing Thickness Internal and External Defects

100% Coverage Direct Measurement of Casing

Thickness.

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Digital CBIL - Applications


Identification and Quantification of Casing Corrosion Identifies Holes in Casing and Perforated Intervals Estimation of Casing Damage Caused by Milling or Fishing Operations. Corrosion or Damage Characterized According to Remaining Metal

Thickness
Internal or External Metal Loss Casing Profile and Casing Weight Changes

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Digital CBIL - Field Examples


Joint Identification and Depth Internal Radius of pipe and

Pipe Amplitude Image Presentation


Pipe Thickness and Image

Presentation

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Summary Ultrasonic Measurements


Advantages Internal/External Defects Very Good Remaining Wall Thickness Measurement Detects Axially Oriented Defects Direct Measure of Casing Thickness Disadvantages Sensitive to Borehole Medium Sensitive to Eccentricity Clear & Stationary Fluid Only No Dispersive Particulates / Bubbles in Fluid Diffraction at Pipe Surface Due to Scaling/Corrosion Products Absorption at Pipe Surface due to Wax/Hydrates Slow Logging Speed Decreasing Signal/Noise ratio as Corrosion Increases

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Features, Advantages & Benefits

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SBT - Tool Measurement


The Segmented Bond Tool (SBT) service provides quantitative

analysis of the cement bond in six 60 segments for 360 borehole coverage, simplifying interpretation and cutting remedial cementing and logging costs. Simultaneous 5ft VDL measurement provides indication of cement to formation bond.

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SBT - Tool Specifications


Length = 68 ft. Weight = 1050 Lbs. Tool OD = 3 3/8 in Maximum Temperature = 350 DegF. Maximum Pressure = 20000 psi. Minimum Casing ID = 4.5 in Maximum Casing OD = 24 in with extended arms Maximum Logging Speed = 36 ft/min.

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Segmented Measurements

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SBT - Benefits
True 360 Coverage (NOT point samples) Positively locates channelling and cement voids Can Log multiple casing size in one run, saving rig time. No mud weight limits or light weight fluids limits. Transmitters and Receivers in direct contact with casing Insensitive to Fast Formations Compensated attenuation measurement Corrects for poor TransmitterReceiver contacts in rough casing Relatively immune to decentralization High quality data in deviated wells. 2 measurements simultaneously: Pads - Quantitative analysis of cement bond to the casing
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Cement Compressive Strength Chart Class G Cement

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Low Impedance Cement Interpretation

3000psi 3000psi

Light Weight Cements Reduce the Dynamic Range of all Bond Log Measurements

Example only Do not use for Interpretation.


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Heavyweight Casing
Light Weight Cements + Heavy Wall casing Significantly Reduce the Dynamic Range of all Bond Log Measurements !!
3000psi 3000psi 3000psi

Example only Do not use for Interpretation.


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Manufacturing Tolerance (12.5%) + Metal Grade

SBT Presentation
1. 2. Six individual attenuation responses Relative bearing curve
(Shows Low Side)

Line Speed / Tension Gamma Ray DTMN and DTMX Casing Collar Locator

3. Attenuation average Attenuation minimum 4. Cement map 5. Variable density log


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BondViewSM
Alternative Geoscience Analysis
Re-scale cement

map to strength Filter out casing signalFormation


NB. Requires a

cement impedance input


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Interpretative Solutions

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Combination Service
Majority of our casing inspection and cement evaluation

tools can be ran in combination with other tools saving rig time.
SBT HRVRT Cement & Corrosion SBT MFC Cement & Multifinger Caliper SBT RPM Cement & Saturation logs SBT MVRT Cement & Corrosion

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Interpretative Solutions

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Remedial Solutions & Options


TeliCoil & Cameras MPC Mechanical Pipe Cutter Straddles Perforate & Squeeze
Using Customized charges

Plugs & Retainers. Liquid Stone


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Summary
Flux Leakage Measurements - MicroVertilog, DigitalVertilog
& High Resolution Vertilog Services.

Imaging Calipers - Multi Finger Caliper Electromagnetic Measurements - Digital Magnelog Ultra Sonics - Digital Circumferential Borehole Image Advanced Cement Evaluation - Segmented Bond Tool Combined Service & Interpretative products
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Questions
Thanks - Casing Inspection & Cement Evaluation

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