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Drilling Engineering (I)


Prepared by: M.Mostofi

Marking System and References


References: 1.Applied Drilling Engineering 2.Drilling Engineering, A complete well planning approach, by Adams N. J. 3. Oil Well Drilling Engineering, Principles and Practice, by Rabia H.

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Course Summery

Drilling Engineering

General Drilling

Special Drilling Topics

Drilling Mechanisms

Power

Hoisting

Circulating

Rotating

Controlling

Monitoring

Drilling Fluid

Cementing

Casing Fundamentals

Casing Design

Additional Topics maybe Directional Drilling and Hydraulic of Drilling Fluids and ROP Models

Introduction
Source Rock Migration g (p (primary, y, secondary) y) First Oil wells in the worlds and in Iran Reservoir Rock Cap Rock How to find Hydrocarbon Reservoirs
Oil Seepage Geology and Geophysics And Finally Drilling (Wildcat wells, Exploration wells, Development wells, Injection Wells)

SPE and IADC

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Importance of Drilling
Maturity of an oil industry is in Drilling Engineering Some aspects p of drilling g engineering g g
Multilateral Wells Directional Wells Horizontal Wells Stimulation of Wells Relief Wells Casing Drillings LWD and MWD Geomechanical Analysis and Wellbore stability Geomechanical Analysis and Sand Productions Geomechanical Analysis and best drilling paths

Drilling Mechanisms
Different Drilling Mechanisms:
I. II.

Precaution Drilling Rotary Drilling System

I.

Precaution Drilling Mechanism

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- Precaution Drilling
Precautions Drilling Components:
Driving mechanism Drill String() Bailer

Application of Precaution Drilling


1. 2. 3.

Sampling of Formations Drilling Shallow Reservoirs Water wells

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Questions:
Drill String Components Bailer Applications in Precaution Drilling Application of Precaution Drilling

This session quiz


Please compare the porosity and permeability of source rock,

reservoir rock, migration path rocks and cap rock .


Please write two application of precaution drilling method Please explain about SPE in two sentences
50% is the passing mark.

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Rotary Mechanism

Drilling Rigs
Rigs Marine Bottom Support Barge Jack Up Land

Floating

Conventional

Mobile

Drill Ship Semi submersible

Platform Self Contained Tendered

Jacknife

Portable mast

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Different Rig Types

Rig Systems
Power Hoisting Rotating Circulating Well Control System Monitoring

The Function of each of them

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Power Systems
Two main power consuming systems:
Hoisting Circulating

They are not simultaneously

Power by combustion diesel engines:


Diesel-Electric rigs Direct Derive Rigs

Advantages and Disadvantages??

Hoisting System
Function: Raising and Lowering casing, drill pipes , in and

out of the well Main Components of this system:


Drawwork Block and tackle Derrick and substructure

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Hoisting System
Two routine drilling operation:
Making g a connection Making a trip
Rate hole and Mouse hole!

Making a connection
Mouse Hole Air Hoist Slips Kelly Pipe rack V door

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Making a trip

The question
Braking systems Crown block Travelling block Fast line Dead Line Dead line anchor Drilling ll l line

Probe Slip and cutting program Pick Point and Lap Point Drum Pulley or Sheaves The diameter of the drilling line? Hook

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The question
Elevator Motion Compensator, p , Where? How?

Lets have the movie: E:\Technical Information\Drilling Movies\Hoisting\start.exe

Ton-Mile Calculation for Drilling line


Three main factors affecting on drilling line wear:

1. 2 2. 3.

Trip C i S Casing Setting tti Drilling

Tone during a Round Trip:

Tr Tone miles during the trip D Depth, ft Ls Length of drill pipe stand WM Drill pipe weight per foot, foot lb/ft M Travelling Block-Elevator Weight, lb C Weight of drill collar minus weight of drill pipe with same length lb/ft

TR =

D( Ls + D)WM D ( M + 1 / 2C ) + 10560000 2640000

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Block and Tackle

Block and Tackle System


Mechanical advantage
When no friction, then M=2*number of pulleys=number of lines

M=

W Ff

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Derrick Load, Derrick Efficiency


Block and Tackle Efficiency y (E) ( )

Number of Lines, Friction Mechanical Advantage

E = (0.98) n

More Information about E in Direct Drive Rigs Chains, Ch i T Torque convertors and db belts l i in Direct D Drive Rigs please refer to: Drilling Engineering, A complete Well Planning Approach, A. J. Adams

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Load Distribution

Derrick Load:

Derrick Efficiency (Ed )

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Quiz
The relation between Fast line and hook load (1 mark)The relation between fast line and hook velocity (1mark) 2. What happens on derrick efficiency and block and tackle efficiency when n increases (2marks) 3. Which leg of the derrick undergo the maximum force? (1 mark)which leg has the minimum force on it? (1mark)
1.
Answer two of them and 3 marks is the passing mark

Today Program
Solution of last quiz Example of Hoisting problems Providing new HWs Circulation System

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Questions
300,000 . 500 . 4 8 ).( Fast Line ).( )( )( Derrick )( Derrick efficiency factor . 1 hp = 33000 ft.lbf/min ft lbf/min ) (E 8 0.841

Question In English

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Solution
W=300,000lbf p = 165 *107 lbf.ft/min Pin = 500 hp n=8 and therefore E=0.841 (a) Fast line tension=? (b) Maximum Hook Horse Power? (c) Maximum Hoisting Speed? (d)Derrick Load? (e)Derrick Efficiency (Ed )
E= Pout Pin

P in =V f *F f

Solution (continue)

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Solution (continue)

HW1

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HW 2

Hw 3

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HW 4

Additional mark (HW5)

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Circulating System

Mud Tanks Mud Pumps Pulsation Dampener Stand Pipe Rotary Hose Swivel Return Mud Line Mud Removal Equipments

Another View of Circulation System

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Mud Pumps
Mud Pumps p

Application of Each Pumps Pump Factors

Centrifugal

Reciprocate

Duplex Pumps

Triplex Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps
Application: Supercharging Mud Pumps

Reciprocating Pumps and Centrifugal Pumps Combination

Fluid Supplement for Mud mixing equipment Fluid Supplement for solid controlling equipment Tank Cleaning Characteristics Low pressure pump high h h flow fl rate Cheap To some how solid dependent

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Reciprocating Pumps
Application

()

Pump p High g Pressure Mud into the hole to reach hole cleaning, g

cutting removal and other goals.


Characteristics:
Pump High Solid Content Fluid Ease Operation and Maintenance Ability to Operate in Large Range of Flow Rate and Pressure

How?

Number of Pumps on the Well


Two Mud Pumps are AVAILABLE on the site WHY TWO?

Top Hole Application

Deep Hole Application

Triplex or Duplex Pump? (Advantages and Disadvantages)

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Duplex and Triplex Pumps

Duplex(Two-way acting) and Triplex (One way acting) Pumps

Two-way acting Pump

One-way acting Pump

What is Pump Factor????

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Pump Factor
Pump Factor for Triplex Pumps

Pump Factor for Duplex Pumps

Here is the home work for you to derive above formulas

Pump Efficiency Factor


Mechanical Efficiency (90%) Volumetric Efficiency y (up ( p to 100%) )

Et = Em * Ev

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Example

Pulsation Dampener
How does it operate? Where can it be placed? Characteristics:
Removing the surging Stabilizing the suction Pressure Increasing the Pump Life

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Hooper Component
What is it for? What is the mechanism?

What about Caustic Soda?

Animation of Circulating System


Lets have the animation:

E:\Technical Information\Drilling Movies\Circulating System\start.exe

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These are the things to remember


Contaminant removal systems Shale shaker Hydro cyclones Degassers Mud tanks Chemical Tank Slug Tank Reserve Tanks, Reserve Pit Settling Tank Mud disposal methods Stand Pipe Rotary Hose Swivel Suction Line Suction Tank Bulk lk Tanks T k Mud House Number of Mud Tanks???

These are the things to remember


Pulsation Dampener Suction Dampener p Supercharging Mud pumps Piston and Liners Relief Valve Discharge Line Agitator Centrifuge PVT(Pit volume totalizer) Hooper

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Rotary System
Rotary Table Swivel Kelly Choke Kelly Lower Kelly Choke Kelly Saver Sub Drill Pipe BHA(Bottom Hole l Assemble) bl Kelly Bushing Kelly Master Bushing

How to rotate the drill string


Kelly K ll Kelly Saver Sub Kelly Drive Bushing Master M t Bushing B hi Rotary Table

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Other Components

Animations of Rotary System


E:\Technical Information\Drilling Movies\Rotating

equipment and mast structure\start.exe

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The question.
Kelly Kelly Bushing Slips Air Hoist Air Wrentch Mouse Hole Rat Hole l

Monkey Board Stabbing Board Walkaround Board Fingers Stand and Single (pipe) Kell Bushing Kelly Bushing, Master Bushing Draw Work

Application of Each Components


Swivel Upper Kelly Chock Kelly Lower Kelly Chock Kelly Saver Sub

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Example from applied drilling

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Solution Continue

Solution Continue

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Home Work 6

HW6 continue

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HW6 continue

Homework7

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HW7 Continue

Well Control System


What is Kick and How Harmful is it? What is Fluid Loss and How Harmful is it? What is Blow out? Have you seem a blow out? lets see one.

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Blow out

Causes of Kick
Failure to keep the well full Swabbing the formation fluid into the well Insufficient mud density Poor well planning (Casing and Mud weight) Lost Circulation and Formation Fracturing
SURGE PRESSURE VS SWAB PRESSURE

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Kick Detection
Drilling Fluid Volume increase. (Pit Volume indicator or

di i i ) digitizer)
Comparison of flow in and flow out of the well Drilling Brake, sudden increase in the rate of penetration Comparison of mud weight in and out of the well. Change in ion concentration (occasionally) Volume change while tripping in trip tank
What is Trip Tank

What do you do when you get a kick?


Static Scenario: Closing the well and taking the time for

making decision
Flowing Scenario without well controlling consideration Using Well Controlling Methods
Or alternatively, run and go home and take a rest?

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Primary Well Control GOAL


Mud in Mud Window No Kick Entry No Blow Out

What is Mud Window?

Secondary Well Control GOAL


Circulate the kick while BHP is constant and no kick inter the wells and finally shift to primary well control.

Shift to Primary Well Control!!? What does it mean? ?

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Well Control
Primary Well Control Secondary Well Control
BOP Drilling Fluid

Overbalanced Drilling Principle Advantage, Disadvantage

BOP Equipments
Blow Out Preventers:

Ram Preventers Annular(Bag type) BOP Blind Ram Shear Ram Rotating Head

Accumulator Chock Line and Manifold Casing Head Control Panel Internal BOPs

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Annular Preventer
Provides Striping 2000, 5000, 10,000 psi

Why Striping?

Bag g type yp BOP=Annular Preventer= Hydrill(the y ( brand name) )

Pipe Ram Type BOP


Seals around the pipe at 2000, 5000, 10000 and 15000 psi

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Blind and Shear Ram


Blind Ram for closing the well when no string in the well Shear ram to cut the drilling g string g and closing g the well in

emergency occasion. Blind ram can seal when string in well, only collapse the string!

Casing Spool and Casing Head


BOP Stag is fixed on Casing Head or casing spools. Lets have the casing g running g steps p

to have the casing spool functions 1. Surface casing and then casing head 2. Intermediate spool on casing head and BOP on the Intermediate spool 3. Production spool p on Intermediate spool p and BOP on the Intermediate spool 4. Tubing spool on Production spool and X-mas tree on tubing spool.
Casing Head

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A schematic of casing sequences

X-mas Tree

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Well head schematic


Casing spool and pp g stripping

Do not forget Conductor pipe

Chock, Chock line, Kill Line, Chock manifold and Back Pressure
Choke valve

Hydraulic controlling valve on choke flow line

Application of Kill line

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Accumulator
N2 gas capsules to hydraulically close and open:
Pipe, Blind, Shear ram Adjust annular BOP Adjust Hydraulic chokes

N2 pushes an inert oil to close and open the valves A pump is used to charge the N2 capsules

Control Panel and Drilling Consol


Control Panel, one on the rig floor, one

out one out of the rig g floor

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Internal BOPs
Float Valve Upper pp kelly y cock Lower kelly cock (drill stem valve) Internal BOPs (ball type, dart type)

Mud Gas separator


To T clean l the h contaminated i d mud. d Distinguish it from DEGASER

Well Control Methods


o Well Control Methods
Driller Method Wait and Weight Method Volumetric Method

o Drillers method:

Circulate the kick with old contaminated drilling fluid and then replace the old drilling fluid with heavier drilling fluid.
o Wait W it and d Weight W i ht method: th d

Circulate the kick with heavier drilling fluid. One circulation then the well is in primary well control system.

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Two Important Rules in all well Circulating methods

P C

P C

Means constant BHP and no new flux entry

P frac

Means maximum annulus pressure at the casing shoe should be lower than fracture pressure.

P m P f

Why Casing shoe is critical point in the annulus? When should the kick flux be to have maximum pressure on the casing shoe? PC + PM < PFracture

PM + PC + PK > PF

Well Monitoring System


It is all about mud logger system which provides MUD

LOGS The data we see on mud logging system:


WOB and Hook Load Rotary Speed What important III. Flow Rate in and out information are available IV. ROP from each mentioned V. MW in and MW out parameters ? p VI. Well Head Pressure VII. Torque of well string VIII. Temperature in and out IX. Gas composition on the shale shaker
I. II.

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Geologist and Well Monitoring System


Geologist is the eyes of the Driller, because:

Analysis y the cutting g from drilling g fluid circulation 2. According to thin section analysis, he finds where we are exactly. 3. How much drill to reach the casing depth. 4. Is there any fault and help to improve geological model of the well (if exists any!!) What is lag time and how it can be calculated?
1.
Do you have some corns?

Drilling Fluid
To cool and Lubricate the bit and drill string Primary y well controlling g system y Prevent the fluid loss zone by mud cake formation Provide the hydraulic power to enhance the drilling Transport and suspend the cuttings Check the lithology (Well Monitoring System) Well bore stability Cementing and Completion

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Drilling Fluid Types


Special BOP g ( g head) ) stage(Rotating
Drilling Fluid

Overbalanced Drilling Fluids

Underbalanced Drilling Fluids

Water Based Drilling Fluid

Oil Based Drilling Fluids

Foam

Air

Mist

Flow Regimes
Plug Flow
Low Velocities and high viscosity Flat Fl Velocity Vl i P Profile fil Velocity at the wall is the same as middle

Do you remember Fluid Mechanics?

Laminar Flow
After Plug flow

Definition of laminar flow in fluid mechanics

Parallel of layers and bullet shape velocity profile Velocity is zero at the walls and maximum in the middle

Transition Flow ( (after Laminar and before Turbulent) ) Turbulent Flow


Eddies and turbulences No parallel of layers

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Fluid First Law of Newton in Mechanic

=
Viscosity, Important Drilling fluid characteristics

F u u = A x t
1. Pressure Drop 2. Hydraulic Impact Force 3. Displacing Different Fl id Fluids 4. Mud Weight and Viscosity 5. Permeability Calculation 6. Fracture Pressure Estimation

Fluid Models
Newtonian Fluid Bingham Fluid Power Law

What is Thixotropic Behavior? What is Dilatant ?

u = x

= YP + p
= K n

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How to measure the Viscosity?


Marsh Funnel Rotary y Viscometer

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