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To study the basic components of ice plant trainer. I.e. compressor, condenser, expansion valve, and evaporator. To study the basic components of simple vapour compression refrigeration cycle. I.e. compressor, condenser, expansion valve, and evaporator. To determine the coefficient of performance of domestic electrolux refrigerator. To study the basic components of refrigeration and air conditioning systems. To study the basic components of automotive air conditioning cycle. I.e. compressor, condenser, expansion valve, and evaporator. To study & find out the efficiency of cooling tower.

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AIM:- To study the basic components of ice plant trainer. I.e. compressor, condenser, expansion valve, and evaporator. TECHNICAL DETAIL:1. Compressor: - hermetically sealed compressor1/3 tr (low temp. Type) to work on 220v ac 50 hz operate on refrigerant r-134 a with standard electrical accessories. 2. Condenser: - suitable fins and tube type air-cooled condenser. 3. Fan motor: - 1/35 h.p condenser fan motor with fan. Capillary expansion valve. 4. Expansion valve: - Capillary expansion valve. CONTROLS AND STANDARD ACCESSORIES 1. Energy meter for compressor. 2. Eureka makes glass tube rota meter to measure flow rate of r 134a refrigerant in kg /min. 3. Filter drier. 4. Pressure gauges suction and discharge imported especially for r 134 a refrigerant. 5. Hp lp cut out (danfoss make) 6. Digital temperature indicator (eutech make) at various points in 0c with pt. 100 probes. 7. Digital voltmeter. 8. Digital amp meter for compressor. 9. 32 amp dp switch, 15 amp power switches for other parts. Evaporator:- the evaporator fitted as a small ice plant which is made out of stainless steel from inner and outer. Heavy duty insulation is provide in between the inner tank and outer tank to minimize the heat losses. And copper tubes are fitted inside the inner tank to give refrigerant effect. THEORY: Introduction to ice plant :- In early days, ice was the only means for producing cold, although mechanical refrigeration have replaced many of usages of ice now a days, still ice is used for many purpose e.g. short term preservation of foods in cold beverage etc. Hence, manufacture of ice occupies a large portion of refrigeration applications. Commercially, ice is manufactured by+ two methods as 1. Can ice 2. Plate ice But the plate ice system has become now a day almost obsolete and most of the ice plants use cans systems. Unicool ice plant tutor also uses ice can system. The cans filled with fresh water are kept in a tank, in which brine is circulated. The brine is cooled by the refrigerant, which in turn cools the water in cans and ice formation takes place.Commercial ice is produced by freezing potable water is standard cans placed in rectangular tanks. The tanks are filled with chilled brine, which is kept in constant motion by an agitator. The agitation helps in increasing the heat transfer from the water in the can to the chilled brine. Brine temperature is maintained by the refrigeration plant, at - 110 to -100c. To get clear transparent ice, water in the can is agitated by the use of low pressure air through the tubes suspended from the top. Ice of potable water (treated or untreated) frozen at a temperature lower than - 120c can crack. Therefore brine temperature is kept at a higher level, say -110 to - 100c. Water in the ice cans placed in the brine cools rapidly up to a temperature of about 3 0 to 40c. Thereafter it takes more time for the water to touch 00c. Preparation of brine: all the ice plants use indirect refrigeration system. In this some refrigerating medium, called secondary refrigerant or brine is cooled down by direct expansion of refrigerant and it is then pumped to the space to be cooled. These systems are used where danger due to leakage of refrigerant is important and in locations of fluctuating temperatures. In addition to acting as a heat carrying medium brine should have certain other properties also. The freezing point of brine should be low enough so that it will not freeze at the lowest

temperature in the cycle. Also it should be non-corrosive and should not be subject to precipitation when contaminated with refrigerant through accidental leakage. For preparation of brine, the ice cans filled with water are placed over the ice can frames and fresh water is filled in the main tank to the required level. Put about 7-10 kg of nacl in main tank start the stirrer so that water is circulating in the tank. One of the disadvantages of brine is, it readily attacks the material of construction. To prevent corrosion, the main freezing tank is already coated with fibre glass lining inside. To prevent the further effect of corrosion brine should be drained after performing the experiment. Unicool air conditioning test rig

Temperatureentropy diagram That results in a mixture of liquid and vapour at a lower temperature and pressure as shown at point 5. The cold liquid-vapour mixture then travels through the evaporator coil or tubes and is completely vaporized by cooling the warm air (from the space being refrigerated) being blown by a fan across the evaporator coil or tubes. The resulting refrigerant vapour returns to the compressor inlet at point 1 to complete the thermodynamic cycle.

The above discussion is based on the ideal vapour-compression refrigeration cycle, and does not take into account real-world effects like frictional pressure drop in the system, slight thermodynamic irreversibility during the compression of the refrigerant vapour, or non-ideal gas behavior (if any). OBSERVATION TABLE :P2 1. 2. 3. T1 T2 T3 T4 Mr

Where, P1=suction pressure P2=dischage pressure T1= temperature before entering to compressor T2=temperature after exit from compressor T3=temperature after condensor T4=temperature after expansion valve Mr =rotameter reading (kg/min.) CALCULATIONS :Coefficient of performance: - the coefficient of performance is defined as the ratio of heat extracted in the evaporator to the work done on the refrigerant. C.o.p. = q/W Using points (p1, t1); (p2, t2); t3and t4 locate points 1,2,3,4 on the p-h. Chart for r-134 a and obtain the enthalpy valuesh1, h2, h3, h4 c.o.p.= h1-h4 /h2-h1 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS: P1 = 0.5 bar +1.01 bar = 1.51 bar (absolute) P2 = 10 bar + 1.01 bar = 11.01 bar (absolute) T1= 050c T2= 640c T3= 360c T4= -60c Locate points 1,2,3,4 on the p-h. Chart for r-134 a refrigerant and obtain the enthalpy values H1=360kj/kg H2=385kj/kg H3=h4=240kj/kg C.o.p.=h1-h4/h2-h1= 360-240/385-360=120/25=4.80

AIM:- To study the basic components of simple vapour compression refrigeration cycle. I.e. compressor, condenser, expansion valve, and evaporator. TECHNICAL DETAIL:1. Compressor: - hermetically sealed compressor1/3 tr to work on 220v ac50hz operate on refrigerant r-134 a with standard electrical accessories. 2. Condenser: - fins tube type air-cooled condenser. 3. Fan motor: -condenser fan motor with fan. 4. Receiver: - receiver to store liquid refrigerant is fitted in liquid line with 2 nos. Service valve. I. Thermostatic exp. Valve danfoss make with adjustable evaporator load screw on suction line is provided. II. Capillary expansion valve. Controls and standard accessories 1. Energy meter for compressor. 2. Energy meter for heater. 3. Eureka makes glass tube rotameter to measure flow rate of r 134a refrigerant in kg /min. 4. Filter drier. 5. Pressure gauges suction and discharge imported especially for r 134 a refrigerant. 6. Hp lp cut out 7. Digital temperature indicator (eutech make) at various points in 0c with pt. 100 probes. 8. Digital voltmeter. 9. Digital amp meter for compressor. 10. Digital amp meter for heater. 11. 32 amp dp switch, 15 amp power switches for other parts. 12. Solenoid valve agitator motor. 13. Gas charging valve. Evaporator: - fins and tube type air-cooled evaporator. THEORY: Vapour compression refrigeration cycle :-A vapour compression refrigeration system is an improved type of air refrigeration system in which a suitable working substance, termed as refrigerant is used. It condenses and evaporates at temperatures and pressures close to the atmospheric conditions.The refrigerant used does not leave the system but is circulated throughout the system alternately condensing and evaporating. The vapour compression refrigeration system is now days used for all-purpose refrigeration. It is used for all industrial purpose fr0om a small domestic refrigerator to a big air conditioning plant.The vapour compression refrigeration cycle is based on the following factor: 1. Refrigerant flow rate. 2. Type of refrigerant used. 3.Kind of application viz air-conditioning, refrigeration, dehumidification etc. 4. The operation design parameters. 5. The system equipments/ components proposed to be used in the system. The vapour compression refrigeration cycle is based on a circulating fluid media, viz, a refrigerant having special properties of vaporizing at temperatures lower than the ambient and condensing back to the liquid form, at slightly higher than ambient conditions by controlling the saturation temperature and pressure. Thus, when the refrigerant evaporates or boils at temperatures lower than ambient, it extracts or removes heat from the load and lower the temperature consequently providing cooling. The super-heated vapour pressure is increased to a level by the compressor to reach a saturation pressure so that heat added to vapour is dissipated/ rejected into the atmosphere, using operational ambient conditions, with cooling medias the liquid from and recycled again to form the refrigeration cycle. The components used are:

1. Evaporator 2. Reciprocating device 3. Condenser and receiver 4. Throttling device The refrigeration cycle can be explained schematically in the two diagrams i.e.. Pressure enthalpy diagram Temperature entropy diagram The working of vapour compression refrigeration cycle and function of each above component is given below. (a)evaporator: The liquid refrigerant from the condenser at high pressure is fed through a throttling device to an evaporator at a low pressure. On absorbing the heat to be extracted from Media to be cooled, the liquid refrigerant boils actively in the evaporator and changes state. The refrigerant gains latent heat to vaporizes at saturation temperature/ pressure and further absorbs sensible heat from media to be cooled and gets fully vaporized and super heated. The temperature-pressure relation chart table can determine the pressure and temperature in the evaporator. These are different type of evaporators used for different application and are accordingly designed. These are in the form of cooling coils (finned or prime surface type) made out of copper or steel, or shell and tube coolers (flooded or direct expansion type), raceway type of baud let coolers, for ice accumulation or ice banks etc. (b) compressor The compressor is known as the heart of the refrigeration system. It pumps the refrigerant vapour in refrigeration cycle as the heart pumps blood in the body. The low temperature, pressure, superheated vapour from the evaporator is conveyed through suction line and compressed by the compressor to a high pressure, without any change of gaseous state and the same is discharge into condenser. During this process heat is added to the refrigerant and known as heat of compression ration to raise the pressure of refrigerant to such a level that the saturation temperature of the discharge refrigerant is higher than the temperature of the available cooling medium, to enable the super heated refrigerant to condense at normal ambient condition. Different types of compressors are reciprocating, rotary and centrifugal and are used for different applications. (c) condenser The heat added in the evaporator and compressor to the refrigerant is rejected in condenser at high temperature/ high pressure. This super heated refrigerant vapour enters the condenser to dissipate its heat in three stages. First on entry the refrigerant loses its super heat, it then loses its latent heat at which the refrigerant is liquefied at saturation temperature pressure. This liquid loses its sensible heat, further and the refrigerant leaves the condenser as a sub cooled liquid. The heat transfer from refrigerant to cooling medium (air of water) takes place in the condenser. The sub-cooled liquid from condenser is collected in a receiver (wherever provided) and is then fed through the throttling device by liquid line to the evaporator. There are several methods of dissipating the rejected heat into the atmosphere by condenser. These are watercooled, air cooled or evaporative cooled condensers. In the water-cooled condenser there are several types viz. Shell and tube, shell and coil, tube in tube etc. In Evaporative cooled condenser, both air and water are used. Air-cooled condensers are prime surface type, finned type or plate type. The selecting of the type depends upon the application and availability of soft water. (d) throttling device The high-pressure liquid from the condenser is fed to evaporator through device, which should be designed to pass maximum possible liquid refrigerant to obtain a good refrigeration effect. The liquid line should be properly sized to have minimum pressure drop. The throttling device is a pressure-reducing device and a regulator for controlling the refrigerant flow. It also reduces the pressure from the discharge pressure to the evaporator pressure without any change of state of the pressure refrigerant. The types of throttling devices are: capillary tubes thermostatic expansion valves hand expansion valves

hand valves. The most commonly used throttling device is the capillary tube for application upto approx. 10 refrigeration tons. The capillary is a copper tube having a small dia-orifice and is selected, based on the system design, the refrigerant flow rate, the operating parameters (such as suction and discharge pressures), type of refrigerant, capable of compensating any variations/ fluctuations in load by allowing only liquid refrigerant to flow to the evaporator. Summary The working pressures, temperatures and states of the refrigerant in different parts of the refrigeration cycle are shown. In fig. There are mainly two pressures operating in the refrigeration cycle, commonly known as the high side and the low side. The high side is referred to high pressure prevailing from compressor onward right up to the inlet of the throttling device and from the throttling device up to the suction of the compressor is called the low side. OBSERVATION TABLE: 1. 2. 3. P1 P2 T1 T2 T3 T4 Mr

Where, P1=suction pressure P2=dischage pressure T1= temperature before entering to compressor T2=temperature after exit from compressor T3=temperature after condensor T4=temperature after expansion valve Mr =rotameter reading (kg/min.) CALCULATIONS: Coefficient of performance: - the coefficient of performance is defined as the ratio of heat extracted in the evaporator to the work done on the refrigerant. C.o.p. =q /W Using points (p!,t1) ; (p2,t2) ;t3and t4 locate points 1,2,3,4 on the p-h. Chart for r-134and obtain the enthalpy values h1, h2, h3, h4 Theoretical c.o.p.= h1-h4/h2-h1 mr x (h1-h4) Actual c.o.p. = --------------------vxi

Where, Vxi =work input to the compressor Work input by compressor can also be measure by the energy meter. Electrical input power, ip = 10 x 3600 Te emc Where, energy meter constant (emc) = ____________ rev / kw / hr. te = time revolution for indications to complete 10 revolutions Taking motor efficiency as 75% we have input shaft power Sp = elect. I.p x 0.75


P1=20psi=20 x 6895x10e-6 = .14mpa (gauge) =. 14+. 1=. 24mpa (absolute) P2=150psi= 150x6895x10e-6=1.03mpa (gauge) =1.03+. 1=1.13mpa (absolute) T1= 240c T2= 710c T3= 390c T4= -60c Locate points 1,2,3,4 on the p-h. Chart for r-134and obtain the enthalpy values H1=370kj/kg H2=390kj/kg H3=h4=239kj/kg
C.o.p.=h1-h4/h2-h1= 370-239/390-370=131/20=6.55

AIM:- To determine the coefficient of performance of domestic electrolux refrigerator. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION: Refrigerator:- 41 ltr. Hungary make electrolux refrigerator three fluid system. 1. Ammonia (nh3) 2. Water (h2o) 3. Hydrogen (h2) o Heating externally heated by electric resistance. o Evaporator coil type evaporator o Voltage input 65 watts. o Electrical consumption 0.8 kwh / 24 hours. o Electrical voltage single phase 220 volts ac 50 hz. o Defrost auto defrost with fuzzy logic system. Controls panel board: - consists of following meters. 1. Digital voltmeter 2. Digital ammeter 3. Digital temp. Indicator (pt 100). 4. Main switches 32 amp. THEORY:The vapour absorption refrigeration system is one of the oldest method of producing refrigerating effect. The principle of vapour absorption was first discovered by michael faraday in 1824 while performing a set of experiments to liquefy certain gases. A french scientist ferdinand carre developed the first vapour absorption refrigeration machine in 1860. This system may be used in both the domestic and large industrial refrigerating plants. The refrigerant, commonly used in a vapour absorption system, is ammonia. The vapour absorption system uses heat energy, instead of mechanical energy as in vapour compression systems, in order to change the conditions of the refrigerant required for the operation of the refrigeration cycle. In the vapour absorption system, an absorber, a pump, a generator and a pressure-reducing valve replace the compressor. These components in vapour absorption system perform the same function as that of a compressor in vapour compression system. In this system, the vapour refrigerant from the evaporator is drawn into an absorber where it is absorbed by the week solution of the refrigerant forming a strong solution. This strong Solution is pumped to the generator where it is heated by some external source. During the heating process, the vapour refrigerant is driven off by the solution and enters into the condenser where it is liquefied. The liquid refrigerant then flows into the evaporator and thus the cycle is completed. WORKING: The domestic absorption type refrigerator was invented by two swedish engineers carl munters and baltzer van platan in 1925 while they were studying for their under-graduate course of royal institute of technology in stockholm. The idea was first developed by the electrolux company of luton, england. This type of refrigerator is also called three- fluids absorption system. The main purpose of this system is to eliminate the pump so that in the absence of moving parts, the machine becomes noise-less. The three fluids used in this system are ammonia, hydrogen and water.

The ammonia is used as a refrigerant because it possesses most of the desirable properties. It is toxic, but due to absence of moving parts, there are very little changes for the leakage and the total amount of refrigeration used is small. The hydrogen being the lightest gas is used to increase the rate of evaporation of the liquid ammonia passing through the evaporator. The hydrogen is also non-corrosive and insoluble in water. This is used in the low-pressure side of the system. The water is used as a solvent because it has the ability to absorb ammonia readily.

The strong ammonia solution from the absorber through heat exchanger is heated in the generator by applying heat from an external source usually a gas burner. During this heating process, ammonia vapour are removed from the solution and passed to the condenser. A rectifier or a water separator fitted before the condenser removes water vapour carried with the ammonia vapour, so that dry ammonia vapour are supplied to The condenser. These water vapour, if not removed, they will enter into the evaporator causing freezing and choking of the machine. The hot weak solution while passing through the exchanger is cooled. The heat removed by the weak solution is utilized in raising the temperature of strong solution passing through the heat exchanger. In this way, the absorption is accelerated and the improvement in the performance of a plant is achieved. The ammonia vapour in the condenser is condensed by using external cooling source. The liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser flows under gravity to the evaporator where it meets the hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas which is being fed to the evaporator permits the liquid ammonia to evaporate at a low pressure and temperature according to daltons principal. During the process of evaporation, the ammonia absorbs latent heat from the refrigerated space and thus produces cooling effect. The mixture of ammonia vapour and hydrogen is passed to the absorber where ammonia is absorbed in water while the hydrogen rises to the top and flows back to the evaporator. The main disadvantage of electrolux refrigerator is: *It can not be used for industrial purpose as the cop of the system is very low. OBSERVATION: T1 = evaporator temperature = ______________ 0c = _____________ 0k T2 = condenser temperature = ______________ 0c = _____________ 0k T3 = generator temperature = _______________ 0c = ____________ 0k Where, t1 < t2 < t3 CO-EFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE c.o.p =t1/ t2 t1 x t3 t2 / t3 Schematic diagram of vapour absorption refrigeration system

AIM: To study the basic components of refrigeration and air conditioning systems. THEORY: Capillary tubes expansion devices Though the capillary tube is not a valve, it does answer the

purpose of expansion valve in, domestic units and in some small commercial units such a refrigerator water cooler, cooling equipments. It is a coil or a length of a fine tubing that a very small orifice, usually 0.30 to 0.10 in- in diameter. The high pressure is dissipated in forcing the liquid through this small orifice and a predetermined amount of liquid of at a reduced pressure is allowed to flow to the evaporator. The capacity is determined by the diameter and changing the entire tube cannot change except length of tubing used and once installed, capacity. The operation of capillary tube is simple and full proof. It is simple in construction and no maintenance is required. System using this device does not require receiver. The disadvantages associated with this device, the refrigerant must be free from moisture and dirt otherwise it will chock the tube and stop the flow of refrigerant. It cannot be used with high fluctuating load conditions. Hand expansion valve/ needle valve A hand expansion valve is a globe valve with a needle seat in a smaller sizes and a plug type tapered seat in the longer sizes. The chief advantages of a hand expansion valve is simple construction, there is very little can get out of order. The main disadvantage is that an operator must available at all the times to make the necessary adjustments to met changing load conditions. At one time it was the only expansion valve available, but it rapidly being replaced by automatic devices. This valve is still used in large system as by pass valve around automatic control valve to allow operation in case of automatic valve failure and during repairs. Some flooded evaporator control system also as a hand expansion valve, for trotting and for liquid control. These have a float switch and solenoid as the over riding control. Thermostatic expansion valve The thermostatic expansion valve controls the flow of refrigerant through the evaporator will always in super heated condition. Its operation is used on maintaining a constant degree of super heat at the evaporator outlet. The valve motion is to allow to law or less refrigerant to maintain constant degree of super heat at the evaporator outlet is controlled by the pressures. (1) pressure in the bulb (2) spring tension (3) pressure in the evaporator. Under normal operating condition the pressure exerted by vapour in the controlling bulb on the diaphragm is balanced by the spring tension and the pressure in the evaporator. Over load protector The basic function of an over load protector is to protect compressor motor from damaged, due to over current draw and over heating over its operating range and under over load conditions of temporary valve which might

occur occasionally. It is always try to select an overload protector which will cut off compressor supply before it reaches the critical winding temperature level and the some time ensuring that the over load does not interfere at the acceptable winding temperature over its entire operating range. Pressure relief valve This type of valve is a positive action. open-close device it operates at pressure differential of 3-1-3 mpa by passing 95% of the discharge gas to suction side of the compressor. This valve will protect the compressor due to sustained high head discharge pressure. The valve has ability to open during slugging and vent the head gasket and other failures. The valve is indentent as a supplementary safety device. It does not, however, obviate the need to take all recommended precautions against refrigerant, migration and flood bank. Hand shutt off valve This valve is used for to close open (on-off) the circle of refrigeration & air conditioning. It can be used at various places as per requirements. Filter drier Filter drier is highly capable of keeping the system to low level of dryness. The excellent quality of desiccants used which have the best properties to remove moisture, acid and foreign contaminants. The incorporate brass screen and phospher bronze screen in let and out let side for effective filtration of course and fine impurities as small as 20 microns. The conical spring compresses the desiccant to such extent that the individual particles cannot more during the passage of the refrigerant thus eliminating the possibility of power formation. All internal parts are rust and heat resistant and are unaffected during brazing of drier with system. Filter drier are principally used on refrigeration and air conditioning system because of their excellent filtering, during and acid removing characteristics. They are available in two type of desiccants i.e. molecular sieves silica gel. Receiver valve This can be used for to fill the refrigerant gas or to use for to discharge the refrigerant from cylinder/ receiver. A/c filter drier & refrigerant filter-drier Single piece spun construction of copper eliminating corrosion problem from moisture. One piece construction Avoids fitting joint leaks. This filter drier is used only in some refrigerant and air conditioner units such as domestic refrigerator and window type air conditioner units & commercial freezer. Ptc relay Ptc relay is the need for improved or higher starting torque on some typical occasions where psc applied compressors are expected to start at extreme low voltage or under circumstances beyond normal start conditions

ptc start assist device is not introduce to replace the difference combination of csr electrical accessories viz. Start capacitor and start relay currently used on psc design compressor. Dial type thermometer Many process require on of giving temperature indication at a point remote from the temperature sources while maintaining acceptance accuracy our it entire range, dial thermometers have been economically. The complete thermometric system comprises a sensing phiel, a length of capillary tubing, a bourden tube and a mechanical movement. Any change in the temperature produces a change in the vapour pressure in phial, which acts upon the burden tubes and results in proportional movement of the pointer over the scale. Industrial thermostat The purpose of industrial thermostat is same as refrigerant thermostat. The industrial thermostat is used mostly in plant air conditioning. Relay for starting of motors in refrigerant At the time of starting, the motor takes heavy passes through the coil which pulls up the plunger and the controls are closed bringing the starting winding into current. Once the motor catches the speed, the current is reduced which automatically release the plunger and the starting winding is cut off. Only running winding is kept in the circuit. Over current element which is a bimetallic strip disconnect the supply to the motor when excessive current is taken by the motor. Bimetallic strip and the contacts are broken. Discharge valve This valve is divides the compressor from the rest of the system for that the machine may be shut down and worked on without interference from refrigerant. High pressure control / cut off A high pressure cut out is a pressure control device used as a safety control on the discharge line of a compressor or a group of compressor. In case of condenser failure, or other operating conditions that cause the discharge pressure to rise above a set point the high pressure cut out, opens the compressor motor controls circuit to prevent further pressure increase. The control can also be wired to actuate an alarm circuit. Low pressure control cut / out A low pressure cut out is a similar type pressure controller. It is so arranged that the contact are opened when the pressure falls below a given point. It is sometimes used a safety control to prevent the suction pressure from falling to a point where the compressor ratio will be too great for the compressor design. It also prevents the suction pressure from falling to a point where other damage can occur from low temperature such as freezing up

of a water cooler. This cut out is often used as the control device to stop the compressor when pressure (and therefore temperature) conditions have been satisfied. These controls also have an adjustable range and differential. Starting capacitor It gives starting torque to the motor and cut off after running the motor. Running capacitor The function of the running capacitor is to give regular torque to the fhb motor or split phase induction run motor. It connected in paralleled. Y type strainer The function of the y type strainer is to prevent foreign practical going to the expansion valve. The y type strainer fixed in the liquid line of the package air conditioner, central & other industrial & commercial air conditioners. Suction gauge The function of the suction gauge is to show the low side pressure of the system. It works on spring tension as shown in equipment fitted on the board. Pressure gauge The function is to show high pressure of the system in terms of kg/cm2 or bar. Check valve The function of the check valve is to prevent the liquid into the line. It works on pressure of the liquid. The spring lift up when pressure exists and allow liquid to pass and prevent the way when pressure drop. It is also called saving device. Angle valve Angle valve on the liquid line located between the liquid shut off valve and the strainer is very helpful in charging the system with liquid refrigerant. All these valves have seal caps with seal washers to prevent any leakage of the refrigerant through the gland of the valve stem. The flare ends should be capped in the angle valves provided for servicing purpose.

HEAT EXCHANGERS A heat exchanger may be defined as equipments, which transfers the energy from a hot fluid with maximum rate and minimum investment and running cost. In heat exchangers the temperature of each fluid changes as it passes

through the exchangers and hence the temperature of dividing wall between the fluids also changes along the length of the exchanger.

Oil seperator Oil separator is provided on the hot gas line to arrest oil carried by the refrigerant hot gas from the compressor. Like in the accumulator, the heavier oil drops down into the oil separator shell because of the low gas velocity in the shell. Oil catching screens or centrifugal separation is also adopted. Oil separator is a must where oil is not miscible with refrigerant (e.g. ammonia).

Balancing valve Balancing valves are used in the refrigerant cycle where we have to maintain the temperature and pressure of two evaporators through the single compressor. The gauges are also fixed in the balancing valve. So that we can adjust the pressure of the liquid refrigerant while checking the gauges.

Ball valve Ball valve are used in the air conditioning. It is hand-operated valve, which opens the way of the refrigerant/water/liquid while flowing. Butterfly valve Butterfly valve is hand-operated valve, which is commonly used in the by-pass lines of water-cooled condenser/chiller (evaporators) and maintain and control the supply water. We can control the supply of water to these water- cooled condensers/evaporators immediately because these is no hand wheel on it. 2 way hand shut off valve These valves are used in refrigerant and air-conditioning cycle to close/open (on-off) the supply of refrigerant. It can be used at various different places in the refrigerant cycle as per our requirement. It can also be used as increase/or decrease the flow rate of liquid refrigerant.

3 way hand shut off valve 3-way hands shut off valves are used in refrigerant cycle where the refrigerant has to be control and then to divide into two different components. It can be used at various different places in the refrigerant cycle as per our requirement.

Gate valve Gate valve is hands operated valves and are used in the by-pass line of water-cooled condensers/or chiller evaporator to control and regulate the supply of water. The supply of water can easily be controlled by just revolving down the spindle fixed on the head of gate valve.

Split a/c compressor valve These valves are fixed in the sealed compressors to prevent the leakage of refrigerant while repairing/maintaining the split air-conditioners. Hence these valves decrease the maintenance cost. Ammonia expansion valve Ammonia expansion valve is a hand-operated valve used for throttling of the liquid ammonia. In ammonia expansion valve, there is an orifice, which gives resistance to the liquid flows and produces the necessary pressure drop. In operation it is not automatic and therefore the valve has to be manually adjusted every time the load changes.

Ammonia hand shut off valve Ammonia hand shut off valves are used in nh3 air-conditioning where it is used to control and regulates the supply of nh3 (refrigerant). It is also used as open- close (on-off) the supply of the refrigerant.

Ammonia gate valve Ammonia gate valve are used in big nh3 air conditioning plant. It is also a hand-operate valve.

Ammonia angle valve Ammonia angle valve is used in ammonia air-conditioning. It is used a services valve. We can save the nh3 at the time of maintenance through this angle valve only. In these valves, we can fit the pressure gauge in on side and check the pressure also.

Compressor seal In open type compressor at a point, where the shaft comes out of the compressor body, there must be a sealing arrangement around the shaft to prevent the leakage of the refrigerant.

Cooling tower nozzles The atmospheric cooling tower by the use of spray nozzles, which spray water from the top of the cooling tower. The spray helps in distributing the water in fine droplets through out the area of cooling tower.

Flare fitting Flared joints can be employed only with soft copper pipes. The ends of the pipes are flared by the use of the flaring tool. Sizes of countersunk holes for taking in the copper pipes of to diameter.

Solder connection fitting Solder or brazed method gives a stronger joint. These joints, if properly done are much susceptible of developing leaks compared to the threaded flair joints. Hence this method is extensively adopted for refrigeration units and air conditioning plants.

Ammeter Ammeter is used to measure the current flow or ampere in a circuit. The coil in the ammeter is of very low resistance and is always connected in series with the load, which necessitates interrupting a connected load circuit.

Voltmeter A voltmeter shows the voltage or potential across a circuit. The coils of these meters are of high resistance and should be connected in parallel (across the load).

Energy meter The energy meter is used to measure the power in the watts or kilowatts. Since power is the product of voltage, current and power factor, both voltage and ammeter connections are to be made to the wattmeter. Wattmeter in conjunction with potential and current transformers are used to measure higher ranges of power (watts).

Reversing switch Reversing switch is used as a phase changer. It is used with the generator and in the main line.

A/c rotary switch A/c rotary switch are used in the window air conditioning to control the speed of the motor. Generally three-speed rotary switch are used.

Rotary switch Rotary switch is used a phase changer and also acts as a speed controller.

Compressor oil heater An additional arrangement in systems with halogenated refrigerant is the use of compressor oil heated. By maintaining the oil temperature at a slightly higher level by the use of compressor oil heater, the rate of absorption of refrigerant vapour by the oil, during the idle period is substantially reduced. This, coupled with the pump down cycle, wherever possible, eliminates the foaming problem at the start up. The heaters used are of very low wattage (40 to 60w for to 60 ton compressors) and are not capable of increasing oil temperature to a high level.

A/c heater For winter heating applications, a hot water or steam heating coil is also provided in the air-handling units. Instead of the heating coils, electrical strip heaters are also used for heating the air when the air is heated, its relative humidity will obviously fall. So for maintaining a proper relative humidity level, humidification of the air is also required.

Kettle element Kettle element is used in boilers and used for heating the water according to the requirement. While using the kettle element, it should merge with in the water only otherwise the element burns out.

Fins type heater Fins type heater are the heaters with fins attached to it. These are used for winter air-conditioning used for heating on increasing the ambient temperature of the atmosphere.

Duct heaters Duct heaters are the type of heaters, which are, used inside the duct of further increases the humidity of the air. Humidification plants are extensively used for textile mills, tobacco bulk storage, and tea processing etc. Where high relative humidity levels are required. Auttomatic expansion valve The automatic expansion valve is also known as constant pressure expansion valve, because it maintains constant evaporator pressure regardless of the load on the evaporator. Its main moving force is the evaporator pressure. It is used with dry expansion evaporators where the load is relatively constant. The automatic expansion valve consists of a needle valve and a seat (which forms an orifice), a metallic diagram or bellows, spring and an adjusting screw. The opening and closing of the valve with respect to the seat depends upon the following two opposing forces acting on the diaphragm: 1. The spring pressure and atmospheric pressure acting on the top of the diaphragm. 2. The evaporator pressure acting below the diaphragm.

When the compressor is running, the valve maintains an evaporator pressure in equilibrium with the spring pressure and the atmospheric pressure. The spring pressure can be varied by adjusting the tension of the spring with the help of spring adjusting screw. Once the spring is adjusted for a desired evaporator pressure, then the valve operates automatically to maintain constant evaporator pressure by controlling the flow of refrigerant to the evaporator. when the evaporator pressure falls down, the diaphragm moves downwards to open the valve. This Allows more liquid refrigerant to enter into the evaporator and thus increasing the evaporator pressure till the desired evaporator pressure is reached. On the other hand when the evaporator pressure rises, the diaphragm moves upwards to reduce the opening of the valve. This decreases the flow of liquid refrigerant to the evaporator which, in turn, lowers the evaporator pressure till the desired evaporator pressure is reached. When the compressor stops, the liquid refrigerant continues to flow into the evaporator. This increase in evaporator pressure causes the diaphragm to move upwards and the valve is closed. It remains closed until the compressor starts again and reduces the pressure in the evaporator.

AIM:- To study the basic components of automotive air conditioning cycle. I.e. compressor, condenser, expansion valve, and evaporator. TECHNICAL DETAIL:1. COMPRESSOR: -Voltas make fitted with step up transformer to work on 220 v. 2. CONDENSER: - Fins and tube type air-cooled condenser. 3. FAN MOTOR: - 1/35 h.p condenser fan motor with fan. 4. EXPANSION VALVE: -Thermostatic expansion valve Controls and standard accessories 1. Energy meter for compressor.
2. Eureka makes glass tube rotameter to measure flow rate of r 134a refrigerant in kg /min.

3. Filter drier. 4. Pressure gauges suction and discharge imported 5. Hp lp cut out
6. Digital temperature indicator (eutech make) at various points in 0c with pt. 100 probes.

7. Digital voltmeter. 8. Digital amp meter for compressor. 9. 32 amp dp switch, 15 amp power switches for other parts. 10. Gas charging valve. Evaporator:- fins and tube type air cooled evaporator is fitted inside the housing. A blower is also fitted inside the duct, which sucks fresh air from atmosphere and delivers into the cooling coil. Thereafter it gets conditioned. THEORY:Car air conditioning is the air conditioning installed in a car or other vehicle. Generally, nowadays car has an air conditioning system with separate temperature adjustment for driver and front passenger side. One of the most advanced system is the thermotronic that maintains and regulates the temperature of every seat in accordance with a sophisticated set of sensors which measure temperature, sunlight, humidity and even pollutant levels in the ambient air, causing all openings to close automatically. The term air conditioning most commonly refers to the cooling and dehumidification of indoor air for thermal comfort. In a broader sense, the term can refer to any form of cooling, heating, ventilation or disinfections that modifies the condition of air. An air conditioner is an appliance, system, or mechanism designed to stabilize the air temperature and humidity within an area (used for cooling as well as heating depending on the air properties at

a given time), typically using a refrigeration cycle but sometimes using evaporation, most commonly for comfort cooling in buildings and transportation vehicles. The concept of air conditioning is known to have been applied in ancient rome, where aqueduct water was circulated through the walls of certain houses to cool them. Similar techniques in medieval persia involved the use of cisterns and wind towers to cool buildings during the hot season. Modern air conditioning emerged from advances in chemistry during the 19th century, and the first large-scale electrical air conditioning was invented and used in 1902 by willis haviland carrier. HISTORY OF AIRCONDITIONING While moving heat via machinery to provide air conditioning is a relatively modern invention, the cooling of buildings is not. The ancient romans were known to circulate aqueduct water through the walls of certain houses to cool them. As this sort of water usage was expensive, generally only the wealthy could afford such a luxury. The 2nd century chinese inventor ding huan (fl. 180) of the han dynasty invented a rotary fan for air conditioning, with seven wheels 3 m (10 ft) in diameter and manually powered.[2] in 747, emperor xuanzong (r. 712762) of the tang dynasty (618907) had the cool hall (liang tian) built in the imperial palace, which the tang yulin describes as having water-powered fan wheels for air conditioning as well as rising jet streams of water from fountains.[3] during the subsequent song dynasty (9601279), written sources mentioned the air conditioning rotary fan as even more widely used.[4] Medieval persia had buildings that used cisterns and wind towers to cool buildings during the hot season: cisterns (large open pools in a central courtyards, not underground tanks) collected rain water; wind towers had windows That could catch wind and internal vanes to direct the airflow down into the building, usually over the cistern and out through a downwind cooling tower.[5] cistern water evaporated, cooling the air in the building. ventilators were invented in medieval egypt and were widely used in many houses throughout cairo during the middle ages. These ventillators were later described in detail by abd al-latif al-baghdadi in 1200, who reported that almost every house in cairo has a ventillator, and that they cost anywhere from 1 to 500 dinars depending on their sizes and shapes. Most ventillators in the city were oriented towards the qibla, as was the city in general. In 1820, british scientist and inventor michael faraday discovered that compressing and liquefying ammonia could chill air when the liquefied ammonia was allowed to evaporate. In 1842, florida physician john gorrie used compressor technology to create ice, which he used to cool air for his patients in his hospital in apalachicola, florida.[7] he hoped eventually to use his ice-making machine to regulate the temperature of buildings. He even envisioned centralized air conditioning that could cool entire cities.[8] though his prototype leaked and performed irregularly, gorrie was granted a patent in 1851 for his ice-making machine. His hopes for its success vanished soon afterwards when his chief financial backer died; gorrie did not get the money he needed to develop the machine. According to his biographer vivian m. Sherlock, he blamed the "ice king," frederic tudor, for his failure, suspecting that tudor had launched a smear campaign against his invention. Dr. Gorrie died impoverished in 1855 and the idea of air conditioning faded away for 50 years. Early commercial applications of air conditioning were manufactured to cool air for industrial processing rather than personal comfort. In 1902 the first modern electrical air conditioning was invented by willis haviland carrier. Designed to improve manufacturing process control in a printing plant, his invention controlled not only temperature but also humidity. The low heat and humidity were to help maintain consistent paper dimensions and ink alignment. Later carrier's technology was applied to increase productivity in the workplace, and the carrier air conditioning company of america was formed to meet rising demand. Over time air conditioning came to be used to improve comfort in homes and automobiles. Residential sales expanded dramatically in the 1950s. In 1906, stuart w. Cramer of charlotte, north carolina, usa, was exploring ways to add moisture to the air in histextile mill. Cramer coined the term "air conditioning," using it in a patent claim he filed that year as an

analogue to "water conditioning", then a well-known process for making textiles easier to process. He combined moisture with ventilation to "condition" and change the air in the factories, controlling the humidity so necessary in textile plants. Willis carrier adopted the term and incorporated it into the name of his company. This evaporation of water in air, to provide a cooling effect, is now known as evaporative cooling. The first air conditioners and refrigerators employed toxic or flammable gases like ammonia, methyl chloride, And propane which could result in fatal accidents when they leaked. Thomas midgley, jr. Created the first chlorofluorocarbon gas, freon, in 1928. The refrigerant was much safer for humans but was later found to be harmful to the atmosphere's ozone layer. Freon is a trademark name of dupont for any chlorofluorocarbon (cfc), hydrogenated cfc (hcfc), or hydro fluorocarbon (hfc) refrigerant, the name of each including a number indicating molecular composition (r-11, r-12, r-22, r-134). The blend most used in direct-expansion comfort cooling is an hcfc known as r-22. It is to be phased out for use in new equipment by 2010 and completely discontinued by 2020. R-11 and r-12 are no longer manufactured in the us, the only source for purchase being the cleaned and purified gas recovered from other air conditioner systems. Several non-ozone depleting refrigerants have been developed as alternatives, including r-410a, known by the brand name puron. Innovation in air conditioning technologies continue, with much recent emphasis placed on energy efficiency and improving indoor air quality. As an alternative to conventional refrigerants, natural alternatives like co2 (r-744) have been proposed. HUMIDITY CONTROL Refrigeration air conditioning equipment usually reduces the humidity of the air processed by the system. The relatively cold (below the dewpoint) evaporator coil condenses water vapor from the processed air, (much like an ice cold drink will condense water on the outside of a glass), sending the water to a drain and removing water vapor from the cooled space and lowering the relative humidity. Since humans perspire to provide natural cooling by the evaporation of perspiration from the skin, drier air (up to a point) improves the comfort provided. The comfort air conditioner is designed to create a 40% to 60% relative humidity in the occupied space. In food retailing establishments large open chiller cabinets act as highly effective air dehumidifying units. Some air conditioning units dry the air without cooling it, and are better classified as dehumidifiers. They work like a normal air conditioner, except that a heat exchanger is placed between the intake and exhaust. In combination with convection fans they achieve a similar level of comfort as an air cooler in humid tropical climates, but only consume about a third of the electricity. They are also preferred by those who find the draft created by air coolers discomforting. Portable air conditioners A portable air conditioner or portable a/c is an air conditioner on wheels that can be easily transported inside a home or office. They are currently available with capacities of about 6,000 to 60,000 btu/h (1800 to 18 000 watts output) and with and without electric resistance heaters. Portable air conditioners come in three forms, split, hose and evaporative: A split system has an indoor unit on wheels connected to an outdoor unit via flexible pipes, similar to a permanently fixed installed unit. Hose systems air-to-air and monoblock are vented to the outside via air ducts. A function of all cooling that use a compressor, is to create water as it cools the air. The "monoblock" version collects the water in a bucket or tray and stops when full. The air-to-air version re-evaporates the water and discharges it through the ducted hose and can hence run continuously. A single duct unit draws air out of the room to cool its condenser. This air is then replaced by hot air from outside or other rooms, thus reducing efficiency. However, modern units run on approximately 1 to 3 ratio i.e., to produce 3 kw of cooling this will use 1 kw of electricity. Air cooled portable air conditioners are compressor-based refrigerant system that uses air to exchange heat, similar to a car or typical household air conditioner. With this type of system the air is dehumidified as it is

cooled. Evaporative air conditioners do not have a compressor or condenser. Instead, liquid water is poured in and released as vapour. Because they do not have a condenser which needs cooling, they do not need hoses or pipes, allowing them to be truly portable. As a rule of thumb, 400 square feet (37 m) can be cooled per 12,000 btu/h (3.5 kw or one ton of air conditioning) by a refrigerative air conditioner. However, other factors will affect the total heat load. Evaporative air conditioners use much less energy. OPERATIONAL INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Switch on main board. Check voltage, it should not be less than 220 volts. 2. Start the condenser fan motor. 3. Start the blower fan of the cooling coil (evaporator) 4. See that all the indication lights are on while switch on their respective switch. 5. Start the compressor. 6. Check the amp meter for compressor initially it shall be 10amp and then it will gradually decrease to 5 to 7 amp. If should not exceed 8 amp. If it indicates more than 8 amp check for voltage condenser fan motor, more ampere reading means more load on the compressor. 7. Note down the readings of the various pressure gauges. Absence of any reading will indicates the blockage of pipe line or leakage of gas.(lower limit for suction pressure is = 40 psi. Lower than this 8. Indicate less gas flow and more frosting in the evaporator. 9. Note down the reading of dbt and wbt. Fitted in the supply duct. 10. Take down the readings of various temperature in digital temp. Indicator. 11. To take reading on rotameter close the main line valve and open by pass valve. OBSERVATION TABLE: 1. 2. 3. P1 P2 T1 T2 T3 T4 Mr

Where, P1=suction pressure P2=dischage pressure T1= temperature before entering to compressor T2=temperature after exit from compressor T3=temperature after condensor

T4=temperature after expansion valve Mr =rotameter reading (kg/min.) CALCULATIONS: COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE: - the coefficient of performance is defined as the ratio of heat extracted in the evaporator to the work done on the refrigerant.

C.o.p. = Q / W Using points (p1 t1); (p2,t2) ;t3and t4 locate points 1,2,3,4 on the p-h. Chart for r-134and obtain the enthalpy valuesh1, h2, h3, h4. Theoretical c.o.p. = H1-h4 / H2-h1 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS: Pressure at compressor discharge p2 = 15 + 1.01 = 16.01 bar (absolute) Pressure at compressor inlet p1 = 3.2 +1.01 = 4.21 bar ( absolute) Temperature at compressor discharge t2 = 800 c Temperature at compressor inlet t1 = 220 c Temperature at condenser outlet t3 = 400 c Refrigerant flow rate (rotometer) = 1.9 kg/min Locate points 1, 2, 3, 4 on p-h chart for f-22 using observed valuse of pressure and temperature. Line 3-4 always vertical line. Read enthalpy values at these points, as shown in fig. C.o.p. = 153-133/159-153 = 40/6 = 6.66

AIM:- To study & find out the efficiency of cooling tower. SPECIFICATION OF TEST RIG:Tank Heater Temp. Indicater Pump Blower THEORY:The cooling tower is conjunction with the water-cooled condenser. Water is passing through the condenser water tubes only gets warmed up but does not get contaminated. It can, therefore, be used again, after cooling. The cooling tower cools the warm water for recirculating it in the condenser. It is thus water conservation equipment. The heat removed by the refrigeration system from the space or product to be cooled is ultimately thrown to the atmosphere through the cooling tower in a water-cooled condenser system. Thus the cooling tower should function efficiently for the refrigeration system to perform well. The warm water from the condenser is pumped to the top of the cooling tower. From there it is allowed to fall down a substational height to the cooling tower tank or through at the bottom. The falling water droplets are cooled by the air circulating through the tower. The cooling is brought about by sensible heat transfer and by the evaporation of a portion of the water. To facilitate heat transfer, the water from the cooling tower in fine droplets or film. This is accomplished in:The atmospheric cooling tower by the use of spray nozzles which spray water from the top of the cooling tower. The forced draft or induced draft cooling tower, by increasing the surface area of water. Water is allowed to trickle over the special type of fiber material closely packed in the cooling tower. Water spreads over the fiber martial thus creating the large surface area for heat transfer between water and air.The water vapour produced by the evaporation of water is carried away by the air circulating through the tower. Thus the air coming out from the cooling tower will be humid and warm. Capacity of cooling towers: The capacity of cooling tower depends upon the amount of evaporation of water that takes place. The amount of evaporation of water in turn, depends upon the following factors: 1.The amount of water surface exposed to the air. 2.The length of the exposure time 3.The velocity of air passing over the water droplets formed in cooling tower. 4. The wet bulb temperature of the atmospheric air. :::::m.s. of capacity 80 ltrs. 1 kw digital with 2 nos. Pt-100 thermocouples. mono block type h.p centrifugal type h.p

Note: - when the wet bulb temp. Of air decreases the air can absorb more water vapour and therefore evaporate more water. Thus the capacity of the cooling tower increases. Types of cooling towers: Natural draft cooling tower. Mechanical draft cooling tower. 1. Natural draft cooling tower: since the air circulating through the natural draft cooling tower is

atmospheric air, therefore these cooling towers are known as natural draft cooling tower. 2. Mechanical draft cooling tower: - the mechanical draft cooling tower are similar to atmospheric natural

draft cooling towers except that the fans or blowers which are used to force air through them. Advantages of mechanical draft cooling towers: These are smaller in size than natural draft cooling tower of same capacity.The cooling capacity of mechanical draft cooing tower can be controlled by controlling the amount of forced air.Mechanical draft cooling tower can be located inside the building because they do not depend upon atmospheric air. Disadvantages of mechanical draft cooling towers: Mechanical draft cooling tower requires additional power to operate the fans. The maintenance of fans, motors and control increases the operating cost. Introduction to test rig The unicool cooling tower consists of about 1.2 meter length of tower made form transparent acrylic sheet for the clear visualization fitted over the conical housing. The main m.s. tank of capacity of about 80 ltr. Is provided through which centrifugal pump sucks water and delivers to the geyser through flow meter. In geyser the temp. Of water gets increases and it sprays on the top of cooling tower through spray nozzles over the decking material (fiber).than water is allowed to trickle over the This decking material closely packed in the cooling tower. Water spreads over the fiber martial thus creating the large surface area for heat transfer between water and air. A centrifugal type blower with control valve is used to blow air inside the cooling tower The falling water droplets are cooled by the air circulating through the tower. The cooling is brought about by sensible heat transfer and by the evaporation of a portion of the water. The water vapour produced by the evaporation of water is carried away by the air circulating through the tower.


Temp. Of water inlet to cooling tower (t1)

Temp. Of water outlet to cooling tower (t2)

Wet bulb temp. Of atmospheric air (t3)

CALCULATIONS:Efficiency of cooling tower = actual cooling obtained -----------------------------------------------theoretical cooling to be obtained = __________ %

Efficiency of cooling tower

t1-t2 = -----------t1- t3