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Supplement to REAPER User Guide

The REAPER Cockos Effects Summary Guide


version 1. ! "ecem#er $ 1%

This document is intended to provide a summary of the various COCKOS plug-ins supplied with REAPER their !road purpose the meaning of their various parameter controls and how to operate them" #t serves to supplement the $ser %uide not replace it" #t is not intended to serve as a comprehensive course on the su!&ect of audio effects and their many potential applications' (or that reason for commonly used types of effects ) such as e*uali+ers and compressors ) a !asic understanding of the purpose of such effects is assumed" ,ore detailed e-planations are given for those effects which are more REAPER specific such as Rea.ocode and Rea.oice" /hile every reasona!le attempt has !een ta0en to ensure accuracy in the preparation of this guide the author accepts no responsi!ility for any errors or the conse*uences thereof"

1 %eoffrey (rancis 2ecem!er 3456

Table of Contents
1 $ % ! * . The REAPER &' Plu(in )nterface........................................................................................* ReaComp.............................................................................................................................+ ReaControl,)")...............................................................................................................1 Rea"elay...........................................................................................................................1% ReaE-...............................................................................................................................1* Rea&ir................................................................................................................................1+ ..1 Shared Controls.............................................................................................................. 1+ ..$ E- ,ode......................................................................................................................... 1/ ..% Gate ,ode...................................................................................................................... 1/ ..! Compressor ,ode........................................................................................................... $ ..* Convolve 01R ,ode........................................................................................................ $1 ... Su#tract ,ode................................................................................................................ $1 + ReaGate............................................................................................................................$% 2 Rea)nsert..........................................................................................................................$* / ReaPitch............................................................................................................................$. 1 ReaTune..........................................................................................................................$2 1 .1 Tunin( ,ode................................................................................................................. $2 1 .$ Automatic Correction ,ode.......................................................................................... $/ 1 .% ,anual Correction ,ode.............................................................................................. % 11 Rea3er#..........................................................................................................................%$ 11.1 4verall Controls............................................................................................................ %$ 11.$ Echo Generator............................................................................................................. %% 11.% &ile................................................................................................................................ %! 11.! Rever# Generator......................................................................................................... %* 11.* &ilter............................................................................................................................. %. 11.. 5ormali6e..................................................................................................................... %+ 11.+ Reverse........................................................................................................................ %+ 11.2 Time1Gain1Stretch....................................................................................................... %2 1$ Rea3er#ate.....................................................................................................................%/ 1% Rea3ocode......................................................................................................................! 1! Rea3oice.........................................................................................................................!$ 1* Rea'comp.......................................................................................................................!! 1. ReaSamplomatic* ....................................................................................................!. 1+ ReaSynth........................................................................................................................!2 12 Rea5)57A,.....................................................................................................................!/ 1/ ReaStream......................................................................................................................!/

All plug-ins in REAPER ) including third party A$ .ST and 27 plug-ins ) are displayed wrapped in REAPER8s plug-in interface" The various elements of this interface are e-plained within the $ser %uide !ut for your convenience a summary of these features is shown here"

The REAPER FX Plugin Interface

Element Preset drop do8n list 9 menu #utton

"escription 2isplays a list of presets supplied with the plug-in and9or added !y the user" 2isplays a menu for managing presets and :in the case of virtual instruments; patches and !an0s" Can !e used to store current (7 parameters as the default settings for that plug-in" Also gives access to Compati!ility Settings menu"

Pin to top to((le

Toggles 0eeping this (7 window on top of other windows even when not selected" <y default this is set to off"

Element &' #ypass to((le :et1dry mi; control

"escription Toggles the !ypass state of the plug-in" /hen tic0ed the plug-in is engaged> when not tic0ed it is set to !ypass" 2efault setting is engaged" Controls how much of the signal without the plug-in applied :?dry@; is mi-ed with a signal with the plug-in applied :?wet@;" (or e-ample at 4A only the dry signal is heard> this creates the same sound as setting the plug-in to !ypass" At 544A :the default setting; only the wet signal is heard" At B4A the wet and dry signals are mi-ed together in e*ual proportions" One use for this control is to moderate an effect that sounds overdone as can happen for e-ample with delay rever! or compression"

U) to((le Plu(<in pin connector

Toggles display of any plug-in !etween its own %$# and a ?vanilla@ %$#" This is a huge topic' The pin connectors are mostly used when a trac0 consists of more than 3 channels" They can !e used to split an audio signal !etween several channels or indeed to re&oin them" They are also used when sidechaining" Audio connections can !e made from the matri- that is displayed !y clic0ing on the !utton" <oth ,#2# and audio connections can !e made from the conte-t menu that is displayed !y right-clic0ing on this !utton" Topics such as channel splitting and sidechaining are covered in the $ser %uide"

Parameter menu

This is most commonly used to create for the last touched (7 parameter a trac0 control an automation envelope parameter modulation or an assigned control surface control :such as a rotary or !utton;" #t can also !e used to assign your own preferred name :?alias@; to any parameter" All of these actions are e-plained in the $ser %uide" Cou can also :via the (7 parameter list menu; assign a trac0 control automation envelope parameter modulation control device control or alias to any other of the plug-in8s parameters whether it has !een touched or not"

Title #ar conte;t menu =not la#eled>

Right clic0 on the plug-in8s title !ar for a toggle option to Send all key#oard input to plu(<in"

ReaComp is a compressor" #ts most common use is for smoothing out variations in volume !etween the louder and *uieter parts of a trac0 or folder" #t can also !e used to raise :or less commonly lower; the overall volume of the compressed output of a trac0 or folder" The various parameters together define and determine the characteristics of the compression such as at what level :volume; it !egins to !e applied how gently or harshly it is applied and how suddenly or gradually it is released"

ReaComp

Parameter Threshold

"escription 2etermines the volume at which compression should !e applied" #n the e-ample shown a!ove no compression will !e used when the volume of the trac0 is !elow -56"B d<" Allows the compression to gradually !egin a specified num!er of milliseconds !efore the threshold is reached" 2etermines how *uic0ly the compressor responds when the threshold level is reached or e-ceeded" A +ero setting means the full compression will !e applied immediately and suddenly> the greater the num!er of milliseconds specified the more gradual the response" 2etermines how *uic0ly the compressor responds when the volume drops !elow the threshold level" A +ero setting means that the compression will !e fully and instantly released" A higher setting ensures that the release will !e more gradual" /ith classic attac0 ena!led the compression ratio is gradually reduced as the volume increases a!ove the threshold gradually restoring ratio of 5>5" This allows the loudest passages to pass uncompressed"

Pre<comp Attack

Release

Classic attack

Parameter Auto release Ratio

"escription /hen ena!led the auto release function will automatically ad&ust the release time to prevent sudden and dramatic compression changes" 2etermines the e-tent to which the compression will reduce the trac08s volume a!ove the threshold" At 5>5 there is no reduction" At 3>5 for every two deci!els !y which the dry signal e-ceeds the threshold level the wet signal will !e increased !y only one deci!el" At infinity>5 the volume of the wet signal will !e limited at the threshold level" The 0nee si+e determines the range of volume :rather than a specified amount of time; which the compressor will use in applying the compression ratio" (or e-ample with a ratio of =>5 and a 0nee setting of 4 d< the full =>5 ratio will !e applied as soon as the threshold is e-ceeded" /ith a 0nee si+e of 54 d< the ratio will !e gradually increased from 5>5 at the threshold level eventually reaching the full =>5 when the volume e-ceeds the threshold !y a full 54 d<" 2etermines whether the audio signal used to control the compression will !e the trac08s own signal :main; or an au-iliary input signal from another trac0 :specified in the pin connector settings :see right;" (or normal compression" This should !e set to main" $se the au-iliary input for audio duc0ing ) that is when you want the volume on one trac0 to !e compressed when the volume of a different trac0 e-ceeds the threshold" Audio duc0ing is e-plained in the $ser %uide"

?nee si6e

"etector input

0o8 pass filter

Specifies the highest frequency used to control the compressor (frequencies above this are ignored for the detection). For example, a low pass setting of 6 !" on a vocal trac would ensure that the compressor is not triggered on a loud sibilance. Specifies the lowest frequency used to control the compressor (frequencies below this are ignored for the detection). For example, a high pass setting of #$!" on a vocal trac would ensure that the compressor is not triggered on a loud plosive"
R,S :root mean s*uare; is calculated according to a formula !ased on the s*uare roots of a moving series of values" Thin0 of it as !eing conceptually similar to a moving average" #f R,S is set a!ove 4 ms the higher the setting the more e-treme pea0s and troughs in the audio signal will !e smoothed out in determining the compression that is applied" This fader determines the level of the wet :compressed; audio stream" This can !e used to mi- any re*uired level of the dry :uncompressed; signal !ac0 into the compressed signal" This can !e used to audition the audio signal to assess the impact of your low pass and high pass filter settings"

@i(h pass filter

R,S Si6e

:et "ry Previe8 filter

Parameter Auto make up AA

"escription /hen ena!led the level of the output volume will !e increased to compensate for any reduction caused !y the compression" This can !e used to apply an anti-aliasing filter to the audio signal" Anti-aliasing can !e used to ensure conformity with the Fy*uist sampling theorem which re*uires that the ma-imum fre*uency of the input signal !e less than or e*ual to half the sampling rate" Prevents the output level from the compressor from e-ceeding 4"4 d< even after any gain is added !y the /et and 2ry gain faders"

0imit output

2ifferent groups of parameter settings are more suita!le for different types of instrument and even different styles of music" (or e-ample for a more dramatic percussive effect :such as you might use on a roc0 drum 0it; you would !e li0ely to use more aggressive settings such as a short attac0 and release times and a harder 0nee" (or a vocal !allad however you would !e more li0ely to allow longer attac0 and release settings and a softer 0nee"

ReaControl,#2# is a plug in for use with ,#2# items or trac0s which contain ,#2# items" #t can !e used to create and send ,#2# control messages in real time"

ReaControlMI I

Parameter ,)") Channel All 5otes 4ff Sho81@ide 0o( Clear Ena#le Aank1Pro(ram Select

"escription Select All ,#2# channels or any individual channel" Separate instances of ReaControl,#2# can !e applied to different channels" Sends All Fotes Off message ) useful for dealing with any ?hanging@ ,#2# device" Opens and closes display of ,#2# activity log> in the e-ample shown a!ove the log is displayed" /hen the log is visi!le the Clear !utton will clear its contents" A toggle which allows a !an0 and program to !e selected and used"

Parameter Aank Pro(ram ,SA10SA 0oad Aank Transpose Snap to scale Scale value Scale type

"escription 2rop down list to select ,#2# !an0" 2rop down list to select a program from the current !an0" 2isplays ,S< :most significant !yte; and IS< :least significant !yte; values for currently selected !an09program" Opens E-plorer9(inder to allow you to select a !an0 to !e loaded" Option to transpose notes !y specified num!er of semitones" Toggles set to scale option on9off" Select re*uired scale :e"g" C %;" Select as re*uired> Scale type :e"g" ,a&or Pentatonic; or Chords :e"g" ,a&or Triad ,inor Triad; or ,ode :e"g" 2orian;" Scales can also !e loaded from a "ReaScale file"

Ena#le Control Chan(e

A toggle which allows up to five control change parameters to !e controlled from the ReaControl,#2# interface" #n the e-ample shown a!ove three of these are used .olume Pan and Pitch /heel" A toggle to allow raw mode :4 to 53E; access to all CC messages"

Ena#le Ra8 ,ode

Edit Syse; Re<send

Opens a window for entering system e-clusive messages" Resends syse- messages"

Ena#le Al8ays send syse; Toggles this option on and off" on play#ack start Ena#le 0o( all notes<off messa(es Toggles this option on and off"

54

Ii0e all other COCKOS plug-ins any of the ReaControl,#2# parameters can !e used to create automation envelopes :see Chapter 5;" Any envelopes that you do create in this way can !e set to /rite mode to record parameter fader movements and9or value changes in real time as you play the trac0 !ac0 and then to reproduce these movements when it is played !ac0 again"

An e-ample of this is shown a!ove where two automation envelopes have !een written to a ,#2# trac0 one for each of two ReaControl,#2# parameters" The first of these produces several program changes the second produces changes to the volume"

55

Rea2elay as its name implies is used to add delay to a trac0 or media item" #ts possi!le uses are many and vary from adding a few milliseconds of simple delay to a thin vocal :to fatten it up a little; to creating an echo effect to add to a timpani or other low fre*uency percussion instrument :to create an atmosphere of impending tension; to creating a !ouncing ping pong effect" This is one effect that more than most really opens up avenues for you to !e creative"

Rea ela"

REAPER8s Rea2elay gives you multi-tap options" This means that you can create several discrete pages of delay settings independently of each other apply them all at the same time to to a trac0 or media item" The default screen shows only one tap :la!eled ?5@ a!ove; !ut you are a!le to add more if you wish" Parameter Ena#led Solo active tap 0en(th =time> 0en(th =musical> "escription Toggles ena!ling9disa!ling the currently selected delay tap" Toggles soloing the currently selective tap :settings page;" /hen any one tap is soloed all other taps will !e ignored" $se one of these settings to specify the length of delay re*uired either in time :milliseconds; or fractions of a note" #t would !e unusual to use !oth of these faders on a single delay tap" The human ear will not normally distinguish a delay setting of less than E ms as a discrete sound" Such a setting can therefore !e helpful in ma0ing a trac0 sound ?fatter@" &eed#ack (eeding the delay signal !ac0 into the original dry signal can help !lend the two signals together there!y possi!ly ma0ing the wet signal less ?echoey@ and perhaps creating some interesting effects" <ut !eware' Too much feed!ac0 can have unpleasant conse*uences !oth in terms of sound *uality and your ears'

53

Parameter 0o8pass filter

"escription Specifies a fre*uency a!ove which the audio signal passes thru without the delay effect !eing applied" (or e-ample a low pass setting of B 444 J+ would ensure that the delay was added only to fre*uencies !elow B 444 J+" Specifies a fre*uency !elow which the audio signal passes thru without the delay !eing added" (or e-ample a high pass setting of 54 444 J+ would ensure that the delay was added only to fre*uencies a!ove 54 444 J+ " This fader can !e used to reduce the !it resolution of individual taps" #n the e-ample shown a!ove the default setting of 3= !it matches the resolution of the recorded material" Iowering the delay tap !it resolution can emulate the sound of early digital delay effects !o-es" /hen wor0ing with stereo material on a trac0 !us or folder the stereo width fader can !e used to narrow the stereo image of the delayed signal" Ad&usts the level of volume for the individual delay tap" Iocated immediately to the right of the volume fader this ad&usts the pan setting for this individual delay tap to the left or right" Adds another page of delay settings" Removes the current page of delay settings :!ut you must leave at least one page;" Resets the (7 to its default settings including restoring the same num!er of taps as in the default settings" 2etermines the output level of the mi-ed wet signal of all delay taps" 2etermines the output level of the original :undelayed; signal mi-ed in with the wet signal"

@i(hpass filter

Resolution

Stereo :idth 3olume Pan =unla#eled> Add tap "elete tap Reset all :et "ry

56

ReaEK is a parametric e*uali+er which !y default contains four !ands" Jowever you can add more !ands or remove any e-isting !ands if you wish to do so" ReaEK is used to ma0e ad&ustments to the fre*uency spectrum of a trac0 or media item" <y cutting or !oosting any re*uired fre*uency or range of fre*uencies you are a!le to change some of the characteristics of an audio signal" This can !e used to compensate for e-isting deficiencies :such as too much !ass or top end or to remove noise hum or rum!ling; or to enhance a trac08s sound :such as !y adding more presence or warmth;" As with many effects use ReaEK gently especially at first" Applying e*uali+ation too aggressively can ma0e a trac0 or media item sound worse rather than !etter"

ReaE$

Parameter 5um#ered ta#s Ena#led 0o(<scale automated freBuencies

"escription #n a!ove e-ample there are four !ands num!ered 5 to =" Clic0 on any num!ered ta! to select that EK !and" Toggles the currently selected !and !etween ena!led and !ypass state" Toggles this option on and off" /hen ena!led it produces a more usea!le scale for fre*uency automation envelopes so that the lower fre*uencies are allocated a larger area of the automation envelope area" This is achieved !y using a logarithmic scale rather than a linear scale for the fre*uency envelope"

5=

Parameter Type =drop do8n list>

"escription 2etermines the type of !and used for the selected EK !and" ,ain options are> 0o8 shelf> Applies gain or attenuation only to those fre*uencies !elow the selected fre*uency" @i(h shelf" Applies gain or attenuation only to those fre*uencies a!ove the selected fre*uency" Aand" Applies gain or attenuation across a fre*uency range and centered on a selected fre*uency" The width or narrowness of the range is determined !y the !andwidth setting" 0o8 pass" Allows fre*uencies !elow the specified fre*uency to pass thru !ut tapering down to eventually eliminate fre*uencies a!ove that specified" @i(h pass" Allows fre*uencies a!ove the specified fre*uency to pass thru !ut tapering down to eventually eliminate fre*uencies !elow that specified" All pass" Allows all fre*uencies to pass !ut changes the phase relationship !etween the various fre*uencies" 5otch" Allows thru all fre*uencies e-cept a range centered on the selected fre*uency" The width of the range is determined !y the !andwidth setting" Aand Pass" Cuts everything a!ove and !elow a range centered on the selected fre*uency" The width of the range is determined !y the !andwidth setting" Sets the fre*uency for this !and that is to !e attenuated or to which gain is to !e added" #ts value is displayed to the right of the fader !oth in J+ and as a ,#2# note value" This can also !e set !y clic0ing and dragging the point on the graph" 2etermines the amount gain or attenuation :e-pressed in deci!els; that is to !e applied to this !and" This can also !e set !y clic0ing and dragging the point on the graph" 2etermines how large :wide; or small :narrow; will !e the fre*uency range to which the attenuation or gain will !e applied" ,easured in octaves" Adds another !and :page; to the ReaEK settings" 2eletes the currently selected !and :settings; page" Restores this ReaEK instance to its default settings" Toggles !etween display of the ReaEK ta!s and graph only" Toggles display of the graph grid on and off" Toggles this option on and off" /hen ena!led the graph will illustrate the e-tent of phase-shift caused !y your EK settings" Right-clic0 over any of the num!ered points on the graph to display a conte-t menu of !and settings" ,ost commands duplicate functions already e-plained such as changing !and type or adding a !and" Of special interest is the option &lip all #andsC which changes attenuated fre*uencies to gain and vice versa" The vertical %ain fader on the right raises or lowers the volume of the overall wet output audio signal"

&reBuency =@6>

Gain =dA>

Aand8idth =oct> Add #and Remove #and Reset defaults Sho8 ta#s Sho8 (rid Sho8 phase Conte;t menu

Gain

5oteD REAPER8s Action Iist includes the assigna!le action TrackD )nsert ReaE- =track E-> which can !e used to insert an instance of ReaEK in any trac0"

5B

Rea(ir is a multi purpose plug-in that features five different modes ) EK %ate Compressor Convolve I9R and Su!tract" Each of these functions is entirely independent of the other" #f you wish to use more than one of its functions :for e-ample compressor and EK; then you need to use a separate instance of Rea(ir for each function"

ReaFir

Each mode has its own specific controls> in addition there are some parameters that are common to the different modes" The information in the following ta!le has !een adapted from the REAPER /i0i"

%&1

'hare( Controls
"escription This window shows the analysis of the audio !eing processed as well as the userdefined parameter curve" This window !y default shows fre*uencies from left to right :representing 4 J+ to 3=0J+; and volumes from top to !ottom :representing !y default L3=d< to -H4d<;" The red line represents the user defined parameter curve the dar0 yellow represents the input signal and the !right yellow represents the output signal"

Parameter Graph display 8indo8

3olume ran(e

The two edit !o-es to the right of the graph display window :top and !ottom; can !e used to change the default volume range" <y default these are set at 9$! and </ d<" Resets the user-defined parameter curve to a flat line at 4d<"

Reset #utton

5D

Parameter Edit mode

"escription This drop-down list lets you switch !etween the three editing modes Points =flat> - in this mode you can create any num!er of points that define the curve the lines !etween the points are straight" Precise - lets you draw very comple- curves" Points =smooth> - the default> in this mode you can create any num!er of points that define the curve the lines !etween the points are automatically smoothed and curved" #n point mode add points !y clic0ing on the red line on the graph" To delete a point hold Alt and clic0 on it" 2ou!le clic0 on a point to return its gain value to 4 d<" Right clic0 on a point and choose Set to set its gain and9or fre*uency" Jold Shift while dragging a point up9down to ad&ust gain without changing fre*uency" Jold Ctrl while dragging on the curve to move whole curve up or down"

Editin( tips

&&T Si6e

This controls what si+ed !loc0s are used for processing" #n general larger ((T :(ast (ourier Transform; si+es allow more precise effects and use more CP$" Some modes however may !e affected in other ways !y the ((T si+e" (or e-ample in the Compressor and %ate modes larger ((T si+es result in a larger effective attac09release time" This toggle can !e used to lower Rea(ir8s performance *uality to ma0e it compati!le with earlier versions" Fot recommended" 2isa!le this if you do not care to see the appro-imate spectrum of the signal displayed on the graph" Selects Rea(ir operating mode ) E- Gate Compressor Convolve 01R or Su#tract" Iets you choose the lowest value of analysis shown" #n general you should 0eep this set to the same as the low range of the curve range ad&ustment :a!ove; !ut sometimes you might want it to !e different" (or e-ample you might want the ad&ustment range to !e 53""-53 !ut still display the analysis down to -H4d<;" Rea(ir8s analysis display is an appro-imation> this is a conse*uence of prioriti+ing processing efficiency over display *uality"

Rea&ir .; compati#ility Sho8 analysis ,ode Analysis floor

4utput Gain Reduce artifacts

Iets you ad&ust the volume of the output after all processing has occurred" <y default Rea(ir operates in a non-linear ((T-!ased filtering fashion" The downside is that in certain instances the filter can introduce aliasing artifacts in e-change for e-tremely high filtering effectiveness" #f you chec0 this !o- Rea(ir will operate as a finite impulse response :(#R; filter meaning it will !e limited in its effectiveness !y the length of the filter !ut will respond linearly and without artifacts"

5E

%&2

E$ Mo(e

#n EK mode the red ad&ustment curve applies gain or attenuation at different fre*uencies"

%&3

)ate Mo(e

5G

#n %ate mode the Gate floor fader sets a !enchmar0 threshold so that when the audio signal falls !elow that threshold the sound is filtered out" #n the e-ample shown here a !enchmar0 threshold is set at -=4"4 d< to eliminate unwanted !ac0ground sounds li0e :perhaps; !reathing" This threshold applies to the level of the trac0 or media item as a whole not to individual fre*uencies" #n addition the red ad&ustment curve can !e used to gate specific fre*uencies or ranges of fre*uency" #n the e-ample a!ove this is used to gate out any possi!le low end rum!le and very high end si++le" The faint dar0 yellow line shown on the graph at around -B4 d< at around 4 J+ to EB J+ illustrates this"

%&!

Compressor Mo(e

#n Compressor mode Rea(ir acts as a multi !and compressor" Jowever there is a nota!le difference !etween a regular multi !and compressor and Rea(ir" /ith Rea(ir you can choose more specifically which fre*uencies you want to compress without having to worry a!out crossover" #n addition Rea(ir in compressor mode can have hundreds or even thousands of !ands which can all !e compressed separately"

The red ad&ustment curve represents the threshold so that when the signal goes a!ove it it is compressed !y the ratio specified !y the Comp Ratio fader" Fote that the ((T si+e set affects !oth the si+e of the !ands used for compression as well as the effective attac09release times :a larger ((T si+e has longer attac09release times;" The ratio can !e set with the ratio slider and can anywhere in the range of a gentle 5"45>5 a hard 544>5 or less than 5>5 giving per-!and upwards e-pansion capa!ility" <ecause of the fle-i!ility of specifying threshold per-!and you are a!le to choose e-actly which fre*uency !and gets compression and can do some very interesting things with it" Keep in mind that if you lower the threshold too much you will hear audi!le distortion from the fast attac09release" 2efine a threshold only !elow 544h+ to compress !ass fre*uencies" The ((T window will show you how much gain reduction is happening in !right yellow - the original signal8s 5H

fre*uencies will still show as dar0 yellow" Compressing higher fre*uencies alone can !e an effective de-esser" Cou may wish to do this only at the points where the si!ilants occur in the recording"

%&#

Con*ol*e +,R Mo(e

#n Convolve I9R mode Rea(ir filters the left channel8s signal with the right channel8s signal and applies the ad&ustment curve as an EK control" #n Convolve I9R mode you will hear the Mli0eM fre*uencies from the Ieft and right channels together and any dissimilar fre*uencies will !e faint or non-e-istent" This is useful to chec0 the overall !alance of a mi- to see what is happening sonically - especially if there is too much of a fre*uency !and :in other words an e-treme !uild-up of li0e fre*uencies;" This mode has no special controls of its own" Jowever you can ma0e EK ad&ustments in convolve mode using either precise lines or points" This can help you ma0e decisions a!out what needs to !e done within a mi- to !alance it out"

%&%

'ubtract Mo(e

Rea(ir8s su!traction mode is e-cellent for Foise Reduction' #t is especially useful when there is a noise :such as perhaps a faint hum or hiss; that is present in the !ac0ground of a recording of a trac0" /hen you select Su#tract mode you will notice a new !utton that says Automatically #uild noise profile" To use this function ena!le it while auditioning a section which contains only the noise" Cou will see the profile !eing !uilt :see e-ample !elow;" Once you are happy with the noise profile un-chec0 Automatically !uild noise profile stop play!ac0 and save the preset"

Alternatively you can create the su!traction curve yourself !y playing the noise switching to MpreciseM mode and drawing on the graph right a!ove the noise" Cou can then do a num!er of interesting things with the noise profile" (or e-ample hold Ctrl clic0 and drag the noise profile to raise or lower the entire profile :the higher you raise it the more artifacts you will hear;

34

Still in Su!tract mode play the trac0 :see e-ample a!ove;" The profiled noise will !e removed from the processed signal"

35

Rea%ate is a noise gate whose most common use is to filter out sound when the volume falls !elow a specified threshold level" This can help to eliminate unwanted sounds such as perhaps a vocalist drawing !reath !etween verses" One feature of Rea%ate is that li0e ReaComp it gives you the option of using an au-iliary signal so that the gate on one trac0 can !e controlled !y an audio signal on another trac0"

Rea)ate

Parameter Threshold Pre<open

"escription This is the unla!eled vertical fader on the left" #t is used to specify the input signal level :volume; !elow which the gate should !e engaged" This is the first of five parameters that together shape e-actly how the noise gate !ehaves in opening and closing" Pre-open offers you the option to loo0 ahead a specified num!er of milliseconds so that the Attac0 will !e activated ahead of the volume actually falling !elow the Threshold" This determines the speed with which a closed gate reopens when the volume rises a!ove the threshold" The lower this setting the more *uic0ly it will go from letting thru 4A to 544A of the signal" Too fast a setting here can sometimes result in audi!le clic0s" This determines how long the gate is held open :!efore closing; when the signal falls !elow the Threshold" .ariations in Jold time can !e used with Rever! plug-ins to help create gated rever!" This determines the speed with which a gate closes when a signal falls !elow the threshold level :after the Jold time;" Thin0 of this as fulfilling a similar function to the thermostat on a central heating system" #t specifies a margin of fle-i!ility around the Threshold level to prevent the gate from constantly opening closing and ?chattering"@

Attack

@old

Release @ysteresis

33

Parameter "etector input 0o8pass @i(hpass R,S Si6e Send ,)") on open1close ,)") note and channel :et "ry 5oise Previe8 filter output )nvert (ate =duck>

"escription 2etermines whether the gate is controlled !y the trac0 or media item8s own audio signal :,ain #nput; or !y the signal from another source :Au-iliary #nput;"

Specifies the highest frequency used to engage the gate (frequencies above this are ignored for the detection). Specifies the lowest frequency used to engage the compressor (frequencies below this are ignored for the detection).
Specifies the period of time to !e used in calculating R,S :Root ,ean S*uared; values" #n general the higher this value the less ?fussy@ will !e the gate" Ena!le this toggle to send ,#2# note on9off messages when the gate opens or closes" Fote num!er and channel to use if Send ,#2# option :a!ove; is ena!led" Sets the level of the processed signal in the output" Sets the level of the pre-gate unprocessed signal in the output" Allows a level of noise to !e mi-ed !ac0 into the output" /hen detector input is set to Au-iliary ena!ling this toggle lets you to the output of the sidechain source" Ena!ling this toggle causes the polarity of the wet signal to !e reversed relative to the dry signal" /henever the gate is open the two signals will phase-cancel" This ena!les Rea%ate to !e used in con&unction with a sidechain signal for 8duc0ing"@

36

Rea#nsert lets you use an e-ternal hardware effects device :such as a rever! unit; with your recorded audio material" #t can also !e used to send ,#2# data to an e-ternal synthesi+er for processing" The device needs to !e connected to your sound card8s inputs and outputs" #ts controls are for the most part straightforward"

ReaInsert

Parameter Send vol @ard8are Sends audioD 0eft 1 Ri(ht @ard8are Sends ,)")D ,)") "evice Channels &rom1To @ard8are ReturnsD 0eft1Ri(ht "elay Compensation

"escription Controls the level of the signal !eing sent to the hardware effect" Select the hardware outputs :from your sound card; to !e used for sending left and right channels respectively" Select the installed ,#2# device :if any; to which you are sending data" Specify !oth source and destination channels" Specify the hardware inputs :on your sound card; to !e used for receiving the audio signal !ac0 from the hardware effects device or synthesi+er" The Auto detect !utton can !e used to estimate the appro-imate degree of delay re*uired to compensate for any latency introduced !y the e-ternal device" Cou can also use the hori+ontal fader to ad&ust this" Controls the level of the signal returning to REAPER from your hardware device"

Return vol

3=

ReaPitch is used to raise or lower the pitch of an original sound" #t can !e used for e-ample to create harmony effects on vocals or to fatten the sound of an instrument" As well as !eing a!le to ma0e changes to pitch you can also ad&ust the formants of your material" (ormants are perhaps a more difficult concept to grasp than pitch> you can thin0 of them as !eing the spectral pea0s of a sound that is the elements that give a sound such as an individual voice the special characteristics !y which it is uni*uely identified" Ii0e Rea2elay the default settings for this plug-in include a single page of settings :shifter; !ut you can add more shifters if you wish each with its own settings" The volume strength and pan position of each shifter can !e ad&usted independently of each other"

ReaPitch

Parameter :et =volume> "ry =volume> Ena#led

"escription The com!ined level of processed :wet; sound :from all shifters; that is added to the output" The amount of unprocessed :dry; sound that is added to the output" A toggle to ena!le9disa!le individual pages of shifter settings"

The ne-t seven controls listed are used to raise or lower pitch or formants" These controls are cumulative" (or e-ample setting Shift :cents; to LB4 and Shift :semitones; to L5 would raise pitch !y 5"B semitones" Solo active shifter Shift =full ran(e> A toggle to solo the currently selected shifter :settings page; effectively disa!ling all others" Raise or lower pitch !y the specified num!er of semitones"

3B

Parameter Shift =cents> Shift =semitones> Shift =octaves> &ormant shift =full> &ormant shift =cents>

"escription Raise or lower pitch !y the specified num!er of cents" A cent is 59544th of a semitone" Raise or lower pitch !y the specified num!er of semitones" Raise or lower pitch !y the specified num!er of octaves" Raise or lower formants !y the specified num!er of semitones" Raise or lower formants !y the specified num!er of cents" A cent is 59544th of a semitone"

&ormant shift =semitones> Raise or lower formants !y the specified num!er of semitones" 3olume Pan =unla#elled> Add shifter "elete shifter Reset all 2etermines the level of volume from this shifter :settings page; that will !e added to the processed :wet; signal" This fader :to the right of the volume fader; sets the pan position of the output of this shifter :settings page; in the processed :wet; signal;" Adds another settings page" 2eletes current settings page" Cou must leave at least one page" Restores default settings including the default num!er of shifters"

The remaining parameters :!elow; are set for the ReaPitch instance as a whole not for individual shifters" Autocorrect master playrate chan(e Pitch Shift ,ode Al(orithm Ena!le this toggle to ensure that your ReaPitch settings are applied regardless of any changes made to the master play rate" A drop down list of choices" ProEect "efault will use the algorithm selected in the Pro&ect Settings dialog" Other options are> Sound Touch 2irac :IE; Simple windowed Elasti*ue 3"5 Pro Elasti*ue 3"5 Efficient Elasti*ue 3"5 SOIO Stereo A toggle to ena!le9disa!le stereo output

3D

10 ReaTune

ReaTune has three main modes ) tuning mode automatic pitch correction and manual pitch correction" The re*uired mode is selected !y clic0ing on of the three ta!s located near the top of its interface" To tune an instrument such as an acoustic guitar connect the guitar via a lead to your sound card and set up a trac0 ready for recording in the usual way" #nsert ReaTune into the trac08s input (7 chain" Ena!le input monitoring and ma0e sure the trac0 is armed for recording" To use ReaTune in one of the other two modes insert it into the (7 chain of trac0 or media item then select the re*uired mode"

10&1

Tuning Mo(e

Parameter :indo8 si6e

"escription 2etermines the num!er of samples at a time on which analysis is performed" The larger the window si+e the lower the fre*uencies that can !e analy+ed !ut the more CP$ will !e used" 2etermines whether the windows are overlapped and if so !y how much" (or e-ample on a B4ms window at 5- 34 !loc0s per second will !e analy+ed at 3- =4 !loc0s per second and so on" This increases CP$ usage !ut will provide faster tuning times" The reference note" <y default this is the A a!ove middle C" 3E

4verlap

Reference

Parameter 5ote display 8indo8

"escription This shows the note that ReaTune is processing" The note name is displayed in the upper window and the pitch of the input in the lower window> the position of the note in this window indicates how in-tune is the input note" /hen ena!led this toggle causes a ,#2# event message to !e sent whenever the pitch changes" This for e-ample can !e used to send the ,#2# event data from an audio trac0 prepared for recording audio :such as a guitar; to another trac0 with a .STi and some other virtual instrument such as a cello or viola" Cou could then use your guitar to play the virtual instrument in real time'

Send ,)") event 8hen pitch chan(es

10&2 Automatic Correction Mo(e

Parameter ?ey name ?ey mode

"escription (rom the drop down list select the 0ey in the range A thru %N" Select a mode9scale from the drop down list" Availa!le modes are ,a&or ,inor Chromatic 2orian Phrygian Iydian ,i-olydian Iocrian Ara!ian and Egyptian" The default setting is Chromatic"

3G

Parameter 5otes allo8ed

"escription All9any of the 53 notes shown :from A thru %N9A!; can !e ena!led or disa!led for pitch-correction purposes" (or e-ample if you were to ena!le only say C then all notes would !e ?corrected@ to C" This would most li0ely produce an e-cellent e-ample of singing out of pitch as is humanly possi!le' <y default all notes are ena!led" 2etermines the the time !etween the start of the note and when ReaTune commences any re*uired pitch correction" A toggle to ena!le or disa!le stereo mode" Select the algorithm !est suited to the signal !eing corrected" (or e-ample for vocals this is li0ely to !e elasti*ue 3"5 soloist" Options are Pro&ect 2efault :as specified in the Pro&ect Settings dialog; Sound touch Simple windowed elasti*ue 3"5 pro elasti*ue 3"5 efficient and elasti*ue 3"5 SOIO"

Attack time Stereo correction Al(orithm

Parameter Clear history

The list of availa!le parameters will depend on which algorithm is selected" The parameter is used fine tune the way the selected algorithm is applied" The graphical display uses vertical !ars to illustrate the effect of the pitch correction :see a!ove;" The Clear history !utton clears the e-isting graphical display from the window"

10&3

Manual Correction Mo(e

3H

#n manual correction mode you are a!le to correct pitch errors !y using hori+ontal !ars :see a!ove;" To dra8 a pitch correction #ar> clic0 and drag the !ar from left to right or right to left with your mouse" To move a #ar up or do8nD clic0 and drag up or down" To e;tend or shorten a #ar> clic0 and drag the start or finishing point :small circle; left or right" To delete a #ar> select it with the mouse and press 2elete" Parameter ,anual correction Track pitch Update Clear Prevent octave shifts "escription This toggle ena!les9disa!les manual correction mode" After ma0ing your corrections this can !e used as a means of comparing the signal !efore and after your changes" This toggle allows the graph to !e updated as REAPER plays" #nstantly updates9refreshes the graphical display" Clears the graphical display" $ne-pected harmonics in an audio signal can sometimes cause ReaTune to interpret the note as !eing shifted up or down an octave" Ena!ling this toggle prevents these notes from !eing shifted" /hen ena!led this toggle prevents you from drawing pitch correction lines that overlap each other"

Prevent overlappin( se(ments

64

11

Rea.er! is an e-traordinarily powerful rever! plug-in" Cou start with a !lan0 canvas and !uild up your rever! effect using a com!ination of modules of the following types> Echo generator rever! generator convolution rever! file high9low pass filters normali+ation reverse time9 gain9stretch" 2on8t fall into the trap of thin0ing that !ecause all these options are availa!le the more modules you use the !etter will !e the results' Kuite often a single module such as rever! generator or a convolution rever! file will !e *uite sufficient to meet your needs" Shortly we8ll ta0e a loo0 at each module individually !ut first let8s e-amine the overall Rea.er! environment starting with the !lan0 canvas"

Rea1erb

11&1

2*erall Controls

Parameter :et "ry Add

"escription 2etermines the level of the total processed :wet; signal included in the output" 2etermines the level of the original unprocessed :dry; signal included in the output" $sed to add a module to Rea.er! ) Echo %enerator (ile (ilter Formali+e Rever! %enerator Reverse or Time9%ain9Stretch" ,odules are displayed in the #mpulse generation window" 2rag and drop to change their order"

Remove :idth Pan

Removes whichever module is currently selected in the #mpulse generation window" Ad&usts :restricts; the width of the rever! stereo field" Pans the overall rever! signal more to the left or right"

65

Parameter Pre<rever# Performance 4ptionsD ,a; &&T

"escription Any setting a!ove 4 milliseconds causes the rever! effect to !e added to the audio signal ahead of the dry signal !y the specified num!er of milliseconds"

((T :(ast (ourier Transform; filters are a comple- mathematical topic" Changing the ((T si+e changes CP$ usage" A lower ((T setting means a higher CP$ usage !ut spread more evenly" Jigher ((T si+es will consume less CP$ !ut result in more latency" ((T si+e will therefore affect performance and possi!le dropouts !ut it should not affect the sound itself" if you don8t understands it you8re pro!a!ly !est advised to accept the default setting" $se this option to ena!le +ero latency> useful when trac0ing to monitor rever! levels" $se this option to use an e-tra thread to improve low latency performance" This applies performance settings to all instances of Rea.er! in the current pro&ect"

F0 00 Set all

11&2

Echo )enerator

The display in the window a!ove the parameter controls gives e-cellent visual feed!ac0 as to how the various parameter controls affect the echoed signal" #n addition the following comments should prove helpful" This e-ample shows the Echo %enerator !eing used on its own" Cou can also o!tain interesting results in com!ination with other modules ) for e-ample placing it after a Rever! %enerator"

63

Parameter Start position 0en(th Spacin( Error Err"ist Start volume End volume

"escription Jow much time :in milliseconds; is to pass after the sound !efore the echo commences" Jow long the overall echo effect is to last" The amount of time that passes !etween individual echo sounds within the total echo length" The smaller this setting the more dense will !e the echo" #ntroduces a degree of variation !etween individual spacing" This modifies the effect of the error setting !y introducing variations" The volume :strength; of the echo signal when it starts" The volume :strength; of the echo signal when it finishes"

11&3

File

Parameter Aro8se ,i; to mono 5ormali6e impulse

"escription Opens E-plorer9(inder to ena!le you to select a rever! impulse file" A toggle to select stereo or mono output" 2efault is stereo" Ena!ling this toggle will apply normali+ation to the rever! impulse" This will apply a constant amount of gain to the rever! impulse and will have the effect of increasing its average amplitude" 66

Parameter Attenuate impulse Generate test tone G "econvolve

"escription A toggle that when ena!led will reduce the audi!le level of the rever! impulse" This can prevent the original signal from !eing ?drowned@ in too strong a level of rever!" Creates a test tone wave file from the convolution impulse rever! file" Ena!les you to use a test tone file to deconvolve :that is to reverse the effects of convolution; an e-isting file"

11&!

Re*erb )enerator

The display in the window a!ove the parameter controls gives e-cellent visual feed!ac0 as to how the various parameter controls affect the echoed signal" #n addition the following comments should prove helpful" Parameter Start position 0en(th "escription This can !e used to introduce a delay :in milliseconds; !etween the incoming audio signal and the time the rever! commences" This defines the time it ta0es for the rever!eration to decay :or fade away;" The higher the decay setting the more li0ely you are to need to increase the 2ampening setting in order to prevent the sound from !eing too muddy" Iet your ears !e the &udge' The volume of the rever! signal"

3olume

6=

Parameter Room Si6e "ampenin( Stereo :idth

"escription Specifies a smaller or larger room whose environment you are aiming to simulate" #n general a larger room si+e will produce a more noticea!le rever! effect" This control simulates the e-tent to which a room8s natural rever!eration is affected !y !eing a!sor!ed !y factors in the room as walls carpets and curtains" This can !e used to modify the stereo image of the rever! output"

11&#

Filter

This module is used to add a low pass and9or high pass filter to a rever! signal" These allow fre*uencies a!ove that specified !y a low pass filter and !elow those specified !y a high pass filter to pass thru the plug-in without the rever! effect !eing applied" Put more simply the rever! will !e applied only to that range of fre*uencies !etween the low and high pass filter settings" This can !e used for e-ample to prevent rever! from !eing applied to very low :!ass; fre*uencies" Fote that there would !e little point in attempting to use a (ilter module !y itself> it wor0s in con&unction with other modules such as (ile or Rever! %enerator to modify their effect"

6B

11&%

3ormali4e

This module can !e placed in Rea.er!8s file chain to normali+e the signal that is passed to it !e whichever modules occur !efore it :in the e-ample a!ove Rever! %enerator and (ilter;" A constant amount of gain will !e added to the signal to !ring the pea0 amplitude :volume; up to whatever level is specified !y setting the fader"

11&-

Re*erse

This module can !e used to add to the audio signal a level of reversed rever! determined !y the level of the /et and 2ry faders" The 2ry fader determines the level used of the signal that is !eing fed into this module" Fotice that this is not ?dry@ in the most commonly used sense of the word as it will include any and all effects added !y any preceding modules ) in the e-ample shown here a rever! generator" The /et fader controls the amount :volume; of reversed rever! that will !e added to the signal"

6D

11&.

Time,)ain,'tretch

This module can !e used in con&unction with other modules such as (ile or Rever! %enerator" (or e-ample if you have an impulse whose tone you li0e !ut perhaps want to vary the length of the rever! tail you can achieve this !y using Time9Stretch9%ain to lengthen or shorten the effect"

Parameter Start position ,a; len(th Gain Stretch

"escription Ensures that the time stretch9gain is not implemented until a specified num!er of milliseconds into the rever! impulse" $se this control to change the ma-imum length of the impulse response" Specifies in deci!els the re*uired output level for this module" $se this to stretch or shrin0 the incoming rever! impulse" A value !elow 5"44 will shrin0 a!ove 5"44 will stretch" <e cautious here and ma0e any ad&ustments at least at first in relatively small increments" Allows for a period of silence :in milliseconds; !efore the time stretch9gain is implemented" Allows you to moderate the stereo width of the outgoing signal effect" Allows you to ad&ust the position of the module8s effect more to the left or right"

Pre<silence :idth Pan

6E

12 Rea1erbate

Rea.er!ate is a less comple- rever! plug-in than Rea.er!" #t can !e used to help create a feel that your song has !een recorded in an environment such as a hall with natural rever!eration rather than in a cold studio" #ts essential characteristics are descri!ed !elow"

Parameter :et "ry Room si6e "ampenin( Stereo :idth )nitial "elay 0o8pass @i(hpass

"escription 2etermines the amount of the processed :wet; signal mi-ed into the outgoing audio stream" 2etermines the amount of the unprocessed :dry; signal mi-ed into the outgoing audio stream" Specifies the si+e of the room whose natural rever!eration you are aiming to imitate" ,oderates the rever! effect to allow for the fact of items such as curtains and carpet that might !e present in the room" This control can !e used to reduce the stereo field of the rever! effect" Allows for a delay O2( a specified num!er of milliseconds !efore the rever! is produced" Jigher settings can sometimes create a feeling of more space" $sed to ensure that the rever! is not applied to higher fre*uencies :a!ove the lowpass setting;" $sed to ensure that the rever! is not applied to lower fre*uencies :!etween the lowpass setting;" Rever! will !e applied to all fre*uencies in the range !etween the highpass and lowpass filter settings"

13 Rea1oco(e
A .ocoder can !e used to add a ro!otic synthetic sci-fi tone to a recorded trac0" Cou can set it up so that any trac0 is modified !y another !ut one common application is to use a synthesi+er to modify the sound of a vocal trac0"

6G

(irst you should ta0e the time to understand a few terms that are used> The detector trac0 is the trac0 whose sound is !eing modulated ) in the a!ove e-ample this would !e the vocal" The modulator trac0 :also 0nown as the carrier; is the trac0 that is used to modify the sound of the detector trac0" #n this e-ample this would !e the synthesi+er" Jere8s an e-ample of how you would set this up" Record the vocal on a trac0 !y itself" On a different trac0 use a .STi to record the tune" $se a fairly !land sound ) !ut of course you can change this later" ,a0e sure that !oth of these trac0s have four channels and that the their master9parent sends are !oth disa!led" To do this clic0 on a trac08s #9O !utton and display its routing window" Create a new trac0 and insert Rea.ocode into its (7 chain" This is the vocoder trac0" Create a send from the detector trac0 :vocal; to Channels 593 of the .ocoder trac0" Create a send from the modulator trac0 :synth; to Channels 69= of the .ocoder trac0" Play the song ad&usting the vertical faders on the .ocoder to get the re*uired !alance"

As you can see there are few controls on this plug-in" They are e-plained !elow"

Parameter :et "ry ,od dry Aands

"escription 2etermines the amount of the processed :wet; detector signal mi-ed into the outgoing audio stream" 2etermines the amount of the unprocessed :dry; detector signal mi-ed into the outgoing audio stream" 2etermines the amount of the unprocessed :dry; modulator signal mi-ed into the outgoing audio stream" Specifies the num!er of fre*uency !ands to !e used in modulating the detector signal" 6H

Parameter )nvert si(nal inputs Stereo

"escription A toggle which swaps the roles of the two incoming signals so that the modulator !ecomes the detector and vice versa" A toggle to ena!le9disa!le stereo output"

Once you8ve got the hang of it you can e-plore the creative possi!ilities at your leisure" (or e-ample use a vocal trac0 to modulate a guitar to create a singing guitar effect"

=4

1! Rea1oice

Rea.oice is a ,#2# controlled multi-voice pitch shifter" Cou can use it in con&unction with a recorded vocal trac0 to create pitch shift harmonies" #n overview this is how it wor0s> Record the .ocal Trac0" #nsert a new trac0 immediately !elow the .ocal Trac0" Create a send from the .ocal Trac0 to the new trac0" #nitially at least this should !e Pre (7" #nsert Rea.oice into the (7 /indow of the new trac0" Arm this trac0 for recording" Select your ,#2# 0ey!oard as the #nput 2evice and turn #nput ,onitoring on" ,ute all trac0s e-cept these two" Play the song" As you do so play the 0ey!oard e-perimenting until you find an appropriate range of notes" /or0 out what you want to play press / to return to the !eginning then Ctrl R to record" Stop recording when finished" #f you do not have a ,#2# 0ey!oard you can either use REAPEROs .irtual 0ey!oard or you can enter the notes !y hand using the ,#2# Editor" #f you wish you can record more than one ta0e selecting Play All Ta0es for the ,#2# trac0 items"

Parameter :et "ry Gain ,a; voices

"escription 2etermines the amount of the processed :wet; signal that will !e mi-ed into the outgoing audio stream" 2etermines the amount of the unprocessed :dry; signal that will !e mi-ed into the outgoing audio stream" The amount !y which the volume of the incoming signal is increased or decreased" The num!er of vocal harmonies re*uired ma-imum is eight"

=5

Parameter Attack Sustain Release ,)") channel Center note Pitch shift Al(orithm

"escription 2etermines how *uic0ly the plug-in responds to the incoming audio signal" 2etermines for how long the harmonies will !e held" 2etermines how *uic0ly effects generated !y the plug-in will ta0e to die down after the sustain time is finished" Selects the channel:s; used for the ,#2# material :4 P all;" Selects center note :in semitones;" Selects the pitch-shift algorithm to !e used ) Sound Touch 2irac Simple windowed elasti*ue Pro elasti*ue Efficient elasti*ue SOIO or Pro&ect 2efault" The pro&ect default is specified in the pro&ect settings" Selects parameter to fine-tune the !ehavior of the selected algorithm" #f Pro&ect 2efault is selected this option is not availa!le !ut will !e determined !y the Pro&ect Settings" A toggle to ena!le9disa!le stereo output"

Pitch shift Parameter

Stereo

=3

1# ReaXcomp

Rea7comp is a multi!and compressor" <roadly spea0ing its controls are similar to those found on ReaComp e-cept that you are a!le to split the fre*uency spectrum into several !ands and compress each !and individually" The e-ample !elow shows a compressor with four !ands" Another feature of ReaComp is that you can ma0e ad&ustments to some of its parameters !y using your mouse on the plug-in8s graph" These options are e-plained in the ta!le !elow"

Parameter

"escription

5um#ered ta#s =sho8n as Selects a !and and displays that !and8s settings" #n the e-ample shown a!ove !and 1 to ! a#ove> 3 is selected" Active Top &reBuency A toggle to ena!le or disa!le the current !and" Sets the highest fre*uency of this !and" The lowest fre*uency is determined !y the top fre*uency of the previous !and" #n the case of !and 5 the !ottom fre*uency is 4" A !and8s top fre*uency can also !e ad&usted !y dragging left or right the thin vertical !lue line that separates !ands on the graph" Sets the volume level at which this !and of the compressor will !e engaged" Fote that this is the threshold for the !and not for the audio signal as a whole" A !and8s threshold can also !e ad&usted directly on the graph !y dragging its !and num!er up or down"

Threshold

=6

Parameter Ratio

"escription This determines the amount of compression that will !e applied to the !and" (or e-ample at 3>5 for every 3 deci!els !y which the volume of the !and on the dry signal e-ceeds the threshold the processed signal will !e increased !y only 5 deci!el" Setting a ratio !elow +ero will ma0e the !and act as an e-pander rather than a compressor"

Auto make up (ain Pro(ram dependent release &eed#ack detector ?nee

A toggle which when ena!led will automatically increase the gain on this !and when its volume falls !elow the threshold" A toggle which when ena!led ensures that attac0 and release times are modified according to the fre*uency and amplitude of the audio signal" A toggle which when ena!led will prevent feed!ac0" The 0nee si+e determines the range of volume :rather than a specified amount of time; which the compressor !and will use in applying the compression ratio" (or e-ample with a ratio of =>5 and a 0nee setting of 4 d< the full =>5 ratio will !e applied as soon as the threshold is e-ceeded" /ith a 0nee si+e of 54 d< the ratio will !e gradually increased from 5>5 at the threshold level eventually reaching the full =>5 when the volume e-ceeds the threshold !y a full 54 d<" 2etermines how *uic0ly the compressor !and responds when the threshold level is reached or e-ceeded" A +ero setting means the full compression will !e applied immediately and suddenly> the greater the num!er of milliseconds specified the more gradual the response" 2etermines how *uic0ly the compressor !and responds when the volume drops !elow the threshold level" A +ero setting means that the compression will !e fully and instantly released" A higher setting ensures that the release will !e more gradual" R,S :root mean s*uare; is calculated according to a formula !ased on the s*uare roots of a moving series of values" Thin0 of it as !eing conceptually similar to a moving average" #f R,S is set a!ove 4 ms the higher the setting the more e-treme pea0s and troughs in the audio signal will !e smoothed out in determining the compression that is applied" Toggles this option on and off" /hen ena!led it produces a more usea!le scale for fre*uency automation envelopes so that the lower fre*uencies are allocated a larger area of the automation envelope area" This is achieved !y using a logarithmic scale rather than a linear scale for the fre*uency envelope"

Attack

Release

R,S Si6e

0o(<scale automated freBuencies

Add #and "elete #and Reset to defaults Solo current #and Ta#s Grid Gain

Adds a new !and :ta!;" 2eletes the current !and :ta!;" Cou must leave at least one !and" Restores this instance of Rea7comp to the plug-in8s default settings" 2isa!les all !ands e-cept the current one" Toggles on and off display of ta!s and their parameter controls" Toggles on and off display of grid lines on the graph" Raises or lowers the volume of the plug-ins overall output :not individual !ands;"

==

1% Rea'amplomatic#000

ReaSamplomaticB444 is a plug-in that can !e used to play a sample under ,#2# control" Cou can use multiple instances for multisamples patches and drum 0its :as e-plained in the REAPER $ser %uide;"

Parameter ,ode )mport item from arran(e Aro8se HlistI 3olume 3elocity ma;imum Pan ,in vol 3elocity minimum

"escription A drop down list to select (reely configura!le shifted Sample :ignores ,#2# note; or Fote :semitone shifted;" #f an audio item is selected in the arrange window this is used as the sample" Opens E-plorer9(inder for you to select the sample file that will !e played" Opens a window where you can !uild store and manage a list of items" Sets the volume of the sample when triggered at the highest velocity" Sets the ma-imum velocity level" $sed to pan the sound in the stereo mi- towards left or right" Sets the volume of the sample when triggered at the lowest velocity" Sets the minimum velocity level"

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Parameter 5ote start PitchJstart 5ote end PitchJend Pitch offset Pitch #end Attack Sustain "ecay Release 5ote<off release override ,)") Chan ,a; voices

"escription 2efines the ,#2# note for which note-on messages will trigger the sample" Specifies the pitch offset of the sample when it starts :(reely configura!le and Fote modes only; 2efines the ,#2# note for which note-on messages will stop the sample" Specifies the pitch offset of the sample when it ends :(reely configura!le and Fote modes only; Specifies a value :in semitones; to change the pitch of the sample" 2etermines the amount of pitch variation allowed" 2etermines how *uic0ly the volume of the sample rises when triggered" Jow loud the sound rings out while the note is held" 2etermines how *uic0ly the sound tails away after the release period" 2etermines how long the sound is held" A toggle which allows note-off release to !e overridden !y a specified time :ms;" The ,#2# channel:s; on which the plug-in listens for note-on and note-off messages" 2etermines the ma-imum num!er of samples that can !e triggered concurrently without forcing a sample that is already playing to stop" The parameter control 0no! can !e used to select any num!er !etween 5 and 5D or any other num!er up to 53G can !e entered manually" 2etermines the pro!a!ility factor for !eats so that every cycle can !e made different" A toggle which when ena!led allows a slightly different version of a sample to !e used when it is repeated there!y introducing a more realistic ?live@ feel"

Pro#a#ility Round<ro#in

Remove played notes from A toggle option which gives you the option of not passing played notes thru the (7 &' chain ,)") stream chain" 4#ey note<offs 0oop 'fade 0oop start offset Resample mode A toggle to allow note-off messages to !e o!eyed or ignored" Allows a properly configured sample to play with its loop section repeating until a note-off message is received" Can !e used to create a cross fade when looping" Can !e used to create a time offset specified in milliseconds when looping" A drop down list with a ranger of choices varying !y *uality from Iow to <est or !y speed from (ast to E-treme" Cou also have the option of using the Pro&ect 2efault as specified in your Pro&ect Settings dialog" Specifies a sample si+e !elow which data is to !e cached" $sing cache can improve speed of performance> how much cache is availa!le to you will depend on your computer8s RA, si+e"

Cache samples smaller than

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1- Rea'"nth

ReaSynth is a synthesi+er" #nserted into a trac08s (7 chain it can !e played using a ,#2# 0ey!oard or indeed REAPER8s virtual 0ey!oard" Cou can also insert empty ,#2# items and use the ,#2# editor to create your music and ,#2# messages" #ts control parameters are descri!ed !elow"

Parameter 3olume Tunin( Attack "ecay Sustain Release

"escription Sets the volume output level" A sensi!le approach is to start with this at a relatively low setting of around -54d< or so then fade it up to suit" Ad&usts note or pitch of the output" This represents how long :in milliseconds; it ta0es for the sound to rise from an initial value of +ero to its ma-imum level" This is the length of time ta0es for the sound to fall off to the sustain level" The volume level at which the sound is sustained !efore it is released" The time ta0en after the sustain period for the sound to fall away to +ero"

:ave shape parameters The synthesi+er sound is made up from a mi-ture of various wave forms of different shape" The remaining controls together shape this sound" SBuare mi; Pulse 8idth Sa8tooth mi; Trian(le mi; E;tra sine mi; E;tra sine tune Jow much s*uare wave is added to the sound" The width of pulses> the wider the pulses the smaller will !e the gaps !etween them" Jow much sawtooth wave is added to the sound" Jow much triangle wave is added to the sound" Jow much e-tra sine wave is added to the sound" Any ad&ustment to !e made to the pitch of the additional sine mi-"

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1. Rea3I35AM

ReaF#FQam is not an audio effect and therefore outside the scope of this document" #t is software that can !e used in con&unction with F#FQA," F#FQA, is an innovative software program that allows musicians to colla!orate in Mfa0e timeM over the #nternet" The software connects to a central server where participants can share audio and te-t information and has the a!ility to record !oth the local and remote channels of each MsessionM :audio only;" REAPER has the a!ility to import these recorded session files to allow you to edit and mi- at your leisure" M(a0e timeM means that some players will hear a delayed version to which they play along" To learn more a!out the F#FQA, software or download a copy visit http>99www"FinQam"com To learn more a!out using F#FQA, with REAPER visit the Coc0os /#K# http>99www"coc0os"com9wi0i9

1/ Rea'tream

ReaStream is not an audio effect and therefore strictly spea0ing outside the scope of this document" #t supports streaming from host to host of audio and or ,#2# over a IAF segment" The plug-in needs to !e inserted and ena!led with a common identifier on !oth systems" The option to send should !e ena!led on one machine and to receive on the other"

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