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# Viscous Flow through Pipes

1. Derive the Navier-Stokes Equation of Motion. 2. An oil of viscosity 9 Poise and specific gravity 0.9 is flowing through a horizontal pipe of 60 mm diameter. If the pressure drop in 100 m length of the pipe is 1800 KN/m2,determine a) The rate of flow of oil b) The centre-line velocity c) The total friction drag over 100 m length d) The power required to maintain the flow e) The velocity gradient at the pipe wall f) The velocity and shear stress at 8mm from the wall 3. In a pipe of 300 mm diameter the maximum velocity of flow is found to be 2 m/s. If the flow in the pipe is laminar, find the average velocity and the radius at which it occurs and the velocity at 50 mm from the wall of the pipe. 4. A Pipe 60 mm diameter and 450 m long slopes upwards at 1 in 50. An oil of viscosity 0.9 NS/ m2 and specific gravity 0.9 is required to be pumped at the rate of 5 Litres/sec. a) Is the flow laminar? b) What pressure difference is required to attain this condition? c) What is the power of the pump required assuming an overall efficiency of 65%? d) What is the center-line velocity and the velocity gradient at pipe wall? 5. A liquid of viscosity of 0.9 poise is filled between two horizontal plates 10 mm apart. If the upper plate is moving at 1 m/s with respect to the lower plate which is stationary and the pressure difference between two sections 60 m apart is 60KN/ m2, determine: a) The Velocity Distribution b) The discharge per unit width c) The shear stress on the upper plate. 6. Show that the discharge per unit width between two parallel plates distance b apart, when one plate is moving at velocity U while the other one is held stationary, for the condition of zero shear stress at the fixed plate is q = (Ub/3). 7. Derive the equations of viscosity of each methods of measuring the Viscosity. 8. Derive the equation of Velocity Distribution, Shear Stress Distribution and discharge for the case of laminar flow of fluid between two parallel plates moving in opposite directions. 9. Show that the momentum correction factor and energy correction factor for laminar flow through a circular pipe are 4/3 and 2 respectively.

## Turbulent Flow in Pipes

1. A smooth pipe of 80 mm diameter and 1000 m long is carrying water at the rate of 8 Litres/sec. If the kinematic viscosity of water is 0.015 stokes and the value of co-efficient of friction f is given by the relation f = 0.0791/(Re)1/4 , where Re is Reynolds Number, calculate: a) Loss of head b) Wall shearing stress c) Centre-line Velocity d) Velocity and shear stress at 20mm from the pipe wall e) Thickness of laminar sub-layer. 2. Find the distance from the pipe wall at which the local velocity is equal to the average velocity for turbulent flow in pipes. 3. In a rough pipe of diameter 0.6 m and length 4500 m water is flowing at the rate of 0.6 m3/Sec. If the average height of roughness is 0.48 mm, find the power required to maintain this flow. 4. A smooth pipeline of 100 mm diameter carries 2.27 m3/minute of water having kinematic viscosity of 0.009 stokes, calculate Friction Factor, Maximum Velocity and Shear Stress at the boundary. 5. A rough plastic pipe 500 mm in diameter and 300 m in length carrying water with a velocity of 3 m/sec has an absolute roughness of 0.25 mm and a kinematic viscosity of 0.9 centistokes. Is the flow turbulent or Laminar? What is the head lost in Friction? 6. Water is flowing in a rough pipe of 0.5 m diameter and 800 m length at the rate of 0.5 m3/sec. Assuming the average height of roughness as 0.154 mm. Determine: a) Co-efficient of friction. b) Wall Shear Stress, c) Centre-line Velocity and velocity at at distance of 200 mm from the pipe wall.