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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)

Rehabilitation and Strengthening of R.C.C. STRUCTURES by using FRP composites


Rahul kumar satbhaiya1, Shishir gupta2, T.R Arora3
M.Tech Scholar CTM, LNCT Bhopal (M. P.) 2 Asst Proff LNCT Bhopal (M.P.) 3 H.O.D Department Of Civil Engg. LNCT Bhopal (M.P.)
Abstract Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) as an external reinforcement is used extensively to deal with the strength requirements related to flexure and shear in structural systems. But the strengthening of members subjected to torsion is explored only recently. Torsion failure is an undesirable brittle form of failure which should be avoided specially in the earthquake prone areas. In the present work, the behaviour and performance of rectangular reinforced concrete beams strengthened with externally bonded Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) fabrics subjected to combined flexure and torsion is studied experimentally. Three sets of concrete cylinders were tested for their ultimate strengths. In SET I three concrete cylinders (F1, F2 and F3) are tested. In SET II three concrete cylinders (S1, S2 and S3) are tested. In SET III three concrete cylinders (R1, R2 and R3) are tested. The concrete cylinders F1, S1 and C1 were taken as the control concrete cylinders. It was observed that the concrete cylinders F1, S1 and C1 had less load carrying capacity when compared to that of the externally strengthened beams using FRP sheets. In SET I concrete cylinders F2 is strengthened only single warp of FRP sheet on the full dimensions of concrete cylinders and F3 is strengthened by double warp of FRP sheet on the full dimensions of concrete cylinders. In SET II concrete cylinders S2 is strengthened only single warp of FRP sheet on the full dimensions of concrete cylinders and S3 is strengthened by double warp of FRP sheet on the full dimensions of concrete cylinders. In SET III concrete cylinders R2 is strengthened only single warp of FRP sheet on the full dimensions of concrete cylinders and R3 is strengthened by double warp of FRP sheet on the full dimensions of concrete cylinders. The ultimate load carrying capacities of all the concrete cylinders are calculated. Experimental data on ultimate cracking loads of each of the cylinders were obtained. The effect of different types and configuration of FRP and ultimate load carrying capacity of the cylinders were investigated. Keywords Concrete, Cylinder, Failure, Fibre, Polymer, Reinforced
1

I. INTRODUCTION This The maintenance, rehabilitation and upgrading of structural members, is perhaps one of the most crucial problems in civil engineering applications. 261

Moreover, a large number of structures constructed in the past using the older design codes in different parts of the world are structurally unsafe according to the new design codes. Since replacement of such deficient elements of structures incurs a huge amount of public money and time, strengthening has become the acceptable way of improving their load carrying capacity and extending their service lives. Infrastructure decay caused by premature deterioration of buildings and structures has lead to the investigation of several processes for repairing or strengthening purposes. One of the challenges in strengthening of concrete structures is selection of a strengthening method that will enhance the strength and serviceability of the structure while addressing limitations such as constructability, building operations, and budget. Previously, the retrofitting of reinforced concrete structures, such as columns, beams and other structural elements, was done by removing and replacing the low quality or damaged concrete or/and steel reinforcements with new and stronger material. However, with the introduction of new advanced composite materials such as fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites, concrete members can now be easily and effectively strengthened using externally bonded FRP composites. Retrofitting of concrete structures with wrapping FRP sheets provide a more economical and technically superior alternative to the traditional techniques in many situations because it offers high strength, low weight, corrosion resistance, high fatigue resistance, easy and rapid installation and minimal change in structural geometry. In addition, FRP manufacturing offers a unique opportunity for the development of shapes and forms that would be difficult or impossible with the conventional steel materials. Although the fibers and resins used in FRP systems are relatively expensive compared with traditional strengthening materials, labour and equipment costs to install FRP systems are often lower. FRP systems can also be used in areas with limited access where traditional techniques would be impractical.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013) II. LITREAURE A review of some significant experimental investigations conducted using steel plates is presented to demonstrate some of the structural implications of external plating. Research work into the performance of members strengthened with steel plates was pioneered simultaneously in South Africa and France in the 1960s (LHermite and Bresson, 1967; Fleming and King,1967; Lerchenthal,1967; Gilibert et al.,1976). Continued development of suitable adhesives and the increased use of the technique in practice stimulated further research work. Eberline et al. (1988) present a literature review on research and applications related to steel plate bonding.Preliminary studies were conducted by Irwin (1975). Macdonald (1978) and Macdonald and Calder (1982) reported four point loading tests on steel plated RC beams of length 4900mm. These beams were used to provide data for the proposed strengthening of the Quinton Bridges (Raithby, 1980 and 1982), and incorporated two different epoxy adhesives, two plate thicknesses of 10.0mm and 6.5mm giving width-to-thickness (b/t) ratios of 14 and 22, and a plate lap-joint at its centre. In all cases it was found that failure of the beams occurred at one end by horizontal shear in the concrete adjacent to the steel plate, commencing at the plate end and resulting in sudden separation of the plate with the concrete still attached, up to about mid-span. The external plate was found to have a much more significant effect in terms of crack control and stiffness. The loads required to cause a crack width of 0.1mm were increased by 95%, whilst the deflections under this load were substantially reduced. The post cracking stiffness was found to be increased by between 35105% depending upon the type of adhesive used and the plate dimensions. The features of this work became the subject of a more detailed programme of research at the TRRL (Macdonald, 1982; Macdonald and Calder, 1982), in which a series of RC beams of length 3500mm were tested in four point bending. The beams were either plated as-cast or plated after being loaded to produce a maximum crack width of 0.1mm. The effect of widening the plate whilst maintaining its cross-sectional area constant was studied. It was found that the plated as-cast and the pre-cracked beams gave similar load/deflection curves, demonstrating the effectiveness of external plating for strengthening purposes. The benefits of utilising FRP materials over steel in plate bonding applications are thus clear. The drawbacks are the intolerance to uneven bonding surfaces which may cause peeling of the plate, the possibility of brittle failure modes (Swamy and Mukhopadhyaya, 1995) and the material cost, since fiber composites are between 4-20 times as expensive as steel in terms of unit volume. 262 However, in a rehabilitation project, where material costs rarely exceed 20% of the overall project cost, the installation savings can offset the higher material costs (Meier, 1992). Peshkam and Leeming (1994) have considered the commercial viability of FRP plate bonding for bridge strengthening. In a straight comparison with steel plate bonding for a typical application, despite the fact that material costs will be increased, labour and equipment costs will be reduced, construction times will be shorter and durability will be improved. It is shown that 2kg of FRP could replace 47kg of steel on an equal strength basis. The costs of installing both materials are shown to be similar; however, when traffic management, traffic delay and maintenance costs are included, the use of FRP provides a saving of 17.5% over steel. There are situations where steel plate bonding is not a viable option because of the extent of chloride contamination of the concrete. In such cases, the use of FRP may avoid the need for demolition and replacement. Peshkam and Leeming (1994) presented a cost comparison of bridge replacement against strengthening with FRP, in which possible savings of 40% are demonstrated. These cost comparisons were made before true manufacturing and installation costs were known and were at the best estimates. Subsequently the tendering process for real installation projects has shown carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate bonding to be very competitive against steel plate bonding in first cost, before even future maintenance costs are added to the whole life cost equation. Saadatmanesh and Ehsani (1991) conducted an xperimental study of the strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using non-prestressed and prestressed GFRP plates. One of the two prestressed beams contained a relatively small amount of internal tensile steel reinforcement, while the other contained larger bars and was precracked prior to bonding of the plate. The plate prestress in the precracked case closed some of the cracks, indicating the benefit of prestressing from a serviceability point of view. The beam with little original reinforcement before plating experienced a large improvement in ultimate capacity due to the additional moment couple provided by the plate prestress. In both cases, the prestress was generated by cambering the beam before bonding the plate so that a tensile load was transferred to the plate when the camber was released. Improved concrete crack control was observed with prestressed plates, a clear advantage from a serviceability point of view. A previous experimental study by Saadatmanesh and Ehsani (1990) also included the prestressing of a beam by cambering; this particular specimen had a low internal reinforcement area ratio of 0.32% (based on effective depth) so that a very high increase in ultimate load (323%) was observed as a result.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013) The GFRP plate was not anchored at its ends, and failure occurred by premature plate separation associated with the removal of a layer of concrete from the tension face of the beam. III. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY The experimental study consists of casting of three sets of reinforced concrete (RC) cylinders of size 150mm diameter and 300mm height. In SET I three cylinders of M15 grade of concrete were casted, out of which one is unreinforced and other two were strengthened using continuous fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets. In SET II three cylinders of M-20 grade of concrete weak in shear were casted, out of which one is the unreinforced and other two were strengthened by using continuous fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets in shear. In SET III three cylinders of M-25 grade of concrete weak in shear were casted, out of which one is the unreinforced and other two were strengthened by using continuous fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets in shear. The strengthening of the cylinder is done with varying configuration and layers of FRP sheets. Experimental data on load and failure modes of each of the cylinder were obtained. The change in load carrying capacity and failure mode of the cylinder are investigated as the amount and configuration of FRP sheets are altered. The following chapter describes in detail the experimental study. In this study we have taken four cases for checking the strength of unreinforced concrete cylinders over the reinforced concrete cylinders with FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastic) sheets. In each case we have taken three sets of concrete cylinders having different grades of concrete. All experimental details given in table below.
Table 3.1 Case study details

CASE NO.

LOCATIO N Sagar (M.P.)

DETAILS Experimental grades of Concrete M-15, M20 and M-25 Experimental grades of Concrete M-15, M20 and M-25 Experimental grades of Concrete M-15, M20 and M-25 Experimental grades of Concrete M-15, M20 and M-25

Case-I

Case-II

Sagar (M.P.)

Case-III

Bhopal (M.P.) Bhopal (M.P.)

Case-IV

All the specimens were tested in the Structural Engineering Laboratory of Gov. Engg. College SAGAR (M.P.). The testing procedure for the entire specimen was same. After the curing period of 28 days was over, the as washed and its surface was cleaned for clear visibility of cracks. The most commonly used load arrangement for testing of cylinders will consist of compression testing machine loading. Before testing the member was checked dimensionally, and a detailed visual inspection made with all information carefully recorded. Loads will then normally be increased again in similar increments up to failure, cracking and manual strain observations must be suspended as failure approaches unless special safety precautions are taken. If it is essential that precise deflection readings are taken up to collapse. Cracking and failure mode was checked visually, and a load/deflection plot was prepared. To meet the wide range of needs which may be required in fabricating composites, the industry has evolved over a dozen separate manufacturing processes as well as a number of hybrid processes. Each of these processes offers advantages and specific benefits which may apply to the fabricating of composites. Hand lay-up and spray-up are two basic moulding processes. The hand lay-up process is the oldest, simplest, and most labour intense fabrication method. The process is most common in FRP marine construction. In hand lay-up method liquid resin is placed along with reinforcement (woven glass fiber) against finished surface of an open mould. Chemical reactions in the resin harden the material to a strong, light weight product. The resin serves as the matrix for the reinforcing glass fibers, much as concrete acts as the matrix for steel reinforcing rods. The percentage of fiber and matrix was 50:50 in weight. The following constituent materials were used for fabricating the plate: 1. E-glass woven roving as reinforcement 2. Epoxy as resin 3. Hardener as diamine (catalyst) 4. Polyvinyl alcohol as a releasing agent Contact moulding in an open mould by hand lay-up was used to combine plies of woven roving in the prescribed sequence. A flat plywood rigid platform was selected. A plastic sheet was kept on the plywood platform and a thin film of polyvinyl alcohol was applied as a releasing agent by use of spray gun. Laminating starts with the application of a gel coat (epoxy and hardener) deposited on the mould by brush, whose main purpose was to provide a smooth external surface and to protect the fibers from direct exposure to the environment. 263

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013) Ply was cut from roll of woven roving. Layers of reinforcement were placed on the mould at top of the gel coat and gel coat was applied again by brush. Any air which may be entrapped was removed using serrated steel rollers. The process of hand lay-up was the continuation of the above process before the gel coat had fully hardened. Again, a plastic sheet was covered the top of plate by applying polyvinyl alcohol inside the sheet as releasing agent. Then, a heavy flat metal rigid platform was kept top of the plate for compressing purpose. The plates were left for a minimum of 48 hours before being transported and cut to exact shape for testing. IV. RESULTS Three sets of concrete cylinders were tested for their ultimate strengths. In SET I three concrete cylinders (F1, F2 and F3) are tested. In SET II three concrete cylinders (S1, S2 and S3) are tested. In SET III three concrete cylinders (R1, R2 and R3) are tested. The concrete cylinders F1, S1 and C1 were taken as the control concrete cylinders. It was observed that the concrete cylinders F1, S1 and C1 had less load carrying capacity when compared to that of the externally strengthened beams using FRP sheets. In SET I concrete cylinders F2 is strengthened only single warp of FRP sheet on the full dimensions of concrete cylinders and F3 is strengthened by double warp of FRP sheet on the full dimensions of concrete cylinders. In SET II concrete cylinders S2 is strengthened only single warp of FRP sheet on the full dimensions of concrete cylinders and S3 is strengthened by double warp of FRP sheet on the full dimensions of concrete cylinders. In SET III concrete cylinders R2 is strengthened only single warp of FRP sheet on the full dimensions of concrete cylinders and R3 is strengthened by double warp of FRP sheet on the full dimensions of concrete cylinders. The ultimate load carrying capacity of all the concrete cylinders is given in Tables below.

FIG 3.1-Application of epoxy and hardener on the concrete structure

FIG -3.2 Fixing of FRP sheet on the concrete structure

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)
Table 4.1 Results for M-15 grade of concrete in Case -I

Sr. No. 1.

Date of casting 15/06/2013

Grade of Concrete M-15

Date of Test 12/07/2013

Cylinder Status Without warp

Breaking Load (MT) 35.75

Strength Kg/cm2 202.40

Remark

Initial stage

2.

15/06/2013

M-15

12/07/2013

Single warp

55.45

313.94

Increased by 55% from initial stage

3.

15/06/2013

M-15

12/07/2013

Double warp

77

435.95

Increased by 38.86% from single warp

Table 4.2 Results for M-20 grade of concrete in Case -I

Sr. No. 1.

Date of casting 16/06/2013

Grade of Concrete M-20

Date of Test 13/07/2013

Cylinder Status Without warp

Breaking Load (MT) 45.75

Strength Kg/cm2 259

Remark

Initial stage

2.

16/06/2013

M-20

13/07/2013

Single warp

65.45

370.55

Increased by 43% from initial stage

3.

16/06/2013

M-20

13/07/2013

Double warp

87

492.56

Increased by 33% from single warp

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)
Table 4.3 Results for M-25 grade of concrete in Case I

Sr. No. 1.

Date of casting 17/06/2013

Grade of Concrete M-25

Date of Test 14/07/2013

Cylinder Status Without warp

Breaking Load (MT) 52.45

Strength Kg/cm2 296.95

Remark

Initial stage

2.

17/06/2013

M-25

14/07/2013

Single warp

69.23

391.96

Increased by 32% from initial stage

3.

17/06/2013

M-25

14/07/2013

Double warp

98.76

559.15

Increased by 43% from single warp

Table 4.4 Results for M-15 grade of concrete in Case II

Sr. No. 1.

Date of casting 18/06/2013

Grade of Concrete M-15

Date of Test 15/07/2013

Cylinder Status Without warp

Breaking Load (MT) 34.85

Strength Kg/cm2 197.31

Remark

Initial stage

2.

18/06/2013

M-15

15/07/2013

Single warp

56.24

318.41

Increased by 61% from initial stage

3.

18/06/2013

M-15

15/07/2013

Double warp

76.85

435.10

Increased by 36% from single warp

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Table 4.5 Results for M-20 grade of concrete in Case II

Sr. No. 1.

Date of casting 19/07/2013

Grade of Concrete M-20

Date of Test 16/08/2013

Cylinder Status Without warp

Breaking Load (MT) 45.20

Strength Kg/cm2 255.90

Remark

Initial stage

2.

19/07/2013

M-20

16/08/2013

Single warp

64.84

367.10

Increased by 43.45% from initial stage

3.

19/07/2013

M-20

16/08/2013

Double warp

85.88

486.22

Increased by 32% from single warp

Table 4.6 Results for M-25 grade of concrete in Case II

Sr. No. 1.

Date of casting 20/07/2013

Grade of Concrete M-25

Date of Test 17/08/2013

Cylinder Status Without warp

Breaking Load (MT) 51.25

Strength Kg/cm2 290.16

Remark

Initial stage

2.

20/07/2013

M-25

17/08/2013

Single warp

68.88

389.97

Increased by 34.39% from initial stage

3.

20/07/2013

M-25

17/08/2013

Double warp

97.95

554.56

Increased by 42.2% from single warp

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Table 4.7 Results for M-15 grade of concrete in Case III

Sr. No. 1.

Date of casting 24/06/2013

Grade of Concrete M-15

Date of Test 14/07/2013

Cylinder Status Without warp

Breaking Load (MT) 35.05

Strength Kg/cm2 198.44

Remark

Initial stage

2.

24/06/2013

M-15

14/07/2013

Single warp

56.29

318.69

Increased by 60% from initial stage

3.

24/06/2013

M-15

14/07/2013

Double warp

76.15

431.13

Increased by 36.64% from single warp

Table 4.8 Results for M-20 grade of concrete in Case III

Sr. No. 1.

Date of casting 26/07/2013

Grade of Concrete M-20

Date of Test 15/08/2013

Cylinder Status Without warp

Breaking Load (MT) 44.89

Strength Kg/cm2 254.15

Remark

Initial stage

2.

26/07/2013

M-20

15/08/2013

Single warp

64.56

365.52

Increased by 43.38% from initial stage

3.

26/07/2013

M-20

15/08/2013

Double warp

85.42

483.62

Increased by 32.31% from single warp

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Table 4.9 Results for M-25 grade of concrete in Case III

Sr. No. 1.

Date of casting 26/07/2013

Grade of Concrete M-25

Date of Test 15/08/2013

Cylinder Status Without warp

Breaking Load (MT) 50.85

Strength Kg/cm2 287.89

Remark

Initial stage

2.

26/07/2013

M-25

15/08/2013

Single warp

67.28

380.92

Increased by 32.31% from initial stage

3.

26/07/2013

M-25

15/08/2013

Double warp

96.70

547.48

Increased by 43.72% from single warp

Table 4.10 Results for M-15 grade of concrete in Case IV

Sr. No. 1.

Date of casting 27/07/2013

Grade of Concrete M-15

Date of Test 16/08/2013

Cylinder Status Without warp

Breaking Load (MT) 35.19

Strength Kg/cm2 199.23

Remark

Initial stage

2.

27/07/2013

M-15

16/08/2013

Single warp

57.05

323

Increased by 62.12% from initial stage

3.

27/07/2013

M-15

16/08/2013

Double warp

76.45

432.83

Increased by 34% from single warp

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Table 4.11 Results for M-20 grade of concrete in Case IV

Sr. No. 1.

Date of casting 28/07/2013

Grade of Concrete M-20

Date of Test 17/08/2013

Cylinder Status Without warp

Breaking Load (MT) 45.10

Strength Kg/cm2 255.34

Remark

Initial stage

2.

28/07/2013

M-20

17/08/2013

Single warp

64.95

367.72

Increased by 44.01% from initial stage

3.

28/07/2013

M-20

17/08/2013

Double warp

85.92

486.45

Increased by 32.2% from single warp

Table 4.12 Results for M-25 grade of concrete in Case IV

Sr. No. 1.

Date of casting 28/07/2013

Grade of Concrete M-25

Date of Test 17/08/2013

Cylinder Status Without warp

Breaking Load (MT) 51.25

Strength Kg/cm2 290.16

Remark

Initial stage

2.

28/07/2013

M-25

17/08/2013

Single warp

68.15

385.84

Increased by 32.97% from initial stage

3.

28/07/2013

M-25

17/08/2013

Double warp

96.25

544.93

Increased by 41.23% from single warp

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Fig 4.1 Combined results for breaking load on grades case-I

Fig 4.2 Combined results for breaking load on grades case-II

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Fig 4.3 Combined results for breaking load on grades case-III

Fig 4.4 Combined result for breaking load on grades case-IV

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013) V. CONCLUSION All specimens are tested At Gov. Engineering College Civil Laboratory, SAGAR. The results of testing on cylinders are given above in tables. In this exercise we have chosen three grades of concrete cylinders M-15, M-20 and M-25 which are generally used in these days for construction work under the limit state design consideration. Test Cylinders Size 150 mm diameter x 300 mm height water cured. Date of Wrapping is 36 hrs before from date of testing. We have made 3specimens for each grade and tests are applied on all 9 specimens. In this study the specimens are made by concrete and warp with the FRP (Fibrereinforced plastic). The tests are conducted on normal concrete and FRP warped concrete. After completing all the analysis on normal concrete and FRP warped concrete grades M-15, M-20 and M-25, the strength of concrete grade is increased with average 37% for all grades. REFERENCES
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