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GROUP II A! "II # SUMMAR$
Group II %lements
Down Group II, %

more &'e hence reverse reaction [O] more likely to occur
Mg
2+
+ 2e

Mg

! 2"#$%
&a
2+
+ 2e

&a

! 2"$'%
(a
2+
+ 2e

(a

! 2")*%
metal more likely o(i)ise)* more re)ucing an) higher re)ucing power
metal more reactive an+ reaction more vigorous
,eaction with o-ygen. +M,s- . O+,g- +MO,s-
Metal /e Mg Ca Sr /a
Colour o0
0lame
/hite /hite Orange (right re+ 0pple green
,eaction with col+ water. M,s- . +1+O,l- M,O1-+,a2- . 1+,g-
Metal /e Mg Ca Sr /a
3ith col) water 1o reaction 1o reaction 2airly vigorous %igorous %ery vigorous
3ith steam 1o reaction Mg,s- . 1+O,g- MgO,s- . 1+,g- 3 3 3
p1 o0 solution ' ' ) 4# 4#
,eaction o5 o-i+e with water. MO,s- . 1+O,l- M,O1-+,a2-
Metal /eO MgO CaO SrO /aO Remarks
Solu4ility Insolu6le Insolu6le 7paringly
solu6le
%ery
solu6le
%ery solu6le 8attice energy o5 MO
+ecreases +own Group
hence solu6ility increases
/on)ing Ionic with
covalent
character
Ionic with
covalent
character
Ionic Ionic Ionic M
2+
si9e increase +own
group hence charge +ensity
an+ polarising power
+ecrease, electron clou+ o5
O
23
less +istorte+, hence
less covalent character
+own group
p1 o0 solution ' ' ) 4# 4#
:hermal sta6ility o5 car6onates an+ nitrates.
MCO5,s- MO,s- . CO+,g-
+M,O5-+,s- +MO,s- . 6O+,g- . O+,g-
6rown gas
+own group, si9e o5 cation increase
charge +ensity an+ polarising power +ecrease
anion electron clou+ +istorte+ to less e-tent
6on+s within anion weaken to less e-tent
more sta6le to heat ;higher thermal sta6ility< = nee+ higher temperature to +ecompose ;higher
+ecomposition temperature<
4
(eO MgO

&aO 7rO (aO
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Group "II %lements
>hysical >roperties
%lement Physical state Colour Solu4ility in
water
Colour in
water
Solu4ility
in organic
sol'ent
Colour in organic
sol'ent
Cl+ Gas ?ellowish green 7olu6le &olourless 7olu6le &olourless
/r+ 8i@ui+ ,e++ish 6rown 7lightly solu6le (rown 7olu6le ,e+
I+ 7oli+ (lack 7lightly solu6le (rown 7olu6le %iolet
(oiling point an+ volatility
%lement /oiling point "olatility %(planation Graph
7+ 8owest 6p
Aighest 6p
Most volatile
8east volatile
Down group, molecular si9e B electron
clou+ si9e increase, more polarisa6le
an+ i+3i+ attraction 6etween molecules
stronger, more energy re@uire+ to
separate
Cl+
/r+
I+
Down Group %II, %

less .'e hence
22 + 2e
3
22
3


! +2"$' %
&l2 + 2e
3
2&l
3


! +4"#C %
(r2 + 2e
3
2(r
3


! +4"*' %
5orwar+ r-n [,] less likely to occur, 8+ less likely re)uce) 9 less o(i)ising )own Group
reverse r-n [O] more like to occur, 8
&
more likely o(i)ise) 9 more re)ucing )own Group
,eaction with A2. 8+ . 1+,g- +18,g-
white 5umes
%lement O4ser'ation
7+ -plo+es with A2 at all con+ition
Cl+ -plo+e with A2 in presence o5 light
/r+ ,eacts with A2 when heate+ with >t catalyst
I+ 7trong heating re@uire+, reversi6le reaction
:ren+s 5or AD
Property Graph %(planation
/oiling
point
Dominant IM2 5or A2 is A36on+" 7trong attraction 6etween A2
molecules hence highest 6oiling point
Dominant IM2 5or A&l to AI is i+3i+ attraction, weaker than A36on+
hence 6oiling points lower than A2
2rom A&l to AI, increasing molecular si9e an+ electron clou+, more
polarisa6le hence i+3i+ attraction 6etween molecules stronger an+
6oiling point increase
2
22 &l2 (r2 I2
A2 A&l A(r AI
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:hermal
sta4ility
A2 most sta6le to heat as 2 smallest si9e, shortest A32 6on+,
strongest an+ most sta6le, nee+ most energy to 6reak"
AI least sta6le to heat as I largest si9e, longest A3I 6on+, weakest
an+ least sta6le, nee+ least energy to 6reak"
p1 in
water
A2 weak aci+ as stronger A32 6on+, har+er to 6reak, hence
+issociate partially in water
A&l to AI strong aci+s as weaker A3D 6on+, easier to 6reak, hence
+issociate completely in water
,eaction o5 D
3
;a@< with 0g1O#;a@< 5ollowe+ 6y 1A#;a@<
1ali)e 3ith AgO5,a2- 7ollowe) 4y 15,a2-
Cl
&
Ag
.
,a2- . Cl
&
,a2- AgCl,s-
O6servation. white ppt
AgCl,s- . +15,a2- [Ag,15-+;
.
,a2- . Cl
&
,a2-
+iamminesilver;I< comple-
O6servation. 7olu6le in e-cess 1A#;a@<
/r
&
Ag
.
,a2- . /r
&
,a2- Ag/r,s-
O6servation. &ream ppt
1o reaction
O6servation. Insolu6le in e-cess 1A#;a@<
I
&
Ag
.
,a2- . I
&
,a2- AgI,s-
O6servation. ?ellow ppt
1o reaction
O6servation. Insolu6le in e-cess 1A#;a@<
,eaction o5 D
3
;s< with conc A27OE with heating
1ali)e Aci)&4ase reaction 7urther o(i)ation 4y conc 1+SO6
Cl
&
Cl
&
,s- . 1+SO6,l- 1Cl,g- . 1SO6
&
,s-
O6servation. white 5umes
&onc A27OE not o-i+ising enough to o-i+ise A&l to &l2"
7tronger O0 such as MnO2 is nee+e+"
/r
&
/r
&
,s- . 1+SO6,l- 1/r,g- . 1SO6
&
,s-
O6servation. white 5umes
1/r,g- . 1+SO6,l- /r+,g- . SO+,g- . +1+O,l-
O6servation. 6rown 5umes
I
&
l
&
,s- . 1+SO6,l- 1l,g- . 1SO6
&
,s-
O6servation. white 5umes
1I,g- . 1+SO6,l- +,g- . SO+,g- . +1+O,l-
O6servation. violet vapour or 6lack soli+" 7 can 6e re+uce+ to
7$;s< ;yellow soli+< or A27;g< ;gas with rotting egg smell<
Disproportionation o5 &l2 with 1aOA
&on+ition ,eaction
/ith col+ 1aOA;a@< Cl+,g- . +O1
&
,a2- Cl
&
,a2- . ClO
&
,a2- . 1+O,l-
< &= .=
/ith hot 1aOA;a@< 5Cl+,g- . >O1
&
,a2- ?Cl
&
,a2- . ClO5
&
,a2- . 51+O,l-
< &= .?
#
A2 A&l A(r AI
A2 A&l A(r AI