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Josh Thorson ENC 1102 2/26/14 Annotated Bibliography

In this annotated bibliography I will talking about artificial intelligence and machine learning and some of its applications. Artificial intelligence and machine learning is an up and coming field in computer science and has a lot of important applications that could help improve technology in all sorts of fields such as the medical field. You may be wondering, what is artificial intelligence and machine learning? Well artificial intelligences is software that learns upon what it is given, which helps it then perform the task required more efficiently. Throughout this annotated bibliography there is a certain lexis and you might not understand what is going on in the article, however I will do my best to describe what is being said as bland as I can. This collection of references include academic articles from a variety of authors, professors, and journalists. Some of these articles go into the depth of talking about the formulas in which they use, however I dont understand much of what is going on in the formula so I did not include any of the formulas. The time period of my articles are between 2009-2014, although artificial intelligence was introduced in the early 90s its relevant because it shows how artificial intelligence has grown and is now becoming an increasingly researched topic in computer science.

Frey, Ulrich J.1, and Hannes1 Rusch. "Using Artificial Neural Networks For The Analysis Of SocialEcological Systems." Ecology & Society 18.2 (2013): 42-52. OmniFile Full Text Mega (H.W. Wilson). Web. 10 Mar. 2014.

The author of this article, Frey Ulrich, talks about Using Artificial Neural Networks for the analysis of social-ecological systems. He propose a synthesis of 24 success factors based on the current social-ecological systems framework and a literature review and (2) the application of neural networks on a database of common pool resource (CPR) management case studies in an attempt to test the viability of this synthesis. Neural networks are able to obtain a general quantitative model of success factors in CPR problems. What this means is that through the use of artificial intelligence they were able to analyze social ecological systems and determine what they needed for success. This article is included in this annotated bibliography because it just adds on to the conversation of artificial intelligence and machine learning and how it can be used. "Google's X-Man." Foreign Affairs 92.6 (2013): 2-8. Readers' Guide Full Text Mega (H.W. Wilson). Web. 13 Mar. 2014. Sebastian Thrun is one of the worlds leading experts on robotics and artificial intelligence. Thrun and his team are the ones who developed the driverless car that uses robotics and artificial intelligence to drive itself. They accomplished this task by relying on what they call machine learning, or big data. That is, instead of trying to program all these rules by hand, they taught their robot the same way we would teach a human driver. They would go into the desert, and he would drive, and the robot would watch him and try to emulate the behaviors involved. Or they would let the robot drive, and it would make a mistake, and they would go back to the data and explain to the robot why this was a mistake and give the robot a chance to adjust. This article showed another application where artificial intelligence and machine learning can be used. This application, in the future, could greatly reduce traffic collisions all over the world.

Hof, Robert D. "Deep Learning." Technology Review 116.3 (2013): 32-36. Business Source Premier. Web. 26 Feb. 2014. In Robert Hofs Article he talks about Artificial intelligence over the time, and how it has expanded and grown. Hof talks about Google and how they have become a magnet for deep learning, which is a type of Artificial intelligence that attempts to mimic the activity of a human thinking. The software that google developed learns to recognize patterns in digital representations of sound, images, and other computer data. Hof uses IBMs super computer Watson as an example of AI (Artificial intelligence) Learning which won Jeopardy using deeplearning techniques. Some other applications that use deep-learning that Hof talks about include: googles text-to-speech recognition, and Bings voice search. Why it matters: Hof states that Computers would assist humans far more effectively if they could reliably recognize patterns and make inferences about the world. This article provides a lot of supporting data to the notion that artificial intelligence is already here and soon computers and machines alike will be able to learn just as humans learn. Jones, Nicola. "Computer Science: The Learning Machines." Nature 505.7482 (2014): 146148. OmniFile Full Text Mega (H.W. Wilson). Web. 26 Feb. 2014. Nicola Jones, a freelance reporter based near Vancouver, Canada, reports on computer science and the learning of machines. Jones talks about Artificial intelligence and machine learning and how it has been proving useful for a wide range of tasks, such as finding patterns in a data set, to recognizing speech in a translator application. Jones talks about google and how they gave a network of 1,000 computers 10 million still images from YouTube and the computer could identify: human faces, human bodies and cats. Jones also states that in the next few years we will see lots of people wanting to get their hands on deep-learning. Despite its successes,

deep learning is still in its infancy says Jones. This article written by Jones reiterates the fact that artificial intelligence and machine learning are currently on the rise in the computer science community and there are a lot of people talking about it. Korup, Oliver, and Amelie Stolle. "Landslide Prediction From Machine Learning." Geology Today 30.1 (2014): 26-33. OmniFile Full Text Mega (H.W. Wilson). Web. 11 Mar. 2014. Oliver Korup and Amelie Stolle discuss the prediction of landslides using machine learning in their article. Predicting where and when landslides are likely to occur in a specific region of interest remains a key challenge in natural hazards research and mitigation. Said Korup. The benefits of using machine learning techniques for landslide susceptibility mapping are clear. These benefits can be summarized in that modern algorithms are able to handle large complex and potentially incomplete datasets, and that they achieve high overall success rates for prediction, especially when based on randomization methods that avoid over fitting such as cross-validation, boosting or bagging. Even though they discovered significant advances into understanding the patterns of landslide, there are still a number of challenges. In this article they talk about how machine learning can be used to identify and even predict where landslides may occur. However, they have not fully perfected the algorithms. There are also some key challenges such as regional prediction of larger landslides, landslides runout, and temporal forecast of slope failure. Overall, machine learning has helped them get closer to predicting landslides. Lee, Bum, Ju, et al. "Prediction Of Body Mass Index Status From Voice Signals Based On Machine Learning For Automated Medical Applications." Artificial Intelligence In Medicine 58.1 (2013): 51-61. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 12 Mar. 2014.

This article talks about the use of machine learning to predict the body mass index just from voice signals. They proposed a method for the prediction of normal, overweight, and obese classes based only on the combination of voice features that are associated with body mass index (BMI) status, independently of weight and height measurements. The conclusion they came up with is as follows: Our results could support the development of BMI diagnosis tools for real-time monitoring; such tools are considered helpful in improving automated BMI status diagnosis in remote healthcare or telemedicine and are expected to have applications in forensic and medical science. This article just adds to the collection of applications that Artificial intelligence and machine learning can be used for. Liu, Nehemiah, et al. "Development And Validation Of A Machine Learning Algorithm And Hybrid System To Predict The Need For Life-Saving Interventions In Trauma Patients." Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing 52.2 (2014): 193-203. Business Source Premier. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. This article written by Nehemiah Liu, from the US Army Institute of Surgical Research, talks about the development and validation of a machine learning algorithm to predict the need for life-saving interventions in trauma patients. In conclusion, they tested and developed an algorithm and system to predict the probability of a trauma patient needing a life-saving intervention. The system is composed of a machine learning program and rules for predicting the need for life-saving interventions in both pre-hospital and emergency department patients. Their system demonstrates that machine learning technology combined with basic detection rules may provide valuable support on assessing trauma patients within the critical care environment. This article proves that artificial intelligence and machine learning are a big help in hospital environments and could possibly save lives.

"Mobicon: A Mobile Context-Monitoring Platform." Communications Of The ACM 55.3 (2012): 5465. Business Source Premier. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. This article on monitoring mobile context for different applications has no specific author. However the article focuses on research into a practical context-monitoring system for use in context-aware applications for mobile devices. They showed that non-MobiCon contextmonitoring processes are inadequate for dynamic solutions, while MobiCon promises new sensing devices, mobile and sensor system technologies, data processing technologies, and mobile service models, as well as human computer interaction in everyday mobile environments. What this means is that as of now there are no current mobile devices that have the ability to monitor the context for the use of certain applications. Novatchkov, Hristo, and Arnold, Baca. "Artificial Intelligence In Sports On The Example Of Weight Training." Journal of Sports Science & Medicine 12.1 (2013): 27-37. OmniFile Full Text Mega (H.W. Wilson). Web. 4 Mar. 2014. In this article Hristo Novatchkov and Arnold Baca do research on Artificial intelligence In sports, but more specifically on weight training. The overall goal of this research was to illustrate the potential of artificial intelligence in a sports setting such as weight training. To acquire data they used sensors which attached to various parts of equipment to record the time, velocity, and acceleration of power. After all of the data was collected and analyzed the overall result of the research was that Artificial intelligence appears to be suitable for the effective evaluation and feedback frameworks in sports. This research article provided proof that artificial intelligence and machine learning have real-world applications outside of the computer world. I included this research article to show how artificial intelligence can be implemented in a variety of settings including sports, even more exclusive: weight training.

Shawe-Taylor, John. "Technical Perspective: Machine Learning For Complex Predictions." Communications Of The ACM 52.11 (2009): 96. Business Source Premier. Web. 4 Mar. 2014. Within this article John Shawe-Taylor, a professor at the University College London, discusses the history of machine learning. Machine learning can date back to the start of computer science, however, never really made it that far. Rosenblatts perceptron is what first got peoples interest into machine learning. The perceptron is a simple threshold linear classifier that can be trained from an online sequence of examples said Shawe-Taylor. In the 70s and 80s machine learning went in different directions. Some innovations that came out of that include: decision trees, rule-learning methods for expert systems, and self-organizing maps. This article shows the growth of machine learning for artificial intelligence. Shawe-Taylor talks about how machine learning came to be what it is today. He also talked about how effective each of the methods of machine learning were and how they became more effective.

Shiue, Yeou-Ren, RueyShiang Guh, and KenChun Lee. "Development Of Machine LearningBased Real Time Scheduling Systems: Using Ensemble Based On Wrapper Feature Selection Approach." International Journal Of Production Research 50.20 (2012): 5887-5905. Business Source Premier. Web. 10 Mar. 2014. The authors of this article discuss the development of machine learning-based real time scheduling systems. They state: The development of an efficient real time scheduling (RTS) mechanism is the key to satisfying various performance criteria in a dynamic environment on the shop floor. Three major advantages of using the machine learning approach in constructing an RTS system can be: It can provide a fast, acceptable solution and conform to the operation

characteristics in a dynamic manufacturing environment. It can reduce the effort required during the knowledge acquisition phase, which is a bottleneck in knowledge base development. The concept (knowledge) learned from training examples not only accurately classifies the given examples but also accurately predicts the unseen (test) examples. This article is a good example of how machine learning can be used in manufacturing and how it can be used to increase production and quality. Sommer, Christoph, and Daniel W. Gerlich. "Machine Learning In Cell Biology - Teaching Computers To Recognize Phenotypes." Journal Of Cell Science 126.24 (2013): 5529-5539. Academic Search Premier. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. Christoph Sommer and Daniel Gerlich talk about Machine Learning in cell biology and how theyre trying to get computers to recognize certain phenotypes. In summary, they outlined how microscopy images can be converted into a data representation suitable for machine learning, and then introduce various state-of-the-art machine-learning algorithms, highlighting recent applications in image-based screening. Simply put, they are trying to get computers to recognize what phenotypes look like using algorithms and machine learning so that the computer can find certain phenotypes autonomously. This would greatly help biologists with certain task that they are required to perform. Which could in turn help out everyone if the biologist were looking to make a cure for a certain disease or illness. Wang, Shouyi, Wanpracha Art Chaovalitwongse, and Stephen Wong. "Online Seizure Prediction Using An Adaptive Learning Approach." IEEE Transactions On Knowledge & Data Engineering 25.12 (2013): 2854-2866. Business Source Premier. Web. 13 Mar. 2014. Shouyi Wang from the University of Texas talks about predicting seizures through a method of artificial intelligence and machine learning. Wang states that being able to predict

impending seizures could greatly improve the lives of patients with epilepsy. In this study, they propose a new adaptive learning approach for online seizure prediction based on analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Using a 150-minute prediction horizon, our approach achieved 73 percent sensitivity and 67 percent specificity on average over 10 patients. This result is shown to be far better than those of a nonupdate prediction scheme and two native prediction schemes. This kind of research done by Wang and his team could be very beneficial to the whole population of persons with epilepsy. Like Wang said the ability to predict such a thing could greatly improve the lives of patients with epilepsy. Weiss, Jeremy C., et al. "Machine Learning For Personalized Medicine: Predicting Primary Myocardial Infarction From Electronic Health Records." AI Magazine 33.4 (2012): 3345. Applied Science & Technology Full Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 6 Mar. 2014. Jeremy Weiss, an Assistant Professor at the Translational Science Institute of Wake Forest University School of Medicine, wrote a research article on machine learning for personalized medicine. Weiss talks about how people are always trying to come up with ways to predict future medical problems so that they are able to stop them before they can even show signs of a problem. Weiss begins a research on a way to predict heart attacks, or known clinically as myocardial infraction. Weiss has looked into machine learning to predict the chance of a patient having a myocardial infraction. Weiss accomplishes this by comparing multiple algorithms to see which one performed the best given the known risk factors. Again, this article by Weiss shows the importance that artificial intelligence and machine learning have on the future, and how they can help greatly in the medical field.

Zhang, Xiaoqing, Linyan Sun, and Jibo Wang. "Single Machine Scheduling With Autonomous Learning And Induced Learning." Computers & Industrial Engineering 66.4 (2013): 918924. Business Source Premier. Web. 4 Mar. 2014. In this article Single Machine Scheduling with Autonomous Learning and Induced Learning by Xiaoqing Zhang he talks about autonomous and induced learning with machine scheduling. Zhang produces several different algorithms to determine the overall optimal job sequence and the optimal position of induced learning intervals. The purpose of this article, stated by Zhang, is to determine jointly the optimal job sequence and the optimal induced learning position. Which means that hes discovering the right formula for single machine scheduling using induced learning. This article shows us the applications for machine learning and how they can be used in the manufacturing industry for single machine scheduling.