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Normalizing Throughput Yield

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Normalizing Throughput Yield


A Practical Guide for Yield Normalization A White Paper
by David C. Wilson, MSEE
Wilson Consulting Services, LLC December 23, 2004

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Normalizing Throughput Yield


ABSTRACT

Abstract

This paper provides a practical exercise for yield normalization using real data from a production line. The name of the company has been removed from this report for proprietary reasons. The intended audience is manufacturing, quality, and test engineering interested in evaluating operation and throughput yields. This information is being provided as result of the authors observations and a review of production yield data. Yield is a measure of quality of a product relative to the manufacturing line. It is the fraction of total elements processed, which result in a good product. Production processes in manufacturing industries require yield parameters for making decisions of the goodness of the product. Therefore, yield data parameters are good measures of product performance as it is being produced. Data from products in the field provide another important source of information, which describes or predict its performance over time. Field data can be used both with statistical methodologies, plus some of the unfamiliar distributions such as Weibull, lognormal, exponential, gamma models, etc. Nevertheless, all of these models call for inferences that involve extrapolation.
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Normalizing Throughput Yield

Table of Contents

Description

Page

1.0: Introduction _______________________________________4 - 16 2.0: Summary _________________________________________5 - 16 3.0: Cumulative & Operation Yield_________________________9 - 16 4.0: Normalized Yield___________________________________10-16 5.0: Yield Scorecard____________________________________14 -16

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Normalizing Throughput Yield 1.0 Introduction

Introduction

Objective: To measure throughput yield in production with a comparative analysis of the cumulative versus the normalized methods. Data Source: Examples were taken from April 2003 Monthly Quality Yield Report. Software Tools Excel Minitab Definition of Yield: Yield is a measure of quality of a product relative to the manufacturing line.

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Normalizing Throughput Yield


Definition of Terms used
Throughput yield : Y TP = e
DPU

Introduction contd

Defects per unit : DPU = ln(Y )


m

Rolled throughput or cum yield : Y RTY = Y TPi


i =1

Total Defect per Unit : TDPU = ln (Y RTY ) Normalized yield : Y norm = m Y RTY or
m

Defect per normalized unit : DPU norm = ln (Y norm )

cum

FPY

: for period yield n

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Normalizing Throughput Yield 2.0 Summary

Summary

The difference between the two methods is statistically significant with p-value = 0.001 << 0.05. The normalized yields are higher and might be a good alternative to the cumulative yield method in many situations, particularly if a step in the process happens to be very low or zero. The normalized yield is 7.9 percentage points greater than the cumulative yield, which translates into 8.8% larger than than the cumulative yield.

Cumulative Yield

Normalized Yield m-root of cumulative Normal Transformation & Poisson Model ZST 0.9722 3.41 0.9716 3.40 0.9732 3.42

Period April - 2003 March- 2003 April - 2002

Cumulative Yield 0.8932 0.8912 0.8969

Table 1
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Normalizing Throughput Yield

Summary contd

Yield Process Steps April 2003 Data

Pre-wave Y1 = 0.9851

Post-wave Y2 = 0.9812

HP&Zehntel Y3 = 0.9316

Final Y4 = 0.9919

Figure 1

Ycum==0.8932 0.8932 Y cum Ynorm==0.9722 0.9722 Y norm 3.41 ZST==3.41 Z ST

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Normalizing Throughput Yield


Summary contd
Yields - April 2003
Operation Yield
100 98 96 94 % Yield 92 90 88 86 84 Pre Wave Post Wave

Summary contd

Graph of Operation, Cumulative and Normalized Yields


Normalized Yield Cum Yield

HP&Zehntel Operations
Page 8-16

Final

Figure 2
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Normalizing Throughput Yield Cumulative and Operation Yields 3.0 Cumulative & Operation Yields Cumulative & Operation Yields
Cumulative Yield Generally, rolled throughput yield is a multiple of each process step by the succeeding step, which is essentially a cumulative yield based on the number of steps in the process. It is frequently considered an overall yield of the process. Mathematically speaking, the cumulative yield is as shown:
m

RTY

Y TP
i =1

YRTY = (FPY1)(FPY2)(FPY3).(FPYn) Example (April 2003 data): YRTY = (0.9851)(0.9812)(0.9316)(0.9919) = 0.8932 Operation Yield It is the yield at each step in the process. YTP= FPY1, FPY2, FYP3FPYn Example (April 2003 data): 0.9851, 0.9812, 0.9316, 0.9919
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Normalizing Throughput Yield 4.0: Normalized Yield

Normalized Yield

Normalized yield is the m-root of the cumulative yield, with m equal to the number of steps in the process.
April 2003
RTY norm = m RTY cum RTY norm =
4

March 2003 RTY norm = m RTY cum


RTY norm =
4

0.8932 = 0.9722

0.8912 = 0.9716

April 2002
RTY norm = m RTY cum RTY norm =
4

0.8969 = 0.9732

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Normalizing Throughput Yield

Normalized Yield contd

Normalized Yield - Poisson Model approximation Normalized yield can be approximated by using the area under the probability density
curve between tolerances, thus the probability of a defect equal to 1 eDPU. Mathematically speaking, lambda ( ) is the average density of the distribution. It works well for defect per unit, defect per wafer, defects per time, etc., and x is the number of failures. Hence: Let = failure rate = DPU

Poisson Model
Yield = P ( x = 0) = e x! RTY norm = e DPU
x

= e = e DPU
x =0

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Normalizing Throughput Yield


From the Poisson model contd

Normalized Yield contd

April 2003 data Poisson model relationship

RTY norm = e

DPU norm

DPU norm = ln[RTY norm] DPU norm = ln(0.9722) = 0.0282

RTY norm = e

DPU

=e

0.0282

= 0.9722

Note: March 2003 and April 2002 are calculated the same way. See tables 3 and 4.

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Normalizing Throughput Yield

Normalized Yield contd

Normal Transformation Illustration: Z variable equivalent illustration


Short term relationship to long term with 1.5 standard deviation shift ZST = ZLT + ZShift ZST = 1.91 + 1.5 = 3.41 (see April 2003 table 1)

Probability of defect Pd = 0.0282 Normalized yield

zst

3.41

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Normalizing Throughput Yield


April 2003 yield data
Data Source: April 2003 Monthly Report
Line 1 2 3 4 Product Pre-Wave Results Post Wave Results HP & Zehntel Results Final Results Reject 5 6 1122 70 Inspected 334 316 15826 8621 OP 1 1 1 1

Yield Scorecard
Each row contains metrics for various operation steps.

5.0 Yield Scorecard Normal Transformation

DPU DPO PPM 1.4970E-02 1.8987E-02 7.0896E-02 8.1197E-03 14970 18987 70896 8120

Yield 0.9851 0.9812 0.9316 0.9919

ZST 3.67 3.58 2.97 3.90


4 0.11297 0.02824 3.41 97.22%

Table 2

Opportunities TDPU DPUnorm ZST Ynorm

Theabove abovetable tableshows showsanother anotherway wayto tocalculate calculatethroughput throughput The yield.The Thereport reportfor forApril Aprilshowed showedrolled rolledthroughput throughputyield yieldof of yield. 89.3%,where whereas asthis thistable tableuses usesaaPoisson Poissonmodel modelafter after 89.3%, normalizingthe thedata datathat thatshows showsaathroughput throughputyield yieldof of97.2%. 97.2%. normalizing

PoissonModel: Model: Poisson NormalizedThroughput Throughput Normalized Yield Yield


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Normalizing Throughput Yield


scorecard normal transformation contd March 2003 yield data
Data Source: March 2003 Monthly Report
Line 1 2 3 4 Product Pre-Wave Results Post Wave Results HP & Zehntel Results Final Results Reject 9 9 1467 124 Inspected 578 564 20312 10801 OP 1 1 1 1

Yield Scorecard contd

DPU DPO PPM 1.5571E-02 1.5957E-02 7.2223E-02 1.1480E-02 15571 15957 72223 11480

Yield 0.9845 0.9842 0.9303 0.9886

ZST 3.66 3.65 2.96 3.77


4 0.11523 0.02881 3.40 97.16%

Table 3

Opportunities TDPU DPUnorm ZST Ynorm

PoissonModel: Model: Poisson NormalizedThroughput Throughput Normalized Yield Yield


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Normalizing Throughput Yield


scorecard normal transformation contd April 2002 yield data
Data Source: April 2002 Monthly Quality Report
Line 1 2 3 4 Product Pre-Wave Results Post Wave Results HP & Zehntel Results Final Results Reject 4 13 1005 130 Inspected 447 585 15932 8898 OP 1 1 1 1

Yield Scorecard contd

DPU DPO PPM 8.9485E-03 2.2222E-02 6.3081E-02 1.4610E-02 8949 22222 63081 14610

Yield 0.9911 0.9780 0.9389 0.9855

ZST 3.87 3.51 3.03 3.68


4 0.10886 0.02722 3.42 97.32%

Table 4

Opportunities TDPU DPUnorm ZST Ynorm

PoissonModel: Model: Poisson NormalizedThroughput Throughput Normalized Yield Yield


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