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LSFP Conservation Subprogramme

FIELD MANAGEMENT OF
NAM POUI
AND
PHOU XANG HE
NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY
CONSERVATION AREAS

Ramesh Boonratana, Ph.D.


1998

IUCN
THE WORLD CONSERVATION UNION

0
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
A five-month consultancy on field management was carried out from January 21 to June 21,
1988 in two Lao PDR’s National Biodiversity Conservation Areas (NBCAs). The 1,912 km²
Nam Poui NBCA is located in northern Lao PDR, in Sayaburi Province, and the 1,060 km²
Phou Xang He NBCA is located in the south, in Savannakhet Province. Both these NBCAs
are currently funded by the Lao-Swedish Forestry Program’s Conservation Subprogram.

The primary objectives of this consultancy were to assist and train the staff and associated
conservation staff of both the NBCAs in developing and implementing effective systems for
the monitoring and protection of biodiversity resources, including proposing or refining
zoning systems in those NBCAs; and to make recommendations towards the development of
participatory management. The secondary objectives were to build the staff’s capacity in
implementing field management activities (surveying, patrolling, monitoring, and formal
reporting of information on wildlife, habitat and human); and to make suggestions for a
realistic long-term work and training program, particularly towards the integration of
protection needs with participatory management.

These objectives and the activities/outputs of this consultancy were based on


recommendations of earlier work carried out in both Nam Poui and Phou Xang He NBCAs.
Thus, maintaining continuity in developing the staff in traditional field-based skills of
protected area management. Capacity building of staff cannot be effectively achieved in a
single training event. Rather a series of on-the-job training events will significantly be more
effective when conducted systematically over several years.

Classroom training primarily comprised discussions and lectures on the fundamentals of


protected area and conservation of natural resources; a strong emphasis on map reading and
compass use; wildlife and habitat/human impact surveys and data collection techniques; and
report-writing. Field management activities were designed to provide on-the-job training to
the staff, while at the same collecting valuable data towards protected area management.
Activities comprised village-based interviews and discussions; conservation awareness and
education; field patrol surveys and monitoring for wildlife and human/habitat impacts; and
law enforcement.

Field management activities in Nam Poui NBCA re-confirmed the importance of this NBCA
as a major water catchment area for the Mekong River and a reserve for the Asian elephants
(Elephas maximus), gaurs (Bos gaurus), tiger (Panthera tigris), leopard (Panthera pardus),
clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Asian wild dog (Cuon alpinus), golden jackal (Canis
aureus), Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), Asiatic black bear (Selenarctos
thibetanus), white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar), Phayre’s langur (Trachypithecus phayrei),
Silvered langur (Trachypithecus cristatus) and several other large mammals. In terms of
wildlife, it is probably one of the few areas in Lao PDR with a viable population of wild
elephants, estimated between 350 to 500 animals. Domestic elephants in Sayaburi province
currently totaled 696 individuals. Many of these domestic elephants are released into Nam
Poui NBCA for a few months a year and they have been observed to freely mingle with the
wild ones. There were several babies seen with the domestic females, which very likely
derived from the wild stock. Furthermore, Nam Poui NBCA has a large intact forest cover
with settlements outside the core area.

Activities in Phou Xang He NBCA yielded the presence of several wildlife species of global
importance and high diversity of wildlife, albeit possibly occurring at low densities. The

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more important species recorded in Phou Xang He NBCA include the Asian elephant, gaur,
giant muntjak (Megamuntiacus muntjak), tiger, leopard, Asian wild dog, Malayan sun bear,
Asiatic black bear, black gibbon (Hylobates concolor), red-shanked Douc langur (Pygathrix
nemaeus), Francois’s langur (Trachypithecus cristatus), pygmy loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus)
and green peafowl (Pavo muticus). There also exist historical records of rhinoceros and Eld’s
deer (Cervus eldii) in the NBCA. The presence of Vu Quang Ox (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis)
and banteng were last reported about seven years ago, and might likely be extirpated from the
area. This, however, remains to be confirmed.

Most threats to both NBCAs are similar, albeit to varying degrees. They can be categorized
into forest clearance and fires mainly associated to shifting cultivation, wildlife and ‘mai
ketsina’ poaching, unsustainable harvest of fishes using explosives and poisons, and livestock
grazing. Threats to Nam Poui NBCA are particularly marked towards the northern part of the
NBCA and are directly related to serious immigration into the NBCA. Threats specific to
Nam Poui NBCA are the north-south security road and the proposed east-west road. Threats
specific to Phou Xang He NBCA are unsustainable extraction of ‘yaang’ oil and the presence
of unexploded ordnance.

Recommendations relevant to both NBCAs and specific to each are made in this report.
These include recommendations and suggestions on training and training needs; patrolling,
monitoring and law enforcement; wildlife/botanical surveys and research; zoning; equipment
care and needs; staff management; and participatory management and extension. Most
important among these recommendations is the need for the presence of both long-term and
short advisers to both NBCAs. At least three years of continuous support is needed, followed
by intermittent but regular support and evaluation visitations. The presence of advisers will
help ensure those activities and recommendations will be followed up. More importantly are
for the advisers to prepare the NBCA staff, through capacity building, to undertake protected
area management on their own. Thus, aiming to have qualified Lao nationals managing Lao
PDR’s protected areas and natural resources by the year 2005.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
From its inception to its bounded form, the activities carried out under this field management
consultancy wouldn’t have been made possible without the interest and efforts of the
following persons:

Mr. Chanthaviphone Inthavong, Head of the Center for Protected Areas and Watershed
Management (CPAWM); Mr. Vene Vongphet, Deputy Head of CPAWM and Head of the
Conservation Subprogram of the Lao-Swedish Forestry Program (LSFP); Mr. Sansay
Souryyakone, Head of the CPAWM’s Protected Areas Unit; Mr. Khampete Chanthavong,
Mr. Geyo Golagot and Mr. Khamphay Louanglath, from the Protected Areas Unit. Many
thanks to my counterpart, Mr. Geyo Golagot, for assisting me in carrying out the various field
management activities.

Mr.Calle Mossberg. Senior Adviser to the LSFP; Mr. Jan Olaf Lundberg, ex-Regional
Director (north) of the LSFP; Ms. Berenice Muraille, Community Development Adviser for
LSFP’s Joint Forestry Management in Savannakhet; Mr. Lonethep, LSFP Coordinator for
Savannakhet; Mr. Ved, LSFP Coordinator for Sayaburi; and the staff of LSFP. Mr. Stuart
Chape, IUCN Country Representative for Lao PDR; and the staff of IUCN Lao PDR.

Mr. Sombath Yiaryhieu, the Governor of Sayaburi Province; Mr. Nyan Nyong Sipaseuth,
Head of the Provincial Agriculture and Forestry Office (PAFO); Mr. Khammane, Head of the
Forestry Division of PAFO; the District Governors, Heads and staff of District Agricultural
and Forestry Offices of Muang Pieng; Muang Pak Lay; Muang Thong mixay (DAFO); Phan
Tho Khampane and Phan Tho Khamkeo of the Provincial Army; and Conservation Unit of
the Provincial Army; Mr. Sotsern and Mr. Bouavanh, Head and Deputy Head of Nam Poui
NBCA; and the staff of Nam Poui NBCA.

Mr. Sikaew, Head of Savannakhet PAFO; Mr. Khampanh and Mr. Phoum Bandit, Director
and Deputy Director of Xepone Forestry Training School; Heads and staff of DAFOs of
Muang Atsaphon, Muang Phin, Muang Phalanxai, Muang Xepone and Muang Villaburi; Mr.
Phoukong and Mr. Thipsavanh, Head and Deputy Head of Phou Xang HE NBCA, and staff
of the LSFP coordination office.

Many thanks also to all the villagers in Sayaburi and Savannakhet who assisted the field
management team in their work and for their warmth. My special thanks to Dr. Clive W.
Marsh, for giving me the opportunity to make my contribution towards conservation efforts
in Lao PDR, and for kindly commenting on this manuscript.

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CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...................................................................................................1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...................................................................................................3
CONTENTS...........................................................................................................................4
1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................7
1.1 BACKGROUND ...............................................................................................7
1.2 OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................8
1.3 ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS.........................................................................8
1.3.1 Nam Poui and Phou Xang He NBCAs ......................................................8
1.3.2 Nam Poui NBCA .......................................................................................8
1.3.3 Phou Xang He ............................................................................................9
Figure 1.1 National Biodiversity Conservation Areas in Lao PDR.........................10
2. STUDY AREAS ..............................................................................................................11
2.1 NAM POUI NBCA..........................................................................................11
2.1.1 Background ..............................................................................................11
2.1.2 Habitat Types ...........................................................................................11
2.1.3 Human Settlements ..................................................................................11
2.1.4 Access into the NBCA .............................................................................12
2.2 PHOU XANG HE NBCA................................................................................12
2.2.1 Background ..............................................................................................13
2.2.2 Habitat Types ...........................................................................................13
2.2.3 Human Settlements ..................................................................................13
2.1.4 Access into the NBCA .............................................................................13
Table 2.1 Staff and associated conservation staff of Nam Poui NBCA ..................14
Table 2.2 Population structure of some villages in and around Nam Poui NBCA..15
Table 2.3 Staff and associated conservation staff of Phou Xang He NBCA...........16
Figure 2.1 Nam Poui NBCA....................................................................................17
Figure 2.2 Phou Xang He NBCA ............................................................................18
3. METHODS ......................................................................................................................19
3.1 INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................19
3.2 TRAINING/CAPACITY BUILDING.............................................................19
3.2.1 Classroom Training..................................................................................20
3.2.1.1 Training Outline ......................................................................................20
3.2.1 Assessment of Performance.....................................................................21
3.3 FIELD MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES .........................................................21
3.3.1 Logistics Preparations and Allocation of Responsibilities ......................21
3.3.2 Village-based Interviews .........................................................................21
3.3.3 Daily Trip Preparations............................................................................22
3.3.4 Observations and Recording ....................................................................22
3.3.5 Daily Debriefing ......................................................................................23
3.3.6 Assessment of Performance.....................................................................23
Table 3.1 Topics of theory training..........................................................................24
4. NAM POUI NBCA..........................................................................................................25
4.1 TRAINING/CAPACITY-BUILDING ............................................................25
4.2 WILDLIFE.......................................................................................................25
4.2.1 Brief Account of Some Key Species .......................................................26
4.3 KEY WILDLIFE HABITATS.........................................................................27
4.4 HUMAN/HABITAT IMPACTS AND THREATS.........................................27
4.4.1 Forest Fires ..............................................................................................27

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4.4.2 Forest Clearance.......................................................................................27
4.4.3 Immigration..............................................................................................28
4.4.4 ‘Mai Ketsina’ Poaching ...........................................................................28
4.4.5 Wildlife Poaching ....................................................................................28
4.4.6 Fish Bombing...........................................................................................28
4.4.7 Livestock Grazing....................................................................................29
4.4.8 North-South Security Road......................................................................29
4.4.9 Proposed East-West Road........................................................................29
4.5 Other Activities................................................................................................29
Table 4.1 Domestic elephants in Sayaburi Province (1996-97 data; source: Sayaburi
PAFO) ......................................................................................................................32
Table 4.2 Mineral licks in Nam Poui NBCA...........................................................33
Table 4.3 Monthly patrolling and monitoring schedule for Nam Poui NBCA........35
Figure 4.1 Locations of key species in Nam Poui NBCA .......................................36
Figure 4.2 Mineral licks of Nam Poui NBCA .........................................................37
Figure 4.3 Current organizational flowchart of Nam Poui NBCA ..........................38
Figure 4.4 Proposed organizational flowchart of Nam Poui NBCA .......................39
5. PHOU XANG HE NBCA................................................................................................40
5.1 TRAINING/CAPACITY-BUILDING ............................................................40
5.2 WILDLIFE.......................................................................................................41
5.2.1 Brief Account of Some Key Species .......................................................41
5.3 KEY WILDLIFE HABITATS.........................................................................43
5.4 HABITAT/HUMAN IMPACTS AND THREATS.........................................43
5.4.1 Forest Clearance.......................................................................................43
5.4.2 Forest Fires ..............................................................................................43
5.4.3 ‘Kaen Hearng’ Poaching..........................................................................43
5.4.4 Wildlife Poaching and Trade ...................................................................43
5.4.5 Overfishing ..............................................................................................44
5.4.6 Livestock Grazing....................................................................................44
5.4.7 ‘Yaang’ Oil Extraction.............................................................................44
5.4.8 UXOs .......................................................................................................44
Table 5.1 Mineral licks in Phou Xang He NBCA ...................................................45
Figure 5.1 Locations of key species in Phou Xang He NBCA................................47
Figure 5.2 Mineral licks of Phou Xang He NBCA..................................................48
6. DISCUSSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................................49
6.1 INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................49
6.2 TRAINING/CAPACITY BUILDING.............................................................49
6.3 ZONING ..........................................................................................................49
6.4 RECOMMENDATIONS.................................................................................51
6.4.1 Nam Poui And Phou Xang He NBCAs ...................................................51
6.4.1.1 Training and Training Needs...................................................................51
6.4.1.2 Patrolling, Monitoring and Law Enforcement ........................................51
6.4.1.3 Surveys and Research..............................................................................52
6.4.1.4 Zonation ..................................................................................................52
6.4.1.5 Equipment Care and Needs .....................................................................53
6.4.1.6 General ....................................................................................................53
6.4.2 Nam Poui NBCA .........................................................................................54
6.4.2.1 Patrolling, Monitoring and Law Enforcement ........................................54
6.4.2.2 Wildlife Surveys and Research ...............................................................55
6.4.2.3 Internal Management...............................................................................55

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6.4.2.4 Participatory Management and Extension...............................................55
6.4.2.3 General ....................................................................................................56
6.4.3 Phou Xang He NBCA..............................................................................57
6.4.3.1 Patrolling, Monitoring and Law Enforcement ........................................57
6.4.3.2 Wildlife Surveys and Research ...............................................................57
6.4.3.3 Internal Management...............................................................................57
6.4.3.4 Participatory Management and Extension...............................................58
6.4.3.4 General ....................................................................................................58
6.5 CONCLUSION................................................................................................59
Table 6.1 List of equipment required.......................................................................60
Figure 6.1 Management zones and hunting .............................................................61
Figure 6.2a Proposed management zones of Nam Poui NBCA ..............................62
Figure 6.2b Proposed management zones of Nam Poui NBCA ..............................63
Figure 6.2c Proposed management zones of Nam Poui NBCA ..............................64
Figure 6.3a Proposed management zones of Phou Xang He NBCA.......................65
Figure 6.3b Proposed management zones of Phou Xang He NBCA.......................66
Figure 6.3c Proposed management zones of Phou Xang He NBCA.......................67
Figure 6.3d Proposed management zones of Phou Xang He NBCA.......................68
Figure 6.3e Proposed management zones of Phou Xang He NBCA.......................69
APPENDIX I: Wildlife Data Recording Format .........................................................70
APPENDIX II: Human Impact Data Recording Format .............................................71
APPENDIX III: Trail Mapping Recording Format .....................................................72
APPENDIX IV: Sample Specimen Recording Format Maintained at Field Stations .73
APPENDIX V: Sample Scat Analysis Data Recording Format Maintained at Field
Stations.........................................................................................................................74
APPENDIX VI: Procedures for Making Casts of Tracks............................................75
APPENDIX VII: Ethics of Field Surveys and Patrols.................................................76
APPENDIX VIII: Locations and Preparation of Camps .............................................77
APPENDIX IX: List of Field Equipment ....................................................................78
APPENDIX X: Key Wildlife and Habitat Interview Data Recording Format ............79
APPENDIX XI: List of wild fauna recorded in and around Nam Poui NBCA (adapted
from Boonratana, 1997) ...............................................................................................80
APPENDIX XII: List of wild fauna recorded in and around Phou Xang He NBCA
(adapted from Duckworth et al, 1993).........................................................................84
APPENDIX XIII Comparative Overview of Nam Poui And Phou Xang He NBCAs 91
APPENDIX XIV: Schedule of Activities ....................................................................92
LITERATURE CITED ........................................................................................................95

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND1
There are three major components of protected area management: the effective management
of its wildlife, habitat and the people who uses it. There are two approaches towards
managing these components, field-based through monitoring and patrolling, and village-
based through extension work. Both approaches are complimentary to each other and
essential towards the long-term goals of any protected area, particularly within the Lao
context. Hence, this project was designed to provide continuing support towards the field
management of Nam Poui and Phou Xang He NBCAs2, located in northern and southern Lao
PDR respectively (figure 1.1).

The specific objectives and activities/outputs of this project closely follow the
recommendations of earlier work in the two NBCAs (Boonratana, 1997b; Evans &
Sengsavanh, 1997). The main intention, therefore, is to maintain some continuity in
developing traditional field-based skills of protected area management among the NBCA,
DAFO3 and village-level staff. Such training and leadership are likely to be significantly
more effective when provided systematically over a period of several years within each
NBCA rather than delivered in centralized ‘one-off’ training event, which may not be
adequately absorbed or acted on. Equally important, is the need to develop capacity among
CPAWM’s4 Protected Area Unit staff for carrying out ‘Evaluation and Support’ visits to
NBCAs elsewhere in the country. This is also a long-term process.

While emphasizing the need for continuity and consistency of approach between NBCAs,
field management activities will cover ‘fresh ground’ as compared to inputs of earlier work.
In particular, by contributing to the process of negotiating ‘Rules’ for NBCA participatory
management and the evaluation of the ‘Guardian Village’ and ‘Village Conservation
Volunteer’ concepts in relation to LSFP5. Thus, this ‘Field Management’ consultancy should
be viewed in conjunction with a similar project that will work and train directly on
‘Participatory Management’ through village extension work.

In Nam Poui NBCA, this project will follow up on an earlier wildlife survey and training
(Boonratana, 1997b). Remaining needs include the development of a closer working
relationship between Sayaburi PAFO6 and the Provincial Army, with a view to establishing a
regular system of joint patrols throughout the NBCA; and the training of newly appointed
NBCA Head, and staff of NBCA and DAFOs. Common ground will also be sought with the
proposed LSFP Village Planning Exercise in Ban Na Vene, in the northern part of the NBCA.

In Phou Xang He NBCA, existing information on wildlife is confined to the area between
Phou Hinho/Katon and the Phou Xang He escarpment. Evans and Sengsavanh (1997)
recommended a survey for large mammal distribution and mineral licks covering the whole
NBCA to be based mainly on village interviews supplemented by short expeditions into the

1
Background, objectives, activities and outputs are in accordance with the Terms of Reference for IUCN short-
term technical assistance to the Department of Forestry, prepared by Dr. Clive W. Marsh, IUCN/LSFP Senior
Conservation and Protected Areas Planning Adviser
2
NBCA = National Biodiversity Conservation Area.
3
DAFO = District Agricultural and Forestry Office.
4
CPAWM = Center for Protected Areas and Watershed Management
5
LSFP = Lao-Swedish Forestry Program.
6
PAFO = Provincial Agricultural and Forestry Office.

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NBCA to confirm local information. Phou Xang He has been the focus of wide range of
LSFP activities that aim to develop capacity in Atsaphone, Phalanxai and Phin Districts.
Thus, particular attention is required to ensure integration with these activities.

Both the field management and participatory management projects are designed to contribute
to the ‘Protected Area Management Plans’ to be produced for each NBCA as a Subprogram
output at the end of the LSFP Phase IV, by the year 2000.

1.2 OBJECTIVES
1. To assist and train provincial and district staff in Nam Poui and Phou Xang He
NBCAs to develop and to implement effective systems for biodiversity resource
monitoring and protection, and to propose or refine zoning systems with particular
reference to larger mammals.
2. To contribute recommendations to the development of participatory management for
LSFP NBCAs, and particularly the negotiation with stakeholder communities of
‘Rules’ that will assure adequate protection of key biodiversity resources, while also
allowing some continued exploitation of NTFPs7 in Controlled Use Zones.
3. To train (or refresh training) NBCA, DAFO and selected village volunteers on basic
data collection protocols for resource monitoring. In addition, to assess the likely
value of data collected in this manner by village conservation volunteers and their
potential contribution to participatory management.
4. To make suggestions for a realistic long-term work and training program to carry
forward the processes initiated under this field management consultancy and
particularly the integration of protection needs with participatory management.

1.3 ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS

1.3.1 Nam Poui and Phou Xang He NBCAs


1. Review existing workplans, reports, maps and verbal sources of information on
wildlife distribution and resource use and the attention they have received from
NBCA staff to date.
2. Confer closely with the ‘Participatory Management’ consultant, other LSFP advisers,
PAFO, DAFO and NBCA staff in the development of ‘Rules’ for NBCA management
and related initiatives, including ‘Guardian Villages’ and ‘Conservation Volunteers’.
3. Provide a comparative assessment of the conservation value and challenges faced by
the two NBCAs. In each case, suggest appropriate strategies for developing
participatory management.
4. Design a follow-up work and training program appropriate for the LSFP for NBCA
and associated PAFO/DAFO staff in field management of their NBCAs.
5. Assess equipment needs.
6. Undertake wrap-up seminars at both the provincial and DoF8 levels.
7. Produce a final report that highlights both specific issues for each NBCA and general
conclusions and recommendations.

1.3.2 Nam Poui NBCA

7
NTFP = Non-timber forest product
8
DoF = Department of Forestry.

8
1. Participate in a CPAWM ‘Evaluation and Support Visit’ with a view to assessing the
effectiveness of staff training in wildlife survey techniques carried out in 1997 and
follow-up actions taken in relation to recommendations of that study.
2. Undertake training activities, as necessary, particularly in view of the appointment of
a new Head and staff of the NBCA, the nomination of DAFO conservation staff in
Phieng and Thongmixay Districts, and the possibility of greater involvement both by
the military and village conservation volunteers.
3. Assess and promote continued cooperation in field survey and management activities
between NBCA staff and the local military contingent, particularly the establishment
of a ‘Special Conservation Unit’ within the Sayaburi Provincial Army.
4. Participate in one or more field surveys to areas not covered in 1997 (e.g. in the
southwest sector and areas adjacent to villages in Thongmixay District), with a view
to refining the preliminary zoning plan for the NBCA based on known wildlife
distribution. Assess the priority for participatory management initiatives among
villages in Thongmixay District compared to the northern sector of the NBCA around
Ban Na Vene.
5. By including village conservation volunteers in the field activities, assess their value
and training needs as a mechanism for resource monitoring, protection and
participatory management.
6. If time scheduling permits, participate with NBCA staff in the proposed Village
Planning Exercise scheduled for Ban Na Ven in March/April.
7. Act as a Resource Person at a Meeting-cum-Training Workshop for Heads of NBCAs,
scheduled for March 1998.

1.3.3 Phou Xang He


1. Conduct preliminary training of NBCA and DAFO staff in interview-based and field
wildlife survey methodology and basic camping skills.
2. Lead surveys in 3-6 villages in each of the five districts covering Phou Xang He.
Choice of villages and arrangements to be set up the DAFO conservation staff.
Village locations to be checked with a GPS9 instrument.
3. Together with the Phou Xang He Head, use these village visits to assess aptitude of
DAFO staff, identify potential village conservation volunteers and provide simple
training while accompanying the team on forest field trips.
4. In conjunction with the NBCA Head, analyze the data to generate distribution record
maps of key species, mineral licks, trails and a suggested zonation plan for the
NBCA.
5. Provide advice on key provisions for the negotiation of ‘Rules’ for villages in and
around Phou Xang He.
6. Collaborate closely in the above activities with other LSFP Subprograms, particularly
the work of the Community Development Adviser.

9
GPS = Global Positioning System.

9
Figure 1.1 National Biodiversity Conservation Areas in Lao PDR

10
2. STUDY AREAS

2.1 NAM POUI NBCA


The NBCA is currently staffed by 11 personnel with nine associated conservation staff (table
2.1). The associated conservation staff comprises of three DAFO staff, one from each district,
one from the Ban Na Vene Rural Development Project, and five from the Provincial Army.
However, no collaborative work was carried out with the Provincial Army’s conservation
unit since its inception in April 1997 (Boonratana, 1997b). Mr. Sotsern took over as Head of
the NBCA in mid 1997, and two of the NBCA staff, Mr. Kongthong and Mr. Phong, joined
the NBCA’s patrolling and monitoring unit in late 1997.

2.1.1 Background
Nam Poui NBCA (figure 2.1) is located in Sayaburi Province, northern Lao PDR between 18
°12’-18°59’N and 101°04’-101°30’E (Boonratana, 1997b). It covers three districts, Muang
Thongmixay to the southwest, Muang Pak Lay to the southeast, and Muang Phieng to the
north, and has an area of 1,912 km². There was a proposal to excise 762 km² at the northern
end of the NBCA, reducing it to 1,150 km² (Berkmuller et al., 1995). The proposed excised
area is mainly degraded forest and land affected by shifting cultivation. Boonratana (1997b),
however, recommended that this proposal be rejected on the grounds that the area still has
viable forest cover, key wildlife habitats, large mammals particularly elephants and gaurs,
and that any excision would further aggravate the rate and impacts of immigration into the
area.

The entire western boundary of the NBCA coincides with the borders of Lao PDR and
Thailand. Much of this international border is largely sealed due to the presence of landmines
all along the mountain ridge that divides the two countries. Currently, a collaborative exercise
between the armed forces of the Province and Thailand are clearing the mines and placing
border markers every 5 km along the ridge. Only those mines that are on the ridge trail are
being cleared and not those buried on the slopes (Lt. Boonsou, pers. comm.). Thus, the border
should remain almost entirely closed to cross-border incursions.

2.1.2 Habitat Types


The landform is steep and rugged, with more than 90% lying above 500m amsl10. The
waterways are perennial, with the drainage generally eastwards, into the Mekong River and is
an important catchment area for the Mekong River (Boonratana, 1997b). Nam Poui NBCA
has a contiguous, largely undisturbed forest cover, mainly represented by mixed deciduous
and some dry evergreen forest. Only about 40% are estimated to comprise dense and mature
vegetation (Berkmuller et al., 1995). A significant feature of the vegetation is the degree of
local variation. Large areas are dominated by bamboo. However, a substantial area in the
center of the reserve appears to be species-rich wet evergreen type. Further botanical
investigation of the reserve is needed (Boonratana, 1997b).

2.1.3 Human Settlements


There are 41 settlements in and around the NBCA, with seven established settlements within
the NBCA (table 2.2). In the north there are three closely associated villages on the Nam Poui

10
amsl – above mean sea level

11
River: Ban Na Sampan11, Ban Na Nguen12, Ban Na Vene13. Further north are Ban Nam Xong
14
along the Nam Xong River; and Ban Pak Xong15, where Nam Xong River joins Nam Poui
River. Ban Vang Pha Mon16 lies in the central region, just inside the eastern boundary of the
NBCA, and Ban Khen in the extreme southwest. The ethnic groups in the northern
settlements comprise mainly Lao Theung and Lao Soung, and some Lao Loum, whereas the
communities at Ban Vang Pha Mon and Ban Khen are Lao Loum. All these communities
practice paddy and shifting cultivation, and gather a wide range of forest products
(Boonratana, 1997b).

Besides villages, there are several military camps and outposts scattered throughout the
NBCA. Also, there is a nomadic group of primarily gatherers, known as ‘Tong Leung’
(Yellow Banana Leaf) or ‘Phi Tong Leung’ (Ghost of Yellow Banana Leaf), present within
the central part of the NBCA. They, however, prefer to be known as ‘Malabri’ meaning
‘forest people’ (Walee, 1977). Studies carried out in Thailand suggested that the ‘Malabri’
hilltribe there originated from Luang Prabang. They periodically visit some nearby permanent
settlements, to trade forest produce such as bees’ honey, rattan, mats, and edible shoots with
clothes, salt, rice, etc. In the extreme southwest, a new district of 16 Lao Loum villages,
Muang Thongmixay, forms an enclave within the NBCA (Boonratana, 1997b).

2.1.4 Access into the NBCA


In the north there is an all-weather road running off from the main Sayaburi to Pak Lay road,
at Ban Nampouy, into the NBCA to about 7km west of Ban Na Sampan. This road runs along
the to Nam Poui all the way from Ban Vaiangxai. In the central region, there is an abandoned
military cum logging track running from Ban Nakhagnang westwards into the NBCA via Ban
Vang Pha Mon. From Ban Vang Pha Mon, the track follows the Nam Phoun as far as Nam
Lop17. This track is currently accessible by a four-wheel drive vehicle during the dry season,
to about 7km into the NBCA. There is also another track from Ban Naxeng to Ban Vang Pha
Mon running along just inside the eastern boundary of the NBCA. Further south, there is an
all-weather road running east to west from Muang Pak Lay to Muang Thongmixay, mostly
following the banks of Nam Lay.

There is another track from the north at Ban Na Vene running southwards to Muang
Thongmixay (figure 2.1). This is the proposed ‘North-South Security Road’ for military
purposes. This road runs parallel to the NBCA’s western boundary, and alongside the Nam
Lop. Construction of this road is on going and its completion is expected by the year 2000.

2.2 PHOU XANG HE NBCA


The NBCA is currently staffed by four personnel and there are 11 associated conservation
staff (table 2.3). The associated conservation staff comprise of DAFO personnel, two from
each district except Atsaphon, which has three. Only the NBCA staff is based at

11
Ban Na Sampan = predominantly Lao Theung (Khamou), and some Lao Soung (Hmong) and Lao Loum
12
Ban Na Nguen = Lao Soung (Hmong)
13
Ban Na Vene = Lao Theung (Khawait) and Lao Loum
14
Ban Nam Xong = Lao Theung (Phai)
15
Ban Pak Xong = Lao Theung (Phai and Khamou)
16
Ban Vang Pha Mon = also known as Ban Mai
17
Nam Lop is spelt as Nam Loy in the currently available maps. Nam Sani on the maps should read Nam Xon
and the river flowing south from Ban Mai is Nam Sani.

12
Savannakhet, the rest are in their respective districts. Activities observed so far are rather
disjointed owing to a lack of coordination between the NBCA and the DAFO staff.

2.2.1 Background
Covering an area of 1,060 km², between 16°42’-17°04’N and 105°19’-106°06’E, Phou Xang
He NBCA (figure 2.2) is located in Savannakhet Province, southern Lao PDR. The NBCA
covers five districts, Muang Atsaphone to the west, Muang Phalanxai and Muang Phin to the
south, Muang Xepone to the east and Muang Villaburi to the north.

2.2.2 Habitat Types


Phou Xang He NBCA comprise two hill ranges, Phou Xang He and Phou Hinho/Katon,
oriented northwest to southeast, and separated by a flat ‘corridor’. The landform ranges from
rocky flats to both undulating and steep hills, with elevations from below 200 m to 794 m
(Duckworth et al., 1993; Berkmuller et al., 1995). There is a steep escarpment all along the
northern reserve boundary of the Phou Xang He forest block. The drainage is mainly towards
the south and southeast along Xe Xangxoy and Xe Thammouak. The forest type in the Phou
Xang He range (western block) is largely semi-evergreen and deciduous forests, and the Phou
Hinho/Katon (eastern block) is predominantly evergreen to wet evergreen forests (Duckworth
et al., 1993). The corridor between Phou Xang He and Phou Hinho/Katon comprise a mosaic
of agricultural lands and dry dipterocarp forest.

2.2.3 Human Settlements


There are more than 20 settlements in and immediately adjacent to Phou Xang He NBCA and
many more claiming their village boundaries into the NBCA, totaling 81 villages. There are
eight settlements in the corridor, Ban Naphilang, Ban Phongsavang, Ban Katep, Ban
Somsanouk18, Ban Nonsamlan19, Ban Nakaphoung, Ban Phongam20, and a new settlement
Ban Donggnang Noy. To the extreme northwest there is Ban Kengnyao21 The ethnic
minorities in this region are Lao Theung (mainly Mongkon) and Lao Loum (mainly Puttai).
Both permanent and shifting cultivation are practiced by these communities. Also, a wide
range of forest products are harvested

2.1.4 Access into the NBCA


Phou Xang He NBCA is very porous, hence accessible from all directions. From
Savannakhet Phou Xang He is accessible along the National Highway Route 9 and Route 10.
There are two major roads running north to south across the NBCA. One is towards the
extreme northwest, from Atsaphone to Ban Pongling, and the other is from Ban
Xethammouak to Villaburi through the corridor, although this may be difficult to access
during the wet season. Besides these, there are a few major trails regularly used by villagers
to travel between the south and the north. These main trails are from Ban Nalay to Ban
Katep, from Ban Nagnon to Ban Sopxe, and from Ban Namouang to Ban Muangsen.

18
also known as Ban Katep Noy
19
also known as Ban Khame
20
also known as Ban Khame Noy
21
also known as Ban Thamkouan

13
Table 2.1 Staff and associated conservation staff of Nam Poui NBCA

NBCA staff Educational Qualification Position/Duties


Mr. Sotsern Mid-level Forestry Head of NBCA & Head of Extension Unit
Mr. Bouvanh Mid-level Forestry Deputy Head of NBCA & Financial Officer
Mr. Sompetch High-level Forestry Extension Unit
Ms. Sompetch Mid-level Veterinary Extension Unit
Mr. Oun Mid-level Forestry Extension Unit
Mr. Kongthong* High-level Forestry & Head of Patrolling & Monitoring Unit
Agriculture
Mr. Singkaew#* Mid-level Forestry Patrolling & Monitoring Unit
Mr. Lake#* Mid-level Forestry Patrolling & Monitoring Unit
Mr. Phong* Mid-level Forestry Patrolling & Monitoring Unit
Ms. Jittaphan Vocational certificate Typist
Mr. Singsay High School Contract Laborer

:
Associated conservation Educational Agency
staff Qualification
Mr. Somsaay#* Mid-level Forestry DAFO, M. Phieng
Mr. Bounthalong* Mid-level Forestry DAFO, M. Paklay
Mr. Outhin#* Mid-level Forestry DAFO, M. Thongmixay
Mr. Sing Saengphet#* Mid-level Forestry Ban Na Ven Rural Development Project
Capt. Sila#* - Sayaburi Provincial Army
Lt. Boonsou#* - Sayaburi Provincial Army
Sgt. Khampane#* - Sayaburi Provincial Army
Sgt. Nguensong# - Sayaburi Provincial Army
Sgt. Khamkeo* - Sayaburi Provincial Army
# Participated in 1997’s large mammal survey
* Participated in 1998’s field management activities

14
Table 2.2 Population structure of some villages in and around Nam Poui NBCA

District Village Families Population Females


M. Phieng Ban Phonsak 85 533 257
M. Phieng Ban Nakong 60 383 193
M. Phieng Ban Vangkham 37 250 104
M. Phieng Ban Na Oum 33 187 79
M. Phieng Ban Na Mor 104 545 290
M. Phieng Ban Nam Xong 29 156 80
M. Phieng Ban Pak Xong* 105 631 (143) 320
M. Phieng Ban Na Ven* 71 417 (325) 206
M. Phieng Ban Na Nguen* 92 686 (470) 332
M. Phieng Ban Na Sampan* 280 1770 (1320) 859
M. Pak Lay Ban Houay Nam Khoun 43 252 123
M. Pak Lay Ban Nakhagnang* 85 543 281
M. Pak Lay Ban Vang Pha Mon 43 251 119
M. Pak Lay Ban Na Mai 69 403 210
M. Pak Lay Ban Phone 69 783 391
M. Pak Lay Ban Bouabane 286 1699 851
M. Pak Lay Ban Naxeng 97 612 287
M. Pak Lay Ban Houay Sai Khao 73 366 181
M. Pak Lay Ban Houay Khouay 102 548 255
M. Pak Lay Ban Phonkham 76 400 201
M. Pak Lay Ban Phakeo 244 1021 610
M.Thong Ban Phouviang 30 170 95
M.Thong Ban Gnai 148 917 463
M.Thong Ban Det 148 892 451
M.Thong Ban Namouang 114 749 389
M.Thong Ban Napuay 83 557 279
M.Thong Ban Khen 132 728 340
M.Thong Ban Dan 94 541 267
M.Thong Ban That 112 670 357
M.Thong Ban Namon 61 435 217
M.Thong Ban Nanok 41 306 136
M.Thong Ban Nasaiphom 49 307 163
M.Thong Ban Don Phoum 57 379 188
*Latest figures May 1998
Note: figures in parentheses are April 1997’s figures (source: NBCA & DAFOs)

15
Table 2.3 Staff and associated conservation staff of Phou Xang He NBCA

NBCA staff Educational Position/Duties


Qualification
Mr. Phoukong* Mid-level Forestry Head of NBCA & General Administration
Mr. Thipsavan* Mid-level Forestry Deputy Head of NBCA & Head of
Patrolling/Monitoring Unit
Mr. Sommai* Mid-level Forestry General
Ms. Thipsavan Secretarial Course Typist

Associated conservation staff Educational Qualification Position/Duties


Mr. Sunthorn* High-level Forestry DAFO, M. Atsaphone
Mr. Sihouang Mid-level Forestry DAFO, M. Atsaphone
Mr. Thongsavan* Mid-level Forestry DAFO, M. Phalansai
Mr. Khamphor Mid-level Forestry DAFO, M. Phalansai
Mr. Khulawong* Mid Level Mechanical DAFO, M. Phine
Mr. Sisavat Mid-level Forestry DAFO, M. Phine
Mr. Visay* Mid-level Forestry DAFO, M. Xepone
Mr. Ouday* Mid-level Forestry DAFO, M. Xepone
Mr. Phouvan*# Mid-level Forestry DAFO, M. Villaburi
Mr. Phouvan (Tou)* Mid-level Forestry DAFO, M. Vilaburi
Mr. Khamphong Mid-level Forestry DAFO, M. Villaburi
* Attended training in during present consultancy
# Presently transferred to Savannakhet PAFO

16
Figure 2.1 Nam Poui NBCA

17
Figure 2.2 Phou Xang He NBCA

18
3. METHODS

3.1 INTRODUCTION
To implement field management activities and to formulate an effective management plan for
a protected area, it is essential to obtain information on:

1. The presence, distribution and abundance of the wildlife present in the area.
2. The habitat types and key wildlife habitats found in the area.
3. The threats to the wildlife and habitat in the protected area.
4. The statuses of people living in and around the protected area, and how they use the
area, including their impacts on wildlife and the habitats.
Once information on these topics has been obtained, this will assist the protected area staff to
effectively plan and/or develop:

1. A program for biodiversity resource monitoring.


2. A program for protected area patrolling.
3. Proposed zonation of the NBCA into Total Protection and Controlled Use Zones.
4. Proposed ‘rules’ for negotiations with stakeholder communities within the protected
area.
Hence, training and capacity building of protected area staff in gathering, interpreting, and
using this information is an important step and contribution towards achieving these goals.

Activities related to the field management of Nam Poui and Phou Xang He NBCAs were
carried out in five months inclusive. A timetable of activities carried out is shown in appendix
XIV.

3.2 TRAINING/CAPACITY BUILDING


Training was carried out both in the classroom and in the field over a period of several weeks.
Prolonged and repeated on-the job field training is possibly the only way to equip protected
area and associated conservation staff with the basic skills and experience required to
implement field management activities (Boonratana, 1997b; 1998). Training, carried out in
the Lao language, primarily focussed on developing the staff’s skills in:

1. Field surveys for large mammals and key wildlife habitats, including village-based
interviews.
2. Observing and assessing human and habitat impacts.
3. Planning areas and routes for human/habitat impact patrolling and biodiversity
resource monitoring.
4. Identifying areas to be included in the Total Protection Zones or to be excluded into
the Controlled Use Zones.
The above training activities can be summarized into data collection, data compilation, and
data analysis. Besides these, training topics also include basics of conservation, map reading
and compass use, note taking and recording techniques, report-writing, camping and field
equipment (table 3.1). The training was so designed to assist the field staff in planning their
field trips efficiently, to make accurate observations and record these accurately, and to
clearly report their findings in a simple but detailed format.

19
Capacity building was not limited only to the NBCA staff, but extended to include other
agencies with interests and involvement in the NBCAs, such as staff of CPAWM, DAFOs,
Army, and village conservation volunteers.

3.2.1 Classroom Training


The main theory training was conducted at the beginning of the exercise. Classroom training
for Nam Poui and Phou Xang He NBCAs were carried out at the headquarters of Nam Poui
NBCA at Ban Nakhagnang, and the Forestry Training School at Xepone respectively.

3.2.1.1 Training Outline


1. Basics of Conservation: The classroom training began with brief lectures and
discussion on protected areas, wildlife conservation, conservation biology and
wildlife ecology and behavior. This was to give the trainees a better understanding the
objectives of the protected area, and the need of reliable and relevant information
towards effectively managing species and protected areas. In addition, a simple
understanding of wildlife ecology and behavior was to assist them in recording
observations in the field.
2. Map and Compass: This was followed by detailed lessons in the use of maps and
compasses. Competence in map and compass use is the basis to an effective field
management of any protected area. Lessons in map reading included understanding
the map’s description, details, directions, distances and designations. Lessons in
compass use were mainly on taking accurate bearings and determining back-bearings,
followed by the use of compass with maps. Use of GPS and altimeter were also
included. Trainees were also given exercises to improve their map and compass skills,
and an orienteering walk to improve their compass use. Finally, they were trained to
map major trails and tracks.
3. Recording Techniques: Lessons in making observations and recording evidence in the
field, including identifying tracks and other wildlife signs were then imparted to the
trainees. These also included the use of field guides to mammals, birds, and mammal
tracks. Detailed note taking was emphasized throughout the training. The presence of
all wildlife species observed and human activities was recorded into data sheets
(appendices I & II). Trainees were instructed to sketch unidentified wildlife species,
tracks, etc., and take measurements or estimate their sizes in the case of wildlife
species sighting. Trail mapping exercises carried out in the field along well-used
human trails were recorded into data sheets (appendix III). There was also an
emphasis on the collection of specimens (appendix IV) whenever opportunity arose.
This included collection of scats (appendix V) for later analysis, hair samples, skulls
from dead animals and making plaster casts of tracks (appendix VI). Specimens
collected would serve as important references, and as displays to impart conservation
education and public awareness.
4. Wildlife Observation: Only a single method of wildlife survey based on animal
presence through actual sighting and based on indirect evidence, was imparted to the
trainees. Both NBCAs are still new, therefore in need of more data on wildlife
presence and distribution. Such information provides important and useful input
towards managing a protected area. Furthermore, such method is very practical -
simple to understand and carry out, less time-consuming, can be carried out by a
single person or a small team, and does not require much equipment. To improve the
quality of data collected during wildlife surveys, trainees were taught how to identify

20
species and cross-refer to field guides. Lessons on identifying and recognizing
wildlife based on indirect evidence (tracks, scats, etc.) were emphasized. It is
relatively difficult to sight wildlife in dense forests, hence data are mostly gathered
from signs. There was also a brief discussion on the ethics of fieldwork (appendix
VII).
5. Camping and Field Equipment: Preparation and location of campsites (appendix
VIII), essential field equipment (appendix IX), and suggested food items for the field
were discussed in detail. Much field time would otherwise be wasted if there were no
proper planning and adequate preparation prior to field surveys.
6. Data Analysis and Reporting: After each field trip, data collected were compiled and a
simple report for each trip/location was prepared. The report comprised a table of
wildlife recorded, a table for human activities recorded, map/maps for important
sighting of wildlife, routes traveled, human activities, mineral licks, etc., and a written
summary highlighting significant finds. This report-writing format was to be
maintained for future surveys and patrols. This format is currently being used by the
field staff at Dong Hua Sao and Phou Xiang Thong NBCAs in southern Lao PDR
(Boonratana, 1988). Similarly, scat samples collected were analyzed at the stations
after every field trip and entered in the scat recording book (appendix IV). A separate
recording format (appendix III) was maintained for other specimens collected.
7. Patrolling, Monitoring and Law Enforcement: Repeated surveys for an area was
emphasized to the trainees. Once initial data is collected, there should be a program of
continuous collection of data to see changes, if any, in terms of wildlife presence and
relative abundance, habitat changes and human activity. Monitoring is an important
component for making management decisions. A discussion was held on the criteria
to assist the trainees in identifying key species

3.2.1 Assessment of Performance


The criteria for assessing the performance of trainees in the classroom was based on their
participation in the discussions, attitude and interest towards lessons taught, performance
during exercises and assignments, and this confidential assessment has been submitted to
IUCN/LSFP.

3.3 FIELD MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

3.3.1 Logistics Preparations and Allocation of Responsibilities


Participants were divided into teams and sub-teams of two to four persons. Care was also
taken to ascertain that teams were of similar, if not equal strengths. Team leaders and
membership changed after each field trip to encourage leadership and to promote teamwork
and co-operation between individuals and agencies. Pre- and post-survey briefings were held
before and after every field trip. Responsibilities were issued and objectives were clarified
during the pre-survey briefing. Supplies coordinators were responsible of purchasing,
preparing, and maintaining food and equipment. Team leaders were responsible for the
team’s and team members’ equipment, and planning survey routes.

3.3.2 Village-based Interviews


Interviews with villagers for key wildlife species were carried out in those villages that were
visited under this consultancy and that under the ‘Participatory Management’ consultancy
(section 1.1). A simple questionnaire (appendix X) was developed for this purpose. Inquiries

21
regarding wildlife was not limited only to those listed in the questionnaire but included other
large and interesting wildlife. The list, however, serves to guide the interviewer of the key
wildlife species present in Lao PDR.

In addition, villagers were asked about the presence of mineral licks, caves, etc., known to
them. The general direction and distance (in kilometers or hiking time) of the key wildlife
species, mineral licks, etc., were also recorded. These interviews besides providing
information on wildlife and habitats also allowed the field management team to plan their
activities. The consultant, to demonstrate to the trainees the proper method when conducting
interviews, conducted interviews at the first few villages. The trainees then conducted latter
village interviews with occasional assistance from the consultant.

3.3.3 Daily Trip Preparations


Areas to be surveyed were based on interviews with villagers. Criteria for selection included
areas where wildlife is regularly sighted, where key species are known to occur, and where
mineral licks are located. If those areas are within half a day’s hike from the village, then the
team would based themselves at the village. If, however, those areas require a full day’s hike
or two, then the team would camp out in the forest.

Survey routes were pre-determined from 1:100,000 topographic maps and/or based on
villagers’ information. Routes normally took the shape of irregular loops, originating and
terminating at campsites. This allowed greater coverage of an area. Simpler routes, going
along streams and returning the same way were given to trainees that had no prior experience
with forest work. Two hired villagers usually stayed back at camp and were given the tasks of
maintaining camps, preparing food, gathering firewood, etc.

3.3.4 Observations and Recording


Wildlife presence was recorded based on sightings or other evidence (tracks, scats,
vocalizations, etc.). No trapping was carried out. Surveys were carried out on foot, along
existing tracks and trails, particularly along ridges and waterways. Using animal trails have
been observed to be effective in covering large areas in tropical rainforests (Boonratana,
1997a & b; 1988). The chances of encountering an animal or its signs are higher when patrols
are carried out along existing animal trails. In addition, mineral licks, important to many large
mammals are usually found along animal trails near waterways. During patrol surveys, team
members would simultaneously search for evidence of wildlife.

Speed of travel when carrying out patrols was maintained between 40 to 60 minutes for every
kilometer, with regular pauses of at least a minute, to observe the general surroundings. This
was to avoid missing cryptic animals or animal signs. Thus, up to an average of eight
kilometers per day was covered on each route by each team. Surveys usually began between
0700 to 0730 h and teams returned to camp between 1500 to 1630h.

Type of evidence was recorded, along with date, time, species, and location (appendix I).
Evidence such as tracks and scats were aged, described, sketched and measured. Scats were
collected and were later analyzed by the trainees. Locations of important sightings were
determined using maps and compass, and where feasible, a Global Positioning System (GPS)
unit was used. Important sightings included the presence of mineral licks, unmapped ponds or
wetlands, and human activities. Observations on human impacts were also recorded onto data
recording sheets (appendix II) and maps.

22
3.3.5 Daily Debriefing
In the field, debriefing was conducted every night after meals were eaten. This was to review
the day’s findings and plan surveys for the next day. Survey teams would report the results of
surveys, highlighting the main findings. Team/sub-team members would alternate on a daily
basis in reporting their findings, to encourage participation by all. Comments and suggestions
were offered to improve their field performance and skills.

3.3.6 Assessment of Performance


In the field, the trainees’ performance was assessed based on their attitude and interest in
field work, teamwork, leadership, wildlife identification and use of field guides, recognition
of wildlife signs, field craft, equipment use and care, orienteering and survey skills, and
particularly on the effort and quality of their note-taking.

23
Table 3.1 Topics of theory training

MAJOR TOPICS SKILLS/SUB-TOPICS


Conservation basics Protected areas;
Wildlife conservation;
Conservation biology;
Wildlife ecology & animal behavior.
Map & Compass Types and purposes of maps;
Information from maps: description, details, directions,
distances & designations;
Description: map no., edition & location;
Details: vegetation types, drainage & landform features;
Directions: bearings & location determination;
Distances: map scale, linear & non-linear distances;
Designations: names & significance;
Best routes of travel & feasible camp locations;
Types & purposes of compasses;
Taking compass bearings & determining back-bearings;
Altimeter & GPS use;
Assignments & exercises.
Recording Techniques Note-taking, sketches & measurements;
Wildlife & human activity data recording sheets;
Hunter/villager interviews;
Trail mapping;
Photography;
Specimen collection: plaster casts (tracks), scat, skulls, snares,
traps, etc;
Assignments & exercises.
Wildlife Observation Presence/absence;
Survey routes;
Identifying species & using field guides;
Indirect evidence: tracks, scats, vocalization, scrapes, etc;
Speed of travel & precautionary measures;
Camping & Field Ideal locations & set-up;
Equipment Field equipment list & significance;
Pre-survey preparations.
Data compilation & Tabulation of wildlife data & human activities;
Report-writing Maps for routes traveled, important sightings: wildlife, human
activities, mineral licks, etc;
Scat analysis;
Highlights of significant finds.
Miscellaneous Patrolling, monitoring & law enforcement;
Videos on wildlife.

24
4. NAM POUI NBCA

4.1 TRAINING/CAPACITY-BUILDING
Most of the NBCA and associated conservation staff who participated in this year’s field
management activities, had attended a similar training course carried out last year
(Boonratana, 1997b), hence most of the lessons taught were revisions. The ‘old’ trainees
assisted the newer ones through the course and exercises.

New skills that were imparted to the trainees included report writing and the use of data
recording sheets for wildlife surveys, human/habitat impacts, wildlife interviews and trail
mapping. The basics of conservation and the preparation of master maps were further
emphasized. Some of the trainees of previous year were slightly ‘rusty’ with map reading and
compass use, but this was quickly overcome with revisions and practice. Handouts were also
distributed to the trainees. These included handouts on landform and drainage features, and
wildlife tracks and scats.

Training and capacity building of the Head and his deputy could not be achieved. They were
involved in CPAWM’s Evaluation and Support Visit, and the Heads of NBCAs meeting held
at Nam Poui NBCA, therefore unable to participate in the field management activities.
Hence, they are still not clear in their understanding of the field management aspect of
protected areas. Also, most unfortunate and unacceptable was that many of the NBCA staff
including the Head have not read Boonratana’s (1997b) report. The report would have
assisted the management team with their workplans, not to mention that much of current
impacts observed could have been prevented if some of the recommendations made in that
report were followed up.

In the field, it was very interesting to note that teamwork and cooperation between the NBCA
and associated conservation staff was very good, in spite of not working together since the
1997 exercise. It was also surprising to observe two trainees who were quite ‘weak’ (skills-
wise) during the 1997 exercise becoming quite adept at fieldwork.

Both classroom training and on-the-job training at Nam Poui NBCA were successfully
accomplished most likely due to following reasons:

1. Interest in protected area and conservation work was strong, stemming from the
trainees’ commitment and thirst to acquire more knowledge and skills.
2. In spite of some superstitious beliefs, the staff was quite comfortable carrying out
field activities in small groups without guides.
3. All the trainees are quite used to hard work.
4. Self-discipline was quite high among the participants. This was further reinforced by
presence of the Provincial Army’s ‘Special Conservation Unit’.
5. Most of the trainees did not smoke and were generally noiseless during surveys and at
camps, which significantly contributed to sighting of several wildlife species.
6. Alcohol consumption was not a habit with the participants, and was generally
restricted to parties and special occasions.
7. There was equal respect and strong trust among the participants.

4.2 WILDLIFE
Nam Poui NBCA is located west of the Mekong River, hence the fauna is similar to those
found in Thailand, with significance difference from Phou Xang He NBCA, particularly with

25
ungulates and primates. Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes recorded in and
around Nam Poui NBCA during a large mammal survey carried out last year (Boonratana,
1997b) and during the present consultancy is listed in appendix XI. This list, however, is still
far from exhaustive, as no trapping was carried out for small mammals. Altogether, there are
50 mammals recorded, of which silvered langur is a new record and banteng and stump-tailed
macaque are provisional records for Nam Poui NBCA. Locations of evidence of some key
species are shown in figure 4.1. Seventy bird species are currently confirmed from the area
including six new records and one provisional. This figure is most likely not more than a
third of the actual number of birds present in Nam Poui NBCA, as none of the participants
from last year’s and this year’s exercise are experienced at bird identification. Furthermore,
there still remains a large proportion of Nam Poui NBCA that could not be surveyed due
forest fires, time constraints, and the nature of the present consultancy.

4.2.1 Brief Account of Some Key Species


1. Asian elephant: Towards the south, fresh and recent signs of both domestic and wild
elephants were observed at Poung Pak Houay Bor, Poung Bor and in the Nam Xing
area. Villagers of Ban Khen reported that more than ten years ago, there were frequent
incursion by an ethnic group ‘Nyuan’ from Nan Province in Thailand, to poach for
elephants. In the central region, fresh and very recent elephant signs were observed in
the forested areas in Ban Nakhagnang22, Ban Vang Pha Mon and Ban Naxeng. These
particularly at Poung Sa-art, Poung Sam Kha and Poung Kok, and along the trails
leading to them. Three elephants were observed on the evening of March 22, 1998 at
Poung Sa-art. Fresh signs were observed on the trail to Poung Kok, west of Ban Vang
Pha Mon. Tracks of young elephants were also observed during surveys. Many of
those tracks overlapped with tracks of domestic elephants. Tracks of domestic
elephants could be distinguished as they had chains tied to their feet; therefore, the
drag marks were visible. In February 1998, approximately ten elephants were reported
along Houay Sani, south of Ban Vang Pha Mon. In late January, a tuskless bull
elephant was observed feeding bananas in Ban Nakhagnang. Towards the north,
associated conservation staff reported elephant sighting at Poung Phoy.
Approximately 30 animals were reported by Mr. Sing in November 1997, and at least
ten were reported by Mr. Somsaay and Capt. Sila in January 1998. Military personnel
based west of Ban Na Sampan reports frequent sighting of elephants, sometimes up to
40-50 animals ranging from the north/northwest to the southwest. Based on this new
evidence, it is estimated that there are at least 350 wild elephants in Nam Poui NBCA,
similar to an estimate given in Boonratana (1997b). Currently, there are 696 domestic
elephants in Sayaburi Province (table 4.1). During this consultancy, several very
young elephants were observed along with their domesticated mothers. It is a general
practice to release domestic elephants to the wild for several months a year
(Boonratana, 1997b), hence the young elephants could have been derived from the
wild stock.
2. Gaur: A femur and a tibia of a gaur were observed along Houay Kok very close to
Poung Kok. Cause of death could not be determined. A gaur was shot in the Muang

22
An elephant was observed at Ban Nakhagnang feeding on domestic bananas in January–end. The NBCA staff,
although located about a kilometer away from this village was not aware of this, until being informed by the
consultant about two months later. Albeit staff visited the village on a regular basis, no villagers bothered to
inform the staff. This implies that the staff presents themselves as having no interest in wildlife matters, possibly
because all their efforts are focussed towards extension.

26
Thongmixay district in mid January this year and Poung Khem, by Nam Ngin. Three
villagers from Ban Dan were penalized by the DAFO for the incident.
3. Tiger: A set of fresh tracks and several scrapes were observed on the trail from Vang
Pha Daang to Poung Kok (at Ban Vang Pha Mon). Tiger tracks were also reported
close to Ban Vang Pha Mon in September 1997. Tracks were also reported at Nam
Xing (southwest NBCA) in October 1997.
4. Asian wild dog: On the morning of March 9, 1998, the M. Pak Lay DAFO land
allocation team (including one NBCA staff) reported observing five Asian wild dogs
chasing a barking deer on the track close to Vang Pha Daang.
5. Asiatic black bear: One fresh and clear track was observed at Poung Nyaang,
northwest of Ban Naxeng.
6. Malayan sun bear: A set of fresh tracks was observed close to Vang Pha Daang, 6 km
west of Ban Vang Pha Mon.
7. Silvered leaf monkey: 22 individuals were briefly observed on the trail from Vang
Pha Daang to Poung Kok. Of these 22, there were at least six adult females with four
clinging infants, and seven juveniles.

4.3 KEY WILDLIFE HABITATS


Information on several more mineral licks was gathered during this consultancy. Given the
time constraints, only some could be investigated. A list of known mineral licks including
those recorded last year (Boonratana, 1977b) are given in table 4.2 and shown in figure 4.2.
Hides and recent evidence of poaching were observed at all the viable mineral licks that were
visited in southern Nam Poui NBCA. Besides mineral licks, there is a flat grassy area ‘Deaun
Na Poung Bor’, measuring 50 by 30 meters, located about 200 m northwest of Poung Bor.
Tracks observed here included those of domestic buffalo, barking deer, and sambar deer.

4.4 HUMAN/HABITAT IMPACTS AND THREATS

4.4.1 Forest Fires


This year probably saw one of the worst forest fires in Nam Poui NBCA, and in all
likelihood, the fires were human-induced. Fires were most widespread from early to late
March. Most of the fires were doused by heavy rains in early to mid April. This may also
account for widespread occurrence of bamboo in the area (Clive W. Marsh, pers. comm.).
Observations and inquiries can safely conclude that almost all the fires were mainly related to
shifting cultivation (slash and burn) and some to hunting (to flush animals out), both from
within and outside the NBCA. Much of the field management activities were also affected by
the forest fires. On several occasions, the participants could not complete a given patrolling
route, as they had to escape from forest fires. In addition, several participants were seriously
affected by the fine smoke particles (lungs and eyes infection).

4.4.2 Forest Clearance


Several forested areas within the NBCA, particularly in the north, have been subjected to vast
clearance for cultivation, mainly shifting. These areas are mainly towards the north, west,
east, south and southeast of Ban Na Vene, Ban Na Nguen, and Ban Na Sam Pan. At Ban Pak
Xong, where the population has quadrupled compared to last year, the clearance radiates in
all directions. Towards the central region, new clearance was observed mainly along the track
between Ban Vang Pha Mon and Ban Naxeng.

27
4.4.3 Immigration
This apparently is a major factor causing a very significant increase in most of the impacts
and threats mentioned here. Immigration is very marked towards northern Nam Poui NBCA,
around the Ban Na Vene, Ban Na Sampan and Ban Na Nguen village complex. (section
2.1.3). With this current rate of immigration, there is undoubtedly a serious demand for
cultivation land, hence more clearing of forested areas. Following which, there would
certainly be a ‘chain-reaction’ of impacts on wildlife and their habitats. A recent land use
planning exercise was carried out in the Ban Na Vene Rural Development Project Zone to
provide continued assistance to the Provincial authorities in resolving forest-land use
problems which have developed since the Rural Development Project was established in
1991 (Jones, 1998).

4.4.4 ‘Mai Ketsina’ Poaching


Observations during the present consultancy strongly suggest that poaching for ‘mai ketsina’
(Aquillaria sp.) has taken a serious turn for the worst as compared to last year (Boonratana,
1997b). ‘Mai Ketsina’ poaching again, is concentrated more between the northern end and
the core area of the NBCA, with Ban Na Sampan, Ban Na Vene and Ban Na Nguen as the
main outlet. This has apparently resulted from an increase in demand on the international
market, and Sayaburi Province is apparently a major supplier of ‘mai ketsina’ from Lao PDR
(Anonymous23, pers. comm.). Furthermore, the increase in ‘mai ketsina’ poaching
undoubtedly also resulted from the NBCA management not implementing their patrolling and
monitoring activities. (Note: two cases relating to ‘mai ketsina’ were charged by the
patrolling/monitoring team during the present consultancy. Both cases were from the northern
region. On April 2, 1988, the chief of Ban Na Sampan was arrested at Pak Lay while
unloading 1500 kg of ‘mai ketsina’ from a military truck).

4.4.5 Wildlife Poaching


Wildlife poaching in Nam Poui is usually related to ‘mai ketsina’ poaching, ‘mak taw’ (a
palm nut) collection, rattan collection and fishing. Also, armed male residents on their way
and back to their fields do opportunistically shoot small game. Residents usually carry
muzzle-loading guns, but there are several individuals with automatic guns. Army personnel
in the NBCA frequently indulge in wildlife poaching activities, using snares and muzzle-
loading guns. Also, there have been cases of intentional hunting of elephants and gaurs.
(Note: during the present consultancy, there were a few cases relating to wildlife poaching
and capture. Live capture of pangolins for sale was frequently observed. There was one
incident relating to the killing of a langur and another to a muntjak. Almost all cases were
charged by the patrolling/monitoring team).

4.4.6 Fish Bombing


Both military personnel and civilians were reportedly involved in this unsustainable harvest
of fishes. Fish bombing in the NBCA has been observed along the waterways between
Muang Pak Lay and Muang Thongmixay, west of Ban Vang Pha Mon, and between Ban Pak
Xong and Ban Na Vene, usually not far from the roads.

23
Anonymous works for a ‘mai ketsina’ dealer based in Vientiane.

28
4.4.7 Livestock Grazing
Livestock, particularly cattle and buffaloes frequently graze in the forested areas, mainly in
the northern and southern end of the NBCA. This has serious implications towards the health
of wild animals in the NBCA, especially those using the mineral licks Bor Lay Chan I and
Bor Lay Chan II (Boonratana, 1997b). Any diseased livestock could easily start an epidemic
that could wipe out the wildlife population. (Note: Villagers of Ban Na Sampan reported that
they found several wild pigs dead in the forest south of Nong Xae in January and February
1997).

4.4.8 North-South Security Road


Although this road is far from completion, it has allowed easy access into the NBCA.
Unauthorized vehicles have been observed using the northern end of this road to harvest
bamboo, rattan, ‘mak taw’, etc. During this consultancy, a truck was observed about 15 km
from Ban Na Vene. Similarly, towards the south, this road has allowed incursion into the
NBCA to increase. Some villagers use domestic elephants to enter the NBCA from this end.
This implies that villagers can stay in the forests for longer periods and can harvest large
quantities of NTFPs. Once completed, this road will effectively divide the NBCA into two
halves, reducing the size of intact forest cover. Furthermore, ‘edge effects’ have begun to set
in along this road.

4.4.9 Proposed East-West Road


There is a proposed road that will run from east to west along the current Ban Nampouy –
Ban Na Sampan road into Nan Province of Thailand. This road proposed by the Thai
government will extend west-southwest of Ban Na Sampan to the Lao/Thailand border. This
road is expected to improve trade links between Lao PDR and Thailand through the provinces
of Sayaburi and Nan. The proposed road, however, has several serious implications:

1. It will further fragment the NBCA, causing serious edge effects to the habitat.
2. It will very likely interrupt wildlife movement, possibly creating sub-populations.
Two globally threatened large mammals, namely elephant and gaur occur in the areas
southwest to northwest of Ban Na Sampan.
3. An important mineral lick, ‘Poung Phoy’, regularly used by elephants and gaurs, is
approximately 2 km north of the proposed road. It is uncertain what the impacts will
be, but whatever they are, they are not beneficial to the wildlife.
4. It will allow easy access into the NBCA, therefore very likely increasing the pressure
onto the NBCA, such as immigration, ‘mai ketsina’ and wildlife poaching.
Furthermore, it will allow an easier and faster outlet for the ‘mai ketsina’ and wildlife
trade.
5. It might have security-related implications. Currently, that area is controlled by the
Sayaburi Provincial Army, and considered one of the strategic areas in terms of
national defense. Hence, having easy access into the country in this case will not
necessarily be beneficial to Lao PDR.

4.5 Other Activities


1. Office management: As a first step towards managing the protected area, the office at
the NBCA’s headquarters in Ban Nakhagnang was reorganized to make it efficient
and coherent. Cabinets, display boards, maps, etc., were purchased, and filing and
record-keeping system was established.

29
2. Staff management: The current organizational flowchart (figure 4.3) at the
headquarters is confusing and misleading. Confusing because the same names (same
persons) appear several times in the flowchart, and misleading because there are
several individuals who are not NBCA staff, but DAFO and RDP staff. Furthermore,
the flowchart implies that there was regular contribution to the NBCA management,
whereas in reality there was not. It was only during the field management consultancy
that a patrolling/monitoring system was established, in an attempt to coordinate the
stakeholder agencies. Hence, a new organizational flowchart was proposed, including
assigning specific duties to the staff (figure 4.4). Regulations regarding vehicle use
acceptable to all staff members was also introduced. This was to prevent abuse of
vehicles and fuel.
3. Patrolling and Monitoring Schedule: A monthly schedule (table 4.3) was prepared to
assist the patrolling and monitoring team to carry out their activities. Twenty-four
options were provided. These options are to be randomly selected at the end of every
month. In this manner, there would be at least three weeks a month of regular
patrolling and monitoring activity. A random schedule is important in preventing
potential poachers from knowing the patrolling and monitoring team’s routine. Only
two NBCA staff would be involved each time (c. 7 days per field trip). They would
then be supported by the NBCA’s associated conservation staff. The associated
conservation staff accompanying these trips would depend on the area to be patrolled
and monitored. Thus, each month an NBCA patrolling and monitoring staff would be
involved in at least one field trip, up to a maximum of two field trips.
4. Cleanliness: A few pits were prepared around the headquarters, where litter can be
thrown and burnt. Rubbish bins for the NBCA’s buildings were also purchased.
5. Signboards: Signboards were erected at strategic positions along the NBCA’s
boundary, where major tracks lead into the NBCA.
6. Heads of NBCAs meeting: Acted as a ‘Resource Person’ for the 3rd Heads of NBCAs
meeting held at Nam Poui NBCA from March 19-23, 1998. Activities included
organizing the staff in making preparations for the meeting and field trips for the
Heads.
7. M.O.U.: A memorandum of understanding between the Provincial Army and the
NBCA was jointly prepared by Mr. Sotsern (Head of NBCA), Capt Sila (Head of
military conservation unit), Mr. Geyo (CPAWM) and the consultant. This M.O.U.,
endorsed by the Provincial Army and PAFO was intended to formalize joint
conservation efforts between the Provincial Army and the NBCA, therefore hoping
that cooperation between the NBCA and Provincial will be more effective.
8. Wrap-up seminar: A provincial-level seminar on ‘Management Activities and
Planning for Nam Poui NBCA’ was organized at Sayaburi on May 28 and 29. Mr.
Sombath Yiaryheu, the Provincial Governor, chaired the seminar. Among the
participants were representatives from the various government departments in the
province (including the Provincial Army); M. Thongmixay, M. Pak Lay and M.
Phieng DAFOs and District Governors’ Offices; CARE and UNDP; and LSFP
advisers. There were presentations made by the Head of Nam Poui NBCA, the Field
Management consultant, the Land Allocation team, the Head of the Provincial Army
Conservation Unit, and the three District Governors or their deputies. Resulting from
this seminar, a statement was issued by the Provincial Governor.
9. Tong Leung: Finally met up with a ‘Tong Leung’ family comprising a woman and her
two sons, on March 19, 1998. They were apparently from the Nam Phoun area, and
on their way to Ban Na Vene to exchange some forest produce (mats and rattan) for
clothes, etc. Some clothes and food were provided to them by the patrolling and

30
monitoring team, establishing rapport for future work in their area. An expedition to
the ‘Tong Leung’ area last year had to be cancelled due to a ‘security’ problem
(Boonratana, 1997b).

31
Table 4.1 Domestic elephants in Sayaburi Province (1996-97 data; source: Sayaburi
PAFO)

Districts Elephant Numbers


Sayaburi 23
Phieng 65
Pak Lay 164
Kenthao 17
Boten 37
Thomgmixay 133
Hongsa 99
Xiengkon 28
Nguen 130
TOTAL 696

32
Table 4.2 Mineral licks in Nam Poui NBCA

Mineral Lick Location Animal/Animal Signs Observed


Bor Lay Chan 1 18°19.7’N/101°12.8’E Elephant, Gaur, Lesser mousedeer, Golden
cat, Malayan porcupine, Thick-billed
green pigeons, Domestic buffalo
Bor Lay Chan 2 18°19.5’N/101°12.7’E Elephant, Sambar deer, Barking deer,
Wild pig, Thick-billed green pigeons
Poung Heen 18°19.3’N/101°12.7’E Elephant, Sambar deer, Barking deer,
Thick-billed green pigeons
Poung Cha-art 18°29.6’N/101°25.4’E Elephant, Sambar deer, Barking deer,
Wild pig, Thick-billed green pigeons
Poung Hae 18°47.4’N/101°22.1’E Sambar deer
Poung Saam Kha 18°30.5’N/101°24’E Elephant, Sambar deer, Lesser mousedeer,
Civet spp. ,Thick-billed green pigeons
Poung Houay 18°29.8’N/101°20.5’E Elephant, Sambar deer, Barking deer,
Senung Thick-billed green pigeons
Poung Houay Kok 18°29.5’N/101°21’E Elephant, Sambar deer, Barking deer,
Thick-billed green pigeons
Poung Maak Nyen Nam Phoun/Houay Tiew
Poung Tong Ching Nam Phoun/Houay Tiew
Poung Houay 18°27.5’N/101°21.6’E Elephant, Sambar deer, Barking deer,
Nyaang Wild pig, Asiatic black bear, Thick-billed
green pigeons
Poung Houay Din 18°26.7’N/101°21.9’E Elephant, Sambar deer, Barking deer
Daeng
Poung Houay Haan 18°47.2’N/101°18.3’E Elephant, Gaur
Nyai
Poung Houay Haan Southwest of Ban Na Elephant, Gaur
Noi Sampan
Poung Kout c. 20 km south of Nong
Xae
Poung Phoy 18°27.8’N/101°20.5’E Elephant, Gaur, Sambar deer
Poung Xong* 18°53.8’N/101°27.7’E Barking deer, Thick-billed green pigeons
Poung Khamat 18°53’N/101°27.3’E Sambar deer, Barking deer
Poung Pian c. 10 km east of Ban Na
Ven
Poung Chant* Ban Pak Xong
Poung Thamphak* Ban Pak Xong
Poung Haek* 18°53.7’N/101°15.’E Vernal hanging parrot
Poung Houay Pang c. 4 km north of Ban
Nian* Khen
Poung Houay Mak c. 2 km north of Ban
Khen* Khen
Poung Bor 18°26.7’N/101°11.9’E Elephant, Domestic buffalo, Thick-billed
green pigeon
Poung Paak Houay 18°27’N/101°11.5’E Elephant, Sambar deer, Domestic buffalo

33
Bor
Poung Wang Pa 18°27.5’N/101°11.5’E Lesser mousedeer, Domestic buffalo
Kouay
Poung Long Peung 18°28.8’N/101°12.6’E Elephant, Sambar deer, Barking deer
Poung Nam Ngin c. 14 km north of Ban
Gnai
Poung Keng c. 14 km north of Ban
Kouang Gnai
Poung Wang Ai c. 14 km north of Ban
Khoon Gnai
Poung Wang Khum c. 14 km north of Ban
Man Gnai
Poung Noy (Nam c. 14 km north of Ban
Xing) Gnai
*Affected by agriculture and/or livestock
Note: Coordinates not given for licks not visited, or when uncertain

34
Table 4.3 Monthly patrolling and monitoring schedule for Nam Poui NBCA

Options 1-7 8-14 15-21 22-28 month-end


OOOOO VVVV ++++ YYYYYY
OOOOO VVVV ++++ YYYYYY
VVVV OOOOO ++++ YYYYYY
++++ VVVV OOOOO YYYYYY
OOOOO ++++ VVVV YYYYYY
OOOOO ++++ VVVV YYYYYY
VVVV OOOOO ++++ YYYYYY
++++ VVVV OOOOO YYYYYY
VVVV OOOOO ++++ YYYYYY
OOOOO VVVV ++++ YYYYYY
VVVV OOOOO ++++ YYYYYY
++++ VVVV OOOOO YYYYYY
++++ OOOOO VVVV YYYYYY
OOOOO ++++ VVVV YYYYYY
VVVV ++++ OOOOO YYYYYY
++++ OOOOO VVVV YYYYYY
VVVV ++++ OOOOO YYYYYY
OOOOO VVVV ++++ YYYYYY
VVVV ++++ OOOOO YYYYYY
++++ OOOOO VVVV YYYYYY
++++ VVVV OOOOO YYYYYY
OOOOO VVVV ++++ YYYYYY
VVVV ++++ OOOOO YYYYYY
++++ OOOOO VVVV YYYYYY
Options: Only one option to be randomly selected each month
Days: Three one-week field trips a month (min field time per staff = 1 week; max. field time
per staff = 2 weeks)
Muang Thong Mixay
OOOOO Muang Pak Lay
VVVV Muang Phieng
++++ Flexible: Field-based or Office-based
YYYYYMonth-end’s activities:
-monthly wrap-up of extension work
-monthly wrap-up of patrolling/monitoring work
-review month’s attendance, vehicle use, expenses, etc.
-review of activities carried out, progress made & improvement needed
-discuss & plan coming month’s activities

35
Figure 4.1 Locations of key species in Nam Poui NBCA

36
Figure 4.2 Mineral licks of Nam Poui NBCA

37
Figure 4.3 Current organizational flowchart of Nam Poui NBCA

HEAD
Mr. Sotsern Sainyalak

DEPUTY
Mr. Bouavanh Thithawong

ADMINISTRATION STATISTICS & FINANCE EXTENSION PATROLLING &


Mr. Sompetch Bounkaewvisan Mr. Bouavanh Thitthawong Ms. Sompetch Khampha MONITORING
Mr. Singkaew Phongthai

LANDUSE PLANNING & MAPPING


Mr. Sompetch Bounkaewvisan Mr. Bouavanh Ms. Sompetch Khampha Mr. Kongthong
Ms. Jitthaphan Fongpadit Thithawong Mr. Sompetch Bounkaewvisan
Mr. Singsay Kongmanee

DIVISION 1 DIVISION 2
M. THONGMIXAY & M. PAK LAY M. PHIENG & B. NA VENE
Mr. Lake Vilaisak Mr. Singkaew Phongthai
Mr. Outhin Mr. Sing Saengphet
Mr. Vankham Mr. Phong Latsabut
Mr. Sivay Mr. Somsaay
Mr. Bounthalong Mr. Khamson

Mr. Phong Latsabut


Mr. Singkaew Phongthai
Mr. Outhin
Mr. Somsaay

38
Figure 4.4 Proposed organizational flowchart of Nam Poui NBCA

HEAD
Mr. Sotsern Sainyalak

DEPUTY
Mr. Bouavanh

EXTENSION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PATROLLING & ASSOCIATED CONSERVATION STAFF


Mr. Sompetch Bounkaewvisan Ms. Jitthaphan Fongpadit MONITORING Mr. Somsaay (DAFO, M. Phieng)
Ms. Sompetch Khampha Mr. Singsay Kongmanee Mr. Kongthong (Head) Mr. Outhin (DAFO, M. Thongmixay)
Mr. Oun Vilaisak Mr. Singkaew Phongthai Mr. Bounthalong (DAFO, M. Pak Lay)
Mr. Lake Vilaisak Mr. Sing Saengphet (RDP, B. Na Vene)
Capt. Sila (Provincial Army)
Lt. Boonsou (Provincial Army)
Sgt. Nguensong (Provincial Army)
Sgt. Khampane (Provincial Army)
Sgt. Khamkeo (Provincial Army)

Main Office Management Tasks:


Mr. Sotsern - Head of Extension & Administration
Mr. Bouavanh - Statistics & Finance, Administration, Maintain Copies of Extension & Patrolling/Monitoring Reports
Mr. Sompetch - Attendance Register, Visitor Book, Equipment Record Book, Library, Vehicle Maintenance & Use Register,Posters & Photgraphs
Ms. Jitthaphan - Typist, Radio Operator, & Attendance Register
Ms. Sompetch - Extension Reports
Mr. Oun - Extension Reports
Mr. Kongthong - Patrolling Reports, Maps, Specimens & Specimens Record Book,
Mr. Singkaew - Patrolling Reports, Maps, Specimens & Specimens Record Book,
Mr. Lake - Support Mr. Kongthong & Mr. Singkaew
Mr. Phong - Support Mr. Kongthong & Mr. Singkaew
Mr. Singsay - Cleanliness

39
5. PHOU XANG HE NBCA

5.1 TRAINING/CAPACITY-BUILDING
Prior to this consultancy, almost no trainees truly understood the objectives and concepts of
protected area, protected area management and conservation of natural resources. Map and
compass ability varied among the trainees. Although several had attended a training course
conducted by Evans and Sengsavanh (1997), they all had apparently ‘forgotten’ their skills.
This was most likely because:

1. There was no practical application under field conditions (on-the-job training) of the
skills learnt.
2. None of the staff ever carried out any fieldwork before and after Evan and
Sengsavanh’s training program.
3. Interest in protected area work was generally lacking.
4. There was no motivation from their superiors.
Similarly, none were adept at recording information, making wildlife observations, analyzing
data and writing reports. Furthermore, all except one (ex-hunter) had ever camped out the
forest.

Hence, basics of conservation were emphasized throughout this consultancy, beginning with
discussions at the start of the training and regularly discussing them during daily debriefings
in the field; thereby reinforcing their understanding based on actual field experience. All the
trainees who attended Evan and Sengsavanh’s training were quick to recollect their
‘forgotten’ skills at map reading and compass use. Thus, the better trainees were placed
besides the weaker ones to provide more practice for the former and provide better attention
to the latter. Lessons in map and compass were continued until the trainees were ready to
move on to different topics. Exercises on orienteering greatly helped the trainees in
improving the compass skills. Handouts on landform and drainage features were also
distributed to the trainees.

However, under field conditions, trainees lost all their ability at map and compass skills. This
was highly likely due to the trainees’ inability to apply lessons learnt in the classroom to
actual situations. Furthermore, even with guidance, the trainees could not really practice their
skills because they would not leave camps unless accompanied by an armed member of the
Village Security Force. This stemmed from their general fear of the forest – UXOs,
Vietnamese ‘kaen hearng’ poachers, wild dangerous animals and evil spirits. The presence of
UXOs and poachers were, however, valid reasons. With the presence of a local guide, the
trainees would inadvertently not apply and practice their mapping and compass skills, but
relied on the guide to navigate through the forest. To overcome this, trainees were given
simple routes to survey – walking along streams and rivers and returning the same way. It
was during the last field trip that trainees went out in sub-teams of two and three. Spending
several weeks in the forest without any untoward incident helped them overcome some of
their fear.

Trail mapping exercises were carried out in the field along well-used human trails to further
reinforce their skills, at the same time providing valuable management input. Distances were
measured by ‘stepping’. Prior to this, the trainees were asked to count their paces along a
measured distance under field conditions. When it was clear that most trainees could not
count their paces correctly, ‘stepping’ was instead introduced. That is instead of counting a
‘double-step’ (a pace), the trainees would count each step they took. This was easier for the

40
trainees to comprehend and carry out, most likely because the counting was synchronous with
each step.

Skills at correct recording of information and wildlife observation could only be achieved
under constant guidance, by having the consultant accompanying the survey teams daily.
Daily debriefings further reinforce their recording skills. However, in spite of constant
reminders, most trainees restricted their observations and note taking while carrying out
surveys, and would ignore opportunities for observation while in camps (e.g. wildlife sighting
and calls).

Most of the observations made on wildlife were based on their signs. This was partly because
animals were generally scarce in the Phou Xang He NBCA, but mainly because trainees were
very noisy and loud in the forest, and could not restrain themselves from smoking while
carrying out surveys. To assist the trainees at identification of wildlife and their signs,
handouts on wildlife tracks and scats, and tortoise/terrapin, and primates in Lao were
distributed.

To familiarize the trainees and to give them the much-needed practice, each sub-team had to
analyze their data and submit their reports after every trip. Guidance was offered and several
corrections were made before the reports were finally accepted. Most of the trainees worked
hard at the report write-up as it gave them a sense of pride seeing their names to the reports,
and knowing that the reports were products of their efforts.

Membership and leaders for teams and sub-teams changed after every trip, to promote
teamwork and leadership among the trainees. Teamwork was not often achieved, as some
trainees would always stay apart when based at villages. Some would consume alcohol
excessively, therefore neither able to participate in discussions (either busy drinking or
asleep) nor perform well when doing surveys the following day. Also, in spite of constant
guidance, logistics preparation was very weak. Food and other supplies would always run
short on most trips.

5.2 WILDLIFE
Wildlife recorded during this consultancy and that from previous survey (Duckworth et al
1993) are listed in appendix XII. Altogether, there are 49 mammal species recorded in Phou
Xang He NBCA, of which nine are provisional. Eighteen species are new records. Locations
of evidence of key mammal species are shown in figure 5.1. There are at least 206 bird
species in Phou Xang He NBCA of which 204 species were previously recorded by
Duckworth et al (1993).

5.2.1 Brief Account of Some Key Species


1. Asian elephant: All evidence and interviews strongly indicate that elephants in Phou
Xang He NBCA are currently restricted to the forested areas between Ban Nalay and
Ban Katep (figure 5.2). Historically, elephants were reportedly found throughout the
NBCA. Almost all signs of elephant were observed in and around mineral licks and
on trails leading to and from mineral licks. One animal was encountered about 2 km
west of Ban Nalay. This animal had apparently been frequenting Poung Na Phor Tip
for a few days.
2. Rhinoceros spp.: At Ban Nahang Noy, Muang Atsaphone, there is a betel-paste
container made of silver and its lid of rhinoceros horn. The horn measured 4 cm wide

41
and about 2.5 cm high. It was reportedly shot more than 60 years ago at the foothills
of the Phou Xang He escarpment, extreme west part of the NBCA. The species could
not be determined, and the species is possibly extirpated.
3. Gaur: A set of horns was observed at Ban Nahang Noy. Tracks observed in the forest
could be identified with certainty because domestic and feral buffaloes are found in
all areas surveyed.
4. Banteng: Horns of banteng was similarly observed at Ban Nahang Noy. This species
could possibly be extirpated. This species was last reported seen about seven years
ago.
5. Vu Quang ox: An ex-hunter from Ban Pongsavang described seeing this animal about
seven years ago at a Poung Daan in the Xe Kang area, northwest of the village. There
have been no sighting reports since then. Villagers in this area generally referred to
this animal as ‘Kouang See’ or ‘Kouang Khao See’ meaning ‘deer with straight-
pointing horns’.
6. Eld’s deer: Antlers of Eld’s deer was observed at Ban Nahang Noy. Villagers reported
that this species was common throughout the lowlands more than 20 years ago. This
species is probably extirpated.
7. Giant muntjak: One set of fresh tracks was observed at Poung Thamtaseenya at the
extreme west of Phou Xang He NBCA, and trophies were observed in almost all the
villages visited. Its presence was reported ranging throughout the NBCA. Villagers of
Ban Na Paka and Ban Nonsamlan reports frequent sighting of this animal close to
their villages.
8. Serow: Fresh and old tracks were observed on the escarpment west of Ban Naphilang
leading to and away from the only year-long source of water on the escarpment.
Interviews suggest that this species is found throughout the Phou Xang He
escarpment, and the Phou Hinho/Katon hills.
9. Tiger: One fresh track was observed in Phou Xang He range west of Ban Kengnyao24.
One animal was reportedly observed in the Phou Hinho/Katon forest block by
villagers of Ban Dongngang on May 8, 1998.
10. Asian wild dog: One animal was observed by a survey team chasing a barking deer
across a rocky flat, east of Ban Katep. This species apparently is widely distributed
throughout the NBCA, commonly reported around the rocky flats. There are several
reports by villagers throughout the NBCA of buffalo predation by the Asian wild dog.
Scats of this species were usually encountered in the middle of trails. Old and recent
scats (about 3-4 scat piles per location) were usually within a meter of each other.
Scats, when analyzed, yielded hairs and some bones of sambar deer, muntjak, and
rodents.
11. Bear spp.: Bear claw marks, both old and recent, were quite common on the hills of
Na Pha Daan, west of Ban Naphilang. The species, however, could not be ascertained,
although there are reports of both species in the area.
12. Black gibbon: Vocalizations heard from base camp suggested the presence of two
gibbon groups in the Ban Nalay area.
13. Golden-cheeked gibbon: Possibly present based on descriptions reported by villagers.
Remains to be confirmed.
14. Francois’s langur: One group of three animals was sighted in the Phou Hinho/Katon
block. Some animals regularly sleep at two caves/crevices at Na Pha Daan, west of
Ban Naphilang. Fresh and old droppings and urine were observed on the trail just
below the sleeping sites.

24
Also known as Ban Thamkouan

42
15. Red-shanked Douc Langur: A group of about seven Douc langurs was briefly
observed along Xe Xam Soy, west of the camp
16. Green peafowl: Villagers of Ban Namouang report that green peafowl are still found
at the rocky flats of Daan Pha Pheung and Daan Phae Hot, northeast of the village.
The patrolling/monitoring team found some feathers at Daan Houay Lang Daan, near
the two mentioned rocky flats.

5.3 KEY WILDLIFE HABITATS


A list of mineral licks visited and recorded through interviews are given in table 5.1 and
shown in figure 5.2. The rocky flats that are predominant in the NBCA are apparently
important habitats for the Asian wild dog and several ungulate species. Possibly for the latter
to feed on the grasses there and for the former to predate on those ungulates. Also, important
to wildlife particularly in the Phou Xang He forest block is the permanent water pools,
formed during the dry season when the rivers and streams stop flowing. These water pools
are probably the only sources of water available to wildlife. They are also the focus of
sustainable and unsustainable fishing, and poaching.

5.4 HABITAT/HUMAN IMPACTS AND THREATS

5.4.1 Forest Clearance


New clearings were observed in all areas visited. Of particular concern is the ‘corridor’ area.
There exists a mosaic of forest and agricultural land in the area. Large mammals such as
Asian wild dog, sambar deer, barking deer, wild pig, civet spp., including giant muntjak have
been reported in some of these areas. In the past, there were reports of elephants travelling
between Phou Xang He and Phou Hinho/Katon. Hence, it is important to maintain an intact
forest cover in this area.

5.4.2 Forest Fires


Forest fires in and around Phou Xang He NBCA although not as serious as that observed in
Nam Poui are nevertheless a threat. Forest fire in Phou Xang He is similarly related to forest
clearance, campfires and hunting.

5.4.3 ‘Kaen Hearng’ Poaching


‘Kaen hearng’ (Aquillaria sp) poaching is common throughout the NBCA. Most of the
poaching is reportedly carried out by the Vietnamese from across the borders. Some of these
poachers apparently are Vietnamese war veterans who are familiar with the general terrain of
Phou Xang He NBCA.

5.4.4 Wildlife Poaching and Trade


Wildlife poaching is common throughout the NBCA. Although guns have been handed over
to the authorities in some areas, there still remain some muzzle-loading guns. These guns are
usually stashed in the forest. Government-issued guns are commonly used to carry out
hunting activities. Gunshots were often heard when camped out in the forest. Most hunting
activities are related to fishing activities. Wildlife trade is very common. A few restaurants in
Muang Phin and Muang Phalanxai were observed to specialize in wildlife meat. Similarly,
the fresh markets in these districts supply a significant amount of wildlife for local demand.

43
There is a major wildlife trade from Savannakhet into Vietnam through Xepone. Some
species, such as pangolin are purchased by Vietnamese traders to supply the Chinese market.

5.4.5 Overfishing
There is widespread use of bombs and poisons to harvest fishes throughout the NBCA.
Bombs being used to harvest fishes are made from the UXOs25 that are still abundant
throughout much of the NBCA. Water pools are also completely drained by scooping out the
water and catching every living thing in sight, fishes, frogs, prawns, etc. This unsustainable
harvest of fishes will undoubtedly deplete an important food resource, which in the long-term
will affect all villagers that depend on fishes for their source of protein. This will inevitably
lead to a further increase in pressure on wildlife.

5.4.6 Livestock Grazing


Livestock grazing is common throughout most of the NBCA, although mainly restricted to
the rocky flats and along the waterways. There are apparently more than ten feral buffaloes
belonging to villagers of Ban Katep that are found in the forested areas between Ban Nalay
and Ban Katep. Cattle from villages in the north are usually brought across the NBCA to be
later sold at Savannakhet. Cattle in the forested areas of the NBCA posed two immediate
problems. One, transfer of diseases to wildlife. Two, giving rise to an increase in wildlife-
human conflict through the predation of cattle by Asian wild dog and tiger.

5.4.7 ‘Yaang’ Oil Extraction


In many areas, it was observed there was an excessive extraction of ‘yaang’ oil
(Dipterocarpus sp.). Some trees even had up to 5 wells. This form of unsustainable extraction
will seriously affect the health of the trees, and in the long term deplete an important NTFP.

5.4.8 UXOs
Much of Phou Xang He NBCA, particularly in Muang Phalanxai, Muang Villaburi and
Muang Xepone are riddled with various types of unexploded ordnance. These UXOs pose a
threat to both human and wildlife. Furthermore, they are commonly used to bomb fishes.
UXO Lao is currently clearing the affected districts of UXOs but in the forest it probably will
remain a threat for a long time to come.

25
UXO = unexploded ordnance

44
Table 5.1 Mineral licks in Phou Xang He NBCA

Mineral Lick Location Animal/Animal Signs Observed


Poung Na Phor Tik 16°42.8’N/105°41.3’E Elephant, Barking deer
Poung Noy1 16°43’N/105°41.3’E Sambar deer
Poung Khouay* 16°43.4’N/105°40.5’E Domestic buffalo
Poung Noy2 16°46.6’N/105°45.3’E Elephant, Civet, Macaque
Poung Chong 16°46.8’N/105°45.4’E Elephant
Poung Maai Laai 16°46.7’N/105°45.5’E Elephant, Sambar deer
Poung Teen Phou 16°46.5’N/105°45.5’E Elephant, Sambar deer, Malayan
Khiang porcupine, Civet
Poung Ko Mai Kasak 16°45.5’N/105°44.9’E Elephant, Sambar deer
Poung Teen Phou 16°45.3’N/105°44.9’E Elephant, Barking deer, Malayan
Kham porcupine, Civet
Poung Xaang Houay Lang daan end
Poung Ang Ketae 17°01.1’N/105°27’E Gaur, Barking deer
Poung Houay c. 6 km north of Ban Na
Saming/Poung Nok Paka
Pao
Poung Noy 16°57.1’N/105°26.4’E Giant muntjak, Malayan porcupine
Poung Houay Pa c. 2 km northwest of Ban
Boon Tonpheung
Poung Na Houay 16°56.4’N/105°27.3’E Gaur reported
Khaen*
Poung Pai Houay 16°56.8’N/105°27.7’E Sambar deer, Barking deer
Kasak
Poung Houay c. 8 km north of Ban Na
Thamtao Paka
Poung Houay Heen north Ban Na Paka/Daan
Taek Phee Ba
Poung Houay Sena* Ban Songhong
Poung Houay Thap Ban Songhong
Xang*
Poung 17°01.4’N/105°22.4’E Giant muntjak, Burmese hare,
Thamtaseenya* Domestic buffalo
Poung Song Panyang c. 9 km west of Ban Na
Paka
Poung Noy3 16°57.1’N/105°26.4’E Giant muntjak
Poung Nhau* 17°01.3’N/105°22.5’E Leopard cat, Javan mongoose, Sambar
deer, Barking deer
Poung Houay Baeng c. 10 km west of Ban
Naphilang/Pongsavang
Poung Houay Tiew c. 25 km west of Ban
Naphilang/Pongsavang
Poung Houay c. 20 km west of Ban
Tamhop Naphilang/Pongsavang
Poung Houay Kasak c. 20 km west of Ban

45
Naphilang/Pongsavang
Poung Houay Nabor c. 4 km east of Ban
Naphilang/Pongsavang
Poung Daeng Northeast (?)of Ban
Naphilang/Pongsavang
Poung Houay Tamon c. 3 km west of Ban
Naphilang/Pongsavang
Poung Houay Phang c. 10 km northwest of Ban
Naphilang/Pongsavang
Poung Houay c. 10 km northwest of Ban
Thampadaek Naphilang/Pongsavang
Poung Daan c. 16 km northwest of Ban
Naphilang/Pongsavang
Poung Dong Noy c. 2 km northwest of Ban Domestic buffaloes
Khouay* Katep
Poung Wang Nong* c. 2 km south of Ban Katep Barking deer
Poung Dong Aeng* c. 3 km southwest of Ban Barking deer, Domestic buffalo
Katep
Poung Khok Nyaa c. 4 km south of Ban Katep Domestic buffalo; Barking deer
Poung Pa Lai Ban Nakhaphoung
Poung Heen Boua Ban Nakhaphoung
Poung Houay Achon Ban Nakhaphoung
Poung Khok Wang Ban Nakhaphoung
Juea
Poung Na Phan Phom Ban Nonesamlan
Poung Khame northeast of Ban
Yai/Noi Nakhaphoung
Poung Houay east of Ban Nakhaphoung
Meauy/Houay Pattoo
Poung Xe Kang Ban Namouang
Poung Wang Dear Ban Namouang
Lek
Poung Na Beark Ban Namouang
Poung Houay Bay Ban Namouang
*Affected by agriculture and/or livestock
Note: Coordinates not given for licks not visited, or when uncertain

46
Figure 5.1 Locations of key species in Phou Xang He NBCA

47
Figure 5.2 Mineral licks of Phou Xang He NBCA

48
6. DISCUSSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 INTRODUCTION
The primary aims of this consultancy were to initiate and implement activities related the
field management of Nam Poui and Phou Xang He NBCAs. Capacity building of the NBCAs
staff and their associated conservation staff was essential towards achieving these goals, and
for them to carry forward these processes. Results of these activities, comments and some
discussions for Nam Poui NBCA and Phou Xang He NBCA were presented in chapters four
and five respectively. Here, in this chapter, comments and discussions are made on aspects of
capacity building, zoning, and hunting within NBCAs. Finally, recommendations applicable
to both NBCAs and specific to each are offered, with sincere hope that they will assist the
NBCAs’ staff in effectively managing their protected areas.

6.2 TRAINING/CAPACITY BUILDING


From this and earlier exercises (Boonratana, 1997b; 1998), it was observed that capacity
building of NBCA and its associated conservation staff can only be achieved through
intensive long-term on-the-job training. However, given the short duration of this
consultancy, it now depends on the heads and their deputies to provide the necessary
leadership and motivation. Likewise, it is important that staff translate the skills acquired into
meaningful activities, carrying forward the processes initiated during this consultancy.

A question that is always asked is that why in spite of several training programs, staff is still
capable neither of the skills nor of carrying out activities. Here, an attempt is made to analyze
the situation observed in Nam Poui and Phou Xang He NBCAs. Staff of both NBCAs had
earlier received basic training in field techniques in 1997 (Boonratana, 1997b; Evans &
Sengsavanh, 1997). In both NBCAs, the main reason apparently was that the staff (including
the associated conservation staff) was never mobilized after last season’s training. In spite of
that, it was observed that the Nam Poui NBCA staff retained much of the skills acquired. This
was very likely because the skills acquired in the classroom were immediately reinforced by
actual application of those skills under field conditions.

On the other hand, the classroom training for the Phou Xang He NBCA staff was not
followed by actual application of those skills under field conditions, hence staff did not know
how to apply those skills. There were also too frequent changes in staff. A similar
observation was made by Evans and Sengsavanh (1997). Furthermore, both NBCAs lacked
basic field equipment until very recently. Even then, the equipment was neither practical nor
feasible for protected area work in tropical rainforests.

Thus, future training, whether in field management, or participatory management, or


extension work, must be followed up with on-the-job training, collecting actual data. It is
only in this manner that one can hope to build the capacity of the protected area staff. Equally
important is for the staff at the central level to undergo several of these training sessions to
qualify them as future instructors.

6.3 ZONING
Article 9 of the Forestry Law (1996) states that zones within a protected area are intended to
accommodate different management priorities while maintaining primary objectives
appropriate to each category. There are two main categories of zones, ‘Totally Protected

49
Zone’ and ‘Controlled Use Zone’. Access and exploitation in the former is restricted and not
normally permitted. In the latter, certain exploitation and agricultural activity may be
permitted if sustainable, but subject to regulation by the protected area authorities.

Hunting by any individual (resident or non-resident) should not be allowed in an NBCA.


There is currently no data on wildlife density in Lao PDR’s NBCAs. To allow certain species
to be hunted commercially or non-commercially can seriously jeopardize that species
population, if they exist in low numbers. Although many of the large mammals are widely
distributed, they are locally low in their relative abundance. Furthermore, we still lack
ecological and behavioral information on many species, therefore, not knowing what impacts
there are on the community and the ecosystem.

Many of the commonly hunted species and the small mammals are also food to predators.
Removing prey species can cause the predator population to decline, adapting to their food-
stress environment. It can also further aggravate human-wildlife conflict when predators turn
to livestock as alternate source of food. Furthermore, several wildlife species are seed-
dispersers, therefore, removal of these species will undoubtedly affect the flora.

Looking at a broader picture of zoning and protected areas (figure 6.1), we see that the
current situation in possibly all NBCAs in Lao PDR are as in figure 6.1a, where there are no
zoning, no patrols and no monitoring. Hence, massive pressures on the protected area. Even
with zoning, if there’s no patrols and monitoring, the situation will remain such. Ultimately,
the protected areas will lose their objectives as wildlife resources become depleted, which in
turn will have deleterious long-term impact on the habitats.

In figure 6.1b proper zones have been established, and patrols and monitoring are regularly
carried out, but hunting in Controlled Use Zone is permitted. In this scenario, impacts will
nevertheless be observed in the Total Protection Zone, as there is no restriction to animal
movement between the two zones. Thus, we are effectively protecting a small portion of the
Total Protection Zone, which in all likelihood may not be viable in the long term.

If hunting is not permitted in the NBCA (figure 6.1c), that is in both Total Protection and
Controlled Use Zones, then we effectively are protecting the Total Protection Zone, as
impacts will nevertheless be felt in the Controlled Use Zone. This, however, requires regular
patrols and monitoring.

Ideally, to protect the NBCA as a whole, there ought to be a ‘legal’ Buffer Zone around the
NBCA, where hunting is similarly not permitted (figure 6.1d). This is most likely impossible
to achieve, viewing the current economic situation and dependency on wild meat of many
settlements in and around protected areas. Although there exists several forested areas around
many of Lao PDR’s NBCAs, they could only serve as buffer zones from the management
point view, that is serving to reduce some of the impacts on the NBCA.

Thus, we must try to achieve some semblance to figure 6.1c, where we are effectively
protecting a ‘core’ portion of the protected area, the Total Protection Zone. In this manner, a
‘reserve bank’ of natural resources is maintained.

50
6.4 RECOMMENDATIONS
Most of the recommendations made for Nam Poui NBCA are adapted from Boonratana
(1997) as they are still relevant, and have not been followed up. Some, however, have been
re-worded to suit current needs.

6.4.1 Nam Poui And Phou Xang He NBCAs

6.4.1.1 Training and Training Needs


1. Training for the NBCA and associated conservation staff should be conducted in the
Lao or Thai language without an interpreter. The presence of an interpreter would
‘distanced’ the instructor from the trainees. Furthermore, much information is usually
‘lost’ during the interpretation.
2. It should be made compulsory for the Head of the NBCA and his deputy to attend any
classroom training held at the NBCA. Equally important, they should participate in
the activities following the training. This will give them a better understanding the
protected area’s objectives and assist them towards managing the NBCA better.
3. Training should be carried out along similar lines, and followed by actual
participation in field management activities. It should be carried out annually for
approximately three months. This will not only reinforce staff’s capability, but will
also allow them to learn other techniques still unfamiliar to them. In addition, such
on-the-job training will allow wildlife and habitats to be monitored, therefore
providing further management input into the NBCA.
4. Provide training in bird identification and surveys to the patrolling and monitoring
staff to provide them the necessary skills at bird surveys.
5. Videos of wildlife, particularly of those found in the region should be shown to the
NBCA staff to help the staff in recognizing wildlife in their natural surroundings.
Most staff members have never seen what many of the wild animals found in Lao
PDR looks like. Although there are pictures and drawings of many of these animals,
they were not able to ‘picture’ what those animals look like in real life. Thus, videos
might assist them in getting the ‘feel’ in terms of size and shape of the animals.
6. Extend training exercise, particularly classroom training to include schoolteachers,
university students, and office-based CPAWM, PAFO and DAFO staff. Exposure of
this type would provide a clearer understanding of protected areas, and conservation
of natural resources. It will also assist the office-based staff in performing their tasks
related to administration and policies, in addition to having a ‘hands-on’
understanding of the problems in the field and those faced by the field staff.
7. Provide a three-week classroom training to the NBCA and associated conservation
staff during the rainy season, when practically all fieldwork comes to a standstill.
Proposed courses will include Field Techniques, Protected Areas, Conservation
Biology, Wildlife Ecology, Animal Behavior, and Basic Ornithology. Courses will be
basic, adapted to suit the Lao PDR needs, and conducted in Lao/Thai medium. The
classroom training can be held at the Forestry Training School in Xepone District,
Savannakhet Province. The course held within the country will not only cut down
costs, but also allow a greater attendance and better use of an LSFP-funded training
school. [Note: A three-week course outline is currently being prepared to be
submitted to Dr. Clive W. Marsh, the IUCN/LSFP Senior Protected Areas and
Conservation Planning Adviser].

6.4.1.2 Patrolling, Monitoring and Law Enforcement

51
1. Anti-poaching patrolling activities should be carried out regularly but randomly so as
not to allow poachers to become familiar with the patrolling schedule. Foot patrols
should be carried out along the smaller rivers and streams, where poachers’ camps are
usually located. Focus of anti-poaching patrolling activities should be on the mineral
licks.
2. Surveys and patrols should be carried out in all areas to provide an overall
assessment, but focus should be in areas with key wildlife species and habitats, and
major human impact.
3. Unauthorized persons should not be allowed to carry firearms in the NBCA, and
legitimate residents living in the NBCA must surrender their firearms, therefore
reducing the level of hunting. In Nam Poui NBCA, this will also assist the military in
performing their security-related duties.
4. Propose to make both Savannakhet and Sayaburi Provinces ‘gun-free’ provinces by
the year 2000, i.e. with exceptions to authorized persons and personnel.
5. Monitoring for forest fires should be the focus of the patrolling and monitoring unit
during the dry season. This can be carried out by making visitations to the cultivated
lands within and around the NBCA. The villagers and all departments at both the
district and provincial-level should be committed towards preventing another fire
outbreak as experienced this year in Sayaburi Province.
6. Incentives or rewards in monetary form or recognition or both should be awarded to
staff or individuals that contribute towards the NBCA’s conservation and protection
efforts (e.g. a percentage of the fines or merit certificates).

6.4.1.3 Surveys and Research


1. Conduct wildlife surveys, in the areas not covered in 1997 and 1998.
2. Conduct botanical surveys.
3. Encourage local and foreign graduate students to carry out their research on related
fields in the protected areas. In addition to providing valuable scientific data, this will
also provide important management input into the NBCA. Furthermore, staff attached
to researchers will gain much knowledge and training.

6.4.1.4 Zonation
1. Mineral licks must be made off-limits to all except those with proper authorization.
All trails leading to the mineral licks should have ‘Restricted Area’ signboards at least
1 km away from the mineral lick. These signboards will effectively stop anyone
caught within the off-limits area from claiming ignorance.
2. Create zones within the NBCA. A proposed zoning of Nam Poui and Phou Xang He
NBCAs are shown in figures 6.2 and 6.3. The current terminology of the Controlled
Use Zone should be redefined to exclude logging and wildlife hunting. The proposed
zonings shown in figures 6.2 (6.2a-6.2c) and 6.3 (6.3a-6.3e) follows as best as
possible the landform and drainage features, to be recognizable to both the staff and
villagers using the NBCA. At the same time, information on important wildlife, intact
habitats and mineral licks were incorporated when proposing these zones. However,
these zones should be further refined with additional data on wildlife and habitats.
3. There must be some agreed-upon commitments by the district governors and village
headmen with regard to the NBCA’s boundary and zones. Systematic process of
discussion and negotiation is needed to develop an effective and accepted set of
‘rules’ for the Controlled Use Zones and the boundary with core zones.
4. Forested areas and ‘village conservation forests’ adjacent to the NBCAs should be
maintained as buffer zones, while allowing sustainable use by the villagers. For

52
example, large mammals recorded in the forested area east of Nam Poui NBCA
towards Ban Nakhagnang included elephant, tiger, sambar deer, barking deer, lesser
mousedeer, wild pig, and civet spp.
5. Domestic animals should not be allowed into the Total Protection Zone of the NBCA.
Domestic animals kept at military outposts as an alternate source of protein should be
kept within those outposts. All domestic animals in the Controlled Use Zone and
around the NBCA should be inoculated against potentially dangerous diseases. Areas
for grazing within the Controlled Use Zones should be clearly demarcated.

6.4.1.5 Equipment Care and Needs


1. The NBCA must acquire basic field equipment for its field staff (see appendix IX for
suggestions) to assist them in performing their tasks. Radio communication (walkie-
talkies) should also be available to the field team, should urgent contact with
headquarters or other team members become necessary. The immediate requirements
for the two NBCAs are listed in table 6.1.
2. Equipment should be cleaned after every field trip. Equipment like compasses,
binoculars and GPS units should be kept out of their cases and placed in airtight
containers safely in the cabinets. Similarly, vehicles should be washed and oiled at
least once a week, and serviced every 5, 000 km. A vehicle maintenance logbook can
be maintained for this purpose.
3. Field equipment and vehicles should be issued to individuals only when they are on
assignments, and should be returned immediately after the assignment. Individuals
should put their signatures every time they issue out and return the equipment and
vehicles. The individual responsible for maintaining the logbook should put his
signatures against the borrowers. Each NBCA should develop its own regulations
regarding the use of vehicles.

6.4.1.6 General
1. The master copy of the maps of Nam Poui and Phou Xang He NBCAs maintained at
the respective NBCAs should be frequently updated. This includes updating the
location of major trails, important wildlife sightings, mineral licks, etc.
2. Data collected should be analyzed and the report written up immediately after every
field trip to avoid unnecessary delays in report submission and while the impression is
still ‘fresh’. Separate reports should be written for every field trip. Reports should
comprise a table for wildlife observed, a table for human impact, a map or maps for
routes taken, and locations of significant finds (key wildlife species, critical wildlife
habitat, and sites of major human impact).
3. The data recording sheets and reporting format currently in used in Nam Poui, Phou
Xang He, Dong Hua Sao and Phou Xiang Thong NBCAs (Boonratana, 1988) should
be recommended for use to other NBCAs in Lao PDR. Standardized recording and
reporting format will greatly assist CPAWM in entering the information gathered into
a national database system. This is a major step towards preparing a nation-wide
species and habitats management action plans. A standardized recording and reporting
format can be discussed at the next Heads of NBCAs’ meeting, with the Heads of the
Patrolling and Monitoring Units taking the lead in the discussion. Improvements can
be made for ease of use.
4. Monthly rainfall and temperature data should be maintained at the respective field
stations. These data can be requested from the weather stations nearest to the NBCAs.
Preferably, however, is to provide rain gauges to the NBCAs. Climatic data is
essential towards the preparation of a management plan for the NBCAs.

53
5. A list of key wildlife species as they are known by the different ethnic groups living
in and around the NBCAs should be prepared). This will assist the staff in gathering
wildlife data from villagers through interviews.
6. A conservation education and public awareness program should be carried out at
every village in and around the NBCA by the NBCA and/or associated conservation
staff. The staff could receive their initial training at the proposed three-week
classroom training at Xepone Forestry Training School (section 6.5.1.1).
7. Focus village development and support programs in those villages within and
immediately adjacent to the NBCAs.
8. There should be at least two CPAWM support and evaluation visits per year to each
NBCA. Visits should include field trips accompanying both extension and
patrolling/monitoring units.
9. Staff of government departments and non-governmental organizations, particularly
those working in and around protected areas, should refrain from consuming wild
meat. This will seriously affect law enforcement activities carried out by the
patrolling and monitoring staff. Furthermore, this will make the public lose respect in
the system.
10. NBCA vehicles should be insured and drivers should have valid licenses.

6.4.2 Nam Poui NBCA

6.4.2.1 Patrolling, Monitoring and Law Enforcement


1. Construct a semi-permanent shelter (using bamboo) at Camp Lay Chan (18°
19.7’N/101°13’E), about 250 m from Bor Lay Chan. This shelter will provide quick
overnight facility to the NBCA and associated conservation staff to conduct their anti-
poaching patrolling activities. Furthermore, it is strategically located along the main
trail to Bor Lay Chan and Bor Lay Chan II. It also allows quick and frequent access to
the two major mineral licks, at the same time far enough so as not to deter wildlife
from using the licks.
2. Similar semi-permanent structures can be built at various strategic locations in the
NBCA to facilitate anti-poaching activities. This must be accompanied by visits to
local villages to explain the new activity and seek approval for appropriate penalties,
ideally approved by the village headmen or District Governors.
3. Permanent guard posts equipped with wireless radios must be maintained at both ends
of the North-South Security Road. Use of this road should be allowed only to
authorized individuals. Motorized vehicular movement on this road should be kept to
an absolute minimum. The guard posts should be preferably located at Nam Xing on
the southern end, and at Nong Xae or Houay Kaew on the northern end (figure 2.1).
Staffing of the guard posts should comprise at least three military personnel and one
villager. This staff of four could be rotated on a weekly basis. NBCA and associated
conservation staff should also make frequent ‘support’ visits to the guard posts. The
cost of constructing a permanent guard post is estimated at US$500/- and the radio
costs approximately US$1000/-. The daily allowance for maintaining the staff of four
is Kip5,110,000 per annum. (at the current daily allowance rate of Kip3,500.- per
person).
4. A permanent guard post similarly equipped with a wireless radio should also be
maintained at Ban Pak Xong to monitor the traffic in and out of the NBCA, including
checking for prohibited forest produce. This guard post will also be able to keep a
check on new immigrants. This guard post could comprise one military and one police
personnel, one from Muang Phieng DAFO and a Ban Pak Xong villager (‘Kong Lon’

54
or village security force), with occasional support from the NBCA and associated
conservation staff. Staffing should be rotated on a weekly basis. Similar costs are
expected for maintaining this guard post
5. Roadblocks and checkpoints within the NBCA should also be carried out along the
road between Muang Thongmixay and Muang Pak Lay. Roadblocks and checks
should be carried out regularly but randomly, in terms of both frequency and
locations.
6. Overnight stays or camping, or entry at night should not be allowed in the proposed
Total Protection Zones, unless with authorization. This will likely assist in curbing
activities that will have negative impacts on wildlife and habitat.
7. Domestic elephants involved in illegal logging activities in the NBCA should be
confiscated, and their owners penalized. These confiscated elephants should be
marked and released to the wild, and should never be recaptured. Radio-collars could
possibly be attached to the released animals. This would provide useful information
on habitat utilization and patterns of movement.

6.4.2.2 Wildlife Surveys and Research


1. Initiate a long-term study to determine the density of elephants and gaurs in the
NBCA. This could be incorporated into a proposed nation-wide survey to determine
the status of Asian elephant in Lao PDR (Boonratana, 1997b). Radio-collars could be
attached to released elephants, to study the patterns of movement and habitat
utilization, therefore providing important management input. Such a study could
become a focal point in managing Nam Poui NBCA.
2. All domestic elephants in the province should be registered, possibly by bar coding
them. This system using microchip implants has been successfully tested at the
Chiang Mai Zoo, in Thailand. Records of the domestic elephants should also be
maintained. This should include the elephants’ biodata, ownership, and photographs
taken at yearly intervals. Current records available at the PAFO and DAFOs merely
include their numbers and not their age and sex.
3. Conduct a bird survey for Nam Poui NBCA. This could be tied in with the training
(section 6.4.1.1) and wildlife surveys (6.4.1.3).
4. Another potential focal study is to conduct a social anthropological study on the forest
dwelling ‘Tong Leung’. Such a study might also provide information on ethnobotany
and more information on the presence and distribution of wildlife in Nam Poui
NBCA.

6.4.2.3 Internal Management


1. The NBCA’s management must maintain regular contact and open communication
with all other agencies with interests in and around the NBCA. These include the
military, district governors, DAFOs, PAFOs, the village headmen, CARE and UNDP.
2. The NBCA management should ensure continuity to the M.O.U. between the
Provincial Military and the NBCA, and the proposed activities carried out.

6.4.2.4 Participatory Management and Extension


1. Resolve water shortage problem in Muang Thong in exchange for compliance with
NBCA’s rules and regulations. Pumps and reservoirs could possibly be built to
resolve the water shortage problem.
2. Revive the traditional dances and songs, weaving and other handicraft of the ethnic
groups living in the NBCA. There are a few different ethnic groups in Ban Na Vene,
Ban Na Nguen, Ban Na Sampan, and Ban Pak Xong. This area could become an

55
important tourism destination in Sayaburi Province. This form of cultural tourism
could also be tied in with nature tourism. Although Nam Poui does not have any
outstanding landscapes, it has domesticated elephants to provide day-trip rides to
tourists. Simple resthouses can be built to provide accommodation to tourists. Hence,
tourism if organized and managed well could provide substantial income, possibly
reducing pressure on the forests. However, a sound management plan for the NBCA
must first be prepared before the ‘tourism’ idea is brought in.

6.4.2.3 General
1. Reject the proposal to excise the northern part of the NBCA (Berkmuller et al., 1995).
Although much of this area is degraded and converted to agriculture, there is still
good forest cover towards the western part of the proposed excision area. Elephants
and gaurs are also reported towards the north and northwest of this area. There are
two confirmed mineral licks in this western portion, which are being frequently used
by large mammals, particularly elephants and gaurs. They are also the focus of
elephant poachers. Most importantly, any excision of the NBCA will further increase
immigration into the area and subsequently further incursion into the NBCA.
2. Reject the proposal to construct the east-west road that will run along the current Ban
Nampouy – Ban Na Sampan road into Nan Province of Thailand. A better alternative
would be to improve the currently existing road from Sayaburi provincial capital to
Muang Kenthao, bordering Uttaradit Province in Thailand. Although transportation
costs will undoubtedly be more than the proposed east-west road, it will have other
socioeconomic benefits. There are several villages and townships along that route that
will evidently benefit from the improved road, directly from the trade between the two
countries, and indirectly by having better access to medical attention, food supplies,
local trade, etc.
3. Put in place effective controls on immigration into the NBCA. Furthermore, an
exercise to determine legitimacy of residents in the NBCA must similarly be
immediately carried out.
4. Seek cooperation from the appropriate agencies in Thailand in preventing incursion
along the extreme northwestern border of the NBCA. Although landmines along the
mountain ridge that divides the two countries have been removed, the western
boundary of the NBCA is currently still largely sealed by the landmines on the slopes.
In addition, cooperation is needed from Thailand to assist in curbing the illegal trade
in wildlife and other forest products from Sayaburi Province into Thailand.
5. There is an urgent need to carry out an aerial inspection and aerial photography to
map current habitat condition and agricultural encroachment.
6. Provide a long-term adviser to the NBCA, whose tasks include assisting the
preparation of a sound management plan; coordination of the various agencies
involved with the NBCA; coordination of programs on research, training and
management; conducting negotiations with communities in and around the NBCA;
and promotion of rural development projects in exchange for recognition and
compliance with rules, boundaries and zones. The long-term adviser’s Terms of
Reference could be extended to include providing input and coordinating conservation
efforts at the provincial level.
7. Provide short-term adviser input of approximately three months a year on extension
work to villages in and immediately adjacent to the NBCA.

6.4.3 Phou Xang He NBCA

56
6.4.3.1 Patrolling, Monitoring and Law Enforcement
1. Curb the wildlife trade commonly observed in Savannakhet, particularly in Muang
Phin and Muang Phalanxai. The respective DAFOs should take stern action against
offenders.
2. Staff should be sent to other NBCAs to gain better experience at patrolling and
monitoring (e.g. Dong Hua Sao and Phou Xiang Thong NBCAs), and law
enforcement (e.g. Nam Poui NBCA). Staff can be sent on a rotational basis for a
period of two months at a time.
3. There should be a Four-wheel Drive vehicle with an experienced driver available to
the Heads of the Patrolling and Monitoring Unit and the Participatory Management
Unit for them to complement their activities. This vehicle should also be available to
the other LSFP subprograms when not used by the patrolling/monitoring unit.
4. There should be close coordination between the Resource Monitoring and Protection
Unit and the Participatory Planning and Management team, so that problems
identified in the forest are taken up in discussion with village authorities, so as to
make a working reality of village responsibilities for their sector of the NBCA.
5. It is essential that the Participatory Planning and Management team conducts regular
meetings and makes joint visits to the villages. Also, the team ought to follow up in
villages if for example, enforcement action has stopped.

6.4.3.2 Wildlife Surveys and Research


1. Carry out wildlife surveys with focus on the Phou Hinho/Katon forest block and along
the Phou Xang He escarpment. Phou Hinho/Katon is of particular interest forested
appears largely intact, and the wildlife is relatively more abundant than the Phou
Xang He block. This most likely is due to the steepness of the terrain. A suggested
route for surveys in the area is by hiking along the Khame stream, starting from Ban
Nonsamlan, and moving camps further into the area every three-four days.
2. Initiate long-term studies on Francois’s and Red-shanked Douc Langurs.
3. Conduct status surveys of the Asian elephant (possibly tied in with a proposed nation-
wide survey), Vu Quang Ox and giant muntjak.

6.4.3.3 Internal Management


1. There is a need for a much larger office space or more rooms for the NBCA staff,
based at Savannakhet, for a better management of the office and administration of the
NBCA.
2. A two-day meeting for the NBCA and associated conservation staff must be
conducted monthly to review past month’s activities, achievements, obstacles, issues,
and plan following month’s activities. Meetings can be held on a rotational basis at
the different districts and Savannakhet, or wherever it is convenient to all.
3. The number of staff based at Savannakhet should be increased to at least two more to
support the Head of the Patrolling and Monitoring Unit. Equally important is for
CPAWM to assign one of its more experienced Protected Area staff to assist the
NBCA management team for at least two years.
4. Mr. Thongsavan, DAFO Muang Phalanxai, whose technical skills are better than the
rest of the staff should spend a week a month in Savannakhet assisting the Head of the
Patrolling and Monitoring Unit in preparing master maps of trails, village boundaries,
key wildlife sightings and hey wildlife habitats, etc.
5. Mr. Khamphong, DAFO Muang Villaburi should be an associate conservation staff of
Phou Xang He NBCA. His familiarity with all the villages and villagers in the

57
‘corridor’ area is an asset towards participatory management of the NBCA within
those village boundaries.

6.4.3.4 Participatory Management and Extension


1. Land allocation exercises should have a priority above other activities, to prevent
further loss of viable forested areas through clearance for cultivation. Focus should be
in villages within and adjacent to the NBCA
2. Village ‘rules’ acceptable to all parties concerned should be simultaneously developed
while carrying out the land allocation exercises.
3. Besides abiding by ‘rules’ villagers need to commit efforts towards patrolling and
monitoring of areas within their village boundaries. Compliance with ‘rules’ can
possibly be achieved through an exchange for privileges, which can include:
i. Resolving cattle predation by Asian wild dog. This can partly be achieved by
demarcating areas allowed for grazing.
ii. Resolving ungulate predation on rice. A possible solution to this is by fencing
the rice fields.
iii. Resolving rice and water shortage, e.g. Ban Nakaphoung. This can be
achieved by providing water pumps and assistance in farming technology.
iv. Improving livelihoods of villages in and around the NBCA. Improving the
road through the ‘corridor’ will greatly assist the villagers in the corridor in
marketing their products, besides providing better access to markets and
medical care. Villagers, however, have to maintain checkposts at their
respective villages to monitor vehicles and people, ensuring that there is
compliance of the ‘rules’. Villagers’ livelihoods could also be possibly
improved with the assistance of IUCN/NTFP specialists in marketing Parkia
sp. that is widespread and abundant throughout and around the NBCA.
Confirmation, however, is needed to determine whether this is a commercial
species.
v. Provide health-care to the villages that have agreed to the ‘Rules’. Health in
almost all these villages is quite appalling. Most could not seek medical
attention due either poverty or the bad road conditions or both.
vi. Provide or repair school buildings. The school building in Ban Tonpheung will
most probably not survive the coming rainy season.

6.4.3.4 General
1. There is an urgent need to carry out an aerial inspection and aerial photography in the
‘corridor’ area to map current habitat condition and agricultural encroachment.
2. There must be a strong commitment from DAFOs of the five districts towards
conservation efforts in Phou Xang He NBCA. Conservation of Phou Xang He NBCA
is currently not a priority with the DAFO Heads.
3. Provide a long-term adviser to the NBCA, whose tasks include developing a sound
participatory approach towards management of the NBCA, conducting negotiations
with communities in and around the NBCA; and promotion of rural development
projects in exchange for recognition and compliance with rules, boundaries and zones.
4. Provide a short-term adviser input of approximately three months a year to support
and reinforce the patrolling and monitoring unit with its activities and to lead wildlife
surveys.

58
6.5 CONCLUSION
The management needs of the NBCAs in Lao PDR are unique in the sense that they also have
to satisfy the needs of the peoples using the protected areas. This is no simple task to achieve,
considering that settlements commonly found in and around the protected areas are socio-
economically backwards. It is the desire of the Government of Lao PDR to uplift the quality
of life of her citizens.

Extension work currently being carried out and many planned hopes to achieve this.
Extension work in those settlements affected by the protected area is often seen as a major
solution towards reducing the pressures on the protected areas. Compliance of ‘village rules’
and protected area regulations must however, be adhered to in exchange for assistance.
Otherwise, human impacts will still be seen, as there will always be a ‘want’. Hence,
traditional field management of a protected area through regular patrols, monitoring and law
enforcement is very much needed. This may not necessarily be carried out by the NBCA staff
alone, but could and should be jointly carried with all the stakeholder communities. Hence, a
participatory approach towards managing the protected area with the NBCA management
team taking the lead. Extension work is a long and slow process, and will not resolve the
immediate threats faced by the NBCAs. Thus, the need for regular patrols and monitoring
should not be under-emphasized. At the same time, efforts at extension work should be
continued. Only then can we hope to achieve the protected areas’ objectives. Finally, all the
efforts, funds and time spent on building the capacities of the staff will be wasted if there are
no follow-ups and implementation of those activities.

59
Table 6.1 List of equipment required

Nam Poui NBCA


Items NBCA DAFO RDP ARMY TOTAL
4WD Vehicle 1 - - - 1
Off-road motorcycles* 2 3 1 - 6
Binoculars* 3 - - 2 5
Compass* 4 3 1 2 10
Tents* 4 3 1 2 10
Backpacks* 4 3 1 2 10
Sleeping Bags* 4 3 1 2 10
35mm Camera * 2 1 1 1 5
Altimeter 1 - - - 1
Wireless radios* - - - - 4**
GPS * 1 - - - 1
*High Priority **For Guard Posts

Phou Xang He NBCA


Items NBCA DAFO TOTAL
4WD Vehicle* 1 - 1
Off-road Motorcycles* 1 1 2
Binoculars* 3 5 8
Compass* 3 5 8
Tents* 5 5 10
Backpacks* 2 8 10
Sleeping Bags* 2 8 10
35mm Camera * - 5 5
Altimeter 1 - 1
GPS * 1 - 1
*High Priority

NBCA = National Biodiversity Conservation Area Staff


DAFO = District Agricultural and Forestry Office Staff
RDP = Ban Na Ven Rural Development Project Staff
Army = Sayaburi Provincial Army’s Conservation Unit

NOTE: It is very important that field equipment be selected by a qualified field person. The
equipment currently available at the NBCAs are not practical and feasible for NBCA-related
work.

60
Figure 6.1 Management zones and hunting

a)No Patrols, No Monitoring & No Zoning b)Patrols, Monitoring & Zoning; Hunting in CUZ Allowed

CUZ
TPZ

TPZ=Total Protection Zone


CUZ=Controlled Use Zone
BZ=Buffer Zone
=Pressures/Impacts

BZ
CUZ CUZ
TPZ
TPZ

c)Patrols, Monitoring, & Zoning;No Hunting in NBCA Allowed d)Patrols, Monitoring, & Zoning; No Hunting in NBCA & BZ Allowed

61
Figure 6.2a Proposed management zones of Nam Poui NBCA

62
Figure 6.2b Proposed management zones of Nam Poui NBCA

63
Figure 6.2c Proposed management zones of Nam Poui NBCA

64
Figure 6.3a Proposed management zones of Phou Xang He NBCA.

65
Figure 6.3b Proposed management zones of Phou Xang He NBCA.

66
Figure 6.3c Proposed management zones of Phou Xang He NBCA.

67
Figure 6.3d Proposed management zones of Phou Xang He NBCA.

68
Figure 6.3e Proposed management zones of Phou Xang He NBCA.

69
APPENDIX I: Wildlife Data Recording Format

Location:...........................………………………………… Date:……………….
Time Start:………… Time End:....…......... Distance Covered:................................
Personnel:...............................................................……….………………………
Evidence: 7. Feeding Signs
1. Sighting 8. Other:
2. Tracks Wallows
3. Vocalization Bathing Pools
4. Scat/Dung Mud Smears
5. Nests Antler/Horn marks
6. Scrapes/Claw Marks 9. Reliable Report
Time Species Location Evidence Remarks

70
APPENDIX II: Human Impact Data Recording Format

Location:...........................………………………………… Date:……………….
Time Start:………… Time End:....…......... Distance Covered:.................................
Personnel:...............................................................……….………………………
A: Hunting Activities B: Non-Hunting Activities
1. Traps/Snares 1. Forest clearance
2. Guns/Crossbows 2. Timber-cutting
3. Fishing gear 3. Huts
4. Hunting dogs 4. NTFP collection
5. Camps 5. Livestock grazing
6. Wildlife 6. House construction
7. Other 7. Other
Time Activity Location* Active/Non-active Remarks**

*Latitude and longitude, if possible


**To also include information on the number of persons, their ethnic group, purpose,
residence, names, etc.

71
APPENDIX III: Trail Mapping Recording Format

Location:………………………………………… District:…………………………
NBCA:………………………………...... Date:…………………….. Page No:.…..
Personnel:……………………………………………………………………………
Bearing Distance (m) Remarks*

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
*To include distinctive landform or drainage features

72
APPENDIX IV: Sample Specimen Recording Format Maintained at Field Stations

No.: specimen number as entered into the record book


Date: date of collection
Specimen: specimen type (hair, skin, bones, casts, traps, etc.), and species if known.
Location: location where specimen was collected
Personnel: names of personnel who made the collection
Remarks: to include relevant information associated with the specimen (age, sex, habitat,
amount, etc.)

No. Date Specimen Location Personnel Remarks


001
002
003
004
005
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο

73
APPENDIX V: Sample Scat Analysis Data Recording Format Maintained at Field
Stations

No.: scat number as entered into the record book


Date: date of collection
Species: animal species (if known)
Personnel: names of personnel who made the collection
Location: where scat was collected
Description: color, measurements. etc.
Remarks: to include relevant information associated with the scat (contents, habitat, etc.)

No. Date Species Personnel Location Description Remarks

74
APPENDIX VI: Procedures for Making Casts of Tracks

Equipment needed:-
1. Plaster of Paris
2. Bowl or mug
3. Stirrer (any thin stick or bamboo measuring about 20 cm long)
4. Water
5. Old newspapers

Procedure:-
1. Clear track of fallen leaves, twigs or stones.
2. Repair track, if necessary, by slowly pressing index finger to the loose soil in and around
the track.
3. Place four sticks around the track, to neatly contain the plaster. Sticks should measure at
least 1 cm in diameter, to maintain a cast thick enough that it won’t easily break.
4. Add water to a bowl containing some Plaster of Paris, while simultaneously stirring the
mixture. The mixture should be of correct viscosity. Note: if the mixture is too thick, it
will harden too quickly and not enter the crevices, therefore losing much of the details; if
the mixture is too thin, it will take too long to harden.
5. Slowly pour the mixture along the stirrer into the track, starting with the deeper recesses
first.
6. Pour the mixture until it overflows the track. (Make more plaster of Paris mixture if
insufficient).
7. Scratch a code onto the plaster cast before it finally hardens.
8. Once harden, wrap the cast in several layers of newspaper to prevent it from breaking
during transportation back to the field station.
9. At the field station, clean the soil off the cast by using a toothbrush.
10. Once cleaned, the track-cast should be lacquered, labeled and recorded into the specimen
record book (appendix II) maintained at the field station.

75
APPENDIX VII: Ethics of Field Surveys and Patrols

The following ethics are strongly recommended to improve chances at wildlife sighting:
1. A patrol team should comprise of not more than three persons per survey route. Fewer
persons mean less noise produced.
2. Cigarette smoking should be totally avoided when conducting survey patrols, and be
allowed only at camps. In dense primary forest, the smell of cigarette smoke can linger
for up to three days, and be detected up to a radius of 500 meters.
3. Team members should maintain a distance of at least two meters from each other, and
travel at a speed of a kilometer to an hour (or at least not less than a kilometer-and-a-half
to an hour). Frequent pauses of at least a minute should be made every 25-30 m to
observe the general surroundings for cryptic animals and/or wildlife signs.
4. Clothing and daypack should be dull-colored and inconspicuous.
5. Radios at camp should be just audible to the immediate listener and not too loud as to
scare away animals or ‘drown’ wildlife vocalizations that could otherwise be heard.
6. Establish camps at least 800 m away from key wildlife habitats such as mineral licks,
lakes, etc.

76
APPENDIX VIII: Locations and Preparation of Camps

An ideal campsite should have the following criteria:-


1. Campsites should be more or less centrally located within the study area, to allow
adequate coverage of the area.
2. In a relatively flat area and close to a water source, to allow a comfortable and convenient
campsite.
3. Campsites should be checked for dead standing trees before setting up camps, to prevent
injury/injuries, if the tree/trees should fall.
4. Campsites should not be less than 800 m from key wildlife habitats (e.g., mineral licks,
water pools, etc.), to avoid disturbing the animals.

Preparations and maintenance of campsites:-


1. Campsites should preferably be established by 1630 h, to prevent chaos once it gets dark
or at the worst, when it rains. Hence, campsites should be reached by 1500 h to allow
adequate time for establishing campsites. The distance and the terrain from the point of
hike to the proposed campsite should be taken into consideration when planning the time
at the start of hike. Note: speed of travel with a full backpack along forest trails range
from 2-3 km/hr.
2. On arrival at campsites, team members should first prepare the ‘kitchen’. This include
having two fireplaces (to speed up cooking, therefore preventing loss of field time), a rack
for storage of edibles, and a tarpaulin over the kitchen area to ensure the kitchen remains
dry in case of sudden rains.
3. Water for drinking should immediately be boiled.
4. Rubbish at camps should be burnt and buried, and campsites should be thoroughly
checked for any leftover litter before campsites are abandoned.

77
APPENDIX IX: List of Field Equipment

I. For each Participant:


1. Backpack# & daypack
2. Sleeping bag# or light blanket
3. Tent# or mosquito net & tarpaulin# (5 x 5 m)
4. Binoculars#
5. Compass#
6. Global Positioning System unit*
7. Altimeter*
8. 35 mm camera & ASA 200 films
9. Watch
10. Flashlight# (with spare batteries & bulbs)
11. Machete#
12. Notebooks# (1 pocket size for the field & 1 regular size for camp)
13. Ball-point pens# & pencils#
14. Measuring tape (2-3 m)#
15. Dull-colored field clothes# & cap#
16. Light canvas shoes with studded soles# & slippers
17. Insect repellent & leech socks
18. Water canteen#
19. Lighters
20. Whistle#
21. Mug, spoon & bowl
22. Personal medication
23. Personal toiletries

II. For each Survey Team:


1. Global Positioning System#
2. Altimeter#
3. Camera (35 mm with ASA 200 films)#
4. First-aid kit#
5. Topographic maps & photocopies of proposed survey areas#
6. Data recording sheets#
7. Pot, ‘huat’ (basket for steaming glutinous rice), & ‘thip’ (small basket container for
storing steamed rice)#
8. Sharpening stone#
9. Plastic string (2 rolls)#
10. Plastic pails (for soaking glutinous rice and storing boiled drinking water)#
11. Candles (Two 20 cm candles per night)#
12. Plastic bags (various sizes) & rubber bands#
13. Plaster of Paris & old newspapers#
14. Small spade#
* if available
# should be provided by the NBCA

78
APPENDIX X: Key Wildlife and Habitat Interview Data Recording Format

Village:………...…..….. District:……………..….. Ethnic Group:……..………….


No. of Households:……………. Domestic Animals:……………………………….…...
NBCA:………………………………………………..….……. Date:……………
Personnel:…………………………………………………………………...……….
No. Species Location Distance* Direction** Remarks
1 Elephant
2 Gaur
3 Wild buffalo
4 Banteng
5 Vu Quang ox
6 Giant muntjak
7 Malayan sun bear
8 Asiatic black bear
9 Tiger
10 Leopard
11 Clouded leopard
12 Asian wild dog
13 Asiatic jackal
14 Gibbon spp.
15 Douc langur
16 Francois langur
17 Peafowl
ο Key habitats:#
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
ο
* from village
** from village either in km or hiking time
# include mineral licks, water pools, caves, etc.

79
APPENDIX XI: List of wild fauna recorded in and around Nam Poui NBCA (adapted
from Boonratana, 1997)

MAMMALS26 IUCN27 Lao PDR28


Northern treeshrew Tupaia belangeri
Bat spp.
Slow loris Nycticebus coucang II
Pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina II
Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis II
Stump-tailed macaque** Macaca arctoides II
Phayre’s leaf monkey Trachypithecus phayrei I
Silvered leaf monkey* Trachypithecus cristatus I
White-handed gibbon Hylobates lar I
Malayan pangolin Manis javanica II
Chinese pangolin Manis pendactyla II
Black giant squirrel Ratufa bicolor II
Variable squirrel Callosciurus finlaysoni bocourti &
C.f. menamicus
Burmese striped tree squirrel Tamiops mcclellandi
Indochinese ground squirrel Menetes berdmorei
Red-cheeked squirrel Dremomys rufigenis
Lesser giant flying squirrel Petaurista elegans II
Red giant flying squirrel Petaurista petaurista II
Giant flying squirrel Petaurista philippensis II
Phayre’s flying squirrel Hylopetes phayrei
Particoloured flying squirrel Hylopetes alboniger
Large bamboo rat Rhizomys sumatrensis
Bay bamboo rat Cannomys badius
Malayan porcupine Hystrix brachyura II
Bush-tailed porcupine Atherurus macrourus II
Asiatic jackal Canis aureus II
Asian wild dog Cuon alpinus II
Asiatic black bear Selarnactos thibetanus I
Malayan sun bear Helarctos malayanus I
Yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula
Hog badger Arctonyx collaris
Common otter Lutra lutra
Large Indian civet Viverra zibetha
Small Indian civet Viverricula indica II
Common palm civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus
Masked palm civet Paguma larvata II
Binturong Arctictis binturong II

26
Species’ names follow IUCN, 1996
27
Ex=extinct; E=Endangered; V=Vulnerable; R=Rare; I=Indeterminate; K=Insufficiently known
28
I=valuable and nearly extinct species; hunting banned except with approval from the Council of Ministers.
II=rare species threatened with extinction if hunting not controllead; hunting permitted during non-breeding
season, and only for food and not for sale or exchange.

80
Leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis II
Golden cat Catopuma temmincki I II
Clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa V II
Leopard Panthera pardus I
Tiger Panthera tigris E I
Asian elephant Elephas maximus E I
Wild pig Sus scrofa
Lesser mousedeer Tragulus javanicus II
Barking deer Muntiacus muntjak II
Sambar deer Cervus unicolor II
Gaur Bos gaurus V I
Banteng ** Bos javanicus V I
Serow Capricornis sumatrensis I I
*recorded during current consultancy **provisional

BIRDS29 IUCN Lao PDR


Chinese pond heron Ardeola bacchus
Little heron Butorides striatus
Black-shouldered kite Elanus caeruleus II
Silver pheasant Lophura nycthemera I
Siamese fireback Lophura diardii R II
Red jungle fowl Gallus gallus II
Grey peacock-pheasant Polypectron bicalcaratum II
Scaly-breasted partridge Aborophilia chloropus II
White-breasted waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus
Eurasian woodcock* Scolopax rusticola
Thick-billed pigeon Treron curvirostra II
Mountain imperial pigeon Ducula badia II
Barred cuckoo-dove Macropygia unchall
Emerald dove Chalcophaps indica
Vernal hanging parrot Loriculus vernalis
Red-breasted parakeet* Psittacula alexandri II
Indian cuckoo Cuculus micropterus
Green-billed malkoha Phaenicophaeus tristis
Coral-billed gound-cuckoo Carpococcyx renauldi
Greater coucal Centropus sinensis
Lesser coucal Centropus bengalensis
Oriental scops-owl* Otus sunia
Collared scops-owl** Otus lempiji
Collared owlet* Glaucidium brodiei
Asian barred owlet Glaucidium cuculoides II
Large-tailed nightjar* Caprimulgus macrurus
Blue-eared kingfisher Alcedo meninting
Banded kingfisher Lacedo pulchella
White-throated kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis
Black-capped kingfisher Halcyon pileata

29
Taxonomy follows Lekagul & Round, 1991.

81
Indian roller Coracias benghalensis
Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis
Brown hornbill Ptilolaemus tickelli
Oriental pied hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris II
Great hornbill Buceros bicornis II
Great barbet Megalaima virens II
Moustached barbet Megalaima incognita
Coppersmith barbet Megalaima haemacephala
Lesser yellownape Picus chlorolophus II
Rufous woodpecker Celeus brachyurus
Asian palm swift Cypsiurus balasiensis
Richard’s pipit Anthus novaeseelandiae
Grey wagtail Motacilla alba
Yellow wagtail Motacilla flava
Scarlet minivet Pericrocotus flammeus
Black-headed bulbul* Pycnonotus atriceps
Black-crested bulbul Pycnonotus melanicterus
Red-whiskered bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus
Flavescent bulbul Pycnonotus flavescens
Puff-throated bulbul Criniger pallidus
Black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus II
Bronzed drongo Dicrurus aeneus II
Lesser racket-tailed drongo Dicrurus remifer II
Hair-crested drongo Dicrurus hottentottus
Greater racket-tailed drongo Dicrurus paradiseus II
Black-naped oriole Oriolus chinensis
Maroon oriole Oriolus traillii
Sultan tit Melanochlora sultanea
Velvet-fronted nuthatch Sitta frontalis
White-crested laughing thrush Garrulax strepitans
Common tailorbird Orthotomus sutorius
Oriental magpie-robin Copsychus saularis
White-rumped shama Copsychus malabaricus
Slaty-backed forktail Enicurus schistaceus
White-crowned forktail Enicurus leschenaulti
Pied bushchat Saxicola caprata
White-throated fantail Rhipidura albicollis
Asian paradise flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi
Ashy wood-swallow Artamus fuscus
Hill myna Gracula religiosa
*recorded during current consultancy **provisional

REPTILES IUCN Lao PDR


Tokay gecko Gekko gecko
Indochinese water dragon Calotes versicolor II
Skink spp.
Yellow tree monitor Varanus bengalensis II

82
Water monitor Varanus salvator II
Reticulated python Morelia reticulatus I
Banded krait Bungarus fasciatus
King cobra Ophiophagus hannah I
Iridescent earth snake Xenopeltis unicolor
White-lipped pit viper Trimeresurus albolabris
albolabris
Yellow tortoise Testudo elongata II
Red-cheeked soft-shelled turtle* Dogania subplana
Common Siamese soft-shelled Trionyx cartilageneus II
turtle
*recorded during current consultancy

AMPHIBIANS IUCN Lao PDR


Rana alticola
Asian treefrog Rhacophorus nigropalmatus)
Lao bullfrog (family: Ranidae)

FISHES (Lao Loum names)


Pla khing
Pla sa-thong
Pla dook
Pla chaat
Pla mom
Pla thao
Pla phung
Pla pao
Pla kang
Pla khae
Pla phan
Pla laat
Pla sieu
Pla paak
Pla khom
Pla tong
Pla kouan
Pla maam
Pla chat-thong

83
APPENDIX XII: List of wild fauna recorded in and around Phou Xang He NBCA
(adapted from Duckworth et al, 1993)

Mammals IUCN Lao PDR


Asian elephant Elephas maximus E I
Rhinoceros spp.*** E I
Gaur Bos gaurus V I
Banteng**/*** Bos javanicus V I
Saola** Pseudoryx nghetinhensis I
Eld’s deer*** Cervus eldii V I
Sambar deer* Cervus unicolor II
Giant muntjak* Megamuntiacus muntjak I
Common muntjak* Muntiacus muntjak II
Lesser mousedeer Tragulus javanicus II
Wild pig Sus scrofa
Serow* Capricornis sumatrensis I I
Tiger * Panthera tigris E I
Leopard* Panthera pardus I
Golden cat** Catopuma temminckii I II
Leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis II
Hog-badger* Arctonyx collaris II
Asian wild dog* Cuon alpinus V II
Malayan sun bear* Helarctos malayanus V I
Asiatic black bear* Selenarctos thibetanus V I
Binturong* Arctictis binturong II
Large spotted civet Viverra megaspila
Small Indian civet Viverricula indica II
Common palm civet Paradoxurus hemaphroditus
Small-toothed palm civet Arctogalidia trivirgata
Yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula
Javan mongoose Herpestes javanicus
Otter spp.*
Oriental small-clawed otter** Aonyx cinerea
Black gibbon* Hylobates concolor E I
Golden-cheeked gibbon** Hylobates gabriellae I
Red-shanked douc langur Pygathrix nemaeus E I
Francois’s langur* Trachypithecus francoisi E I
Silvered langur ** Trachypithecus cristatus I
Pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina II
Stump-tailed macaque* Macaca arctoides K II
Rhesus/Assamese macaque* Macaca mulatta/assamensis II
Slow loris** Nycticebus coucang II
Pygmy loris Nycticebus pygmaeus V II
Burmese hare Lepus peguensis
Brush-tailed porcupine Atherurus macrourus II
Malayan porcupine* Hystrix brachyura II
Black giant squirrel Ratufa bicolor II

84
Indian giant flying squirrel Petaurista phillipensis II
Red-cheeked squirrel Dremomys rufigenis
Variable squirrel* Callosciurus finlaysonii
Belly-banded squirrel* Callosciurus erythraeus
Cambodian striped tree squirrel Tamiops rodolphi
Northern treeshrew Tupaia belangeri
* recorded/confirmed during present consultancy ** provisional *** historical evidence

Birds IUCN Lao PDR


Grey heron Ardea cinerea
Purple heron Ardea purpurea II
Little heron Butorides striatus
Chinese pond-heron Ardeola bacchus
Cinnamon bittern Ixobrychus cinnamomeus
Black baza Qaviceda leuphotes II
Crested honey-buzzard Pernis ptilorhyncus II
Crested serpent-eagle Spilornis cheela II
Crested goshawk Accipiter trivirgatus II
Shikra Accipiter badius
Rufous-winged buzzard Butastur liventer
Harrier spp.
Bar-backed partridge Aborophilia brunneopectus II
Scaly-breasted partridge Aborophilia chlorophus II
Green peafowl* Pavo muticus V I
Siamese fireback Lophura diardi R
Red junglefowl Gallus gallus II
Grey peacock-pheasant Polyplectron bicalcaratum II
Buttonquail spp.
White-breasted waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus II
Red wattled lapwing Vanellus indicus II
Common sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos
Green sandpiper Tringa ochropus
Common snipe Gallinago gallinago
Thick-billed pigeon Treron curvirostra II
Mountain imperial pigeon Ducula badia II
Red turtle-dove* Streptopelia tranquebarica
Oriental turtle-dove Streptopelia orientalis
Spotted dove Streptopelia chinensis II
Emerald dove Chalcophaps indica
Red-breasted parakeet Psittacula alexandri II
Grey-headed parakeet Psittacula finschii II
Vernal hanging parrot Loriculus vernalis
Chestnut-winged cuckoo Clamator coromandus
Indian cuckoo Cuculus micropterus
Plaintive cuckoo Cacomantis merulinus
Banded bay cuckoo Cacomantis soneratii
Violet cuckoo Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus

85
Drongo cuckoo Surniculus lugubris
Greater coucal Centropus sinensis
Lesser coucal Centropus bengalensis
Common koel Eudynamys scolopacea II
Green-billed malkoha Phaenicophaeus tristis
Collared scops-owl Otus lempiji
Collared owlet Glaucidium brodiei II
Asian barred owlet Glaucudium cuculoides II
Spotted owlet Athene brama
Brown hawk-owl Ninox scutulata
Frogmouth spp.
Great-eared nightjar Eurostopodus macrotis
Large-tailed nightjar Caprimulgus macrurus
White-vented needletail Hirundapus cochinchinensis
Brown needletail Hirundapus giganteus
Pacific swift Apus pacificus
Asian palm swift Cypsiurus balasiensis
Orange-breasted trogon Harpactes oreskios
Red-headed trogon Harpactes erythrocephalus
Common kingfisher Alcedo atthis
Blue-eared kingfisher Alcedo meninting
Oriental dwarf kingfisher Ceyx erithacus
Banded kingfisher Lacedo pulchella
Stork-billed kingfisher Halcyon capensis
Ruddy kingfisher Halcyon coromanda
White-throated kingfisher Halcyon smyrensis
Black-capped kingfisher Halcyon pileata
Chestnut-headed bee-eater Merops leschenaulti
Blue- bearded bee-eater Nyctyornis athertoni
Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis
Indian roller Coracias benghalensis
Brown hornbill Ptilolaemus tickelli
Wreathed hornbill Rhyticeros undulatus
Oriental pied hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris II
Red-vented barbet Megalaima lagrandieri
Lineated barbet Megalaima lineata
Green-eared barbet Megalaima faiostricta
Moustached barbet Megalaima incognita
Blue-eared barbet Megalaima australis
Coppersmith barbet Megalaima haemacephala
White-browed piculet Sasia ochracea
Rufous woodpecker Celeus brachyurus
Laced woodpecker Picus vittatus II
Grey-headed woodpecker Picus canus II
Red-collared woodpecker Picus rabieri I II
Black-headed woodpecker Picus erythropygius II
Greater yellownape Picus flavinucha II

86
Lesser yellownape Picus chlorolophus II
Common flameback Dinopium javanense
Pale-headed woodpecker Gecinulus grantia
Black-and-buff woodpecker Meiglyptes jugularis
Heart-spotted woodpecker Hemicircus concretus
Bay woodpecker Blythipicus pyrrhotis
Greater flameback Chrysocolaptes lucidus
Dusky broadbill Corydon sumatranus
Banded broadbill Eurylaimus javanicus
Silver-breasted broadbill Serlophus lunatus
Long-tailed broadbill Psarisomus dalhousiae
Bar-bellied pitta Pitta ellioti R
Olive-backed pitta
Richard’s pipit Anthus novaeseelandiae
Grey wagtail Motacilla cinerea
Yellow wagtail Motacilla flava
Forest wagtail Dendronanthus indicus
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica
Red-rumped swallow Hirundo daurica
Bar-winged flycatcher-shrike Hemipus picatus
Large wood-shrike Tephrodornis pondicerianus
Large cuckoo-shrike Coracina macei
Black-winged cuckooshrike Coracina melaschista
Ashy minivet Pericrocotus divaricatus
Scarlet minvet Pericrocotus flammeus
Great iora Aegithina viridissima
Common iora Aegithina tiphia
Golden-fronted leafbird Golden-fronted leafbird
Blue-winged leafbird Chloropsis cochinchinensis
Black-headed bulbul Pycnonotus atriceps
Black-crested bulbul Pycnonotus melanicterus
Stripe-throated bulbul Pycnonotus finlaysoni
Streak-eared bulbul Pycnonotus blanfordi
Puff-throated bulbul Criniger pallidus
Grey-eyed bulbul Hypsipetes propinquus
Red-whiskered bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus
Black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus II
Ashy drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus II
Crow-billed drongo Dicrurus annectans II
Bronzed drongo Dicrurus annectans II
Lesser racket-tailed drongo Dicrurus remifer
Greater racket-tailed drongo Dicrurus paradiseus II
Hair-crested drongo Dicrurus hottentottus
Black-naped oriole Oriolus chinensis
Black-hooded oriole Oriolus xanthornus
Asian fairy bluebird Irena puella
Eurasian jay Garrulus glandarius

87
Green magpie Cissa chinensis
Blue magpie Urocissa erythhrorhyncha
Racquet-tailed treepie Crypsirina temia
Ratchet-tailed treepie Temnurus temnurus
Chestnut-bellied nuthatch Sitta castanea
Velvet-fronted nuthatch Sitta frontalis
Puff-throated babbler Pellorneumcapistratum
Buff-breasted babbler Trichastoma tickelli
Abbott’s babbler Trichastoma abbotti
Scaly-crowned babbler Malacopteron magnum
Large scimitar-babbler Pomatorhinus hypoleucos
Grey-throated babbler Stachyris nigriceps
Grey-faced tit-babbler Macronous kelleyi
Striped tit-babbler Macronous gularis
Chestnut-capped babbler Timalia pileata
White-crested laughingthrush Garrulax leucolophus
Lesser-necklaced laughingthrush Garrulax monileger
Rufous-throated fulvetta Alcippe rufogularis
Mountain fulvetta Alcippe poioicephala
White-bellied yuhina Yuhina zantholeuca
Siberian blue robin Luscinia cyane
Oriental magpie-robin Copyschus saularis
White-rumped shama Copyschus malabaricus
White-crowned forktail Enicurus leschenaulti
Stonechat Saxicola torquata
Blue rock-thrush Monticola solitarius
Blue whistling-thrush Myiophoneus caeruleus
Scaly thrush Zoothera dauma
Dark-sided thrush Zoothera marginata
Siberian thrush Zoothera sibrica
Golden-spectacled warbler Seicercus burkii
Yellow-bellied warbler Abroscopus superciliaris
Dusky warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus
Radde’s warbler Phylloscopus schwarzi
Inornate warbler Phylloscopus inornatus
Greenish warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides
Pale-legged leaf-warbler Phylloscopus tenellipes
Blyth’s leaf-warbler Phylloscopus reguloides
Thick-billed warbler Acrocephalus aedon
Lanceolated warbler Locustella lanceolata
Common tailorbird Orthotomus sutorius
Dark-necked tailorbird Orhotomus atrogularis
Rufescent prinia Prinia rufescens
Stub-tailed bush-warbler Cettia squameiceps
Asian brown flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica
Dark-sided flycatcher Muscicapa sibrica
Red-throated flycatcher Ficedula parva

88
Blue-and-white flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana
Hainan blue flycatcher Cyornis hainana
Blue-throated flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides
Tickell’s blue flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae
Grey-headed flycatcher Culicicapa ceylonensis
Black-naped monarch Hypothymis azurea
Asian paradise flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi
Brown-shrike Lanius cristatus
Black-collared starling Sturnus nigricollis
Common myna Acridotheres tristis II
White-vented myna Acridotheres javanicus
Crested myna Acridotheres cristatellus
Golden-crested myna Ampeliceps coronatus II
Hill myna Gracula religiosa II
Ruby-cheeked sunbird Anthreptes singalensis
Purple-naped sunbird Hypogramma hypogrammicum
Purple sunbird Nectarina asiatica
Olive-backed sunbird Nectarina jugularis
Crimson sunbird Aethopyga siparaja
Little spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra
Streaked spiderhunter Arachnothera magna
Thick-billed flowerpecker Dicaeum agile
Plain flowerpecker Dicaeum concolor
Scarlet backed flowerpecker Dicaeum cruentatum
Flowerpecker spp.
Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus
White-rumped munia Lonchura striata
* recorded/confirmed during present consultancy

REPTILES IUCN Lao PDR


Indochinese rat snake Pytas korros
Reticulated python Morelia reticulatus I
King cobra Ophiophagus hannah 1
Blue-tailed skink
Skink spp.
Indochinese water dragon Calotes versicolor II
Water monitor Varanus salvator II
Yellow tree monitor Varanus bengalensis II

Fishes & Crustaceans (Lao loum names)


Pla kang
Pla douk
Pla sieu khao
Pla chaat
Pla khaw
Pla kot
Pla seuam

89
Pla kampheum
Pou daeng
Pou heen
Pou naa
Koung

90
APPENDIX XIII Comparative Overview of Nam Poui And Phou Xang He NBCAs

NAM POUI PHOU XANG HE


AREA 1,912 km² 1,060 km²
STAFF 11 NBCA + 9 ACS 4 NBCA + 11 ACS
WILDLIFE Mid-level diversity & density High diversity but low density
MAMMALS 50 spp. 49 spp.
Elephant Elephant
Gaur Rhinoceros
Banteng Gaur
Tiger Banteng
Leopard Vu Quang ox
Clouded leopard Eld’s deer
Asian wild dog Giant muntjak
Golden jackal Tiger
Malayan sun bear Leopard
Asiatic black bear Asian wild dog
Lar gibbon Malayan sun bear
Phayre’s langur Asiatic black bear
Silvered langur Black gibbon
Red-shanked Douc langur
Francois’s langur
Pygmy loris
BIRDS 70 spp. (expect 3X) 206 spp.
Green peafowl
UNIQUE 1. Viable elephant pop. 1. Several species of global
FEATURES 2. Possibly viable gaur pop. importance
3. Important water catchment area 2. Parkia spp abundant &
and perennial waterways widespread
4. Large contiguous tract of intact 3. Habitat diversity (microhabitats)
forest
5. ‘Tong Leung’
STRENGTHS 1. Strong patrolling/monitoring
(although inactive)
2. Strong associated conservation
staff (not mobilized)
3. Strong extension staff (but lack
focus)
WEAKNESSES 1. Leadership lacking 1. Leadership lacking
2. Equipment & vehicle lacking 2. Staff not a single entity, but
disjointed
3. Commitment from province and
districts lacking
4. Equipment & vehicle lacking

91
APPENDIX XIV: Schedule of Activities

Dates Activities
21-25/1/98 Start consultancy. Had series of meetings with Chris Flint
(participatory management consultant), Khampete & Geyo
(counterparts), Clive Marsh (Senior Conservation and Protected
Areas Planning Adviser), Vene Vongphet (LSFP Conservation
Subprogram Adviser), Xansay (Head of Protected Areas Unit).
Preparations –maps, travel documents, etc.
26/1/98 Proceed to Savannakhet by road with counterpart Geyo and driver
Ian.
27/1/98 Preliminary meeting and introductions at Savannakhet LSFP
coordination office, and at PAFO to inform plans and objectives.
Similar meeting held with FOMACOP.
28/1/98 Proceed to Xepone Forestry Training School to make arrangements
for training. Vehicle breakdown (for rest of trip)
29/1/98 Proceed to Ban Nalay to understand land allocation exercise.
30/1/98 Investigated a mineral lick where an elephant was reportedly
present.
31/1/98 AM Observed LA team map main trails out of village. PM Proceed
to Xepone Forestry Training School to start classroom training for
NBCA and DAFO staff.
1/2/98 Trainees arrive. General introductions.
2-5/2/98 Training in field management activities
6-12/2/98 Field trip to Xe Xam Soy, 12 km NE of Ban Nalay.
13-17/2/98 Proceed to Atsaphon. Teams’ report write-up. (a few participants
down with malaria, consultant down with kidney infection).
Debriefing at DAFO Atsaphon.
18-22/2/98 Seek medical attention in Savannakhet. Assist NBCA staff with
master maps of mineral licks and trails. Prepare data recording
sheets in Lao.
23/2 –1/3/98 Proceed to Vientiane. Made preparations for Nam Poui trip. Trip
delayed due delays DSA release for counterpart.
2/3/98 Proceed with Geyo to Sayaburi via Luang Prabang. Accompanied
by Xansay and Boutsady, CPAWM’s Evaluation & Support team
for Nam Poui.
3/3/98 Meetings with PAFO and PFO heads. Later meetings with
Pronvincial Army Commanders to revive Provincial Army
Conservation Unit.
4/3/98 Proceed to Nam Poui NBCA. Joined by 3 of the Military
Conservation Unit. Stopover at Ban Na Vene to pick up RDP staff
5-8/3/98 Training revision for participants
9-10/3/98 Field trip to Ban Mai, survey bioresources
11-12/3/98 Field trip to Ban Naxeng, survey bioresources
13/3/98 Return to Nam Poui HQ . Stopover at Ban Houay Nam Khoun-
village interview. Stopover at Pak Lay DAFO – information
collection on village boundaries.
14-15/3/98 Teams write reports.

92
16-17/3/98 Ban Na Vene field trip – village interviews, monitoring & law
enforcement
18-23/3/98 Resource person to 3rd Heads of NBCAs meeting in Nam Poui.
Zimbo lead team to Ban Na Vene. Geyo lead team to Ban Mai.
24/3/98 Assist NBCA staff reorganizing their duties and responsibilities.
25-27/3/98 Field trip to Bor Lay Chan. Meeting with DAFO Muang Thong &
Military to inform of plans.
26/3/98 Sotsern, Geyo, Sila & Zimbo prepare MOU at NBCA HQ(team
patrolling/monitoring at Bor Lay Chan)
27/3/98 Proceed to Muang Thong. Pick team up at Bor Lay Chan
28/3-4/4/98 Field trip to Ban Khen. Village interviews & Bioresource survey.
Trip accompanied by NBCA extension team. (Sotsern & Ms.
Sompetch). Several team members affected by forest fire lungs and
eyes infection.
5-7/4/98 Teams report write-up.
7/4/98 Debriefing at NBCA HQ. Depart for Sayaburi.
8/4/98 Debriefing at Sayaburi PAFO. Made plans for provincial-level
seminar in May-end.
9-11/4/98 Proceed to Vientiane. Initial write-up.
12-19/4/98 Lao Pee Mai holidays.
20-26/4/98 Preparations for Phou Xang He trip. Trip again delayed due to no
release of DSA to counterpart. Joined by Khamphay Louanglath. A
just–returned LSFP funded India graduate.
27/4/98 Proceed to Savannakhet with Geyo, Khamphay and driver
Khamwaan.
28/4/98 Briefing at LSFP co-ordination office.
29/4-2/598 Ban Nangon field trip. Bioresources surveys & village interviews.
2-4/5/98 Ban Tonpheung & Ban Na Paka field trip. Bioresources surveys &
village interviews.
4-5/5/98 Ban Songhong field trip. Village interviews.
5-6/5/98 Ban Kengnyao field trip. Bioresources surveys & village
interviews.
7/5/98 Proceed to Villaburi, overnight Xepone. Law enforcement and
poster/calendar distribution along the way.
8-10/5/98 Continue trip to Villaburi. Stopover at Ban Vangmou. Village
interviews. Ban Naphilang & Ban Phongsavang field trip.
Bioresources surveys & village interviews.
10-12/5/98 Ban Katep & Ban Nakhaphoung field trip. Bioresources surveys &
village interviews.
13-15/5/98 Ban Khame field trip. Bioresources surveys & village interviews.
16-18/5/98 Ban Namouang field trip. Bioresources surveys & village
interviews.
19-21/5/98 Teams report write-up in Savannakhet.
22/5/98 Wrap-up seminar at PAFO. Presentations by Phoukong,
Thipsavan, Khoulavong & Zimbo. Discussions over issues.
23/5/98 1998/99 NBCA budget discussion. Depart for Vientiane.
24-26/5/98 Prepare final report.
27/5/98 Proceed to Sayaburi for wrap-up seminar.

93
28-29/5/98 Seminar on Management activities and development in Nam Poui
chaired by Provincial Governor.
30/5/98 Return to Vientiane via Luang Prabang.
31/5-20/6/98 Report write-up.
17/5/98 Final presentation at DoF.
21/5/98 Contract terminates. Depart Vientiane.

94
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Boonratana, R. 1997a. A state-wide survey to estimate the density of the Sumatran


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Boonratana, R. 1997b. Field training in wildlife conservation research techniques and large
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95