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AgWater Solutions Project Case Study

Agricultural Use of Ground Water in Ethiopia: Assessment of Potential and Analysis of Economics, Policies, Constraints and Opportunities

Semu Moges Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

September, 2012

Acknowledgment The authors and project partners wish to thank the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for the generous grant that made this project possible. The AWM Project The AgWater Solutions project was implemented in five countries in Africa and two states in India between 2008 and 2012. The objective of the project was to identify investment options and opportunities in agricultural water management with the greatest potential to improve incomes and food security for poor farmers, and to develop tools and recommendations for stakeholders in the sector including policymakers, investors, NGOs and small-scale farmers. The leading implementing institutions were the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), International Development Enterprises (iDE) and CH2MHill. For more information on the project or detailed reports please visit the project website http://awm-solutions.iwmi.org/home-page.aspx. Disclaimers This report is based on research funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The findings and conclusions contained within are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect positions or policies of the project, its partners or the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Copyright 2012, by IWMI. All rights reserved. IWMI encourages the use of its material provided that the organization is acknowledged and kept informed in all such instances.

Contents
Abbreviations ....................................................................................................................... iii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................... 1 1. GROUNDWATER WATER OCCURRENCE IN ETHIOPIA ..................................................... 4 1.1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 4 1.2 GEOLOGIC SUCCESSION IN ETHIOPIA .................................................................................... 4 1.3 AQUIFERS AND AQUIFER CLASSIFICATION. ............................................................................ 6 2. PREVIOUS STUDIES OF GROUNDWATER IN ETHIOPIA .................................................. 11 2.1. REVIEW OF PAST STUDIES................................................................................................ 11 2.2 CURRENT GROUND WATER STUDIES ................................................................................. 13 3. GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL OF ETHIOPIA................................................................... 15 3.1 BASIN GROUND WATER ESTIMATION WAPCOS (1990) .................................................... 15 3.2 NATIONAL GROUND WATER RECHARGE ESTIMATE AYENEW AND ALEMAYEHU (2001)............... 20 3.3 GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL AND METHODOLOGY SHIFT ......................................................... 21 4. GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT AND USE .................................................................. 23 4.1. EXPERIENCE OF GROUND WATER DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION IN THE COUNTRY: ................... 23 BOREHOLE INFORMATION ............................................................................................... 23 4.2 EXPERIENCE OF GROUND WATER DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION FOR AGRICULTURE ................. 25 4.2.1 Ground Water potential of Kobo Girana Valley ................................................ 26 4.2.2 Groundwater potential of Raya Valley ............................................................. 27 4.2.3 Groundwater potential of Adaa Becho ............................................................ 30 4.4 FUTURE DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF GROUND WATER FOR AGRICULTURE ......................................... 32 5 GROUNDWATER POLICY AND INSTITUTIONS ............................................................... 34 5.1 POLICIES AND STRATEGIES ............................................................................................... 34 5.2 INSTITUTIONS .............................................................................................................. 34 6. KNOWLEDGE AND CAPACITY GAPS IN GROUND WATER DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................ 34 6.1 KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION GAPS .............................................................................. 34 6.2 PROFESSIONAL CAPACITY GAP .......................................................................................... 35 6.3 TECHNICIAN SKILL CAPACITY GAP ...................................................................................... 35 6.4 CAPACITY BUILDING EDUCATION AND TRAINING ................................................................. 38 7. DRILLING TECHNOLOGY SND COSTS ............................................................................ 39 7.1. DRILLING TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT ........................................................................... 39 7.2 WELL DRILLING COST AND FUTURE TRENDS IN ETHIOPIA ......................................................... 42 8. Summary and Conclusion ............................................................................................ 43 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................ 45

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Abbreviations
AAU EGRAP EIGS ENGDA IAEA MOWE PASDEP II UNDP WWDSE WWCE Addis Ababa University Ethiopian Groundwater resources Assessment Programme Ethiopian Institute of Geological Survey Ethiopian National Ground Water Database International Atomic and Energy Agency Ministry of Water and Energy Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development Programme II United Nations Development Program Water Works, Design and Supervision Enterprise Water Works and Construction Enterprise

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Ethiopia is a country of great geographical diversity and geological complexity. High rugged mountains, flat-topped plateaus, deep gorges, incised rivers and rolling plains are the predominant physiographical features. Since the country is located in the tropics, the physical conditions and variations in altitude have resulted in a great diversity of climate, soil and vegetation. The highlands on each side give way to vast semi-arid lowland areas the east and west and south. The ground water potential of the country is shaped by two complex phenomena of geological formation and the diversity of the topography, climate and soil. Several studies and ground water potential assessments indicate the rechargeable or replenishable ground water potential of the country is in the order of 2.6 billion cubic meters (BCM). More recent emerging studies and implementations like that of Addis Ababa, Kobo and Raya well field indicate the potential is far greater. Estimations of the ground water require a good understanding of the regional geology, hydrology, hydrogeology, hydraulics of ground water flow. Recent project studies for irrigated agriculture at Kobo, Raya, and Adaa Bechoo indicate the regional ground water aquifers are deeper; water movement crosses surface basin boundaries (basin transfer) and contains large reserves of groundwater. It is estimated that the ground water reserve of the Kobo Girana Valley is in the order of 2.5 BCM, while the reserve of Raya contains 7.2 BCM. The Estimated annual recharge at Adda Bechoo is in the order of 965 million cubic meters (MCM) of which the majority comes from Abbay Basin. This emphasizes the importance of understanding the regional groundwater aquifers and movement when considering ground water assessment and development for highly water consuming agricultural use. The use of groundwater for agriculture in the country is low. Assessment of data from 8,000 boreholes from federal sources and the regional water bureaus indicate over 80% of the groundwater use is for domestic water supply. The depth range of assessed wells indicates most wells are shallow (most 83%) and have low yield in the order of less than 10 lps (>60%). Given the emerging regional approach to groundwater assessment and evaluation, the majority of the shallow wells in the country may not provide adequate scientific information for understanding deep groundwater aquifers. Therefore, as seen from the studies of Kobo, Raya and Adaa Becho groundwater, deep monitoring and production wells are providing essential data over two to three year observation periods. Currently, groundwater use for agriculture is emerging as an important water resource for agriculture in rainfall deficit areas. The Directorate of Groundwater Development Studies and Management of the Ministry of Water and Energy plan to develop 9 irrigation projects in the country. These are at different phases of study. According to this implementation plan, over 8,000 ha of land will be developed as a pilot study using groundwater in the coming five years (2010/11 to 2014/15). MoWE also plan to drill more than 90, 000 test wells, 28,000 monitoring wells and over 370,000 meters of production wells (not given in
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terms of number of wells). This will require additional institutional and human capacity development, technology procurement and transfer. The knowledge and capacity gap in the country is believed to be high at both professional and technician levels. Without such capacity, it will be difficult to develop and sustain ground water study and development. The coverage and scale of the available geological and hydrogeological maps over the country is not favorable for understanding regional groundwater. Only 50% and 39% of the country is covered with geological hydrogeological maps at a scale of 1:250,000. The available groundwater database is not well known and not much used by experts and institutions. This software, known as Ethiopian National Ground Water Information Database (ENGDA) contains information on more than 3,000 boreholes and is available at the Department of Hydrology (MoWE). New ground water software known as ENGWIS, believed to be more flexible, is under development and will be launched soon. The current human resource situation in the management and development of groundwater in the Regional State Water Bureaus is generally characterized as insufficient. A minimum of 31% (281 out of 895) of all job positions are currently vacant. The capacity gap in the country shows a dire shortage as we go down to the lower levels of administration. The current human resource situation in the Zonal Water Resources Office shows a shortage of 54% (579 out of 1076), while the district situation is the worst with a human resources shortfall of 61% (7,447 out of 12,140). When it comes to town water supply service areas and public enterprises, the situation is similar with relatively better coverage. In the same year, the Town Water Supply Service offices stand at a shortfall of most 25 % (1002 out of 3740), while the public enterprises such as Water Works and Construction Enterprise (WWCE), Water Works Design and Supervision and Enterprise (WWDSE), and Water Works Development Enterprise (WWDE) shows a shortfall of 34% (512 out of 1503). In almost all the water bureaus, public enterprises and private consulting firms, the required professionals are mainly hydrogeologists and water supply engineers. There is no recorded data on drilling costs over time and it is difficult to analyze any trend. However, based on the information available from private drilling companies (Hailemichaeel, 2004), the cost of well drilling has been decreasing. As indicated in section 2.2 of this report, drilling costs were reported (in ESRDF projects) to be falling in Tigray between 1998/1999 (Birr 1,400/m equivalent to USD 84 USD1). This was due to the establishment of regional enterprises and increasing competition from the private sector. However, in the remote region of Benishangul-Gumuz, the costs of contracted drilling were still around Birr 1,350/m. In general, the cost of deep well drilling has decreased from Birr 2,000/m to Birr 1,200/m. For shallow wells, normally below 30 m, the cost is reduced from birr 1,500/m to Birr 900/m. Well construction quality has deteriorated due to the high competition. Steel casings of poor quality have been used by some contractors. As there are no standardized designs and specifications, competition in prices has greatly affected quality (Hailemichael, 2004). The cost of drilling after the recent devaluation of the Ethiopian Birr has increased the cost from 2,000 to 3,000 Birr/meter depending on the distance and type of rock formation.
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All exchange rates are expressed in terms of current rates of 1USD=16.5 Birr

Generally, the cost of drilling machines is over 800,000 USD (T3W rigs). The initial capital cost is very expensive, but companies are encouraged by the government to import tax free. The planning and implementation of irrigated agriculture using ground water sources is highly encouraging. There are robust planning documents and ongoing studies at federal well as regional state government levels. There are, however, valid concerns that may impede development efforts. The most important concern is the limitation of knowledge and information available on the extent of the potential ground water. Secondly, the available human and institutional capacity to plan, develop and manage is limited in quantity and quality. Thirdly, drilling equipment and associated spare parts are hard to get and limited in number. It is suggested that the government of Ethiopia should invest in developing institutional and human capacity. The most important areas of human capacity development are hydrogeology, water supply engineers, geologists and drilling technologies and associated technician skill development. The initial capital cost of drilling rigs and spare parts are discouraging private companies. It is important to provide some kind of long-term loan schemes for private companies for importing deep drilling rigs and to establish spare part distributors within the country. Alternatively, private public partnership schemes can be forged between public agencies and private companies. This will expand the coverage of ground water drilling activity and guarantee availability of spare parts, which will contribute to ongoing efforts on irrigated agriculture development.

1.

GROUNDWATER WATER OCCURRENCE IN ETHIOPIA

1.1. Introduction Ethiopia has a complicated hydrogeologic environment and complex groundwater regime. Until recently, many experts believed that extensive aquifers usable for large-scale exploitation of groundwater were unlikely to exist. This claim, which was almost a consensus, has recently been disputed due to a paradigm shift in methodology. There are indications that some aquifers in the count have large deposits of groundwater . This paper provides an overview of the potential groundwater availability from past papers and recent approaches and studies. The paper will present the status of the groundwater use focusing on agricultural water use. The available groundwater technologies, institutions and the direction of future groundwater use for agriculture are discussed. The report draws on the literature from within the country and groundwater well information collected from Regional State Water Bureaus. 1.2 Geologic succession in Ethiopia Ethiopia forms a part of the major structural unit of the earths crust referred to as the Horn of Africa. This unit comprises the Arabian Peninsula, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, Djibouti, Somalia and the northern part of Kenya. The geological history of the Horn of Africa is closely related to the rest of the African Continent but does differ significantly in some respects. The geology of Ethiopia is strongly influenced by two major episodes. a) The Arebo-Ethiopian swell in the Eocene to early Oligocene, b) The major rift faulting movements throughout the African Rift system from Miocene to quaternary. The Great Rift System of Africa bifurcates the Africa lowlands of Ethiopia with major escarpments trending north and east respectively. The original land mass thus divided into two plateau units by the rift system: the western and eastern plateau. Much of the plateau region in Ethiopia lies above 2000 m altitude and comprises areas with structurally horizontal table land. The Rift Valley itself is an extensive graben with evidence of recent volcanism in the north and bounded by impressive steeped horsts of the plateau on the west and southeast margins. The Rift Valley widens at the intersection of the East African Rift, the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden where it is called the Afar Triangle. A brief Summary of Geological Succession in Ethiopia (V. Kazmin, 1973) is presented below (Table 1.1).

Table 1.1.
Epoch Paleozoic

Geological succession in Ethiopia


Age Pre-Cambrian Rock Formation Posttectonic granitoids, syntectonic granitoids, various grades and types of schist, gneiss, unaltered sedimentary rocks and igneous intrusions referred to as basement complex. Upper Paleozoic Triassic sandstone, shale, glacial deposits. Mount Fikkyu formation, Dibigia & Ganale Doria formation Hamanlei series, Urandab series, Gabredere series, main gypsum Amba Aradam Formation, Antalo Group. Adgirat Sandstone, Gumburo series Alkaline granite and syenite, Megdala group, trap series Dogali formation, desert formation. Dunishub Formation, Red sea series, Jessoma sandstone, Auradu series, Teleh series, kalakah series Basaltic flows and related spatter cones. Basaltic intermediate and flesic Volcanics. Quaternary sediments.

Mesozoic

Cenozoic

1.Southern Sidamo sediments 2. Eastern and Western Ogaden Sediments 3. Central plateau sediments 1.Tertiary Volcanics 2. Tertiary Sediments

3. Quaternary Volcanics

Source: WAPCOS, 1990 P.AII-3

Figure 1.1.

Geological map of Ethiopia (includes both Ethiopia and Eretria)

Major portion of Ethiopia is a high plateau consisting of massive non-porous volcanic rocks with escarpments of sedimentary rocks. The geological areas of the highlands (>1500 m altitude) is approximately 445,000 km2. The basement metamorphic and igneous rocks, with no primary porosity, cover the lowland plains and the valleys. The availability of groundwater in non-porous rocks is localized within joints, fissures and weathered portions. The depths are highly restricted. The movement of groundwater is compartmentalized and the yield from wells is highly variable (WAPCOS, 1990). 1.3 Aquifers and Aquifer Classification. The distribution of groundwater is mainly shaped by two factors, rechargeable rainfall and the nature of geological formations shown in Figure 1.1. The geological formations that store and transmit groundwater (the recharge) are called aquifers. According to WAPCOS (1990), the aquifers of Ethiopia are grouped into three categories based on their regional extent, lithological homogeneity and hydrologic properties. The three categories are hard rock aquifers, consolidated sedimentary rock aquifers, and unconsolidated aquifers.
a) Hard Rock aquifers

These aquifers with no primary porosity are capable of storing water within their weathered, jointed and fractured zones. They are often recharged from overlaying alluvium and weathered zones. The groundwater occurs in free dynamic condition (water table aquifers). Hydraulic conductivity is in the range of 1 to 40 meters per day. The yield is limited. Approximate area of such aquifers is 358,000 km2.
b) Consolidated Sedimentary rock aquifers

Consolidated sedimentary rock aquifers have moderate primary porosity and interangular permeability. The aquifers are regionally extensive and capable of yielding considerable discharge. The exploitation of aquifers is constrained by the recharge rate and chemical quality of the water. Generally, the rock types are limestone (karstic type) and sandstone. The hydraulic conductivity is less than 100 m/day. These aquifers occupy an area of most 456,000 km2.
c) Unconsolidated Aquifers

Unconsolidated aquifers are comprised of valley sediments with unconsolidated sand, gravel and river alluvium. They are fairly extensive in river valleys and flood plains along abandoned river channels, river terraces and delta regions. The groundwater is partly under pressure and their recharge is associated with stream flows. The river valleys of Awash, Barka, Mereb Gash and Tekeze Angereb have considerable flood deposits consisting of sand, gravel and silt. The area occupied by such aquifers is 432,000 km2. The hydraulic conductivity is greater than 100 m/day. Hailemariam (2004) presented the above aquifer types in some detail indicating the groundwater condition in terms of depths and safe yields. The information is extracted from an inventory of boreholes and water supply schemes and supports the findings of other studies that the aquifer systems of Ethiopia are mainly discontinuous and isolated. The

temporal and spatial variation of groundwater occurrence is very high and disparity of depths and yields is very high between wells located within short distances as well. Table 1.2. Aquifer and aquifer classification
Average depth to tap water 30-60 Average specific yield (lit/sec) 1-2

Aquifer system

Location

Aquifer description

Weathered and fractures intrusive and old Precambrian rocks (granite, metamorphose rocks, etc.)

Western, southwestern

Sedimentary rocks (Mesozoic sand stone, karstic limestone, )etc

200-300

2-5

Eastern, southeastern

The tertiary volcanics (having primary and secondary porosity)

50-250

2-6

Central, eastern and western highlands

Quaternary volcanics

100-250

2-5

Rift valley

These types of rocks have very low fracture permeability while the depth of fracturing is shallow and accordingly groundwater in this type of aquifer is also shallow. However, if thick layer of weathered over burden exists, relatively good potential of groundwater occurs. In general the depth of groundwater tapping this aquifer system is between 15 to 60 meters and most wells drilled in this aquifer do have an average yield of 1-2 lit/sec whenever thick weathered part exists on a fractured mother rock. These are thick layers of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks (only in some areas Palaeozoic rocks exist) that have different layers of sand stone, marl, limestone, shale and conglomerate2. The primary porosity developed is very poor for some of the layers (limestone) while secondary porosity and karistification is very common in the limestone. Therefore, good yield of water is extracted from the karstified limestone and the sand stone. However, due to the location of these layers deep underground, wells striking these aquifers are very deep to as much as 400 meters while the average depth being 250 meters. These types of aquifers have both primary and secondary porosity with a well tapping groundwater to a depth extending to 250 meters. There are successive layers of aquifer systems and the upper most part, if tapped, is yielding smaller amount of water (0.5 to 1 lit/sec). If drilled deeper, the occurrence of groundwater increases. These aquifers exist extensively throughout the country especially in the western, central and eastern highlands. The water quality in this type of aquifers is generally good. These are young volcanics of the rift floor where high tectonic activity is occurring which has resulted highly fractured rocks and as a result a favorable situation for groundwater recharge and occurrence exist.

The Palaeozoic rocks cover an insignificant part of the country and their importance as aquifers is unknown.

Unconsolidated sediments (alluvial, colluvial, in situ developed soils, lacustrine sediments)

20-100

1-5

Mostly in the Rift Valley, western low lands, river valleys, isolated depressions throughout the country

In situ developed soils

5-20

0.1-1

Throughout the country but especially in the highlands and midands

These are lacustrine and alluvium deposits of the flood plains and valley fills. They are very important hydrogeologic formations that are used to be very good sources of groundwater in Ethiopia. The grain sizes of the alluvial deposits vary from fine grains of clay to gravel with horizontal and vertical variation in grain sizes. As they are located exposed to the surface seasonal recharge by direct rainfall is occurring and as a result they are good sources of groundwater. Due to their nature of deposit, these sediments are not homogenous and isotropic. Besides, the extent and depth varies within a short distance as they are deposited on the existing irregular surfaces of an old topography. The average yield of the wells dug or drilled in these formations have a yield of 1-5 liters/sec and the depth to abstract groundwater is between 20 to 100 meters. These types of aquifers exist in the rift valley, in the river valleys and isolated grabens. These are soils developed within micro catchments where the rainfall directly infiltrates and stores in the saturated zone. These types of soils are found to be useful sources of water especially in the highlands of Ethiopia where traditional and improved HDWs are the major sources of water supply. Seepage springs are also common whenever there is a break in slope and/or a lower contact of the soil is exposed to the surface. Springs from these types of soils have an average yield of most 0.1 lit/sec.

Both WAPCOS and Hailemariam aquifer classifications originate from the hydrogeological map of Ethiopia produced by the Ethiopian Institute of Geological Survey (EIGS, 1988). This map is one of the comprehensive works in the hydrogeology of Ethiopia with a scale of 1:2,000,000.

Figure 1.2.

Hydrogeological map of Ethiopia

Currently, Geological Survey of Ethiopia has patches of hydrogeological maps (Figure 1.2) of the country with a scale of 1:250,000.

Figure 1.3.

Hydrogeological map of the regions

An attempt to describe the groundwater regions in Ethiopia based on geologic formations supplemented by hydrologic and meteorological data is given. According to WAPCOS (1990), five groundwater regions can be identified: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Western Highlands Region 1 South-eastern Highlands Region 2 Central Lowlands Including Gulf of Aden Region 3 Lower Rift Valley and Afar Regions Region 4 Outer Lowlands Region 5

The existing hydro-geological map provides preliminary qualitative information on the type and formation of aquifers in general. Currently, relatively large numbers of boreholes are available in the country through several water supply and irrigation projects. The experience and capacity of groundwater study, exploration and conceptualization is also growing. It is essential to produce an up-to-date comprehensive hydro-geological map. Given the limited information and the small-scale nature of the previous maps, we cannot discern adequate information or accurately convey our findings to decision makers as to where and how much groundwater is available. That is why the current assessment by WWDSE produces significant variation in its study for specific projects in Kobo, and Raya (discussion with WWDSE groundwater expert).

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Figure 1.4.

Ground water regions of Ethiopia

2.

PREVIOUS STUDIES OF GROUNDWATER IN ETHIOPIA

2.1. Review of past studies Several organizations and researchers studied the hydro-geological condition of Ethiopia. Among them are the studies of the Ethiopian Institute of Geological survey (EIGS), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Halcraw, Electroconsult and others. From 1974 to 1976, a hydro- geological survey was carried out by the Ethiopian Institute of Geological Survey (EIGS) in Mekele Area covering an area of 18,000 km2 between 130140 north latitude and 39040.30 east longitude. From this, a Hydrological Map of Mekele Area (1:250,000) was prepared (WAPCOS, 1990). Geologically, this area consists of metamorphic, sedimentary and igneous rocks. The transmissivity of the rock fractures was found to range from high (875 m2/day) in alluvial terraces to very low (<1 m2/day) in fresh unfractured metamorphic rocks and intrusive rocks. Groundwater in the area was found to predominantly contain bi-carbonates and sulphates. In January 1982, the EIGS and UNDP conducted a study on the Lakes Region (Ziway, Abijata, Shalla and Awassa). The Lakes Region is covered by volcanic rocks, such as basalts, ignimbrites, trachutes, rhyolites and pyroclastics. In the lowland areas, extensive areas of
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lucastrine sediments are found overlying the ignimbrites of the rift floor having variable hydraulic conductivity. The groundwater movement is established as moving north towards Lake Shalla (the deepest lake in Ethiopia). Some groundwater from adjacent areas of Lake Awassa and Bilate River Basin also move towards the lake. High fluoride concentrations in surface and groundwater were encountered in large parts of the area. Due to high salinity, alkalinity and fluoride content, waters of Lake Langano, Abijata and Shalla were considered as neither fit for drinking nor for irrigation. The reports also show that the groundwater in the lowlands of these areas was similar. The hydrogeology of Nazareth area carried out by EIGS (1974 1980) shows the area consists of Nazareth group of rocks with Mesozoic sedimentary formations. Some alluvial and lucastrine sediments were also identified. The problem of groundwater quality is not acute (fluoride content less than 1.5 ppm) except some isolated pockets with fluoride contents greater than 5 ppm around Wonji, Methahara and Wolenchiti areas. The permeability and yield in these areas are highly variable. The UNDP, in collaboration with the Government of Ethiopia, also conducted a study during the period 1972 to 1974 in Awash Basin with the objective of assessing groundwater, reviewing groundwater and surface water potential, and offering suggestions for delineating potential groundwater areas. Investigations in the Aledeghi Plain showed that there were adequate groundwater supplies estimated to be available for domestic and livestock needs. The extent of groundwater resources was not assessed in the study. The study concluded that in Erer-Gota area, limestone beds below the base of the major uplifted area could contain potable water and WAPCOS recommends drilling boreholes in these areas. The flood plain and delta of the lower Awash Valley has been recommended as a potential groundwater area from the delineated groundwater areas. And this delineation report suggested three areas for future groundwater studies: Tendaho Assayta segment; Lower delta from Hedaitole to lower Gamari in E-W direction and from Amadugora to Lake Bario in a N-S direction; and Inter-montanne valley in the south eastern corner of Dit Bahri, Kutubala and across the mouth of the valley, south east of Kutubala.

The study also contained valuable information regarding the hot springs of Ethiopia. In Melka-Sedi Amibara area, groundwater studies were stated by Ital Consultants in 1970. Since then, groundwater levels in the area were recorded intermittently. The data are incomplete and boreholes have been abandoned. It is stated in the report that a possibility exists of identifying two sets of aquifers below the Amibara Plain. Another extensive study by EIGS since 1970 to 1984 reviewed by WAPCOS shows the following:

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i. The regional geologic mapping of sedimentary rocks in the Harar. Awash Valley region indicated that the prospects for groundwater appear to be good in the area. ii. The hydro-geological information, including borehole logs, water analysis, was documented. iii. A borehole at Hagere Mariam drilled to a depth of 38.3 m produced a yield of 5 m3/hr. The productive zone was found to be 4.5 m. The lower part of the basalt proved unexpectedly compact and impermeable. Another borehole located a few kilometers southwest of Suropa found water in the decomposed fractured granite gneiss underlying and alluvium filled valley. The yield varied from 18 l/min to 45 lit/min. iv. In the Dire Dawa area, 185 springs with discharges varying from 1 to 50 l/min have been identified. v. During the year 1983-84 a hydro-geophysical survey for groundwater was carried out in Gelana and Gidabo Basins which helped in determining the geological structure and aquifer characteristics of the area. vi. Up to 1984, a total area of 253,000 km2 has been hydro-geologically investigated in Ethiopia. It was WAPCOS (1990) that first employed various approaches for the estimation of groundwater resources for almost the entire part of Ethiopia. Five assessment approaches were implemented to quantify the potential annual rechargeable ground water. Accordingly, an estimated 21 to 27.5 MCM is the total replenishable annual ground water volume. This estimate by WAPCOS is believed by many professionals and academics to be underestimated. 2.2 Current Ground Water Studies International Ground Water Conference, Addis Ababa (2004) A recent international groundwater conference in Addis Ababa (2004) brought forward many challenges and issues. One important achievement of the conference was it brought together hydrogeologists and other groundwater specialists from all over Ethiopia and beyond. A total of 94 papers and posters were presented from different regions across the country, notably from Tigray, Amhara, Benishangul, and SNNPRS. Comparison of drilling success rates in the regional state government shows high success rates in Tigray and Amhara States (70-75% in Tigray and 84% in Amhara), lower success rates in Benishangul (31%). Drilling costs were reported (in ESRDF projects) to be falling in Tigray between 1998/90 and 2004. This was due to the establishment of the Regional Enterprise and increasing competition from the private sector. However, in the remote region of Benishangul-Gumuz, the costs of contracted-out drilling were still around Birr 1,350/m. Several regions were said to be experimenting with shallower depths and smaller diameters than before, packaging and clustering of drilling contracts, use of PVC casings rather than steel where possible, and other cost reduction measures. In one case, it was argued that test pumping should not be carried out on shallow (hand pump) boreholes. In Amhara, although 75% of drilling is carried out using DTH, it was suggested that rig versatility (DTH combined with mud rotary) and capital cost and ease of maintenance should be important considerations in choice of technology.

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The Geological Survey of Ethiopia presented the current status of hydrogeological mapping as is shown in Figure 4. The ambitious Ethiopian Groundwater Resources Assessment Programme (EGRAP) was described, together with various contributions made by IAEA, USGS, UNDP and Norad in partnership with GSE and MoWR. The Ethiopian National Groundwater Database (ENGDA), a Microsoft Access-based system, was installed in GSE, MoWR and AAU in 2004. Currently, the database, which was installed at least in the then Ministry of Water Resources, has been abandoned and another ground water information system is underway. Some presenters focused on ways of surmounting the challenges posed by drilling in Africa by emphasizing high safety factors in rig specifications (especially pull-back), and techniques such as simultaneous casing for heterogeneous formations. Others argued for a relaxation of borehole designs and specifications, and simpler equipment. In the latter case, the now often-repeated call is for small diameters, shallow depths, PVC casings instead of steel, or no casing at all in hard rock, limited development and test pumping; all aimed at driving down the costs of hand pump boreholes. Unfortunately, the assumptions behind some of these arguments are that Sub-Saharan Africa is essentially crystalline rock, and that we are drilling exclusively for hand pumps; neither of which hold true in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, many of the points made were helpful in those situations where shallow boreholes for rural hand pump water supplies are possible. The combination of hard-rock drilling technology (DTH) with the development the India Mark II hand pump achieved this revolution, the ingredients for success being listed as: Political will; Continuous support by external support agencies; A strong industrial base; Skilled human resources; The involvement of the private sector; An extensive program of work; Informed technical choice; Good logistical control; Standardization; Good communications and infrastructure; and Effective monitoring and evaluation.

Some of the ingredients are present, or potentially so, in Ethiopia, many are not. Furthermore, Ethiopias geology generally presents more challenging drilling. ENGDA -Ethiopian National Groundwater Database The Ministry of Water Resources (now called the Ministry of Water and Energy), developed a national groundwater database to capture the ground water characteristics of the country. The first National ground water database, known as Ethiopian National Groundwater Database (ENGDA) was established. ENGDA was started in 2003 by USGS experts in collaboration with the Ministry of Water Resources (Hydrology Department) under the project ETH/8/007 which was supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and finalized in January 2005.

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ENGDA is implemented jointly by the Ministry of Water Resources, Addis Ababa University, and the Geological Survey of Ethiopia in close collaboration with the Regional Water Resources Development Bureaus, Water Works Enterprises and NGOs. The success of ENGDA is due to the on-going studies and sustaining the capabilities built through technical cooperation with the IAEA in the past several years. The success of these technical cooperation projects depends on the capability to collect, process, interpret and archive the relevant hydrogeological and hydrological data. ENGDA is a necessary tool critical to the successful implementation of the proposed Ethiopian Groundwater Resources Assessment Program (EGRAP) that has been submitted to the Government for approval. This project is aimed at mapping and investigating the groundwater resources of the entire nation within a period of 12-15 years. ENGDA is implemented in Microsoft Access and is designed to input, store, analyze and report ground-water information. Ground water data stored in ENGDA includes site information, borehole details, water-level and water quality. The Ministry of Water Resources, Hydrology Department has a plan to train all regional water bureaus' and ground water related professionals so that all ground water data can be stored and managed systematically. Currently, the sustainability of ENGDAs is a question mark. There is little news of the implementation of the database in the Ministry of Water and Energy. Currently, there is ongoing project to develop a new database system known as Ethiopian National Ground Water Information System(ENGWIS) under the directorate of Ground Water Development Study and Management of Ministry of Water and Energy, which may explain the near extinction of ENGDA. It was possible to access ENGDA which is currently available only at the hydrology department of the MoWE and waiting to be replaced by ENGWIS. Additional ground water studies: ground water for agriculture The government embarked on enhanced development of groundwater for agricultural mostly in drought prone areas (PASDEP II, 2010). In the last five years, studies of four selected ground water studies covering a total of 35,261 km2 have been completed (Kobo Girana: 2,850 km2; Raya Valley: 1,411 km2; Adaa Becho: 17,000 km2; and Aladage; 14,000 km2). According to the five year PASDEP II plan for groundwater, more than nine projects are being considered for development (MoWE, 2010). The first phase of the study in the coming five years has put 8,000 ha to be developed as a pilot (MoWE, 2010).

3.

GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL OF ETHIOPIA

Ground water potential of Ethiopia is controversial and there is no consensus so far as to the estimated exploitable groundwater potential. It varies from WAPCOS estimate of around 2.5 BCM to preliminary national estimates of Ayenew and Alemayehu (2001) to 185 BCM. This extremely high discrepancy in the potential is a challenge to the experts and decision makers. Some of the studies are presented in the preceding section. 3.1 Basin Ground Water Estimation WAPCOS (1990) It was WAPCOS (1990) that first time employed new approaches for the estimation of groundwater resources. Usually indirect methods are used due to the scarcity of data in almost all the potential areas of development. The methods seen are:
15

a) b) c) d) a)

Base flow separation approach; Subsurface drainage approach; Recharge area approach; Water balance simulation techniques; and Base flow separation method.

a) Base flow separation approach Stream flow originating from stored groundwater is referred to as groundwater runoff or base flow. The mean monthly stream flows are plotted for a gauging station selected as near the end of a basin or sub-basin as possible. The plotting is made in such a manner that two minimum points are reached during the year. These points are joined by a straight line and the volume below this line is computed as base flow or B in Mm3. Such an approach adopted by WAPCOS (1990) and the base flow volumes for different river basins is shown in Table 3.1. Table 3.1. Base flow volumes of river basins
Basin Abbay Rift Valley Lakes Awash Omo-Ghibe Genale-Dewa-Weyib Wabi-Shebele Baro-Okobo Tekeze-Angereb-Goang Total Stream flow data used (No. of years 19 4 to 20 15 21 5 to 6 6 3 to 9 9 Base flow Volume: B (Mm3) 10,200 2,217 2,240 2,785 454 1,108 1,211 1,791 22,006

Source: WAPCOS 1990, P.AII -27 b) Subsurface Drainage Approach Groundwater runoff contours for Ethiopia have been drawn by Karasic (1982). This map was superimposed on the river basins of Ethiopia and assuming groundwater representing the replenishable recharge (QG) in any basin, the value of QG for each basin has been computed and a map was produced (Figure 6.2)

16

Table 3.2.

Basin-wise replenishable recharge (sub-surface drainage approach)


Area (Km2) 201,300 52,700 112,700 78,200 171,000 202,700 74,000 90,000 982,600 Groundwater runoff (l/sec/Km2) 2.05 0.77 0.52 1.35 0.33 0.32 0.90 0.74 Annual recharge, QG (Mm3) 13,014 1,280 1,848 3,329 1,780 2,046 2,100 2,100 27,497

Basin Abbay Rift Valley Lakes Awash Omo-Ghibe Genale-Dawa Wabi-Shebele Baro-Okobo Tekeze-Angereb-Goang

Source: WAPCOS 1990, P.AII -29 C) Recharge Area Approach Groundwater storage is mainly due to infiltration of precipitation of seepage from streams and other water bodies. Major groundwater replenishment takes place through direct precipitation over the upland areas of the watershed. The seasonal fluctuations of water level depend on the rate of replenishment of the saturated zone. This rate is a function of precipitation, surface run-off, permeability of soil, drainage network, and antecedent moisture content of the soil and the slope of the land surface. In recharge areas, gentle slopes seem to offer more favorable conditions. Moderate rainfall over an extended period of time accelerates infiltration. During heavy rains for short periods, the recharge is minimal. Thus WAPCOS (1990) suggests two factors which control the infiltration of precipitation and recharge to groundwater.

1. Physical factors, such the size, slope and geologic conditions of water shed, and 2. Climatic conditions which vary from season to season and year to year.

17

Figure 3.1.

Recharge areas

Using the concepts above, WAPCOS tried to identify broad groundwater recharge and discharge areas in each basin. However, precise delineation of such areas could not be determined due to lack of information on seasonal water level changes. The basinwide extent of the recharge area and amount of recharge to groundwater expressed as percent of mean annual rainfall are given below (WAPCOS, 1990) Table 3.3. Basin wise replenishable recharge (recharge area approach) Mean annual rainfall (mm) 1,420 1,135 850 1,469 550 450 1,590 819 455 Extent of recharge area 89,760 15,840 22,400 35,811 19,675 29,085 10,581 35,816 4,316 % of rainfall recharging GW 10 5 7 8 4 3 4 3 2 Replenishabl e recharge QG (Mm3) 12,745 898 1,332 4,208 433 393 673 870 39 21,591

Basin Abbay Rift Valley Lakes Awash Omo-Ghibe Genale-Dawa Wabi-Shebele Baro-Okobo Tekeze-Angereb-Goang Danakil

Source: WAPCOS 1990, P.AII -32


18

Judging from significant recharge estimate variations provided from several of the studies, the potential groundwater of the country varies significantly and it is difficult to establish the facts. However, it is widely reported that Ethiopia possesses usable groundwater potential in the order of 2.6 BCM. Not only are the yield levels of water wells too low (less than 5 liters per second), but wells are generally too deep to justify economic exploitation of groundwater resources for irrigation purposes in Ethiopia (WAPCOS, 1990). Various studies have been done to explore the hydrogeological condition of different places in the country with a view to quantifying the groundwater potential of each place selected by the study team (EIGS, UNDP, Halcrow, Electro-consult: cited in WAPCOS, 1990). Most studies were carried out in the 1970s and 1980s through bilateral cooperation and UNDP support. The WAPCOS (1990) compilation and estimation of the groundwater potential of the country is more comprehensive than any previous study. While studying the national water master plan, WAPCOS (1990) made an effort to quantify the total ground water potential using various direct and indirect empirical approaches that include i) base flow separation approach, ii) subsurface drainage approach, iii) recharge area approach, iv) water balance simulation techniques and iv) base flow separation method. As shown in Table 3.4, all the techniques give fairly comparable estimates. The total estimated ground water recharge locked in the sub surface may vary between 21.5 to 27.5 BCM. More than 50% of the potential ground water is locked in the Blue Nile Basin. The western part of the country has a total estimated potential of well above 75%, while the eastern highlands, including Awash Basin, covers the other 25%. While the figure indicated as the usable potential ground water may be arguable, the available studies suggest Ethiopias groundwater potential is not easily used and the aquifer systems are not extensive. Table 3.3 (WAPCOS, 1990) gives usable groundwater potential.

19

Table 3.4.

Usable groundwater potential


Annual replenishable recharge (BM3)* Usable groundwater potential
Extraction factor Extractable ground Water (BM3)* % reduction for saline areas Usable GW (BM3)*

Basin

Sub surface drainage approach

Recharge area approach

Base flow approach

Adopted value

Blue Nile Rift Valley Lakes Awash Omo-Gibe GenaleDawa WabiShebele BaroOkobo TekezeAngerebGoang

13.01 1.28 1.85 3.33 1.78 2.05 2.1 2.1 27.5

12.7 0.9 1.3 4.2 0.43 0.39 0.67 0.87 21.46

10.2 2.2 2.2 2.8 0.5 1.1 1.2 1.8 22.0

12 1.5 2 3.5 1 1.5 2 2 25.5

0.15 0.05 0.1 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 .1

1.8 0.08 0.2 0.18 0.05 0.08 0.1 0.2 2.69

0 90 30 0 35 45 0 0

1.8 0.01 0.14 0.18 0.03 0.04 0.1 0.2 2.5

*Billion cubic meters Source: WAPCOS 1990 P. AII-35

14 Total Replenishable Recharge Mean Annual Volume (BCM) 12 10 8 6 4 2 Omo-Ghibe 0 Blue Nile Rift Valley Lakes Awash Baro-Okobo Utilizable Potential

GenaleDawa

Wabi Shebele

Major River Basins

Figure 3. 2: Replenishable discharge of Ethiopian River Basins 3.2 National Ground Water Recharge Estimate Ayenew and Alemayehu (2001) Ayenew and Alemayehu (2001) presented totally different figures for the amount of groundwater recharge over the country on the basis of simplified assumptions. The general coverage of the recharge mechanism based on the geological cover of the country as: I) basement cover = 18%; ii) Paleozoic and Mesozoic cover = 25%; iii). tertiary volcanic = 40%; iv). quaternary sediments and volcanic = 17%. On the basis of these proportions, the main
20

TekezeAngerebGoang

source of recharge for the groundwater system is generally the abundant rainfall over the highlands. The major recharge occurs in the northeastern and southwestern plateau where annual rainfall is high and rapid infiltration is facilitated by the occurrence of fractured volcanic and to a lesser extent sedimentary rocks and thick permeable soils. The Ethiopian Rift acts as a discharging zone, which contains numerous perennial rivers, fresh and salt lakes, cold and thermal springs. With the exception of much of the Afar Depression, where the annual recharge is close to zero, the overview of the recharge over Ethiopia is summarized in Table 3.5 (Ayenew and Alemayehu, 2001). Table 3.5. The overview of annual recharge in Ethiopia Location

Highlands of Illu-Ababora, Keffa and Wollega Much of the Western and western and central Ethiopia and Arsi-Bale highlands 50 - 150 Much of Northern and northwestern highlands, central Main Ethiopian rift, southern and eastern regions between the Rift plain and the Arsi-Bale Highlands less than 50 Southern Afar and the extreme northern end of the western lowlands Source: Ayenew and Alemayehu, 2001 On the basis of various simplifying assumptions and 200 mm average recharge over the country, Ayenew and Alemayehu (2001) estimated the volume of groundwater reserve in the order of 185 billion m3. This figure is far from many others estimates. It may be due to methodological error. It is difficult to assume ground water estimation from a simple water balance concept and the figure is not acceptable. It is estimated that the total surface water generated from the country is in the order of 122 billion m3. It may be an exaggeration to think the total groundwater recharge is even greater than the surface flow generated from the country. Under normal circumstances, the proportion of the direct surface runoff is greater than the total groundwater proportion of the total rainfall. Therefore, it is more likely groundwater is higher than the WAPCOS estimate and lower than the 185 BCM. 3.3 Groundwater potential and methodology shift The context of the groundwater studies in Ethiopia were generally based on the available data. Apart from the known limitations of the data, many professional experts and academics believe the past studies and exploration methods were constrained by two conceptual deficiencies. First, most recharge estimates and groundwater potential assessments used the base flow separation method as the principal assessment tool and relied on the output of the separation. This method falls short of providing accurate assessment of groundwater potential in cases of rivers contributing to groundwater (when groundwater level is well below the river bed). For instance, in an analysis of Awash River between Awash Falls to Melkasedi, the regional groundwater table is lower than the river bed by almost 20 m (discussion with WWDSE expert). This is an indication that Awash looses water from the river bed to regional groundwater aquifer. It is estimated that 50 to 200 MCM of water may be leaking to the regional groundwater aquifer from Awash River. Several rivers in Ethiopia are believed to have similar characteristics.
21

Annual recharge (mm) 250 - 400 150 - 250

Second, most groundwater studies and explorations in the past used socio-economic approaches. The approach was simply to look for water around the socio-economic centers. The studies usually fall short of regional understanding and the output usually falls on a perched groundwater aquifer, which produces lower yields for shorter periods. The approach hinders our understanding of the assessment of the availability of regional groundwater systems on a larger scale. Therefore, the majority of the boreholes drilled likely fall under such a category. Interpretation and conclusion of the groundwater potential of the country or the region on the basis of such data sets is prone to misinterpretation of the perched groundwater resources. Engda Zemedkun (WWDSE groundwater expert) argues the approach and lack of appropriate data has limited our understanding of the groundwater potential of the country. Most groundwater potential figures given by WAPCOS and other studies are therefore incorrect and should be re-evaluated. Therefore, a shift in methodologies is required in conceptualization and understanding of the groundwater system in Ethiopia. Recent studies of groundwater of Kobo, Raya and Adaa Becho, follow regional groundwater system understanding approaches and have produced water yields far larger than initially thought. It is suggested that the following shifts are recommended to evaluate the national potential of ground water resources. Groundwater studies should focus on conceptualization of the groundwater system before estimating the potential groundwater resources based on local groundwater information. Researchers should attempt to understand the regional groundwater system considering larger areas of the hydrology, flow hydraulics and the subsurface geological system. The attempt to study and understand the national groundwater potential should be a process rather than a one-time study. We should begin our understanding of individual groundwater systems on a project basis and accumulate our knowledge of the national potential. While national groundwater resources assessment from patchy data gives incorrect understanding, generation of adequate data sets for the entire country is expensive. For instance, the study of Raya, Kobo and Adaa Becho groundwater potentials has established the extent of aquifer system, the depth and direction of groundwater flow system and potential of exploitable groundwater. Systematic study and exploration of groundwater becomes a fruitful way of accumulating our understanding step by step. Excluding the recharge from the Becho Plain due to the maximum exploitation of the groundwater resource, the net available exploitable groundwater potential from Adaa Plain alone is estimated to be 1,046 MCM/year or 2.9MCM/day, which forms most 40 % of the national ground water estimate according to WAPCOS.

22

4.
4.1.

GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT AND USE

Experience of Ground Water Development and Utilization in the Country: Borehole Information Data on over 7,000 boreholes were collected from the different regional offices and MoWE including the ENGDA data sets. Over 50% of the wells do not have depth information (Figure 4.1.). Of the total wells having depth information, 80% are shallow wells and the remaining 20% deep wells. It is anticipated that over 90% of the wells lacking depth information could likely be categorized as shallow wells as ground water development in the country was mainly geared towards developing domestic water supply to fulfill the Millennium Development Goals and the universal access to safe water. The depth distributions of the wells are fairly evenly distributed over the country without including the peripheral districts of the country.

Figure 4.1.

Classification of wells according to depth

The classification of the wells according to the benefits they provide shows currently over 95% of these wells are intended for domestic water supply. Less than 4 % of the ground water development is used for irrigation. As shown in Figure 4.1, the development of the ground water for irrigation is mainly in Borena in the south (Oromiya Regional State), Kobe (Amhara Regional State), and Raya (Tigray Regional State). These are the only implemented ground water development schemes and are expected to expand to other parts of the country such as Adaa Becho Plain, Teru, and Tana Beles sub-basins.

23

Distribution of ground water use Source: Authors data collection

Figure 4.2.

24

Figure 4.3. 4.2

Classification of borehole based on yield.

Experience of Ground Water Development and Utilization for Agriculture

Experience of exploiting groundwater in the country for irrigation is limited. As of 2004, the total groundwater irrigated areas in the country did not exceed two hundred hectares of horticulture and flower farms (Aytenffisu and Zemedagegnehu, 2004). Reviews of the different studies on groundwater conditions indicate there is high potential for developing groundwater sources for irrigation in specific areas. These include alluvial fan deposits along the foot of the rift escarpments, flood plains and valley fills which are regularly recharged by seasonal runoffs from the highlands. The western escarpments of the Rift Valley that stretch from Showa Robit to Alamata (such as Shewa Robit, Raya-Kobo, Girana, Borkena, Mersa valleys), the vast alluvial plain that extends from Alaydege near the Awash flood plain to Dewele on the Djibouti border, the flood plains of the major and seasonal rivers and several fan deposits along the foot of escarpments. Most areas are located in drought prone regions. As it stands now, the used ground water is limited (Figure 3.3). Section 4.3 presents some of large-scale ongoing and planned ground water irrigation schemes.

25

4.2.1 Ground Water potential of Kobo Girana Valley The main aquifer in the valley is unconsolidated sediment. Three aquifers or recharge areas are identified in the valley: the Waja-Golesha, the Hormat-Golina and Kobo-Gerbi recharge areas. The following table provides a summary of aquifer characteristics. According to the hydro-geological investigation report by Metaferia Consulting Engineers (2009), there is little information to validate the promise of Girana as potential groundwater sources. As shown in Table 4.1, a significant portion of the groundwater potential of the valley is the reserved groundwater with exploitable groundwater in the order of 700 to 800 MCM. However, the annual recharge remains within the range of 30 to 50 MCM. Therefore, caution is needed to sustain use of the available groundwater. Table 4.1.
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Ground water potential of Kobo Girana Valley


Parameters Waja-Golesha Range Average 60-277 156 20-160 100 566 17 650 Good Hormat-Golina Range Average 18-210 129 20-150 90 563 400* 22 1300 Good Kobo-Gerbi Range Average 42-268 149 No aquifer

Sediment thickness, m Aquifer thickness, m Transmissivity, m2/day Water Table depth, m Electrical conductivity, ms/cm Potential for GW Available Ground Water Potential, km2 High Moderate Total Average Saturated thickness, m Ground water reserve, MCM Exploitable GW , MCM (at 60% Sat. thickness) Annual Recharge, MCM Annual Use, MCM (from reserve for 15 yrs)

47 3000 Poor

8 9 10 11 12*

65.0 20.6 85.6 139 1189.84 713.90 31.0 48.0

96.3 30.7 51.3 107 1358.9 815.34 53.5 55.0

26

0 0 0 5 5 5

0 0 0 0 6 5

0 0 0 5 6 5

0 0 0 0 7 5

0 0 0 5 7 5

0 0 0 0 8 5

HYDROGEOLOGICAL MAP OF KOBO VALLEY


To Alamata
13 90

K13 K12

Waja
K2 K4 K8 K6 WG-2 K9

K11 K10

N
VES-7 VES-37

K7

13 90

15 10

bu Go VES-1

VES-3

K5

VES-4

VES-5

VES-6

VES-6

K16 K15

Golesha

50 15

VES-40 K21 K20 K22 K23

K18 K17 K14

1490

B
0 0 0 0 5 3 1

K19

To

K24 VES-41

Mendefra

La

14 10 K26 13 90
K25 K27

VES-39

Gara Lencha

To Zobul
13 9

Unconsolidated quaternary sediments (Very high to low groundwater potential)


0 0 0 5 4 3 1

VES-8VES-9

VES-10 VES-11

VES-12

VES-13 VES-14

0
0 0 0 5 4 3 1

Teriary Basalt ( Moderate to very low groundwater potential fracture aquifer) Acidic Tertiary volcanic rocks of fracture aquifer (Very low to practic ally impervious) Granites (Impervious)

14

70

14

90
K28 K29 VES-15 K30

K31 VES-16 VES-17 VES-18

VES-20

Gedemeu

Fault

A
K37

VES-21 K34 HG-1 HG-2

VES-22 K35 K36

Bore holes Index VES Points Ground Water Divide

VES-23

VES-24

K38

1 390

Riv er Ho rm at
VES-26

VES-25

K40

Abware
K42

Internal valley surface water drainage divide Rivers and streams


VES-42 VES-28

K43

VES-29

VES-30

13

ves=32

70

River Golina
r ve

VES-32

Main

K45 K46

l lke Ke

Ri

A
0 0 0 0 3 3 1

0 0 0 0 3 3 1

Secondary

1470

VES-33

K44

X-section line A-A

1410

10 0 15 153
K47

VES-34

14 30
1490

5 15
0 0 0 5 2 3 1

VES-35

VES-36

15

30

149

1550

K48

Scale
0 0 0 0 2 3 1

1:120000
2 4 Kilometers

Figure 4.4.

Hydrogeological Map of Kobo (Source: GES, 2003)

4.2.2 Groundwater potential of Raya Valley Raya valley intermountain plain is found in the southern part of Tigray Regional State, Southern Tigray Zone in Alamata and Mahoni Woredas. The surface water catchment of the valley (Selen Wuha River basin) has an area of 2,576 km2. The altitude ranges between 3,600 masl in the mountain ranges and 1,400 masl in the intermountain valley plain (Raya Valley alluvial aquifer). The Raya Valley alluvial aquifer is part of the Selen Wuha River surface water catchment of an intermountain plain which is part of the interconnected valleys of the Ethiopian rift system. It has a total area of 1,227 km2, a trough bounded by the Ethiopian plateau and rift escarpment (western escarpment) at the west and Chercher Mountains in the east. The Raya Valley alluvial aquifer is a graben of sedimentary fill elongated nearly in a NNE-SSE direction along the Main Ethiopian Rift System which has a width of most 20 -25 kilometers and length of most 65 km (figure 1). The western plateau and escarpment which comprises the largest portion of the surface catchment which drains to Raya Valley Plain
27

0 0 0 0 2 3 1

GEO-ENGINEERING SERVICE ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA JANUARY 2003


0 0 0 5 6 5 0 0 0 0 7 5 0 0 0 5 7 5

KOBO-GIRANA VALLEY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT


0 0 0 0 8 5

0 0 0 5 2 3 1

FIG 2
10 15

0 0 0 5 3 3 1

0 0 0 5 3 3 1

Groundwaterflow direction

VES-27

0 0 0 0 4 3 1

0 0 0 0 4 3 1

Water level elevation contour, masl

0 0 0 0 5 3 1

15 30

ela lib

14 10

VES-38

0 0 0 5 5 3 1

0 0 0 5 5 3 1

e rWG-1 K1 Riv

K3

0 0 0 0 6 3 1

0 0 0 0 6 3 1

0 0 0 5 6 3 1

0 0 0 5 6 3 1

50 14

7 13

30 15
10 15

0 141

0 0 0 5 5 5

0 0 0 0 6 5

alluvial aquifer are mainly composed of tertiary volcanic rocks. These rocks are highly disturbed by tectonic movements. The N-S faulting is responsible for tilting the rock formations with a general strike NE-SW and dipping to the SE direction. The Raya Valley alluvial aquifer is composed of loosely compacted sedimentary basin fill deposits. It has a high potential for agricultural development but the main problem being scarcity of surface water. The dominant type of agriculture is rainfed agriculture with supplementary irrigation using the floods flowing from the western mountain chains. Different studies have been conducted to evaluate the groundwater potential of Raya Valley Plain aquifer. Among the most comprehensive studies conducted are 1) German Consult, Kobo-Alamata Agricultural Development Program (German Consult 1977); 2) Raya Valley Integrated Agricultural Development Study Project, Hydrogeology (REST 1999); and 3) Review of REST 1998 (Dr. Gershanovich 2000). None of these have studied properly the central and eastern part of the valley plain (which comprises more than 50% of the alluvial aquifer of the valley plain) due to absence of boreholes that penetrate the alluvial aquifer to calibrate the geophysical investigation and evaluate the groundwater potential of these parts of the plain. In the current study, a large number of borehole drilling and testing (aquifer test, profile borehole drilling and testing and production well drilling and testing) was conducted, which solved the problem of data gaps in the valley, especially in the central and eastern part of the valley. Raya Valley Plain alluvial aquifer groundwater modeling was carried out to determine the sustainable exploitable groundwater potential resources in the valley by conducting different scenarios of abstraction of groundwater in the valley plain. The main previous studies are REST 1998 Raya Valley Development Project, Feasibility Hydrogeology Report and Review of the Feasibility Hydrology Report by Geshanovich 2000. The feasibility hydrogeology study was conducted to evaluate the groundwater resource potential of Raya Valley Plain alluvial aquifer by reviewing previous studies, water points inventory, water quality analysis, geophysical investigation, and conducting pumping tests on existing wells. Based on the available previous data and data generated during the study, the following results were obtained: Recharge to alluvial aquifer was estimated to be 86 Mm3/year; Total groundwater reserve of the valley alluvial aquifer is 7.2 Bm3 The water quality of the valley fulfils the Ethiopian standard of drinking water; Almost all the water samples analyzed from the groundwater are excellently suitable for irrigation; Applying an analytical mathematical method, the exploitable groundwater potential is estimated to be most 162 Mm3/year

Due to limitation of borehole data in the central and eastern parts of the valley plain, the area was considered to have low transmissivity (less than 100 m2/day). It was concluded that the transmissivity of the Raya Valley alluvial aquifer generally decreases in west-east direction. In addition, it was recommended to carry out additional geophysical investigation,
28

drill test wells at the central and eastern zones of the valley plain, and conduct continuous water level monitoring. The Hydrology Report (REST 1998) was reviewed (Gershanovich 2000) and the following conclusions and recommendations were made: The boreholes of the feasibility report 1998 are partial and require fully penetrating wells, including the weathered part of the basalt bed; The density of the hydro-geological information is not sufficient for 1:50,000; No problem of water quality; The total exploitable groundwater potential is estimated most 130 Mm3/year instead of 162 Mm3/year; Recommended pilot project (2-3 well fields) of groundwater development, regional geological and hydro-geological investigations for further confirmation of the groundwater potential of the valley; and Further recommended design of production well, design of observation wells, borehole logging, well development, pumping tests, groundwater regime monitoring.

The recent study by WWDSE (2007) has considered all of recommendations of the feasibility report (REST 1998) and Gershanovich (2000) generated large additional data sets to fill the data gaps in the valley with better and quality data. Piezometer wells were drilled and data loggers were purchased and some installed recently. The mean annual groundwater balance of Raya Valley Plain alluvial aquifer is summarized in Table 4.2. Table 4.2. Summarized groundwater inflow and outflow in Raya Valley Plain alluvial aquifer
Outflow from Raya Valley alluvial aquifer Type of Outflow MCM/year Groundwater extraction for 2.5 community water supply and irrigation (2009) Evaporation from Gerjele swamp 8.9

Inflow to Raya Valley alluvial aquifer Type of Inflow MCM/year Recharge from draining the volcanic mountainous as 136.0 subsurface inflow Recharge from runoff seepage at the foot of the escarpment (upper part of 54.0 the alluvial plain) Recharge from rainfall at the plain and irrigation 68.0 return

Discharge of Waja Springs Subsurface outflow through Selen wuha zone (southeastern margin of the alluvial plain

2.8

243.8

Sum

258.0

258.0

29

The approximate exploitable groundwater resources of Raya Valley Plain alluvial aquifer is estimated to be 437 MCM/ year or 1,199,178 m3/day for 10,000 days or 25 years of exploitation time, considering the Raya Valley plain alluvial aquifer to include a total area of 1,227 km2. The estimate varies significantly from previous studies.
560000 580000 600000 1420000

1420000

8
1700
0 172 40 17
# S
H B6 9

7
# S
H B8 3

10

40 15

16 40

17

60

# S
O MH H B7

1 70 0

# S
H B5 3

# S
H B66

Mahoni

#
B P1 H

# 20 S 6
W a t er S p uy l

1520

80

# S
H B 3 2

1660

#
B P2 H

# S # S
H B7 6

# S
O MH H B 2 1

# S
H B 7

H B 5 R

16

# S

P R1 V 1

1760

1740
# S
W at e r Sp u y l

1620
W F 3 1 V2 V LS E4 1 4

P R1 V 2

W F3 1 V3

V LS E 3 19

V LS E 3 16

16 40

1620

#
Z P / 8 2

# Y # Y # Y # Y # # Y Y # # # # Y # # # Y # Y #S Y # # Y S # Y # S # Y # # Y Y
P R W02 8 0 n Mr a i BG W F 3 1/ B 1 H P RW 0 - 5 8 0 W F3 1 V9 W F 3 1/ B 4 H W F3 1/ B 3 H W F3 1 / B5 H / O F 3 1/ B5 H / OB W FB 3 1/ B 5 HW W F3 1 / B5 H / OB W F3 1 / B5 H/ O B P R6 V P R W0 68 0 W a t er Sp u y l V L S E3 1 7 P R W0 78 0 W F 3 1/ B 2 H W F3 1V 7 W F1/ B 5 H H B5 5 W F3 1 V0 1 W F 3 1V 6 W F1 / B1 H H B 4 1 a S f r on pc l W F1 / B3 H W F1/ B 2 H

1580

20

16

1720
1720

# S
P RW 0 - 18 0

W F3 1 V0

O M HH B 3 1

# S
H B 54

# S # S
H B 3 W at e r Sp uy l

#
B P3 H

# S
W F3 1V 1

0 172

# S
V L S E4 1 1

O MH H B1

# Y
P R W1 0 68 0 P R W0 98 0 P R 1 V4

# S
H B1 3

# S

W at e r Sp uy l

V LS E 3 10

#
Z P8 H B5 3 L A H B4 W F/ 9 H B1 W FV 9 8 W FV 9 2

# S
H B70

# Y
P R W1 0 38 0 P R1 V 6

# Y # Y
e Dn e j / a3 V e Dn e j / a H B3 V LS E2 1 3

# Y
W F1 / B4 H

# Y
P RW 1 02 8 0

1400000

3000

3000

6000 Meters

17 00 16 1 40 660 1640

p S2 9

W F/ 9 H B/ 3 O B1 F 9H B/ 3 O B4 W F/ 9 H BW 3 / W F / 9H B/ 3 O B3 W F/ 9 H B/ 3O B 2

1 560

Scale 1:200,000
UTM ZONE 37 ADINDAN

Y Wareabaye S # Y ## Y # Y # S # # # # #Y Y # # Y
1620
W F V 99 W FV 9 7 H B 5 R W2 0 38 0 W FV 9 10 P W F/ 9 H B4 W F / 9H B2 W FV 9 5

1620
# S
H B4

# Y
P R W1 04 8 0 Z P1

# S #

# S
H B56 P R 1 V5

# S
H B 2 1

# Y
a K s b i l o c l p

# Y
P R W1 08 8 0

#
# Y
P R W1 09 8 0

#
Z P2

# S
H B0 3

# Y
P R W0 38 0

# S
H B6

# Y
P R W2 0 08 0 W FV 9 6

00 15
# S
H B5 2

2
1400000
# Y
P RW 0 - 4 8 0

1580

#
B P 9 H

1540 1 520 1 52 1 500 0

16 60

1520

# Y
P R W2 04 8 0

# Y
W F/ 9H B 5

# S
H B6 2

# Y

P RW 2 0C 7 08

# S
H B1

V L S E1 9

# Y
P R W2 0 88 0

1620

80 15

# Y
P R W3 0 08 0 V L S E6 14 H B7 1

V LS E5 1 8

Kukuftu
0
# S
H B9 2

# Y # Y
P RW 3 028 0

# S
H B0 1 V L S E6 1 3

# S
H B 4 2

P R W3 0 C 10 8

# S

# Y
P R W3 0 38 0

# Y
P RW 3 04 8 0

1480
# S
H B18 V LS E6 1 1

#
B P8 H

# Y
P RW 4 01 8 0

# Y
P R W4 0 C 20 8

# Y
P R W4 0 08 0

# Y
P R W3 06 8 0 V LS E 6 17

#
B P 4 H

1540

# Y
P RW 2 068 0

# Y #S Y #
a Ht b em r i am a P R W3 09 8 0

# Y
P R W3 07 8 0

V LS E5 1 9

V LS E 6 18

O MH H B0 1

# Y
P RW 3 088 0 V LS E 6 12 H B 72

# Y # Y # Y Y #
W F SV A/ B 4 H W F SV A / B1 H W FSV A / B3 H W FS V A/ B 2 H V LS E6 1 9

0 150
1 50 0 14 60

0 15 S # 20
W BH 6 1

# 1460S 1440 # S
H B3

# S
H B3 7

1460

# Y
b Ar g el e e l

# Y
P R W1 0 58 0

0 144

1420

p S8 7

H B8 2 W at e r Sp u y l

14 80

#
B P7 H

# # Y # Y
B P 5 H B P/ 5 1 H / 2 P RW 4 03 8 0 P R W9 0 28 0

#
B P 6 H/ 2

14 40

# S
W B H2

14 80

Korem

# S
W BH 3 V L S E9 4

# S
H B6 1

# S
H B R3 1

#
B P 6 H/ 1

0 0

1380000

1480

1460

# Y
P R W4 0 68 0

# Y
P R W4 0 58 0

LEGEND
1380000
V LS E 9 3

# Y
W F/ 4 H B1 W B H8 V L S E4 Z P4 W BH 1 P RW 5 09 8 0

V LS E 2 4

4
Bore holes and springs a) Irrigation wells
# Y # Y # Y Private Well 100 Production Wells (MOWR) REST Drilled BH

# S
H B11 P RW 5 01 8 0

# S
H B 12 V LS E 5 3

# Y
P RW 4 088 0 P R W5 0 28 0

#Y # # S S
P R W4 0 78 0 H B 13 L AH B 5 4 V LS E 7 3 P R W5 0 08 0 V LS E0 5

Alamata
W B H3 1 S p 0 9 -

b) Monitoring bore holes


Observation well Piezometer Well #
#

c) Others
# S

Water Supply Wel Profile Well Spring

# Y
P R W0 88 0

# # Y # S # Y # # S Y # Y # # # Gerjele # Y # Y # Y # # Y Y # # # S # S Y # # S Y # # Y # Y Y # # # S Y # Y # # Y Y # # S # Y Y # S # Y # Y # Y #Y # Y # Y # Y # S # Y # Y # # S # Y # S # # # S Y # S # S Y # S # S # # S S # Y # # S S # # Y S # Y # S # # Y Y # S # Y # # Y Y # Y # #Y # Y # Y Y # Y # # # # Y # # Y # S # Y # #Y # # Y Y Y # # Y # Y # Y # Y #S Y Y # # # Y # Y Y # Y # # Y # S #S # # Y Y # Y #Y Y # S # # # # # Y Y # # Y # # Y S
V L S E6 3 P RW 4 09 8 0

HYDROLITHOLOGY

1480

P R W3 01 8 0

P R W4 04 8 0

W F / 4H B 3

W F/ 4H B / 2O B 1 F 4 H B/ 2 O B5 W F/ 4 H BW 2/ W F/ 4 H B/ 2 O B4 W F / 4H B/ 2 O B2

14 40

# S # #S S
W BH8 1 H B 0 1 L AH B 2 4

H B 09

P R W5 0 48 0

H B 14

P R1 V

P RW 5 058 0

P R W2 0 98 0

L A H B2 3

P R W5 03 8 0

W F / 3H B3

V LS E 8 2

4
1 460
1460

P R W3 0 58 0

Z P3

P R W5 0 68 0

W BH9

W F / 3H B 1

V L S E4 2

V L S E7 2

W FV 2 10

W F/ 3H B 2

W F/ 2 9 V

H B0 8

W F V 28

W BH 2

W FV 27

W FV 2 6

P R 2 V4

P R 2 V1

W FV 23

W FV 2 1

W F V 22

B H4 - 8

W FV 2 5

W FV 2 4

W F / 11 V 2

W F V 11 3

W F V 112

`
P R 2 V6 P R W6 0 28 0 P R W6 00 8 0 P R 1 V9 P R W6 0 68 0 H B 31 H B2 R 8 P R W8 0 18 0

P RW 5 078 0

P R W5 08 8 0

P R W6 0 18 0

P R 2 V7

P R2 V 5

p S1 9 P R W6 0C 2 08

P R W5 0C 9 08

Quaternary unconsolidated sediments (very high to high groundwater potential) Tertriary Basalts (Medium to low groundwater potential)
p S 9 7 p S7 O MH H B2

P RW 1 07 8 0

1420 144 0

1400

P R2 V 2

P R W6 0 C 10 8

# Y
P RW 2 028 0

V LS E 7 1

P R 2 V0

P RW 6 03 8 0

P R1 V P R 8 W2 0 78 0

Bala

V LS E 8 1

Z P 5

W B H2 1

P RW 6 07 8 0

Acidic Volcanic rocks (Very low to practicaly impervious)

1 520

1500 1540
P R W7 03 8 0

W FV 1 7

B H1 - / 2 9 B H 1 - / 1 9 A LB H0 4

20 14 1400

P RW 6 048 0

H B 9 2/ 2

W FV 1 3

P R W6 0 58 0

E V 4 S

A L B H9 3

A LB H 1 4

B H2 - 0

A L B H7 3

W F V 14

L AH B2

H B1 R 9

W F V 18

E V7 S

E V 5 S

P R W4 0 28 0

E V8 S

H B5H B 7 30

W FV 1 2

V L S E6 1

W F V 15

E V 1 S1

P RW 7 018 0

1 K

W F / 1V 9

E V1 S 2

P R W6 0 88 0

H B 32

W F/ 1 V 1

W F V 16

W FV 11 1

W F/ 1 V 10

P RW 7 00 8 0

P R W6 0 98 0

W F / 0B H6

W F / 0B H 7

W F / 0B H 1

P R W7 0C 1 08

W FV 0 7

P RW 7 02 8 0

F B 0H / 2 OB 3 W F/ 0 B H2 W W FB 0 H/ O 2 B1 W F B 0 H/ 2 O B5

W F / 0B H8

W F / 0B H5

W F V 03

W FB 0H / 2 OB 2 W F V 09 W FV 0 6 S p9 8 W F V 010 W FV 0 5 W F V 01 1 W FV 5 0

The Mesozoic sedimentary rocks (MSR) occupy elevated area and dips away from the valley plain to the regional rift valley Amba Aradom formation Antalo formation

1440

L A H B1 3

G a k i l a T r ad

P RW 7 06 8 0

W F/ 0 H B3

W F / 0B H 4

W F V 51

P R W7 0 58 0

V L S E5 1

H B 1 7/ 1

P R W8 04 8 0

P R W8 00 8 0

W F V 55 W F/ 5H B 2

P RW 7 07 8 0

W F V 52

#S Y #
P R W2 0 58 0 H B 58

P R W7 0 98 0

W F / 5B H 6

W F / 5B H5

W F/ 5H B 4

W F V 51 0 W F V 56 W F V 57

W F/ 5 H B3

MSR

1420

P R W7 0 48 0

H B 63

W F/ 5 H B1

E N WV 2

W F V 63

P RW 7 088 0

W F / 6H B 2

W FV 6 5

H B 4 2

W FV 69

8
# Y # Y # Y
P RW 8 028 0 a Bm a l b r as b Ar g e l ee l

Adigrat formation Basement rocks impervious except at Selen wuha area intensively faulted by Regional fault (groundwater outflow zone from Raya Valley plain)

E N WV 1

W F/ 6 B H/ 3O B 1 F 6 H B/ 3 O B5 W F/ 6 H BW 3/ W F/ 6 H B/ 3 O B W F2 V 61 3

P R W8 0C 2 08

P R W8 0C 4 08

V LS E 7 6

V L S E5 6

W F V 62

P R W8 0 38 0

H B 1 4

W FV 6 12

W FV 6 7

W F / 6H B 1

6
1360000

8 14

0
# S

# Y
W F/ 7H B 2 V LS E 9 6

1460

# S
W B H4

# # Y # Y
W FV 6 8 P Z9 W F V 61 W F V 611 W F/ 6H B 4

V LS E 6 7 E V2 S 5

# S
H B2 2 V LS E 5 7

V LS E6

E V 2 S3

# Y
W F/ 7 H B3 P R W8 0 58 0 V L S E7 5

# S # S
H B R6 3 H B6 1 B H 5 - 9 B H5 - 9

E V 2 S0

E V2 S 8

# # Y New Waja S #S
L AH B 5 H B 26

P R W8 0 C 80 8

# Y
P R W8 07 8 0

80
E V2 S9

# # Y Y
W F / 7H B 1 P RW 8 06 8 0

# S
H B4 7 V L S E9 5

# S
H B 23

# S
H B 2 R9

# S
W BH 0 2 V LS E 8 5

#
Z P6

#S # S
L AH B5 1 H B 44 V L S E8 6

# Y
P R W2 01 8 0 V LS E7

1480

15 20

# # Y 1500S
h Ca l i t k oI r B H6 - 0 V LE S 0 16

# # Y # # #Y Y Y Y # # Y #Y # S S # # S # Old Waja S # Y Y # # # # # S Y Y # Y Y # S
146 S 0 Y #
p S3 0 S C4 p S2 0 p S8 0 p S0 8 p S 1 0 p S1 p S2 1 p S 6 1 p S3 1 p S1 8 p S4 1 p S8 1 p S1 2 p S 7 1p S5 1 p S 3 2 p S 9 1 p S 0 2 p S5 2p S 4 2 p S6 2 p S 7 2 P R W9 0 C 40 8 p S2 3 p S3 p S 9 2 p S 7 3 p S 8 2 p S9 3 p S 6 3 p S8 3 p S 5 3 p S4 3 p S0 4 p S1 4 S p6 5 S p7 5 S p8 5 p S2 4 p S2 8 p S4 P RW 9 0 - 88 0 p S9 5 p S 0 6 p S 2 6 p S3 6 p S5 6 p S6 p S7 6 p S9 6p S 8 6 B H 6 - 5 P RW 9 0 - C 70 - 8

`
P R W9 0 C 008 p S0 5 p S 3 5 p S1 5 p S2 5 p S5 - p S4 5 G OU B P R W9 0 78 0

# Y
P RW 8 08 8 0

# S

H B 46 H B4 6

# Y

# S Bedeno #
H B 21 L AH B 8 1N Z P7 V LS E 0 1V L 8S E 13 V L S E6 8 V L S E0 10 E V 3 S1

P R W8 0 C 90 8

P RW 8 09 8 0

Wuh Selen
p S 4 8 p S3 8


p S5 8

13

1360000

p S7 4

p S9 4 p S 8 4

P R W9 01 8 0

Multilayered alluvial aquifer zone (approx) Groundwater level elevation contour, masl Groundwater Divide

P RW 9 04 8 0

p S 4 7

P R W9 03 9 0

p S 5 7

p S6 7

# S
1 K 3 V LS E 0 9 V LS E8

P R W9 05 8 0

V LS E 9 8

W B H1 2 W BH9 1

P RW 9 068 0

H B3 5 H B 34

h B4 3

# S
1 K1 H B79 1 K0

P RW 9 098 0

T W3 J

P R W0 1 08 0

p S 0 7

8 K

p S 2 7 p S 3 7

# Y
P R W9 0 08 0

V L S E9

# S
H B3

2 K

# S
W G 2 V LS E 0 15

H B 33

# Y
P R W1 0 18 0 V ES - 1

# S
W G 1 1 K E VS 2

# S
W P 1 W P9

# S # S # S
L AH B 8 4 W P 2 W P 6 W P 0 1

3 K

# S # S
L A H B7 4 4 K

V LS E 0 11

# S
6 K 7 K L A H B6 4

# S
9 K V LS E0 1 7

# Y
T W1 J

# S S #
W P 5 1 W P 1 E VS 4

7
T K* 1 E VS5 W P 4 1

Ground water Flow directions Faults / Lineaments Hydrogeological x-section lines

E V S3

1480

152 0
40 15

# S
H B5 0

# # Y # S S # S
W P3

# S
5 K

# S
W P 2 1

# # S S

# S
H B 49 1 K 6

# S # Y
T W2 J

E VS7 E VS 7 3

# S
W P 8

# S
1 K 4

1560
# S # S
K 1 9 B H 8 - 0 B H 8 - 0

14 60
2 K0

# S

K P 4 E VS 0 4

138 #0 S
1 K8 1 K7

# #S S
H B7 4 1 K 5

H B7 8 2 K1

# S
2 K2

2 K3

# S # 1400 S # Y
T W4 J H B 77

0 138 0 140
# S
T W7

# S

# S

K P5 W P5

14 00
0 140
# S
2 K6 2 K5

8
14 00
13 80
E V S9 3

# S
2 K 4

E VS 1 4

# S
K P3

Swamps Roads Rivers Towns

1440
1 440

# S

HYDROGEOLOGICAL Kobo MAP OF RAYA VALLEY ALLUVIAL AQUIFER


560000 580000 600000

Figure 4.5.

Hydrogeological map of Raya Valley

4.2.3 Groundwater potential of Adaa Becho Adaa Plain is located in the south between 40 to 90 km from Addis Ababa. Becho Plain is located southwest between 30 to 80 km from Addis Ababa.

30

Adaa-Becho Groundwater Resource Evaluation Project is one of the areas in the country designated for potential use of groundwater for irrigation. According to Zemedagegnehu et al. (2008), the recharge for the aquifer systems of these plains are partly in Abay Plateau with coverage of 7,000 km2 and partly in Awash River Basin with coverage of 10,000 km2. The general groundwater flow direction is NS through selective flow paths towards the northern part of Koka Dam area (Awash Basin). Three aquifer systems were identified in the project area; 1) alluvial and lacustrine sediment aquifer in Adaa Plain around Modjo and Debrezeit; 2) the upper basalt aquifer is distributed in upper Awash River Basin with a thickness of less than 50 m to over 400 m and transmissivity between 50 m2 to 27000 m2 and 3) a lower basalt aquifer composed of tertiary tarmaber scoraceous basalt. It was penetrated to a depth of 100 m at Melkakunture. It is highly productive with transmissivity values ranging from 100 to 1,700 m2/day despite the partial penetration. A hydrological and preliminarily numerical groundwater model indicated the inter-basin groundwater transfer accounts for the 50-70% of the net annual recharge to aquifer systems of the upper Awash River Basin from Abay Basin. The mean annual recharge from the upper Abay Basin is 370 mm3, from upper Awash Basin up to Melkakunturi Station is 142 mm3, from Akaki River is 22 mm3, and from Mojo and Wedecha Rivers is 153 mm3. The mean annual recharge of the Adaa-becho aquifer system is estimated to be 687 mm3 with 54% of recharge contributed by upper Abay Basin. On the basis of the water balance model, the mean annual rechargeable water into the Adaa-Becho plains groundwater aquifers is more than 965 Mm3 with 67% contributed by upper Abay Basin (Abay Plateau). Estimated annual recharge into Adaa-Becho groundwater aquifers is given in Table 4.3. Table 4.3. Estimated Annual ground water recharge into Adaa Becho Recharge watershed area (km^2) 7,367 4,432 885 1,797 Mean annual deep recharge rate (mm) 88 32 25 85 Mean annual rechargeable water (Mm^3) 648 142 22 153 965

Watershed Upper Abay Awash up to Melkakuntri Akaki Brige Mojo + Wedecha

31

380'E

400000 Hose

3815'E

450000 3830'E
JabB JanL KaaS JanL KaaS JanL

3845'E
JanL PasB

500000 390'E
PaaB PasB PasB

3915'E
PasB PaaB

550000 3930'E Sela Dingay Sasit


PNtbB PNtbB PNtbB PNtbB PNtbB PalRy PalRy

3945'E
PNtbB

600000

400'E

4015'E

650000

4030'E

1100000

Tulu Miki

Ejere

Legend
I. Aquifers Properties

QwaB

PbnB PbnB QwaB KaaS

JadS

PasB

PasB PasB

PasB PasB

Inewari

Tarmaber

Gebre Guracha Biriti


945'N

KaaS

Degem

> Doro Ali

> Fiche

Lemi

>
PasB

PasB

Anchekorer Deneba

PalRy PalRy PalRy

Godo Beret
PalRy PalRy

PNtbB

PalRy
PalRy PalRy PalRy PalRyPalRy

Debre Tsige >


Qal Qal JanL JabB JabB PbnB

Dinbaro

Jemo Lefo

PaaB

Qal

1050000

PasB

>

Minare

Daleti
JanL

PNtbB

>

Weberi
Qal Qal Qal Qal

Qal PalRy Qal PalRy PalRy PalRy PalRyPalRy

Debre Birhan

! A

Mendida
PNtbB PNtbBPNtbB Qal

PNtbB

PNtbB

Qal

Qal

> Qal >


Qal

PaaB

Muke Turi Qal


Qal

930'N

Kembolcha
JanL JanL

Mekoda

>
Shikute Chobi

PasB

KaaS

KaaS JanL

Qal

>
PalRy

>

JanL

Ketket Gola

! A

>

Welenkombi

Muger Debra

Mulo

PasB
Goja Bicho

Shino

Inchini

915'N

> >

W es

t t-eas > ! A

s ec

tion
Se

u latea PNtbB P ay Qal Gorfo g Ab PNtbB PNtbB PNtbB alon line >
Duber

PalRy PalRy PalRyQal

Qal

PNtbB PNtbB

Qal PalRy Qal

>

PNtbBPNtbB PNtbB

Asagirt

Qal

Qal

Chancho

! A
PNtbB

Sheno

> > >


eb ey

Wenoda

A !

> > > >


Ginchi Adis Alem >

Koremas

Aleltu Sendafa

NebRy

Shola Gebeya

>

PasB

! A >
NebRy NadB NadB

! A

1000000

90'N

JadS QwaB

> > >

> >

> > > > A ! > > >

>

NadI

>
NadI

>
NebRy

Addis Abeba
NcvTy

! A
>

Chefe Donsa

>

Sebeta

BECHO PLAIN
>

Alem Gena

NadB NtrB

NtrB

Qld QbiB NtrB NnuRI

Lakes Reservoirs II. Miscellaneous


Ada'a - Becho Plains Groundwater Basin and Recharge Area
Abbay Plateau Upper Awash
845'N

Qal

a in

NcvTy

'a

845'N

> NadI >> ! A

>

Pl

QwaB

> est-e > > W > > > >

> lin n Debre ! Genet A t sectio > NebRy

w A ! ! A > er A > o> Upp Tefki Boneya al ng e


> > >

Akaki Beseka ash


NakB

NtrB NtrB

>

Godino

NcvTy

as ! A

>>

950000

-N E

>

Weliso

QwaB

SW

NebRy

NnuRI

on

Faults/Lineaments Rivers
10

SCALE 1:750,000
5 0 10 Kilometers

830'N

cti

830'N

FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA MINISTRY OF WATER RESOURCES Project : Evaluation of The Groundwater Potential of Ada'a-Becho Plains Title : HYDROGEOLOGICAL MAP OF ADA'A BECHO PLAINS AND THEIR RECHARGE AREAS
WATER WORKS DESIGN AND SUPERVISION ENTERPRSE 815'N

Bu-i

815'N

Se

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia P.O.BOX Tel : 011-6614501,011-6610093 Tel : 011-6615371,011-6610898 email:w.w.d.s.e@ethionet.et 380'E

April, 2007
4015'E

400000

3815'E

3830'E 450000

3845'E

390'E 500000

3915'E

3930'E 550000

3945'E

600000

400'E

650000

Figure 4.6. Hydrogeological map of Adaa Becho Plain Source: WWSDE, 2008 4.4 Future development plan of ground water for agriculture

In the coming five year plan of the Ministry of Water and Energy implementation plan for groundwater development, nine groundwater projects are envisaged for irrigated agriculture. The plan incorporates four phase drilling and development activities. Accordingly, 93,000 meters of test wells, 28,000 meters of monitoring wells, 379250 meters of production wells are to be drilled. A total of 8,000 ha of land will be developed in various parts of the country as pilot ground water irrigation schemes.

32

950000

Bantu

Al

Dilela

on

Tulu Bolo > >

>QbiB QbiB > > ! !> A QbiB > > NcvTy > QbgPr > ! A > Melka Kunture > > > QbiB QbiB > NcvTy > QbiB > > ! A > >> QbiB > > > > >A QbiB > QbiB ! QbiB > QbiB ! > QbiB > >> A > QbiB> QbiB Mojo > NQcdPc > QbiB > > Lemen >QbiB A ! QbiB > > > > > > > > >> Adulala > > > > > > QzqTy > > ! Qld A > > > > Koka > > NcvTy > > > Kondaltiti > ADA'A PLAIN > Ombole >
Dukem

>

QbiB

NQcdPc

NtrB

> A Zeyt >> Debre > >


gA

Ejere

NcvTy

! A
>

Mapping Wells Drilled by The Project And Woberi well By Oromia Irigation Dev. Authotity

da

VES Points Towns Villages


Groundwater Divides Groundwater Flow Directions Hydrogeological X-Section

NtrB

Plain Area

1000000

PasB

>!

A Holota
E

! > A

>
e

C1. Extensive and regional upper aquiclude Regional to Sub-regional aquiclude of Nazaret groups (NnuRI) welded ingnimbrites, Chefe donsa pyroclastics (NQcdPc) and Addis Ababa Ignimbrites (Nadl), have low groundwater potent along fractrues and weathered zone. Separates the upper and lower basaltic aquifers C2. Extensive and regional upper aquiclude Regional to Sub-regional lower aquiclude of Asahngi Basalt (PasB), Blue Nile Columnar Basalts (PbnB) and 915'N Alaji Ryholites (PalRy) acts as regonal aquiclude between the lower basalt aquifer and Mesozoic sedimentary formations C3. Localized aquiclude Tertiary and Quaternary Rhyolitic and trachytic volcanic ridges and volcanic centers (QbgPr+QZqTy+NebRy +NCvTy) of Bede gebaba, Ziquala, Wechecha, Furu, Yerer,etc. localized aquicludes D.Mesozoic Sedimentary aquifers Out crops in the gorges, there may be a possibility to pentrate this formation at a great depth more than 450 90'N meters At Abay Plateau

1050000

PalRy PalRy PNtbB PalRy PNtbB PNtbB Qal

PalRy PNtbB PNtbB PNtbB PNtbB PNtbB PNtbB PNtbB PNtbB PNtbB

Chacha

A.Extensive aquifers with primary porosity Alluvium of Abay plateau (Qal) and Debre Zeit area allluvium and lascustrine (Qal+Qld) aquifer of modertae to high productivity B.Fractured and Scoraceous basalt Aquifers B1.Upper Basalt Aquifer 945'N Quaternary and Tertiary basalts, Bishoftu saptter cones and lava flows (QbiB), Weliso-Ambo basalt (QWab), Akaki Basalts and Scoria (NakB) and Addis Ababa basalts (NadB) moderate to high sub-regional aquifers B2.Lower basalt Aquifer Lower Tertiary Volcanic aquifer : Tarmaber scoraceous basalt (PntbB) and Amba Aiba basalt (PaaB) high productive aquifer. Outcrops in Abay plateau and underlain by acidic volcanic rocks in upper Awash C.Regional and local Volcanic aquitards 930'N

1100000

>

MU

GE R -B EC HO SE C T IO IN NL

gn

G a _L eg ed ad is

Table 4.4.

Development plan of ground water for agriculture


Unit meter meter meter meter hectare meter meter meter hectare meter meter hectare meter meter meter meter hectare meter meter hectare meter meter meter hectare meter meter meter hectare meter meter meter hectare meter meter meter meter hectare 33 12000 8000 500 10000 1000 1000 4000 500 10000 8000 500 20000 12000 8000 500 32000 22000 37000 500 9000 4000 159000 3000 500 10000 16000 0 95750 3000 10000 16000 0 52500 1000 5000 20000 93000 2000 28000 35000 379250 500 8000 5000 8000 500 20000 500 20000 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 2013/14 2014/15 Total 2000 10500 1000 12500 500 2000 1000

No. Project Name 1 Ada'a Bech GW Development 1.1 Monitoring well drilling 1.2 Production well development 2 Alaydage GW Development 2.1 Monitoring well drilling 2.2 Production well development 2.3 Pilot Irrigation Development 3 Rift Valley GW Development 3.1 Test well drilling 3.2 Monitoring well drilling 3.3 Production well development 3.4 Pilot irrigation development 4 Tana Beles GW Development 4.1 Test well drilling 4.2 Monitoring well drilling 4.4 Pilot irrigation development 4.4 Production well development 5 Upper Tekeze GW Development 5.1 Test well drilling 5.2 Monitoring well drilling 5.3 Production well development 5.4 Pilot irrigation development 6 Katar GW Development 6.1 Test well drilling 6.2 Monitoring well drilling 6.3 Pilot irrigation development 6.4 Production well development 7 Welkite-Ambo GW Development 7.1 Test well drilling 7.2 Monitoring well drilling 7.3 Pilot irrigation development 7.4 Production well development 8 Ogaden GW Development 8.1 Test well drilling 8.2 Monitoring well drilling 8.3 Pilot irrigation development 8.4 Production well development 9 Teru GW Development 9.1 Test well drilling 9.2 Monitoring well drilling 9.3 Pilot irrigation development 9.4 Production well development Total Test well drilling Total Monitoring Well drilling Total production well drilling Total pilot level GW irrigation development

105000

10500

12500 500 1000 1000 7500 500 4000 1000 500 10000

12500

8750 500 8000 500 10000

7500

20000 2000 5000

1000 1000

8000

10000

5000

4000 14000 2000 14000 500 14000 500

500

GROUNDWATER POLICY AND INSTITUTIONS

5.1 Policies and strategies The Ethiopian water resources management policy provides for groundwater study and development in two sections of the policy document. Under Technology and Engineering (section 2.2.3), the policy supports manufacturing and importing of drilling rigs, provides training and capacity building for development and operation of shallow well drilling. In Groundwater Resources (section 2.2.6), the document provides support for studying the occurrence and distribution of groundwater and establishes regulatory norms for sustainable abstraction of ground water. The policy: 1. Provides a framework to identify the occurrence and distribution of the countrys groundwater resources; 2. Provides a framework for sustainable abstraction of groundwater; 3. Provides norms, standards and general guidelines for sustainable and rechargeable management of groundwater; 4. Fosters conjunctive use of ground and surface water ; and 5. Promotes implementation of appropriate technologies suitable for water deficient areas to mitigate water scarcity problems. The policy supports ground water assessment, development and operation mainly for shallow wells without explicit reference to drinking or irrigation water supply. Recent development strategies such as PASDEP (2006) and Water Centred Development Strategic Framework (2009) also include managed ground water development to contribute to the national growth and development. 5.2 Institutions The main institutions involved in ground water assessment, development and operation include the Ministry of Water and Energy, the Ethiopian Geological Survey, the Regional State Water Bureaus, and NGOs. The Ministry of Water and Energy has a directorate of ground water assessment and development. The institutional frameworks under which each operate is not clearly spelled out anywhere. There have been instances in irrigated surface water development where regional state governments undertake initiatives without fully understanding the national policies and regulations. Each regional state government has its own water development strategy. For better managed ground water development.

6.

KNOWLEDGE AND CAPACITY GAPS IN GROUND WATER DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT

6.1 Knowledge and information gaps The knowledge gap in groundwater development and management in the country is enormous. The major areas of knowledge and information gap include i) limited geological surveys; ii) incomplete information base on production; and iii) lack of monitoring and follow up. Gebrehiwot and Lulu (2004) also highlighted the absence of clear guidelines for
34

groundwater resource development and management. Consequently, more attention is given to operational activities than strategic tasks pertinent to groundwater resource development works. Geological and hydro-geological maps are the basis of efficient exploration, development and use of groundwater resources and reduces uncertainty regarding the quality and quantity of available water. The coverage and the scale of the available geological and hydrological maps is however limited. Only 50% and 39% of the country is covered by maps respectively at a scale of 1:250,000. It will be an enormous task to develop countrywide maps with a higher scale. 6.2 Professional capacity gap A sample survey of different water sector organizations in the country was conducted by JICA (in: EWTEC, 2009) and indicated the major capacity needs and gaps for the different categories of water sector organizations, particularly related to domestic water supply. The current human resource situation in the management and development of ground water in the Regional State Water Bureaus is generally characterized as insufficient. A minimum of 31% (281 out of 895) of job positions are currently vacant or planned to be filled in the future. The capacity gap shows a dire shortage as we go down to the lower levels of administration. The current human resource situation in Zonal Water Resources Offices shows shortage of most 54% (579 out of 1076), while at the district level the shortfall is 61% (,,447 out of 12,140). When it comes to town water supply service areas and public enterprises, the situation is similar with relatively better coverage. In the same year, the Town Water Supply Service Offices had a shortfall of 25% (1,002 out of 3,740), while public enterprises such as Water Works and Construction Enterprise (WWCE), Water Works Design and Supervision and Enterprise (WWDSE), and Water Works Development Enterprise (WWDE) had a shortfall of 34% (512 out of 1503). In almost all the water bureaus and public enterprises, the required professionals are hydrogeologists and water supply engineers. 6.3 Technician skill capacity gap JICA (2009) looked into the technical staff requirements during their survey and found a significant shortfall of drillers (chief drillers, assistant drillers) followed by relatively high requirements for hydrogeologists, electricians and mechanics. Similarly, the report indicated there is high requirement for water supply engineers and hydrologists in 12 consulting firms included in the study. The summary below (Table 6.1) provides the status of groundwater and related information and knowledge generated in the area of groundwater.

35

Table 6.1.
Issue Geological surveys

Status of groundwater knowledge and capacity in Ethiopia


Status Geological maps (1:250000) 50% of the country. Hydrogeological maps 39%; based on borehole information not on test drilling information. Accelerated investment in assessment and exploration; implemented by MoWR and regions. MoWR largely engages public enterprises such as WWDSE. Limited knowledge on: Very shallow and deep aquifers Non reliable knowledge on shallow aquifers. Water quality has not been well defined and mapped. Scattered information on ENGDA discontinued. NGIS recently started. Gaps Integrated groundwater exploration including test drilling for high potential areas; lowered pace in covering the remaining area through mapping: EGS not able to live up to its mandate. Current assessment project wise and not linked to EGS set procedures. NGIS most to be completed. Communication and dissemination strategy/business plan.

Information base

EWTEC, 2009

Table 4.2. Status of Groundwater Knowledge and Capacity in Ethiopia (EWTEC, 2009)
Issue Monitoring Status Not done; patchy and project based; not even in high intensity area as in Akaki. Emerging uses of groundwater for irrigation and lowered pumping cost demands systematic monitoring. First estimates for number of aquifer systems but not for others. No water balances. Gaps MoWR to Gazet priority areas for monitoring. Clear responsibility for well field operators. Link to NGIS. Confined prior to operation of well field. Level and abstraction monitoring in line with confined sustainable yield. Link to groundwater. management plans. No (in-country) training on deep well drilling. Limited number /no critical mass of organizations. Good supervision (arrangements) missing.

Sustainable yields

Exploitation

Poor capacity to explore deep aquifers poor supply. Public enterprises have poor capacity and management in complex well drilling complex exploration. Problematic contract management observed from both sides - supervision/contract management.

36

Mechanical drilling

Absolute shortage of drilling rings (conservative estimate is 200) partly addressed by recent procurement drive. Shortage of submersible pumps, generators and spare parts-gap in local maintenance capacity and supply of fast moving items. Presumable relatively high cost of drilling compared to other African countries. Relatively high number of failed wells 15% to 75% varying with regions.

Drilling rigs specific to conditions (deep wells/sediments). Maintenance of drilling rigs to ensure continued operation.

Competition and little engagement of private sector. Analysis of well failure probably related to lack of local engagement /technical supervision in some areas due to water quality issues. Standardization. Drilling association to become active partner in development of the sector. very shallow bore well technology which allows deeper penetration. TVETs engagement /private sector training. Popularization of manual drilling among others.

Discussion on standardizing well design started by MoWR. Drilling association just set up.

Manual well Limited well development even in high development potential ultra shallow aquifer. Dug well dominate.

Table 4.6. Status of Ground Water Knowledge and Capacity in Ethiopia (EWTEC, 2009)
Issue Expertise in groundwater development Status Pump tests not systematically done 25-60% vacancies (JICA report). Gaps Training of: chief drillers, hydrogeologist and water supply engineers. High capacity equipment for pump tests and well development. Capacity to monitor in terms of manpower and equipment. Centers of excellence in groundwater development. Ground water management plans-with stakeholder engagement Need to expand and need to broaden and put implementation perspective /EGRAP plus.

Expertise in ground water management Managed development Interlinkage with other sectors on demand side

Ground water curricula recently being strengthened in five universities.

Accelerated highly ambitious exploitation plans/concept for growing number of areas. Land use planning process based on started in Oromia, Amhara, Somale and Afar. Growth corridors plans large-scale development in select corridors. UAP.

37

Interlinkage with other sectors on supply side

Watershed improvements programs exits but no focus on recharge. Irrigation development but not conjunctive. Integration with land use planning on supply side.

No systematic linkage and not all buffer techniques used. Conjunctive management. Harmonize watershed programs with buffer managementdifferentiated. Protection zones in selected areas (legal backing). Regulation around high priority point pollution. Activation of licensing procedure-especially in selected areas.

GW protection

Not there. No specific guidelines for point or non point pollution. Licensing procedure for well development in place but not known or systematically followed. Civil code set the limit for regulation at 100 meter depth. -Non existent.

Regulation

Groundwater management plans Monitoring Basin management

Would be required in areas of intensive development.

See above (knowledge section). RBO ordinance promulgation. One RBO in place (Abay), two under preparation. Mechanism for allocation. Groundwater does not figure importantly.

In future ground water. management plans linked in to river basin management.

6.4 Capacity building education and training There is a tendency toward large-scale development of groundwater for agriculture as witnessed from intensified studies and implementation at various areas such as Adaa and Becho area and Kobo, Raya. Given the little experience in groundwater irrigation and the limited institutional and human resources capacity, there will be enormous requirements in enhancing the knowledge, technical and technological capacity and capability to develop manage and use groundwater resources. Public universities and training institutions can play pivotal role in building capacity. Some of immediate interventions could be to increase the quantity and quality of geology education: i) public universities offering geology degree such as AAU, Mekelle University can review their curricula to accommodate more hydro-geological courses in their programs; ii) not only for groundwater irrigation but also 85% of the domestic water supply comes from shallow wells, there is substantial capacity requirement in the area, therefore one way of offsetting the shortage of the human resources is through increasing university enrolment in departments of geology. Short term training institutions should either evolve or the existing ones should provide hands on training for technical skills. Strategically, expansion of the coverage and knowledge of groundwater can be enhanced at three different levels. It is suggested that the first level includes those professionals who attain managerial positions or higher level technical professional skills suitable for
38

consultancy and contractors, for federal as well as Regional State Bureaus. These group of professionals should be MSc or above in terms of education and skills in the field of hydrogeology. Universities offering masters program should expand into accommodating more hydrogeology education and training tuned to the special needs of the country. The second level of professional studies should be intended to produce large numbers of midlevel professionals at the BSc level. Universities offering geology degrees could mainstream the emerging requirements of hydrogeology by modifying their curricula as a BSc in Geology and Hydrogeology. The geology degree could be modified to mainstream other fields of study such as geology and mining and geology and engineering. Graduates from this second level of professionals could fill the gaps up to the level of district offices, NGOs and contractor offices. Specialized technical and vocational education schools or Water Technology Institutes are emerging in Regional State Bureaus. These institutions are for training technicians in drilling, electricity and mechanical skills. It is important to recognize continuous capacity building for both professionals as well as technicians and advanced short-term training institutions such as currently existing in the Ethiopian Water Technology Centre (EWTEC) under the Ministry of Water and Energy. Such institutes have the capacity to integrate research and development in their training activities to promote innovation and technology in the area of groundwater. The following pyramid shows the role of public institutions and their inputs to various government and private offices.

Universities and water

Masters, PhD BSc professionals: geology and hydrogeology

Academics, Federal & Regional Bureaus sultancies/contractors Federal, Regional, Zonal, Woreda, consultancies and contractors Federal & Regional water works, private contractors, NGOs

TVET and water technology centers

Technicians: Drilling crews, electricians, mechanics

Figure 6.1.

Proposed levels of education.

DRILLING TECHNOLOGY SND COSTS

7.1. Drilling technology and Equipment According to Hailemichaels review of 2004, there are a total of 103 drilling machines in the country with the largest number of owned by the government (48 machines), private companies (39) and NGOs 16 (Table 7.1). By any standard, the available number of water well drilling machines, compared to the size of the country is limited.
39

Hailemichaels review showed drilling in Ethiopia started by providing domestic water supply using percussion type drilling machines and later more modern DTH/rotary type drilling machines. The types of machines usually employed by most private contractors and government enterprises are these modern machines that have a capacity to drill to depths of 350 meters and more. There is some interest among private companies to manufacture or assemble light drilling machines to reduce drilling costs. The effort is not well documented either by Hailemichael or other researchers. Almost all drilling machines in the country are initially meant for water supply, but there is increased use of the machines for drilling wells for agricultural purposes as activities in Raya and Kobo show. Table 7.1. Drilling Rigs currently engaged in well construction in Ethiopia (private companies)
DTH/ Rotary with mud 1 Drilling capacity max depth 500 DTH Percussion Percussion Mud Auger/ without truck skud Total rotary bucket mud) mounted mounted 1 2

Private companies

Data collection

Hydro Construction & Engineering Co. Ltd. Yadot Engineering and Trading plc. Pile foundation & Water Well drilling Enterprise EthioDrilling and Water engineering Co. Ltd. Saba Engineering Ethio-Libya Drilling Plc. China-Geo Engineering company Wattech Aquatech CRP (Indian drilling company) Axis

contacted

contacted

5 120, 400

contacted

150,500

12

contacted

500

contacted contacted proxy

3 1 2

500 350 250-300

3 1 2

proxy proxy proxy

1 1 1 250-300

1 1 1

2 2 2

proxy 40

engineering Daniel Drilling Plc Endale drilling plc????? AL Nejah drilling agency Rahbah & Sons drilling Total

proxy proxy 100 1

1 1

contacted

500

contacted 17 3 2

2 9 0 8

2 39

Table 7.2.

Drilling Rigs currently engaged in well construction in Ethiopia (Government)


DTH rotary with mud Drilling capacity max depth DTH w/o mud Percuss ion truck mount ed Aug er buck et Percuss ion skud mount ed

Name of company

Data collection

Mud rotary

Total

Government Organizations Afar Regional Water Bureau Amhara Water Works Enterprise SNNPS Water Works Enterprise Oromiya Water Works Enterprise Tigray Water Works Construction Enterprise Somali Water Works Construction enterprise Benninshangul Water Works Construction Enterprise Water Well drilling Enterprise Ministry of Water Resources Total

Contd Contd Contd Contd Contd

1 5 5 10 7

250-300 350 350 350 150,350 1 1 2

1 6 7 11 7

Contd

250-354

Contd

150, 350

Contd Contd

4 2 42

350 350

6 2

48

41

Table 7.3.

Drilling Rigs currently engaged in well construction in Ethiopia (NGO)


DTH rotary with mud 2 1 Drilling capacity max depth 150 200 DTH w/o mud Percussion truck mounted Percussion skud mounted

Name of company NGOs Kale Hiwot church Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekaneyesus Norwegian Church Aid Ethiopian Orthodox Church (DICAC) World vision/Ethiopia Oromo Self Help Organization (OSHO) Ethiopian Catholic secretariat Africare/Ethiopia Church of Christ Relief Society of Tigray Don Bosco Catholic NGO Total Grand Total

Data collection

Mud rotary

Auger bucket

Total

Contd Contd

2 1

Contd proxy proxy Contd

1 1 2

250 150 250 300 1 1 1

1 2 2 2

proxy proxy proxy Contd proxy

1 1 1 2 1 13 72

350 150 200 350 350 0 5 2 5 1 11 0 2 0 8

1 1 1 2 1 16 103

7.2 Well drilling cost and future trends in Ethiopia In general, the cost of deep well drilling has decreased from an average cost of Birr 2,000/meter to Birr 1,200/meter. For shallow wells the cost has fallen from the previous Birr 1,500/meter to Birr 900/meter. Well construction quality has deteriorated due to the high competition in that steel casings of poor quality have been used by some contractors. As there are no standardized designs or specifications, price competition has greatly affected quality (Hailemichael, 2004). Drilling costs are dependent on: The distance of sites from the Addis (usually where the drilling companies are located); The accessibility situation and the availability of water for drilling; The climatic condition where drilling is conducted; The expected hydrogeologic situation of the area (massive rocks, possible loss of circulation and/or collapse, etc); and Cost of drilling machine accessories. The government of Ethiopia provides incentives to private and public well drilling companies to import drilling rigs free of tax. However, the initial capital cost of the machines is up to 800,000 USD (T3W rigs). This discourages the expansion of the private drilling companies.
42

Government may encourage private companies either through long-term loan schemes or forming public private partnership schemes. The latter may be appealing for the government to improve performance and reduce loses usually seen in public institutions.

8.

Summary and Conclusion

Ethiopia is a country of great geographical diversity and geological complexity. High rugged mountains, flat-topped plateaus, deep gorges, incised rivers and rolling plains are the predominant physiographical features. Since the country is located in the tropics, the physical conditions and variations in altitude have resulted in a great diversity of climate, soil and vegetation. The highlands on each side give way to vast semi-arid lowland areas in the east, west and south. The ground water potential is shaped by the two complex phenomena of complex geological formations in the one hand and the diversity of the topography, climate and soil in the other. Several assessments of ground water potential and studies indicate the rechargeable ground water potential of the country is in the order of 2.6 BCM. This magnitude is believed by many hydro-geologists and academics as a gross underestimation of the actual potential. Indications are that the regional ground water aquifers of the country are deeper and larger than previously thought. For instance, recent studies for irrigated agriculture at Kobo, Raya, and Adaa Bechoo indicate the regional ground water aquifers are deeper; water movement crosses surface basin boundaries (basin transfer) and there are large reserves of groundwater. It is estimated that the ground water reserve of the Kobo Girana Valley is in the order of 2.5 BCM (WAPCOS, 2009) while the reserve of Raya is 7.2 BCM. The estimated annual recharge at Adda Bechoo is in the order of 965 MCM, of which the majority contribution comes from Abbay Basin. This emphasizes the importance of understanding the regional groundwater aquifers and movement when considering ground water assessment and development for highly water consuming agricultural use. The use of groundwater for agricultural is very low. Assessment of the borehole data from Federal and Regional Water Bureaus indicates over 80% of the groundwater use is for domestic water supply. The depth range of assessed wells indicates most wells are shallow (83%) and have low yield in the order of less than 10 lps (>60%). However, groundwater use for agriculture is emerging as a mainstay of irrigated agriculture development, particularly in rainfall deficit areas. The five year plans from the Directorate of Groundwater Development Studies and Management of the Ministry of water resources shows several ground water irrigation projects will be implemented. Over 8,000 ha of land will be developed as a pilot scheme using groundwater during the five-year period from 2010/11 to 2014/15. The planning and implementation of irrigated agriculture using ground water is highly encouraging. There are robust planning documents and ongoing studies at federal and regional state government level. There are, however, valid concerns that may impede the development efforts of the government. The most important concern is the limitation of knowledge and information available on the extent of the potential ground. Second, the available human and institutional capacity to plan, develop and manage is limited in quantity and quality. Third, drilling equipment and spare parts are so hard to obtain.

43

Therefore, it suggested that the government of Ethiopia should invest in developing institutional and human capacity if the current activity of ground water development is to be sustained. The most important areas of human capacity development are hydrogeology, water supply engineers, geologists and drilling technologies and associated technician skill development. The initial capital cost of the drilling rigs and spare parts are discouraging private companies to expand. It is important to provide some kind long-term loan schemes for private companies for importing deep drilling rigs and establish spare parts distribution within the country. This enhances the coverage of ground water drilling activity and guarantees sustainable availability of spare parts, contributing to ongoing efforts towards irrigated agriculture development.

44

REFERENCES
Ethiopia Water Technology Centre (EWTEC), 2009. Training needs Assessment survey, by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Ministry of Water Resource (MoWR). Volume I, Report. Ministry of Water Resources (date not given) Ethiopian Water Resources Management Policy Abbay River Basin Integrated development master plan project phase 2, section II, Volume IV, part 3, 1998 Wabishebele River Basin Integrated development master plan study project, WWDSE in association with MCE and WAPCOS, May 2004. Baro-Akobo River Basin Integrated development master plan study by TAMS and ULG consultant ltd Warwick, U.K. (May 1997) Omo-Gibe River Basin Integrated development master plan study, by Richard Woodroofe in association with Mascott Ltd., Dec 1996. Tekeze River Basin Integrated Development master plan project by NEDECO Master Plan for the development of surface water resources in the Awash basin, final report, Dec 1989 by HALCRO Ethiopian Institute of Geological Surveys, 1988. Hydrogeological map of Ethiopia / hydrogeology, compilation by Tesfaye Chernet, 1988 ; cartography by Teshome Kumbi and Belete Habteselassie.

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