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E10 - 1

2011 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics 17-19 July 2011, Bandung, Indonesia

Testing and Diagnostics of Power Transformer in PT. Indonesia Power Kamojang Geothermal Power Plant Unit 1
Agus Purwadi #1, Nana Heryana#2, Dadan Nurafiat#3, Cahyono Sosetyo*4, Agus Setiana*5, Arief Mustaqim*6
#

School of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Institute of Technology Bandung Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
1

apurwadi57@gmail.com

PT. Indonesia Power, Kamojang Geothermal Power Plant Jalan Raya Kamojang Garut 44101, Indonesia To obtained information of equipments conditions, several tests should be conducted. Current maintenance scenario of electrical maintenance is condition based maintenance or preventive maintenance. Testing data is stored as a database of electrical condition. Combined information between historical data and testing data will give the trend of electrical equipments condition. The trend will give characteristic of equipment deterioration. Proper information about equipment condition is useful to determine appropriate correcting and maintenance action should be done. Transformer is an essential part in power transmission and distribution. It serves as interface between power generation equipment and transmission system, between transmission system and distribution system, and between distribution system and load. Transformer failure will result in great loss in electrical system. Hence, a well establish maintenance should be conducted. II. TRANSFORMER TESTING Several tests that are conducted for power transformer are as follow: A. Transformer Turn Ratio Test Transformer turn ratio test is conducted to obtain information about voltage ratio of transformer. An unusual deviation value from the rating indicates that there is problem in the winding. B. Winding Resistance (Rdc) Test Winding resistance test is conducted to obtain resistance value of transformer winding. Rdc test information can be used to determine whether the winding is balance or not C. Insulation Resistance (IR)Test Insulation resistance test is conducted to obtain resistance value of insulation system in power transformer. Deterioration value of insulation resistance indicates contamination existence in insulation.

Abstract This paper presents testing and diagnostics of 40 MVA, 150/11.8 kV,Ynd5 main transformer and 4 MVA, 11.8/6.3 kV auxiliary transformer on PT. Indonesia Power Kamojang Geothermal Power Plan unit 1, that have been in operations for more than 25 years, since 1982. Although the main and auxiliary power transformer installed have been fulfilled their design life, the concept of simple replacement of power transformer in the system considering it as weak or potential source of trouble is no more valid in the present scenario of financial constraint. Today the paradigm has changed and many efforts are being directed to explore new approach/techniques of testing, monitoring, diagnosis, life assessment and condition evaluation and possibility of extending the life of existing power transformer. In this effort of extending the life of existing power transformer, testing and diagnostics of power transformer conditions become very important step whether it is possible to extend certain time of useful life beyond design life and save investment on new power transformer. This paper mainly asses the life condition of total insulation system of power transformer due to failure of insulation material considered to be major factor in power transformer, Testing and diagnostics done on main and auxiliary power transformer based on Transformer Turn Ratio (TTR) test, Winding Resistance (Rdc) test, Insulation Resistance (IR)Test, Tan delta test, Dissolve Gas Analysis (DGA) test and Dielectric Response Analysis (Dirana) test. This kind of tests gives in depth information regarding power transformer conditions and abnormalities. The test results show that the oil and paper insulation of both power transformers were very wet and need immediate purification. Condition of winding resistance on main power transformer also showed very significant increase value (300%) compare to the previous commissioning data that mean also increasing load losses significantly. Keywords Testing, diagnostics, power transformer, assessment, kamojang geothermal power plant life

I. INTRODUCTION Electrical equipment will undergo deterioration as soon as the equipment is installed. This deterioration should be checked or it will cause electrical failures and malfunctions.

978-1-4577-0752-0/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE

D. Tan Delta Test Tan delta test is conducted to obtain information about dielectric losses in electrical insulation system. Insulation is very much like a simple capacitor. In an ideal insulation it only has a capacitive part. Tan delta test measure the resistive component of insulation. System high tan delta value will has a high losses. It indicates that there is a problem in the insulation. E. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) Test Dissolved gas test is conducted to obtain information about dissolved gas components in transformer oil. Combinations and quantities of gas components in oil-immersed power transformer can lead to malfunction of transformer or worse, failure of the transformer. F. Dielectric Response Analysis (Dirana) Test Dielectric Response Analysis is conducted to obtain information about moisture content in electrical insulation. The test is similar to tan delta test but conducted in wide frequency range. III. TEST RESULTS A. Main Transformer

TABLE I TTR TEST RESULT (MAIN TRANSFORMER) Phase A B C Maximum deviation from nominal (%) 0.51 0.46 0.48

(a)

(b)

Fig.1 (a) Main Transformer Under Test

(c) Fig.2 LV Winding resistance test result (Main Transformer) Fig.3 Testing equipment (a) CPC 100 (b) DIRANA Tester (c) IR Tester

TABLE III SHORT CIRCUIT TEST RESULT (MAIN TRANSFORMER)

Factory Test with W-Meter SN Pk [kW] f [Hz] [kVA] 40000 34 50 Three Phase Equivalent Test f [Hz] 50 A-N 50 B-N 50 C-N Average Impedance V1 AC [V] 123.714 123.04 122.752

3-Phase Measurement Tap Position: 1 CPC 100 Measurement I AC [A] 0.947 0.94 0.944 uk [%] 8.3 8.269 -0.38 Z [] 62.8226 63.1961 62.6101 Z [] 63.1119 62.8751 -0.38 Phi [] 87.1 87.84 87.83 Phi [] 89.41 87.59 -2.04 UHV [kV] 174.4 ULV [kV] 11.8 uk [%] 8.3 Uk [V] 144.8

R [] 3.1803 2.3821 2.3743 R [] 0.6463 2.6455 309.32

X [] 62.7421 63.1511 62.5651 X [] 63.1086 62.8194 -0.46 xk [%] 8.3 8.262 -0.46

L [mH] 199.71 201.02 199.15 L [mH] 200.88 199.96 -0.46

f [Hz] 50 Factory Test Values: 50 Measured Values: Difference to Factory Test [%]

TABLE IIIII INSULATION TEST (IR) TEST RESULT (MAIN TRANSFORMER) Connection HV - Gnd LV - Gnd IR (M) 785 530 Parameter H2 CH4 C2H6 C2H4 C2H2 CO CO2 (TDCG)

TABLE IVV DGA TEST RESULT (MAIN TRANSFORMER) result (ppm) 51 0 2 0 0 541 9386 592 1 100 120 65 50 35 350 720 2 101-700 121-400 66-100 51-100 36-50 351-570 721-1920 Condition 3 701-1800 401-1000 101-150 101-200 51-80 571-1400 1921-4630 4 >1800 >1000 >150 >200 >80 >1400 >10000 >4630

2500 2500-4000 4001-10000

TABLE V OIL CHARACTERISTIC TEST RESULT (MAIN TRANSFORMER) Fig.4 tan delta test result (Main Transformer) Parameter Breakdown voltage Moisture content Acidity Sediment unit kV / 2,5mm mg / kg mg KOH /g Oil % weight result Good 20,0 30,0 0,096 N.A. > 50 <5 < 0,10 < 0,02 IEC 60422 : 2005 Enough Poor 40 5 0,10 < 40 > 10 > 0,2

Fig.5 DIRANA test result (Main Transformer)

B. Auxiliary Transformer

Fig.6 Auxiliary Transformer Under Test

Fig.9 DIRANA test result (Aux Transformer)

TABLE VI TTR TEST RESULT (AUX TRANSFORMER) Phase A B C Maximum deviation from nominal (%) 0.37 0.38 0.43

TABLE VII INSULATION TEST (IR) TEST RESULT (AUX TRANSFORMER) Connection HV - Gnd LV - Gnd IR (M) 332 885

TABLE VIII DGA TEST RESULT (AUX TRANSFORMER) Parameter H2 CH4 C2H6 C2H4 C2H2 CO Fig.7 LV Winding resistance test result (Aux Transformer) CO2 (TDCG) result (ppm) 53 0 0 0 0 537 7030 590 1 100 120 65 50 35 350 720 2 101-700 121-400 66-100 51-100 36-50 351-570 721-1920 Condition 3 701-1800 401-1000 101-150 101-200 51-80 571-1400 1921-4630 4 >1800 >1000 >150 >200 >80 >1400 >10000 >4630

2500 2500-4000 4001-10000

TABLE IX OIL CHARACTERISTIC TEST RESULT (AUX TRANSFORMER) Parameter Breakdown voltage Moisture content Acidity Sediment Fig.8 tan delta test result (Aux Transformer) unit kV / 2,5mm mg / kg mg KOH /g Oil % weight result Good 25,0 28,6 0,085 N.A. > 50 <5 < 0,10 < 0,02 IEC 60422 : 2005 Enough Poor 40 5 0,10 < 40 > 10 > 0,2

IV. CONCLUSIONS The test results show that the paper and oil insulation of both power transformers were very wet and need immediate treatment such as purification. Condition of winding resistance of main power transformer based on short circuit test showed very significant increase value (300%) compare to the previous commissioning data that mean also increasing load losses significantly. Carbon dioxide content in oil insulation of both power transformers is in dangerous condition category according to IEEE Std C57.104.2008. Tan delta test result of main power transformer show that average tan delta increment exceeding VDE 0530. Total insulation resistance of both power transformers is still in normal condition range for large and medium power transformer.

REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] P. Gill, Electrical Power Equipment Maintenance and Testing, 2nd edition., CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. 2009. IEEE Std. C57.12.90. IEEE Standard Test Code for Liquid-Immersed Distribution, Power, and Regulating Transformer IEEE Std. C57.104.2008. IEEE Guide for the Interpretation of Gases Generated in Oil-Immersed Transformer IEEE Std. 62-1995. IEEE Guide for Diagnostics Field Testing of Electric Power Apparatus Part 1: Oil Filled Power Transformer, Regulators, and Reactor. VDE 0530 Part 1, Recommended Practice for the measurement of power factor tip-up of electrical machinery stator coil insulation.