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Handout #4B (Fall 2011)

Chem 6A - Prof. John E. Crowell

Acid Strength: Determining the amount of H+ Ions initially present in a Strong Acid after being neutralized through reaction and titration by a Strong Base

A specific volume of 0.870 M HCl is reacted with solid Mg(OH)2. Addition of 18.0 g of Mg(OH)2 leaves some HCl unreacted. Treatment (i.e. titration) of the resulting solution with 208 ml of 0.500 M NaOH uses up the rest of the acid. What was the volume of 0.870 M HCl to start with?

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation: the LOSS (via electron transfer) of one or more electrons:
Na ( s ) 1 e Na ( s ) Fe ( s ) 3 e Fe3 ( s )
OiL

Reduction: the GAIN (via electron transfer) of one or more electrons:


Cl2 ( g ) 2 e 2 Cl ( s ) N 2 ( g ) 6 e 2 N 3 ( s )
RiG

Chem 6A - Chapter 4 (Part B)

Handout #4B (Fall 2011)

Chem 6A - Prof. John E. Crowell

The redox process in compound formation

Oxidation Numbers

Chem 6A - Chapter 4 (Part B)

Handout #4B (Fall 2011)

Chem 6A - Prof. John E. Crowell

Oxidation Numbers
Highest and lowest oxidation numbers of reactive maingroup elements.

Oxidation Reduction Reactions


Terminology in redox reactions: The element undergoing oxidation is the reducing agent. The element undergoing reduction is the oxidizing agent.

Chem 6A - Chapter 4 (Part B)

Handout #4B (Fall 2011)

Chem 6A - Prof. John E. Crowell

Recognizing Oxidizing and Reducing Agents


Identify the oxidizing agent and reducing agent in each of the following: (a) 2Al(s) + 3H2SO4(aq) (b) PbO(s) + CO(g) (c) 2H2(g) + O2(g) Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 3H2(g) Pb(s) + CO2(g) 2H2O(g)

Strategy: Assign an O.N. for each atom and see which atom gained and which atom lost electrons in going from reactants to products. An increase in O.N. means the species was oxidized (and is the reducing agent) and a decrease in O.N. means the species was reduced (is the oxidizing agent).
0 +1 +6 -2 +3 +6 -2 0

(a) 2 Al(s) + 3 H2SO4(aq)

Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 3 H2(g)

The O.N. of Al increases; Al is oxidized; it is the reducing agent. The O.N. of H decreases; H is reduced; H2SO4 is the oxidizing agent.

An active metal displacing hydrogen from water

Chem 6A - Chapter 4 (Part B)

Handout #4B (Fall 2011)

Chem 6A - Prof. John E. Crowell

Displacing one metal by another

Activity series of the metals


An aid in predicting the products of replacement reactions.
1. Each element on the list replaces from a compound any of the elements below it. 2. The first five elements (Li - Na) are very active metals; react with cold water to produce the hydroxide & hydrogen gas. 3. The next four metals (Mg - Cr) are active metals; react with steam or hot water to form the oxide & H2 gas. 4. The oxides of all of these first metals resist reduction by H2. 5. The next six metals (Fe - Pb) replace hydrogen from HCl and sulfuric & nitric acids. Their oxides undergo reduction by heating with H2, C, and CO. 6. The metals Li - Cu can combine directly with O2 to form the oxide. 7. The last metals (Hg - Au) are often found free in nature, their oxides decompose with mild heating, and they form oxides only indirectly.

Chem 6A - Chapter 4 (Part B)