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# Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

## Tutorial 6 Solution Mixtures Winardi Sani

A vessel of volume 0.4 m3 contains 0.45 kg CO and 1 kg of air, at 15 C. Calculate: (a) The partial pressure of each component (b) The total pressure in the vessel The gravimetric analysis of air is to be taken as 23.3 % O2 and 76.7 % of N2 .

## Component Air Oxygen Nitrogen Carbon Monoxide

p p
CO N 2 O 2

Chem. symbol O2 N2 CO

## Ideal gas equation:

p

p
O 2

p
N 2 N 2

p
O 2 CO

pV = mRT R R= M m pV = RT M mi RT pi = Mi V

(1) (2)

(partial pressure)

(3)

Given: V = 0.4 m3 ; T = 15 +173 = 288 K and R = 8.3145 kJ/kmol K, mCO = 0.45 kg Partial pressure of each component: pi = Component O2 : pO2 = mO2 RT ; MO2 V MO2 = 32.0 kg/kmol; mO2 = 23.3 1 kg = 0.233 kg 100 (5) mi RT Mi V (4)

RT 8.3145 kJ/kmol K 288 K k Pa = = 5, 986.44 3 V 0.4 m kmol pO2 = 0.233 kg k Pa 5, 986.44 = 43.59 kPa 32.0 kg/kmol kmol 1 bar = 100 kPa

(6)

## Solution Tutorial 6/ ws BDA 3043 Component N2 :

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

## 76.7 1 kg = 0.767 kg 100 (7)

pN2 = 96.21 kPa = 0.9621 bar Component CO: MCO = 28.0 kg/kmol; mCO = 0.45 kg pCO = 163.99 kPa = 1.6399 bar Total pressure in the vessel:
3

(8)

p=
i=1

## = pO2 + pN2 + pCO = 3.0379 bar

(9)

A mixture of 1 kmol CO2 and 3.5 kmol of air is contained in a vessel at 1 bar and 15 C. The volumetric analysis of air can be taken as 21 % O2 and 79% N2 . Calculate for the mixture: (a) The masses of CO2 , O2 , N2 , and the total mass (b) The percentage carbon content by mass (c) The molar mass and the specic gas constant for the mixture (d) The specic volume of the mixture (MC = 12, MO2 = 32 , MN2 = 28 kg/kmol, R = 8.3145 kJ/kmol K) (a) The masses of CO2 , O2 , N2 , and the total mass (i) Mass of CO2 m = nM = 1 kmol 44 kg/kmol; mCO2 = 44 kg (ii) Mass of O2 ni Vi pi = = p n V nO2 = n mO2 (iii) Mass of N2 nN2 = n mN2 V N2 = 3.5 kmol 0.79 = 2.765 kmol V = 2.765 28 = 77.5 kg VO2 = 3.5 kmol 0.21 = 0.735 kmol V = 0.735 32 = 23.55 kg (M = 12 + 32) (10)

(11)

(12)

The total mass of the mixture: m = mCO2 + mO2 + mN2 = 145.05 kg (13)

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (b) The percentage carbon content by mass

## Solution Tutorial 6/ ws BDA 3043

mC nC M C 1 kmol 12 kg/kmol = = 100% = 8.27% m m 145.05 kg (c) The molar mass and the specic gas constant for the mixture (i) Molar mass for the mixture R M 1 M= n R= n=
i

(14)

n i Mi
i

(15)

## = 1 + 2.765 + 0.735 = 4.5 kmol ni Mi = 1 44 + 2.765 28 + 0.735 32 = 144.94 kg

i

M = 32.2 kg/kmol (ii) The specic gas constant of the mixture: R= 8.3145 kJ/kmol K R = = 0.2581 kJ/kg K M 32.2 kg/kmol

(19)

(d) The specic volume of the mixture m RT RT = V v RT 0.2581 kJ/kg K 288 K 1 bar 103 Nm v= = 5 2 p 1 bar 1 kJ 10 N/m 3 v = 0.7435 m /kg p=

(20)

## Solution Tutorial 6/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Moist air enters a duct at 10 C, 80 % RH, and a volumetric ow rate of 150 m3 /min. The mixture is heated as it ows through the duct and exits at 30 C. No moisture is added or removed, and the mixture pressure remains approximately constant at 1 bar. (a) Sketch on T s diagram the heating process, and determine

T 30
oC

p (T2)
g

p p (T1)
g

10 oC

T = 10 oC 1 1 RH = 80% 1 bar s

## (b) The rate of heat transfer, in kJ/min

. Q
1 2

moist air

. H

. H

. 3 V=150 m /min
control volume

Mass balance: m a1 = m a2 = m a; m v1 = m v2 = m v; Energy balance: =H 2 H 1 Q =H a +H v H m v =m hv ) H a ha + m v hv = m a (ha + m a mv m v =m = H a (ha + hv ) with = ma m a =m Q a2 (ha2 + 2 hv2 ) m a1 (ha1 + 1 hv1 ) =m a (ha2 ha1 ) + (hv2 hv1 ) ; with 1 = 2 = . (26) (25) (23) (24) (dry air) (water vapor or H2 O) (21) (22)

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Calculation of mass ow rate: m a= 1 V va1 va1 = Ra T1 pa1

## Solution Tutorial 6/ ws BDA 3043

(27) (28)

pa1 va1 = Ra T1

Calculation of the partial pressure for dry air at inlet: pa1 = p pv1 ; and pv1 = 1 pg1 = 1 pg (T1 ) (29)

selected saturated water temperature T [C] 10 psat [kPa] 1.2281 =pg1 Enthalpy hf 42.022 hg 2519.2 = hv1

30 4.2469 =pg2 125.74 2555.6 = hv2 With = 0.8 the partial vapor pressure at inlet is: pv1 = 1 pg1 = 0.8 1.2281 = 0.9825 kPa with total pressure, p = 100 kPa, the partial pressure, pa1 : pa1 = p pv1 = 100 0.9825 = 99.0175 kPa the specic volume of the dry air at inlet: va1 = Ra T1 0.287 kJ/kg K 283 K 1 Pa 1 Nm = = 0.8202 m3 /kg 2 pa1 99.0175 kPa 1J 1 N/m (31) (30)

The mass ow rate required is: = m a= 1 V 150 m3 /min = = 182.87 kg/min va1 0.8348 m3 /kg (32)

Calculation of the enthalpy of dry air: ha2 ha1 = cp,a (T2 T1 ) = 1.005 kJ/kg K(30 10) K = 20.1 kJ/kg The same result is also found, if you use the ideal gas table for air. (33)

Calculation of the enthalpy of water vapor air: = 0.622 pv 1 0.9825 kg (vapor) = 0.622 = 0.0062 pa1 99.0175 kg (d.a.) (34) (35)

hv2 hv1 = 2555.6 2519.2 = 34.60 kJ/kg =m Q a (ha2 ha1 ) + (hv2 hv1 ) = 182.87 (20.1 + 0.0062 34.60) = 3715 kJ/min = Q

(36)

## Solution Tutorial 6/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

(c) The relative humidity at the exit. The partial vapor pressure at inlet equals to that at the exit, see on T s diagram. pv2 pv 1 = pg 2 pg 2 0.9825 = = 0.2313 4.2469 = 2 = 23.13% 2 = (d) Compare your result with the psychrometric chart analysis (37)

(38)

h2 = 46.0

h = 25.5
=

80

23

= 0.0062

0.80

10

0.82

DBT

30

a1 = 0.815 m3 /kg d.a. m a1 = 1 V a1 150 m3 /min = = 184.05 kg/min 0.815 m3 /kg (39) (40)

## =m Q a (h2 h1 ) = 184.05 (46.0 25.5) = 3773.01 kJ/min = Q

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

## Solution Tutorial 6/ ws BDA 3043

Moist air at 30 Cand 50% RH enters a dehumidier operating at steady state with a volumetric ow rate of 280 m3 /min. The moist air passes over a cooling coil and water vapor condenses. Condensate exits the humidier saturated at 10 C. Saturated moist air exits in a separate stream at the same temperature. There is no a signicant loss of energy by heat transfer to the surroundings and pressure remains constant at 1.013 bar.
mr

cooling coil
2
h1

## moist air m a,1

DPT

h2

50 %

T1 1

2 < 1

10

0%

2 = 100%

1 2

T2 < T1
0.80 = =
10 DBT

condensate . sat. at T2 m w

0.82

control volume

30

## (a) The mass ow rate of the dry air, in kg/min

m a1 = 319.18 kJ/min

(41)

(b) The rate at which water is condensed, in kg per kg of dry air owing through the control volume m w = 1.8089 kg (42)

(c) The required refrigerating capacity, in tons. (1 TOR = 211 kJ/min = 3.5167 kW) r = 53.5 tons Q (d) Compare your result with the psychrometric chart analysis (43)

## Solution Tutorial 6/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Cooling water leaves the condenser of a power plant and enters a wet cooling tower at 35 C at a rate of 100 kg/s. Water is cooled to 22 C in the cooling tower by air that enters the tower at 1 atm, 20 C, and 60 % RH, and leaves saturated at 30 C. The power input to the fan is negligible.
saturated air exit

T4 = 30 oC

T1 = 35 oC . m w = 100 kg/s

fan

water droplets

. ma T3

ai

3
ri nl et

3
ai ri e nl t

T3 = 20 oC = 60%
3

p = 1 atm . mw
cold water

T2 = 22 oC

2 5

makeup

. water m5

(a) The volume ow rate of air into the cooling tower, (see eq. (40) in the lecture note): hf 1 hf 2 m a=m 1 (44) ha4 ha3 + 4 hv4 3 hv3 (4 3 )hf 5 (b) The mass ow rate of the required makeup water

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

## Solution Tutorial 6/ ws BDA 3043

Saturated air leaving the cooling section of an air-conditioning system at 14 C at rate of 50 m3 /min is mixed adiabatically with the outside air at 32 C and 60 % RH at a rate of 20 m3 /min. Assuming that the mixture process occurs at a pressure of 1 atm, determine: (a) The specic humidity (b) The relative humidity (c) The DBT (d) The volume ow rate of the mixture. (Answers: 0.0122 kg/kg d.a; 89 %; 19.0 C; 70.1 m3 /min)
. sat. air
1 control vol. 3 ma3 3
o
60 %

V 1 = 50 m 3/min T 1= 14 C
o

h2 h3
0%

.
T3
h1

10

3
1

2= 60 T 2= 32 C

insulation
3

V 2 = 20 m /min

2
0.80 0.82

14

32

DBT

The properties of each inlet stream are determined from the psychrometric chart: Inlet 1 2 h [kJ/kg d.a.] 39.4 79.0 [kg vapor/kg d.a.] 0.010 0.0182 a1 V = 60.5 a1 a2 V = = 22.5 a2 =m a1 + m a2 = 83 [m3 /kg d.a.] 0.826 0.889

m a1 = m a2 m a3

## (45) (46) (47) (48) 3 = 0.844 (49)

2 3 h2 h3 m a1 = = m a2 3 1 h3 h1 3 = 0.0122 h3 = 50.1

(50)

## Solution Tutorial 6/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

A small size cooling tower is designed to cool 5.5 litres of water per second , the inlet temperature is 44 C. The motor-driven fan induces 9 m3 /s of air through the tower and the power absorbed is 4.75 kW. The air entering the tower is at 18 C, and has a relative humidity of 60 %. The air leaving the tower can be assumed to be saturated and its temperature is 26 C. Assuming that the pressure throughout the tower is contant at 1.013 bar, and makeup water is added outside the tower.

h4 4
4

h
water droplets

. ma T3

ai

3
ri nl et

3
ai ri nl et

3
0.80 0.82

T2 = ?

2 5

makeup

. water m =?
5

. mw

cold water

= 60%

60

T3 = 18 oC

= %

h3

10

0%

18

26

DBT

(continuity)

## At the air inlet 3:

T3 = 18C,

3 = 0.6 pv3 3 = , pg3 = 2.0858 kPa pg 3 and pa3 = p pv3 = 100.049 kPa (51)

m a=

## 4 pa3 V RT3 = 10.78 kg/s pv 3 = 0.0078 kg/kg d.a. p pv 3

(52) (53)

3 = 0.622

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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia At the air inlet 3: T4 = 26C, 4 = 1.0 pv 4 = 1, 4 = pg 4

## pv4 = 0.0215 kg/kg d.a. p pv4

m 5=m a (4 3 ) = 0.1480 kg/s (b) The nal temperature of the water leaving the tower. Energy balance: 1 +H 3 +H 5 +W 4=H 4 +H 2 H 4=m m 1 h1 + m a ha3 + m v 3 hv 3 + m 5 h5 + W a ha4 + m v 4 hv 4 + m 2 h2 4 m a (ha4 ha3 ) = m 1 (h1 h2 ) + m a (3 hv3 4 hv4 ) + m 5 h5 + W 4 m 1 (h1 h2 ) = m a (ha4 ha3 ) + m a (4 hv4 3 hv3 ) m 5 h5 W 4m m 1 (h1 h2 ) = m a ha4 ha3 + 4 hv4 3 hv3 W 5 h5 4 m 1 h1 h2 (m 1 m 5) = m a ha4 ha3 + 4 hv4 3 hv3 W 4 m 1 h1 h2 (m 1 m 5) = m aY W Volume ow rate of the cooled water: m 1=
3 1 V 1 w = 5.5 ltr/s 103 kg/m3 1 m =V 3 w 10 ltr = 5.5 kg/s

(55)

(56)

(57)

Enthalpy of the cooled water at the inlet: h1 = hf,1 = 184.26 kJ/kg read on the saturated-water table at the uid state for t = 44C.. Enthalpy of the water vapor: hv,3 = hg,3 = 2, 533.76 kJ/ kg d.a. (T3 = 18C) hv,4 = hg,4 = 2, 548.32 kJ/ kg d.a. (T4 = 26C) Enthalpy of the dry air: ha,3 = cp,a T3 = 292.5 kJ/ kg d.a. (T3 = 18C) ha,4 = cp,a T4 = 300.5 kJ/ kg d.a. (T4 = 26C) (58)

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## Solution Tutorial 6/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Evaluation of the terms in eq. (56): Y = ha4 ha3 + 4 hv4 3 hv3 = 300.5 292.5 + 0.0215 2, 548.3 0.0078 2, 533.8 = 43.04 4 = 10.7815 43.04 4.75 = 459.29 m aY W m 1 h1 = 5.5 184.26 = 1, 013.43 h2 (m 1 m 5 ) = 1, 013.43 459.29 = 554.14 m 1 m 5 = 5.5 0.1480 = 5.352 h2 = 103.54 T2 = 24.7 C. (by interpolation) (61) (60) (59)

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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

## Solution Tutorial 6/ ws BDA 3043

Two air streams are mixed steadily and adiabatically. The rst streams enters at 32 C and 40 % RH at a rate of 20 m3 /min, while the second stream enters at 12 C and 90% RH at a rate of 25 m3 /min. Assuming that the mixing process occurs at a pressure of 1 atm, determine: (a) The specic humidity (b) The relative humidity (c) The dry-bulb temperature (d) The volume ow rate of the mixture (Answers: 0.0096 H2 O/kg dry air; 63.4 %; 20.6 C; 45.0 m3 /min.)

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