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Web Project Management

The practices behind successful web projects


E-consultancy, May 200
!ead author" #onia $ay %ontributing Editors" %raig &anna and %hris !a'e

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Table of contents
1. Executive Summary................................................................................................4
1.1. Research aims............................................................................................................ 4 1.2. Top 10 key indings and recomendations...................................................................4 1.!. Creating a model "hich is predicti#e o success.........................................................$

2. Introduction..............................................................................................................8
2.1. 2.2. 2.!. 2.4. %&out this report..........................................................................................................' (ho is this report or).................................................................................................' %&out E-consultancy...................................................................................................* (hat is (e& +ro,ect -anagement).........................................................................10
(hat is a pro,ect)...................................................................................................................................... 10 (hat is +ro,ect -anagement).................................................................................................................. 10 (e& +ro,ect -anagement......................................................................................................................... 11

3. Research aim.........................................................................................................12 4. Methodology..........................................................................................................13


4.1. .ample...................................................................................................................... 1! 4.2. /uestions.................................................................................................................. 1! 4.!. %nalysis..................................................................................................................... 10

5.

indings and Recommendations.......................................................................1!


0.1. The di erences &et"een "e& pro,ects and other pro,ects .......................................16 0.2. 1iggest challenges acing "e& pro,ect managers.....................................................1$ 0.!. 2ey dri#ers o success..............................................................................................1*
-ost o us do some o the right things......................................................................................................20

......................................................................................................................................... 20 % model or success ul (e& +ro,ect -anagement ........................................................21


-ature organisations are more success ul................................................................................................21 The model applied..................................................................................................................................... 24 Early E3perimenters..................................................................................................................................... 20 4rustrated 5isionaries................................................................................................................................ 26 .lick +ro essionals .................................................................................................................................... 2$

0.4. % e" "ords a&out agencies and consultancies.......................................................2'


%gency types.............................................................................................................................................. !0 %. Tight team"orkers................................................................................................................................. !0 1. +ro essionals "ith process.................................................................................................................... !1

0.0. 1uilding the right en#ironment or success...............................................................!2


The right culture......................................................................................................................................... !2 6rganisational culture................................................................................................................................ !2 Team culture.............................................................................................................................................. !4 6rganisational structure ........................................................................................................................... !* %lignment "ith o#erall &usiness strategy..................................................................................................41 1usiness (ide prioritisation...................................................................................................................... 42 The +ro,ect -anager 7 practically per ect in e#ery "ay............................................................................4! 8ncorporating the user into the process.....................................................................................................40 The 9 actor 7 le3i&ility............................................................................................................................. 4$

0.6. :sing the right methods and processes....................................................................4*


;a#e a structured approach ..................................................................................................................... 4* %re you using the right approach).............................................................................................................00 %gile........................................................................................................................................................... 02 +-162...................................................................................................................................................... 0! .crum......................................................................................................................................................... 04 +R8<CE2.................................................................................................................................................... 0$ (ater all..................................................................................................................................................... 0*
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9+ 7 E3treme +rogramming...................................................................................................................... 61 R:+ =Rational :ni ied +rocess>................................................................................................................ 6! ?.?- =?ynamic .ystems ?e#elopment -ethod>.....................................................................................64 R%? =Rapid %pplication ?e#elopment>.....................................................................................................66 The homegro"n approach......................................................................................................................... 66

0.$. .mall pro,ects need structure too..............................................................................6' 0.'. The essential pro,ect managers toolkit .....................................................................$2

!. "el#$ul resources..................................................................................................%3 %. Re$erences.............................................................................................................%3 8. &##endix 1 ' (he state o$ the nation ..................................................................%4
'.1. /uantitati#e research highlights................................................................................$4 '.2. /uantitati#e research results in ull...........................................................................$0

). &##endix 2 * Intervie+ Scri#t..............................................................................82 1,. &##endix 3 * -uestions used in online survey...............................................83 11. &##endix 4 * Exam#le o$ in'house ada#tation o$ .rince ..............................8)

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() E*ecuti+e #ummary ()() ,esearch aims


The purpose of this research is to fill the information gap around web project management by learning from the experiences of organisations who are already out there managing web projects. Weve put this report together on the back of a combination of in-depth interviews and quantitative research. #pecifically this research will

iscover what makes some organisations and projects more successful at web projects than others! "how what methodologies# tools and techniques are working# and which ones arent! $elp you evaluate your own situation and work out the best approach to move forward.

()2) Top (0 'ey findings and recomendations


() .early half of all respondents do not ha+e a structured approach to managing their web projects) %early half of all respondents &'(.()* do not have a structured approach to managing their web projects. This rises to +,) in the retail industry. This can add up to bad news. -ompanies without a structured approach are the least li'ely to achie+e their project goals# least likely to deliver customer satisfaction# are least able to deal with change during the course of the project and are less likely to achieve deadlines# meet budgets and deliver positive ./0. !ac' of processes and s'ills can mean that

Teams dont have visibility of the progress of the project and its associated risks and issues! There isnt a consistent vision of what the team are trying to deliver! 1stimation of the resources and effort required for the project involved is either poor or non-existent! 2rojects are planned in isolation from the rest of the business and are consequently poorly supported.

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2) /udgets and deadlines are difficult to control %early (3) of respondents say that their projects always achieve their goals# and yet only 45) of them say they always achieve deadlines. /nly 67) always achieve budget and a positive ./0. 0n fact over 3) of respondents ne+er meet their project deadlines and nearly +) ne+er deliver their projects within budget. /uch. 0) Web projects are integrated with the rest of the business less than half of the time, and customer satisfaction is hard to achie+e 8ewer than half &'+)* of respondents work to an annual plan that is aligned with their overall business strategy and only (+) say that they share common goals with the rest of the business. Whilst nearly 39) say they involve the end customer in gathering requirements for their projects# and ,4) involve the customer in testing# only half consistently achieve customer satisfaction with their projects. 1) Teams 'now that their re2uirements will change during the course of the project but yet they struggle to deal with it when it actually happens %early 33) of respondents say that they set their requirements knowing that they are flexible to change during the course of the project# yet half of organisations say that changing requirements during the course of their projects is one of the biggest challenges they face. 3) E*cellent project management is considered crucial to project success, but project management methods are not +alued, and many organisations don4t use 2ualified project managers) :ood communications and excellent project management are considered to be the two most important factors in determining the success of a web project. $owever# 44) of projects are managed by members of the marketing or commercial team rather than a qualified project manager. ;nowledge of specific project management methods is considered to be the least important skill in managing web projects.

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5) Web projects are different from other projects 1-consultancys research identifies that web projects are different from other projects because of their need to be responsive to< changing customer requirements and market conditions# the breadth of people and skills involved# the raft of stakeholders# frequently tight or fixed deadlines# a degree of uncertainty# and the need for interaction with real customers.

Therefore web projects re2uire a project management approach that helps with 1volving requirements! 2utting focus on the end customer! -ollaboration between different skill sets! =anaging stakeholder expectations.

) #uccessful organisations ha+e a structured approach to projects, and 'now how to apply a range of project management methods which can be tailored to the circumstances The most successful organisations are able to tailor their approach to the specific circumstances of the project and the organisation they are in# typically using a combination of agile and traditional project management methods. 6) #uccessful organisations thin' strategically but deli+er tactically -ompanies with a more evolved approach to e-commerce embrace flexibility and the ability to deliver iterative# tactical change# because they are operating in highly competitive environments &and as such they need to be able to respond to the rapidly-evolving needs of the customer*. espite this flexible approach# every project is aligned with the strategy of the overall business# providing consistent direction.

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7) 8n successful organisations collaboration is built into the process from the +ery top of the organisation down) The culture and organisational structure of successful companies support effective collaboration between 0T# 1-commerce# =arketing and =anagement through! "hared goals! "ponsorship for projects at a senior level of the organisation! -ross-functional steering groups who prioritise resource and provide guidance.

(0) E*cellent project management is as much about managing the en+ironment as it is about managing the process "uccessful organisations recognise the importance of having a dedicated project manager. > good project manager brings excellent communication and people skills# managing the environment around the project rather than just following a set of text book processes.

()0) %reating a model which is predicti+e of success


> maturity model has been defined to help organisations to benchmark their web project management prowess against other organisations. 8t identifies three 'ey groups() Early e*perimenters ? Web not part of business strategy# little@no project management structure or skills 2) 9rustrated +isionaries ? 2rojects aligned to business strategy# project management style not suited to web 0) #lic' professionals ? Web projects supported fully by whole company# sophisticated project management The model is based on a series of behaviours and practices that the research has shown to have the most significant impact on a companys ability to deliver successful projects.

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2) 8ntroduction 2)() :bout this report


This report describes the methodology and findings of a significant piece of research conducted into web project management. 0t makes a number of recommendations regarding web project management best practice on the basis of these findings# and the experiences of those who have kindly agreed to take part. 0t also draws on the writing of well respected authorities in the fields of project management# software development and web project management. The research was carried out in two main phases: Phase ( focused on in-depth interviews to identify the characteristics and practices of successful web projects# and the main barriers to success. Phase 2 was designed to validate the findings of the first phase of research and allow quantitative measurement of the typical success rate of web projects using an online questionnaire. The interview discussion guide and a copy of the online survey are both published in full in the >ppendices of this report.

2)2) Who is this report for;


This report is aimed at anyone in+ol+ed in commissioning or deli+ering web projects within their organisation# or on the behalf of a client organisation. The bulk of the report deals with the infrastructure, culture, practices and processes required to deliver medium to large web and e-commerce projects# although there are also specific findings and guidance relating to the delivery of smaller projects. The aim of the report is to enable those involved with web projects to identify the challenges that are specific to them# and identify best practices and approaches that will help them overcome these challenges and improve their chances of success on future projects. 0t is important to note that this report does not recommend a specific approach or set of processes as a Asilver bullet to resolve all web project management challenges. .ather# our aim is to provide the reader with the framework and information to help them determine for themselves what their future practices should be. We hope it proves useful to you. We love receiving feedbac' # comments and# all being well# your testimonials. "end word to chrisBe-consultancy.com.

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2)0) :bout E-consultancy


1-consultancy is an award-winning C;-based publisher of best practice internet mar'eting reports, research and how-to guides# to help educate business people and marketers about the internet and e-commerce. 8ounded in 5777# the company has grown to more than 32,000 registered users and operates a paid-subscription model. "ubscribers pay from as a little as <(17 per year to access exclusive and highly practical content. 1-consultancy also provides a range of public and in-house training programmes# such as seminars and workshops. 0t trained more than 6#999 internet professionals in 499+ and runs bespoke training programmes for well-known blue chips and "=1s. =ore than 599 exclusive 1-consultancy events are lined up for 499,# including roundtables and monthly "upplier "howcases# which remain highly popular. Web Project Management Dased on this research 1-consultancy is running a programme of training seminars specific to Web 2roject =anagement. Cpcoming dates for these courses are< Manchester Manchester #ondon #ondon Manchester #ondon Manchester 25th April, 200 !th "uly, 200 $0th "uly, 200 $%th &eptember, 200 25th &eptember 200 20th 'ovember, 200 22nd 'ovember, 200

0f you are interested in attending any of these sessions please email vivBe-consultancy.com# or see our websites training channel for more detail. 1-consultancy also held a roundtable forum of 1-commerce managers and project managers to discuss the findings of this research# the outputs of which can be found on our website.

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2)1) What is Web Project Management; What is a project;


0n A> :uide to the 2roject =anagement Dody of ;nowledge &2=D/; :uide* a project is defined asE (A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a uni)ue product, service or result* What is significant about this definition is that it distinguishes projects from the everyday work of running of a business. 2rojects run alongside business as usual operations and typically deliver a change that needs to be integrated back into the business# at the completion of the project.

What is Project Management;


(+ro,ect mana-ement is the application of knowled-e, skills, tools and techni)ues to pro,ect activities to meet pro,ect re)uirements* &2=D/;# 499(* "ometimes carried out by a professional pro,ect mana-er# at other times project management is an activity carried out by another member of the project team. Fou dont necessarily have to be a project manager to manage projects. There are a few universal truths for any project which are reflected in every 2roject =anagement methodologyE 5. 4. 6. '. There is always a customer# the project is always being delivered for someone! There is always a project team# no matter how big or small! There should always be a goal# otherwise why are you doing the projectG 0t ultimately comes down to managing the iron triangle<

/ost

-uality

(ime The iron triangle represents the three key elements of a projectE cost# 2uality and time. >ltering one of these variables will impact the other two. 8or instance# if you need to reduce the time to complete a project you will either have to risk reduced quality# or pay more money to ensure the same quality in less time.
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10

Web Project Management


The fundamentals of project management are the same# whatever the project# but there are a number of challenges inherent to web projects which often prevent teams from delivering their projects on time# on budget and to the satisfaction of their internal and external customers. These challenges are outlined in more detail in section (.5. 0n the experience of the participants of this research there is no single approach that is a perfect fit for web projects. =any organisations have embarked on journeys of experimentation and adaptation to arrive at processes that work for them. 0t is from documenting these experiences that we have been able to build a new body of knowledge that supports the notion of web project management as a separate activity. >t its most basic level Web 2roject =anagement is about creating the right en+ironment for the delivery of web projects. /ne with the following characteristicsE Hust enough structure to help rather than hinder progress! The flexibility to work with evolving requirements! 8ocus on and involvement of the end customer! 1ffective collaboration between different skill sets and departments! =anages the expectations of multiple stakeholders! 1nables rapid deployment of priority features.

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0) ,esearch aim
1-consultancy felt that there was a big gap for this sort of research# and so we decided to do something about it. We are experienced in web project management# having created# launched and operated many websites for ourselves and for third parties. 0ndeed# a thorough revamp of the 1-consultancy website has just begun# a project anticipated to take a year before it comes to fruition. =oreover# this research was undertaken in response to a growing need for guidance on web project management best practice from people working at the sharp end of the internet industry. >s ever# our guidance is based on practical experience rather than theoretical knowledge of managing web projects. 2eople say that this is where 1-consultancy really stands out from the crowd# and we hope this guide will prove to be a valuable addition to the existing research available on at www.e-consultancy.com@research. &pecifically this research aims to. iscover what makes some organisations and projects more successful at web projects than others! "how what methodologies# tools and techniques are working# and which ones arent! $elp subscribers evaluate their own situation and work out the best approach for them.

/ur research is not intended as a training manual for any specific project management method or process# but we think it articulates the ideal environment for managing web projects. 0t also provides an insight into some of the wide range of project management techniques available.

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1) Methodology 1)() #ample


Phase ( of the research comprised of 53 depth interviews with representatives from different organisations# across a wide range of industries including travel# financial services# telecommunications# retail and agency. The respondents were chosen because they are responsible for either commissioning or managing web projects within their organisation. The purpose of this first phase was to identify the characteristics and practices of successful web projects# and identify the main barriers to success. 0nterviews were conducted with senior representatives from the respective internet teams at the likes ofE MyTravel, &ony /ricsson, &ony 0usiness &ervices, Axa1+++, Alliance and #eicester, 0&2, 3irst 4hoice, 3ramfab, 5enderson 6lobal 2nvestors, #loyds, 4ode, 72, 7podo, +87 and &i-net9 Phase 2 was designed to validate the findings of the first phase of research and allow quantitative measurement of the typical success rate of web projects# and the maturity of C; organisations in their approach to web projects. This phase was conducted via an online survey to the 1-consultancy newsletter subscriber base. The survey was completed by +66 individuals &about () of our newsletter readers*.

1)2) =uestions
0n order to satisfy the aims of the research it was necessary to evaluate what skills and resources are necessary to run web projects and also how projects are influenced by and interact with the wider organisation. 0n order to do this we borrowed a strategic framework already seen in 1-consultancys indepth studyE A=anaging an 1-commerce teamE 0ntegrating digital marketing into your organisation. The structure for his study was based on a strategic framework devised by =c;insey -onsultants ? The ," strategic framework. 0n it each I"J represents a key issue that needs to be addressed. We have applied this framework equally effectively to the practice of managing Web projects# and it has been used in this research to highlight the key issues that need to be managed in order for a company to deliver its projects with a degree of success. This framework formed a backdrop for the first phase of qualitative research# which then defined the quantitative survey which was used in phase two. The interview discussion guide and a copy of the online survey are both published in full in the >ppendices of this report.

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1!

Element of # model "trategy

:pplication to Web Project Management >nnual planning approach# aligning projects with organisational and marketing strategy# gaining appropriate budget and resource# delivering value

$ey issues Deing part of organisation wide planning process 1ffective prioritisation of web projects to align with business goals ? roadmapping Deing part of a programme of work 0n-built flexibility to adapt to fast moving environment igital strategy as collaboration between 0T @ =arketing @ igital @ -ommercial

"tructure

=odification of organisational structure to support digital projects

-ross-functional steering and crossfunctional teams -ommon goals and targets 0ntegration between 0T @ =arketing @ =gt Where does project@programme mgt function sitG >ccountability

"ystems

evelopment of specific processes# procedures and information systems to support digital projects

>doption of structured approach to 2=. >pproach communicated and used by whole team@organisation >pproach is fit for purpose ? speed# quality# flexibility# scale Kisibility of the project ? timescales# issues# resource 1ffective process for gathering and refining requirements .ole of customer @ end user in the process -hoosing the right supporting software 1ffective resource estimation and allocation

"taff

Dreakdown of staff in terms of background and characteristics# location# insource@outsource# part-time vs. dedicated

"enior level sponsorship iversity of backgrounds# skills and understanding of web technology edicated 2= function vs. managing projects as a part-time task 0T 2roject =anager vs. -ommercial 2roject manager

"tyle

The way key managers behave in achieving the organisational goals# and the cultural style of the organisation as a whole

"hared ownership and decision making vs. working in competing silos /rganisational culture main driver of 14

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process@method Techniques to nurture collaboration across functions -o-location 8ear of permanent beta "kills istinctive capabilities of key staff Dreadth of skills required across the project 2roject management skills# training and experience 2= balance between technical# commercial and people skills 1xperience of working in web projects >vailability of expert technical resource >bility to evolve and embrace new technology "uper-ordinate goals The guiding concepts of the organisation which are part of shared values and culture 0mproving the effectiveness of crossfunctional teams through education and involvement in the process. :ive the organisation understanding so they can embrace the potential of the web channel

1)0) :nalysis
The -licktools analysis tool was used extensively in the quantitative phase of the research and enabled responses to be cross-tabulated and filtered. 8or example!

-ross referencing specific attributes and practices against their impact on success >nalysing the relationship between project management method and o "uccess o -ulture o -hallenges o 2ractices o .equirements gathering o %ature of deadlines -ross referencing culture against success 8iltering to establish the impact on success of the predictive model 8iltering the model behaviours to quantify the volume of respondents at each stage of the model

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3) 9indings and ,ecommendations 3)() The differences between web projects and other projects
The interviews conducted in the early stages of this research supported the view that web projects have challenges of their own which set them apart from other kinds of projects. Web projects draw on a huge range of people and s'ills ? =arketing# commercial# design# usability# accessibility# information architecture# programming# database development# application development# integration with legacy systems# back office support and fulfilment. 0ts not enough for each area to own one chunk of the project and then put it into a black box for someone else to integrate. Multi-discipline teams need to work together to define whole solutions that maximise the technologys potential to fulfil the customers needs. Decause of this diversity of interests# most web projects also tend to attract a huge array of sta'eholders and hangers on. 0ts also fair to say that in some organisations# web is still perceived as Aquick and easy so project managers have to manage varied and unrealistic e*pectations . Web development tends to be an iterati+e process. 1nhancing functionality through smaller, more fre2uent releases is the most effective way to keep up with the fast pace of change in consumer habits and technology. 2lus the volume of data available on how customers interact with your website makes it impossible these days not to find ways to continuously improve conversion or loyalty. $and in hand with a fast paced# competitive environment and demanding customers comes fi*ed deadlines# primarily driven by product launches and advertising campaigns. =any projects are made more complicated by the need to integrate cutting edge applications with legacy systems # which typically means that there are lots of unknowns. The requirements of a web project are often less defined at the outset# partly because it is difficult to second guess how the audience is going to interact with a three dimensional customer experience. 0ts not uncommon for re2uirements to be refined as part of the design process# and prototyping is sometimes used to aid this. The web channel represents your companys window to the outside world# so if your projects go wrong the evidence is there for all your customers to see and e*perience in the form of poor usability# confusing navigation# frustratingly slow page downloads# underwhelming content# impossible to complete transactions and error messages.
0ey inding (a1e the time to ensure that you and other 1ey sta1eholders understand the uni2ue challenges inherent +ith +e3 #ro4ects. (his +ill hel# manage unrealistic ex#ectations $rom the 3usiness.

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3)2) /iggest challenges facing web project managers


>ll our research participants were asked to identify the top three challenges they faced in delivering web projects. Their responses served to highlight the fact that a huge number of organisations are struggling with challenges that are inherent to the nature of web projectsL 1lements of their en+ironment and > or processes are inade2uate for the tasks they are being asked to carry out. .esoundingly# the biggest challenge facing web project managers is changing requirements during the course of the project. This is a defining feature of web projects# and cant be avoided unless organisations are prepared to go back to producing brochure-ware and stop striving for meaningful customer interaction. %hart ( ? /iggest challenges in managing web projects
60 00

00

5 o$ res#ondents

40 !! !0 !1 2$ 2$ 2!.0 20 1* 16 10 14

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0ronically most organisations# 3,.+,) according to our survey# set their requirements knowing that they need to be flexible to change. The fact that (9) still consider this to be one of the biggest challenges in their projects simply highlights the fact that they are unprepared for change when it needs to happen# or when it happens anyway. >ll project management methodologies will state that they have a mechanism for dealing with change within the project. Dut organisations need to understand that there is a world of difference between managing change as an exception to the project# and embracing change as part of the process. (7ur problem was that the environment was constantly chan-in- : you start off in waterfall with a bi- scope and then durin- the ,ourney there would be continuous re1 scopin- because of unforeseen chan-es9 &o by the time you deliver it;s different to what you set off with and the business is disappointed*9
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1$

The next most significant challenges are the unrealistic expectations of the business and failure of the business to provide adequate input at the right time. /nce again# this is probably symptomatic of one of the major challenges of web projects. The fact that there are a myriad of stakeholders and skill sets involved in web projects# means that managing the appropriate level of involvement from all parties can be a phenomenal communications task.
0ey inding

The results rom the @uestionnaire ser#e to rein orce the #ie" that "e& pro,ects re@uire a pro,ect management approach that helps "ithD

E#ol#ing re@uirements +utting ocus on the end customer Colla&oration &et"een di erent skill sets -anaging stakeholder e3pectations

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1'

3)0) $ey dri+ers of success


uring the interview stage of this research it became clear that organisations that are successful in delivering web projects share similar behaviours. We can see that success is not driven by the si@e of the organisation# which specific methodology they used or even the team structure. 0nstead# the key to running successful web projects appears to be nothing more that a collaborati+e and communicati+e culture, supported by structured practices and processes that are appropriate to the individual project and the organisation. The most successful or-anisations had these attributes in common: #tatements of a mature organisation Think strategically but deliver tactically 2rojects aligned with business strategy "ponsorship at senior level of the organisation -ross-functional steering to prioritise resource and provide guidance -ollaboration between 0T# =arketing and =anagement "hared goals "tructured approach to projects# which is appropriate to the needs of the business. This often means using different approaches for different kinds of projects. riven by business@customer needs edicated project management resource 8lexibility to respond to change 8ocus on the requirements that deliver the greatest benefit 3or the purposes of statistical analysis and producin- a predictive model, these statements were translated into specific practices which were then incorporated into the )uantitative study: 8lexibility in requirements 0nvolvement of the end user in defining requirements $aving a 2roject =anager $aving a structured approach to managing web projects $ighly collaborative culture $ighly communicative culture >n annual plan that is aligned with the overall business strategy "hared goals with the rest of the business > business wide approach to prioritising resource -ross-functional steering "enior sponsors for projects

> final influence# less easily quantified# was whether an organisation was able to demonstrate using different approaches for different kinds of projects.

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1*

$ey 9inding elivering a successful project is as much about managing the environment as it is about managing the process.

Most of us do some of the right things


The model will demonstrate that it is a combination of practices that drive significant improvements in the success rates of projects. Dut some beha+iours are more important than others # and the good news is that C; businesses are already doing a lot of the right things. The table below shows the percentage of respondents already demonstrating the behaviours and practices that are critical to success. The practices that have the most tangible impact on success are marked with stars. %hart 2 ? Percentage of respondents who demonstrate 'ey success factors
-ultiple approaches Cross- unctional steering 1usiness "ide prioritisation .nr .ponsors %lign "ith &usiness strategy .hared goals ;ighly communicati#e .tructured approach ;igh colla&oration ;a#e a +:ser dri#es re@uirements 4le3i&le re@uirement 1aseline 0.0 20.0 1$.1 2'.* !4.* !'.4 !'.4 46.6 4*.' 04.2 04.0 00.0 66.2 $0.2 100.0

+ercentage o respondents
40.0 60.0

'0.0

100.0

120.0

0ey $inding

&n M +65*

.ome actors ha#e a largerE clearer in luence on the likely success o a pro,ect. The top our actors areD creating a highly colla&orati#e en#ironment ha#ing a structured approach aligning pro,ects "ith &usiness strategy &usiness "ide prioritisation o resource.

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20

: model for successful Web Project Management


The quantitative study enabled data relating to over +99 companies to be mapped onto a maturity model# to establish whether these key behaviours were truly predictive of success. 1ach success factor was input according to how widespread its practice is i.e. the most commonly followed behaviours first# with the least common and arguably more sophisticated practices at the end of the model# as illustrated in the table above.

Mature organisations are more successful


Dy looking at a combination of which key success factors had been adopted by a company# and the perception of success they had achieved against the following criteria# we were able to demonstrate a clear lin' between the adoption of best practice &via the critical success factors* and the increased success of a project . $ow would you rate the success of your projects on the following criteriaG
<e#er %chie#es goals -eets deadlines -eets &udget Customer satis action 8n#ol#ement o the end user Em&races le3i&ility during de#elopment ?eli#ers R68 .ometimes %l"ays

Without doubt some elements of the model are more significant than others in driving success# but no single attribute guarantees success on its own. The model represents# at a high level# an ideal blend of company culture# organisational structure# skills and practices. The most successful organisations do all or many of these things. The following charts show how different facets of the model impact some of the success criteria.

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Score out o$ 3 2.1 2.2 2.! 2.4 2.0 2.6 2.40 2.00 2.60 2.$0 2.'0 2.4 2.0 2.6 2.$ 2.' 2.* 2

Score out o$ 3

1.* 1aseline 4le3i&le re@uirements Customer at re@uirements gathering

1aseline

4le3i&le re@uirements

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;a#e a +Colla&oration .tructured approach

Customer at re@uirements gathering

;a#e a +-

Colla&oration

.tructured approach

&do#tion o$ Model

&do#tion o$ Model

Communicati#e

Communicati#e

.hared goals

.hared goals

%lign "ith &us strategy

%lign "ith &us strategy

%hart 1 - They are more li'ely to meet deadlines

.nr .ponsors

.nr .ponsors

1usiness "ide prioritisation

1usiness "ide prioritisation

%hart 0 - %ompanies further up the model A more li'ely to achie+e their goals)

&n M +65*

&n M +65*

Cross unctional steering

Cross unctional steering

22

%hart 3 - They are better at staying within budget


2.$ 2.60 2.6 2.00 2.0 Score out o$ 3 2.40 2.4 2.!0 2.! 2.20 2.2 2.10 Customer at re@uirements gathering %lign "ith &us strategy ;a#e a +Colla&oration .tructured approach 1usiness "ide prioritisation .hared goals .nr .ponsors 1aseline 4le3i&le re@uirements Cross unctional steering Communicati#e

&do#tion o$ Model

&n M +65*

%hart 5 - They are better at dealing with change in the project)


2.$0 2.$ 2.60 2.6 Score out o$ 3 2.00 2.0 2.40 2.4 2.!0 2.! 2.20 1aseline

&do#tion o$ Model

Customer at re@uirements gathering

%lign "ith &us strategy

4le3i&le re@uirements

.tructured approach

1usiness "ide prioritisation

&n M +65* $ey finding 0ts possible to apply a model that is predictive of success. .espondents at the top of the model scored themselves as 74.63) successful# versus the average which was ,7.,+).

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Cross unctional steering

Colla&oration

.hared goals

Communicati#e

.nr .ponsors

;a#e a +-

2!

The model applied


iscussions with client and agency organisations suggested that there are three main categories to describe an organisations maturity in delivering web projects. The survey data enabled the siNe of these groups to be quantified. %hart ? #hows where the biggest impro+ements in success occur and the location of the three main groupings in terms of their adoption of the model
Early Ex#erimenter 835
120.0

rustrated 6isionaries 14.25

Slic1 .ro$essionals 2.85

8n#ol#es end user %chie#es goals

-eets deadlines

100.0

ts

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'0.0

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60.0

40.0

?eli#ers R68
&do#tion o$ model

20.0

0.0

&nM+65*

>lthough success rates consistently improve the further along the model you go# each of the markers on the diagram above serve to illustrate the point at which the most considerable improvements occur.
$ey finding >lthough some elements of the model are more significant than others in driving success no single attribute guarantees success on its own. /rganisations should strive to adopt as many of the success criteria as possible in order to deliver value and ./0.

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Early E*perimenters
Early e*perimenters tend to be relatively new to delivering web projects. The web channel is typically seen as a tactical tool rather than a channel that is integrated into the overall strategic plan of the business. This can be problematic. 0t can mean that e-commerce initiatives operate in a vacuum and the opportunities and benefits are not fully realised by the wider organisation. /n the one hand this means that the project team will typically have a lot of empowerment &while things are going well*# but at times the lack of support from a senior sponsor can be to the detriment of the project. > particular challenge can be getting and keeping the right resources for the job. This mode is typified by a lac' of formal process # or having to operate with processes that arent always suited to web projects. There will usually be some organisational tools such as work schedules# project updates and team meetings but these are often applied in an ad hoc manner. The knock-on effects of a lack of structured approach are discussed more fully later in this document. There is unlikely to be a full-time project manager in place# although 0T project managers may get involved where there is integration with legacy systems. 2rojects are completed purely as a result of the sheer determination of the individuals within the project team. %othing more. <orkin- in this mode can be maintained for a while, but typically issues can occur when:
$ey 9inding Web projects need to be part of an overall business strategy. When this isnt the case the project team operate in a vacuum without the appropriate tools and techniques to make their projects a success. The business case for appropriate resource is doomed to fail because the project is not contributing to the priority objectives of the business.

projects increase in their siNe or complexity web gets a higher profile in the business more stakeholders come out of the woodwork there are more projects and@or fewer resources available key team members leave

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9rustrated Bisionaries
9rustrated Bisionaries tend to deliver their projects against an annual plan and objectives which are aligned with the overall strategy of the business. They tend to have more formal structures and processes in place including cross-functional steering groups to prioritise projects and resources. 0n these circumstances web projects have visibility at a senior level in the company. Althou-h there is a defined process for deliverin- pro,ects there are still some common complaints:

0T and marketing dont collaborate enough Web projects sometimes disappear into an 0T black-box and dont always do what theyre supposed to when they come out the other side 2rojects take too long to deliver The business cant be as responsive to customers and the competition as it needs to be 2rojects get derailed by changing or misunderstood requirements

Oegacy systems and laborious processes are perceived as the biggest barrier to achieving the organisations online vision. What these organisations lack is the flexibility to cope with the demands of the market and ambitions of the company. They usually manage to deliver one or two large web projects a year# but want to be able to deliver enhancements in a more frequent and iterative way. (<e have two bi- problems9 2t;s too lon- from -ettin- an idea to delivery and stemmin- from that is that the process involves far too many people, too many personalities* Typically these companies will work within a 2rince framework or a home grown waterfall process. 0n their favour# the communicative and collaborative nature of the team means that theyre usually well aware of their problems and are trying to resolve them. They actively research new methods and tools.

$ey 9inding The vast majority of organisations that are struggling to deliver their web projects do so because they are persisting with a methodology that is inappropriate for their needs. > more flexible approach# using tools that are applicable to the task at hand# should be considered. This often means considering more agile project management methodologies.

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#lic' Professionals
#lic' Professionals bring sophisticated expertise to managing web projects# and are likely to have clear processes &usually multiple methods* for managing projects which are characteristically more collaborative# user focused# iterative and flexible to change. These organisations are typically in highly competitive industries where customer expectations are high. They will deploy multiple changes during the course of the year# which are largely driven by customer research and marketing deadlines. The 0T department is perceived as &and perceives itself as* as a 'ey ser+ice pro+ider. :gile methodologies are often adopted here because ofE quick starts# ability to prioritise key requirements# quick delivery of tangible outputs# their ability to ensure participation of 0T# commercial and marketing# the fact that risks and the impact of problems or mistakes are minimised. =ore traditional approaches such as Waterfall are still used where appropriate e.g. where there is less uncertainty# requirements are fixed and the there is less need for innovation.

$ey 9inding To be able to respond to a competitive market the most successful organisations adopt project methodologies that are appropriate to their environment! flexible# collaborative# with quick start ups and incremental delivery.

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3)1) : few words about agencies and consultancies


"pecial consideration needs to be given to agencies and consultancies. 2ut simply# they are not in control of all the key success factors of their projects because their clients are responsible for the sophisticated behaviours at the top of the model!

>nnual plan for web projects aligned with the overall business strategy 1nsuring that there are senior sponsors for the project with decision making authority Csing cross-functional steering groups to ensure that the relevant areas of the business have input and accept responsibility for the decisions made within the project

>necdotally# it is in these areas where many agencies feel their projects can experience difficulty ? getting the right person at the client to make decisions in a timely manner. 0t therefore comes as a surprise to find out that in spite of this# agencies and consultancies are still more successful than other organisations in delivering their web projects. The diagram below illustrates how respondents from different industries rated the success of their projects against key criteria. %hart 6 ? #uccess rate of agencies and consultancies compared to other industries
!

2.0 6#erall &aseline %gencyBconsultancy 4inancial Tra#el Aam&ling Retail <ot or pro it 1usiness .er#ices Technology Communications 6ther

2 Score out o$ 3

1.0

0.0

0 %chie#es goals 8n#ol#e end user -eets &udget -eets deadlines Customer satis action 4le3i&le in de#elopment ?eli#ers R68

Success criteria

&n M (43*

>gencies and consultancies consistently outstrip other organisations# so what is it that makes them inherently better at delivering projectsG 0ts easy to overlook the most obvious point. The biggest different between agencies and consultancies and other organisations is that their raison detre is projects. Their staff is just
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one resource to be called upon# and they dont have to juggle projects with other business as usual activity. $owever# there are important factors to their success that can also be explained by the attributes of the model< Culture : 7f all the industries a-encies and consultancies are more likely to describe their or-anisational culture as hi-hly innovative, collaborative and communicative9 Table ( ? ,esponses to 2uestion 1, description of company culture, filtered by industry
;o" "ould you descri&e your company culture =1 is least likeE 0 is #ery like> +repared to accept risk 8nno#ati#e Empo"ering Colla&orati#e Communicati#e %ll !.1 !.4$ !.!6 !.4* !.!* %ll e3cluding agency !.01 !.41 !.!1 !.42 !.! %gencyBConsultancy !.!! !.66 !.4* !.66 !.6! &n M +4'*

The research# both anecdotally and statistically# shows a direct link between the culture of an organisation and its ability to deliver web projects. Customer champions : A-encies and consultancies are better at championin- the customer in the pro,ect and are more likely to involve the end user across more sta-es of the pro,ect9 Table 2 ? ,esponses to 2uestion ((, in+ol+ement of end user in project, filtered by industry
%t "hich stage is the end user in#ol#ed in your pro,ects =F o respondents> Re@uirements gathering .olution design 4ront end design +rototyping Testing %ll $*.'1 41.!! 0'.4' 4$.4! %ll e3cluding agency $6.41 !$.2$ 04.6* 40.04 %gencyBConsultancy ''.16 01.!2 6$.$6 0!.2*

$2.0$ $0.24 $'.2*

&n M (4+*

The research data shows that involving the user at any stage of the project has a positive impact on success# but involving them during solution design has the most positive impact of all. 0ronically this is the stage at which most companies are least likely to seek user input. Adaptable approach : A-encies are more likely than other or-anisations to experiment with different approaches to work out the best way to deliver a pro,ect, and fre)uently brin- their past experience to bear9 The only real differentiation between more and less successful agencies is the sophistication of their methods and processes# and their ability to manage the project and their clients within an appropriate structure and framework. To this end we have identified two broad categories to define the way agencies approach web projects ? Tight teamworkers and 2rofessionals with process.
$ey 9inding >gencies and consultancies have a head start in delivering successful web projects. Their whole organisation is structured around delivering projects# and they are more likely to have a culture of collaboration# communication and innovation.
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:gency types
The research isolated two main types of agency in terms of project management methodology and maturity. Doth can deliver successful projects but this will depend on the type and siNe of the project and the demands@maturity of the client organisation.

:) Tight teamwor'ers
Tight teamwor'ers are loved by their clients because of their Acan-do attitude. There is a natural tendency towards team work and collaboration# and individual team members will go the extra mile to get the job done. 0ts a fun and vibrant environment when things are going well and a chaotic workhouse when things arent. > lot of these organisations will have project managers# although it does not necessarily follow that there is a structured approach in place to manage projects# or at least not one that is visible to everyone else in the agency. There will be processes for trafficking projects through the various departments# and for smaller projects this is often enough. The cracks are more likely to show during bigger# high profile projects that have outgrown the in-house processes# highlighting the need for new tools and techniques to help accurately assess the scale of work and respond in a more structured way. The biggest unknown is the quality of client input# and it has the ability to derail a project. 2rojects work well when the client is happy to let the agency get on with the job# but can suffer when pressures at the client come to bear. ;ey issues can be! involvement late in the day from key stakeholders# delays in giving feedback and the client not providing assets on time. /ften reactive by nature# it is difficult for these agencies to protect the quality of their output. This can cause problems later down the line when on occasion the client fails to appreciate the trade off between# speed# cost and quality. =any of these organisations would like to take time out to clarify their processes and educate their clients about the importance of their role in the project. (4lients want a-encies to be reactive but they should be responsive not reactive. it has a ripple effect on resourcin-9 2f you;re cau-ht out then you have to scramble to find the ri-ht people9 2n the end it affects the )uality of the pro,ect9 =ou need to be able to -et the ri-ht people to do the ,ob9*

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/) Professionals with process


Professionals with process are agencies and consultancies with a structure designed to foster innovation and collaboration. They vary in siNe from ( to (99 people# but when it comes to running projects they are all flexible enough to cope with change# and can turn their hand to a number of different approaches depending on what suits the circumstances. They are equally at home with >gile and traditional project management methodologies# and are likely to develop a Ahouse style based on the best of both worlds. 8or some of these organisations its important to have 2.0%-14 as a string to their bow# in order to attract business from government organisations. 2rocesses are robust but not heavy handed# with emphasis on customer involvement# quality assurance and testing. Decause there is a defined approach to each project it is easier for these organisations to educate the client on what the process is and ensure the right level of involvement at the right time. 2rofessionals with process are equally adept at managing large projects as well as smaller undertakings# and are confident in implementing and adapting new technologies. These organisations use their resources efficiently with effective methods of prioritisation# and pride themselves on being responsive rather than reactive. ( Most of the time we take the initiative in decidin- a process9 2t;s surprisin- how little process is in place at some clients9 Most of the time clients are happy to -o alon- with it*

$ey 9inding The most successful agencies dont shy away from introducing more structured methods of managing projects# and will apply either >gile or Traditional approaches to suit the project. >mongst other things# a more disciplined approach can help to engage the client more productively.

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3)3) /uilding the right en+ironment for success The right culture
The results of the research show that an environment that is inno+ati+e# empowering# communicati+e and collaborati+e produces more successful web projects. This is supported by evidence from a Areverse model of the research data which showed that the least successful organisations had little aptitude in these areas. 2oor communication is a particular killer of projects. 8or people working in a project team there are two cultures in play ? the micro culture within the immediate team# and the macro culture of the wider organisation. We spoke to a number of companies who had successfully introduced new methods of delivering web projects into their organisations. They all had one thing in commonE the people responsible for driving the change were the 0T directors# 1-commerce directors and@or =arketing irectors of the organisation. -hanging the culture of the wider organisation is not usually within the gift of the project or programme manager# but understanding it is critical in ensuring that your projects get adequate support. $owever# the project manager does have influence over the culture of the project and its team.

Crganisational culture
1very authority on project management supports the notion that the project management approach needs to fit the context in which the project is operating. 0t is not a Trojan horse for organisational change. Him $ighsmith &4994* references a study by :eoffrey =oore which explains that there are four basic organisational culturesE %ulti+ation ? 2uts people first# but as individuals rather than as teams. 2eople tend to gravitate towards work they find fulfilling# and are therefore highly original and creative. These organisations are brilliant at experimentation# but less effective in running projects in the mainstream. %ompetence ? "tresses individual responsibility and accountability. riven by the need for achievement# they are Ican doJ organisations# who can be brilliant in a turbulent# changing market place# but may struggle when the market matures. %ollaboration ? The emphasis is on cross-functional teams. They prioritise strong leadership based on a meritocracy of experience rather than job title. The leadership style is goal-oriented# encouraging interaction and a balance of delegation and decisiveness. %ontrol ? =otivated by a need for power and security# these companies are less comfortable with experimentation and rapid change# but are efficient at optimising what they already do. There is a focus on strong management and processes.
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Cnderstanding where your company fits on this scale should be a key determining factor in tailoring your approach. > simple illustration of how this can be applied is contained in section (.+ &;Are you usin- the ri-ht approach>; *. "ome organisations have recognised that their prevailing company culture is not suited to ecommerce and have responded by setting up web operations as either a separate company or branch of the organisation. This can work well where all the necessary resources can be ring-fenced within e-commerce# but can present challenges if# as is so often the case# there is still a need for integration with the rest of the business. The outcome can be a clash of cultures# and either an e-commerce division that is under siege# or one that is perceived by the rest of the company as being too big for its boots.

$ey 9inding 2roject management styles that are at odds with the prevailing organisational culture are unlikely to succeed. "uch radical change only occurs when the new direction is instigated by senior management.

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Team culture
The first step in developing an effective team culture is to get someone in place who will take responsibility for not just managing the process# but the environment the project is in. 0deally# an experienced project manager can bring the appropriate communication# leadership and team building skills to bear. $owever# .ome wasnt built in a day# and its not enough to simply decide that your team are going to be communicative and work together happily. -ulture is determined by behaviour# which is in turn supported by good practices. &ome of the key practices for fosterin- a positive team culture are: efining clear roles and responsibilities 1ffective communications 2roactive stakeholder management Csing the right approach

"cott Derkuns book AThe >rt of 2roject =anagement is full of excellent advice for project managers on these subjects# which goes into much more depth than is possible in this report. The following is my summary of some of "cotts key points. :) Ensure clearly defined roles Defining roles is one of the keystones for effective collaboration. /ne of the most destructive influences on relationships can be when there is ambiguity about what the team can expect from each other. Kirtually all project management methods set out a framework for communicating the roles and responsibilities for the project# and it is one of the first things to be articulated# usually even before requirements are discussed. 0t is not uncommon for confusion to surround the role of the project manager# teams make assumptions based on their previous experiences of what the project manager will and wont do. 0ts all easily resolved through discussion with each of the team members# working out what each person takes sole responsibility for and where responsibility is shared. > .esponsibility >ssignment =atrix &.>=* is a tool often used for this purpose in traditional project methods.

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/) Ensure effecti+e communication Effecti+e communication is only achieved when both participants are able to digest and interpret the message within the communication correctly. 0ts not about whether youve said something or even whether your message has been received. 2eople are always leaving voicemails and emails to each other ? but it doesnt necessarily follow that this information has been understood and acted upon. 4ommon communications problems are: :ssumption ? good communicators are always clarifying assumptions made at key points in discussions# such as when commitments are made# and confirm them again before the deadline. !ac' of clarity ? The natural remedy is to step back# slow down and break down ideas into smaller pieces until clarity is reached and then slowly build up from it. "ometimes it helps to use analogy to give a rough framework. Dictation ? This is not an act of communication as no attempt is made to reach understanding. :iving orders should be the exception. 0nstead try to make decisions in an environment where people have the right to ask good questions and propose challenges to your logic. %rossed wires ? 0f neither party recognises that there are different issues being discussed# but being confused as the same issue then the discussion will just frustrate. "omeone has to separate them out and work out what is really being talked about# by clarifying and asking questions. Derision, ridicule and blame ? 0f someone is consistently demeaned in the process of communicating important but difficult information they will stop doing it. /ne interviewee explained how her project team had introduced monthly A2roject Workouts as a way of getting the team to work through any issues they were having with the project or working with each other. /ne day in the month they spend time out of the office together# focusing on the end goal of the project and working out how to overcome barriers. This regular forum for objective and honest communication helped bring the team together.

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%) Manage sta'eholders "takeholders link the project to the wider organisation. Proacti+e sta'eholder management or Emanaging up4 will help ensure that the business gives effective support to the project# has appropriate input into the project and help manage any negative influences from the organisation on the project and its team. >t the outset of the project you need to evaluate the goals of the project# and determine what support will be needed. 0s it money# decision making# influencing other people# expertiseG Fou then need to identify who it is within the organisation that will give it to you. $owever# one of the added complexities of web projects is the volume and diversity of stakeholders. 0ts not just a case of choosing which stakeholder relationships you want. 0ts also about managing the stakeholders you have. #ta'eholder mapping > helpful exercise for identifying where the important positive and negative influences are likely to come from is stakeholder mapping. Taking a couple of hours out with key team members at the beginning of the project will help you identify which are the important relationships to nurture and allow you to put an appropriate strategy in place for doing this. "ometimes winning over an important stakeholder is critical to effective collaboration and success. /n the next page well show you how to do this ? its easyL

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Ma'ing your #ta'eholder Map 2ut your project at the centre of a diagram and plot individuals or departments on the diagram depending on their proximity to their project# people that are close to the project near the centre and people on the margins out towards the edges. >sk yourself whether these people are influencers# do they have responsibilities to the project# are they accountable for its success# or are they just interested in what youre doingG >re they importantG 0f they are# make their spot on the diagram bigger. What is their attitude to the projectG -olour them in green if theyre positive# black if theyre neutral# red if theyre negative. 0n this example Hohn is responsible for the resource# but has a negative relationship with the project. The outcome is a remote and indifferent back-end development team. %hart 7 ? E*ample sta'eholder mapping e*ercise .

8ohn 9I( 7irector: Res#onsi3le

7an 9.roduct Mar1eting: Res#onsi3le

+ro,ect 9
8ane 9E'commerce 7irector: &ccounta3le

7ata3ase integration (eam Res#onsi3le

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D) Ta'ing the right approach %hoosing the right project approach is both a factor of and an influence on the culture of the team. 8or instance some approaches have rigidly defined roles and responsibilities# with formal communications channels# whereas others are specifically designed to encourage collaboration and more frequent# less formal communication. %hart (0 ? ,espondents were as'ed to score their company culture against a list of attributes where ( was least li'e their company and 3 was most li'e their company) This data has been segmented by project method .
4 !.0 ! 2.0 2 1.0 1 0.0 0
in no #a t i# e g e ris k co lla &o ra ti# po "e r in m un ica ti# e

1aseline <one .crum (ater all +rince 9+ %gile

em

co m

&n M +4'*

>s illustrated in the chart above# respondents who worked with A>gile methods# including "crum and P2# were more likely to describe their culture as innovative# empowering# collaborative and communicative# than those who worked with traditional methods.

$ey 9inding > good project manager will be a key influence in determining a successful# collaborative and communicative culture within the project team. They clarify roles# encourage better communication# gain the support of important stakeholders and introduce collaborative ways of working.

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Crganisational structure
1-consultancys A=anaging an 1-commerce Team study &499(* showed that most organisations locate their e-commerce function in one of four areasE 5. 4. 6. '. =ain e-commerce function part of marketing =ain e-commerce function as separate team =ain e-commerce as part of operations =ain e-commerce as part of 0T

0n the qualitative stage of this research all of the interviewees fell into one of the first two categories# where the strategic direction for e-commerce either came from an e-commerce team reporting into marketing or a dedicated e-commerce business unit. $owever# the e-commerce team are not always responsible for delivering web projects. 0t depends on the siNe of the project# the level of complexity# and the degree to which the project requires integration with legacy systems. $owever# in virtually all cases e-commerce provides the direction and motivation for the projects and will manage small projects with low risk. 8or larger projects it is common that e-commerce or marketing take primary responsibility for managing front end development# and 0T undertake integration or back end development. Dudgets are often aligned on this basis. /n larger projects involving front and back end work this can mean shared responsibility across 0T# 1-commerce and =arketing# which is when steering groups become essential to discuss resources# give direction and ensure that the objectives of all areas are being met. "o in terms of where project management# as a function# is located within a business# the picture is quite confused. 2roject managers are located variously inE 5. 4. 6. '. Web or e-commerce team 2roject@2rogramme =anagement team 0T department %o 2=# use marketing or commercial staff

0ts worth noting that where there is a dedicated project management team# it is quite common for that team to still have a reporting line into the $ead of 0T. $owever the project managers are still perceived by e-commerce as more Aneutral than 0T project managers. =any of the organisations in the research have experimented with different reporting lines for project management# and there doesnt appear to be one right answer. $owever# organisations which are more mature and therefore successful in their delivery of web projects are more likely to have dedicated project managers in the e-commerce team# or use project managers from a dedicated project or programme management team# as shown in the chart on the next page<

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%hart (( ? !ocation of project management responsibility, mature organisations +s) all respondents
$0.00F 60.00F 5 o$ res#ondents 00.00F 40.00F !0.00F 20.00F 10.00F 0.00F +ro,ect -anager rom 8T +ro,ect -anager in EcommerceB(e& +ro,ect -anager rom +- team -em&er o -arketingBCommercial Team 6utsourced +ro,ect -anager %ll -ature

;ocation o$ #ro4ect management res#onsi3ility

&n M (45*

Where there is a high degree of back end work there is often an 0T project manager as well as a project manager representing e-commerce. The point has been made elsewhere in this report about the need for productive relationships between different functions# as the high degree of collaboration required on a project can rarely be avoided. > frequent comment from interviewees is that more could be done within their organisation to ensure that the different departments pull together. (The ideal would be to ali-n 2T to the business so that they are encoura-ed to work in collaboration rather than conflict9 Ali-n bonuses across the area that people work on, across 2T and the business, to -et everyone in the same boat so they can focus on -ettin- thin-s done9* $aving common goals is one critical factor# otherwise what incentive is there for heads of department to provide support to web projects. (+) of respondents to the survey said that this was already in place within their organisation. >nother interviewee also suggested that bonuses should be linked to these common goals# to ensure the full engagement and motivation of the team involved in delivery.

$ey 9inding 0t is rare that any one department or function owns all aspects of the delivery of web projects# making it crucial for the different departments to be aligned in their strategic vision# from the very top of the organisation.

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:lignment with o+erall business strategy


63.') of the organisations who participated in our research have an annual plan for ecommerce which is aligned with the overall strategy of the business. This means that over +9) of them dontL 0ts not enough for your project to have objectives# they need to be the right ones. 0f your project is not delivering against the key priorities for your company then the harsh reality is that your bosses probably dont care whether you succeed or fail. That is until they get the bill and wonder what on earth youve been spending their budget on. 2rojects that originate from an overall business strategy dont just leave people with a warm sense of achievement# they also have a healthier bottom line. They are more likely to be delivered on time# on budget and have a positive ./0. This is because projects that are planned in conjunction with the rest of the business get better support from the business . 0t is easy to demonstrate what benefits they will bring# so they are not perceived as a Apet projects lacking merit. They are more likely to be given appropriate resource# because there is a pertinent business case for doing the work. The success of the project is likely to be crucial to the objectives of one or more senior sponsor and their department# who will be more pre-disposed to make timely decisions and provide you with effective guidance. 2eople that share your goals# care about your goals. 0ts easy to see how this important practice is linked to other success factors. Without it its hard to imagine how you can have a business wide view on prioritising resource# get senior sponsorship and foster a genuine sense of teamwork and collaboration. Without it you will find yourself in competition with the rest of your colleagues# fighting a losing battle for scarce resource. Successful organisations think strategically so that they can deliver tactically.

$ey 9inding 2rojects need to make a direct contribution to the overall strategy of the business. 0t ensures that the whole business gets behind the project and gives it the resource and support it needs. "uccessful organisations think strategically and deliver tactically.

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/usiness Wide prioritisation


"uccessful# fast-moving projects need to be able to get the right resources at the right time. 0n reality# there are rarely teams of excellent people waiting on the sidelines# on the off chance that you might need them. 2utting the right resources in place at the right time requires a business wide perspective ? one that is sufficiently informed to pre-empt the needs of individual projects versus daily operations and be able to prioritise them according to the overall strategic direction of the business. The majority of our research interviewees do this via a cross-departmental steering committee. This committee has representatives from each of the core areas of the business enabling them to take a holistic view on resource availability and the impact of cancelling or stalling a project. >round one third of survey respondents have such a process in place. (There;s an or-anisational roadmap, which is the priority pro,ects, so if you had a conflict between one pro,ect that is and one that isn;t on the roadmap this decides it9* The effectiveness of this process has a direct impact on the flexibility of the team to adapt to changing needs and respond to issues. "low# onerous processes can mean that resource issues are already starting to bite long before a solution is in place. >nd if# as weve already mentioned# your project is not aligned to the core goals of the business# be prepared to go to the back of the queue. (&ometimes there are conflicts with other departments when doin- 2T development9 This kind of prioritisation is slow9 =ou put in a development re)uest, explain why it;s needed, -ive it a business ,ustification9 2t -ets reviewed at a monthly meetin-9* 0f such an infrastructure does not already exist within your organisation a programme or project board is sometimes the next best thing# providing it has the support and participation of knowledgeable and empowered senior managers. >lthough the meeting will be limited to discussing the resource requirements and conflicts of your own group of projects# having the right people in the room such as the 0T director# your senior supplier# the main business sponsor etc# it should enable you to discuss your needs in the context of the other priorities in the business# as well as the context of your team.

$ey 9inding $aving a business wide approach to prioritisation can help put the right resource in the right place at the right time. 0f this process is too infrequent or ineffective then find other ways to engage with your stakeholders such as a project or programme board.

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The Project Manager ? practically perfect in e+ery way


0n his essay entitled ?+ursuin- the +erfect +ro,ect Mana-er; # Tom 2eters gives a fantastic description of the ideal attributes of a project manager# calling them a set of paradoxes. The following is a summary of his listE () Total ego > no ego) 2roject managers have a passionate belief in the project and invest some of themselves in it# yet be able to put their ego to one side and allow others to invest the same energy and reap the same rewards. 2) :utocrat > delegator) When the chips are down# the project manager has got to issue the orders fast# and yet the rest of the time they need to empower the rest of the team to make decisions. The team should Qown the problemQ and take the initiative to deal with the situation without always deferring to the 2=. 0) !eader > manager) TodayRs project managers# more so than in traditional settings# are only as good as their team matesR commitment# energy and diverse skills. "o project managers must be leaders -- visionaries and invigorators. /n the other hand# QmanagementQ means being expert at the mechanics. 0ts about what you do and the way you do it. 1) Tolerate ambiguity > pursue perfection . >ll projects have an element of ambiguity and change# particularly web projects. > good project manager knows when to let creativity reign# when to button down the details# and how much energy to expend on pursuing the perfect solution. 3) Cral > written. =ost people have either an oral or a Qput it in writingQ bias. Top project managers must have both. 1ffective meetings# brainstorms and one-to-ones are just as important as clear written reports and accurate documentation. The project manager needs to know which mode to use when. 5) :c'nowledge comple*ity > champion simplicity . 0f a team gets bogged down in the complexity of a project the danger is that their solution will be equally complex to implement and run# perhaps unnecessarily so. The art of project management is to allow detailed analysis of the problem whilst keeping the team focussed on the big picture and providing the simplest possible solution. ) 8mpatient > patient . 2roject managers must be Qaction fanaticsQE :et on with it! donRt dwell on yesterdayRs issues. >t the same time# they run a network with fragile egos# multiple cultures and complex relationships. evoting lots of time to Qrelationship buildingQ is as important as impatiently pushing for action. This essay reflects the views of our research interviewees who described their ideal project manager as a reincarnation of =ary 2oppins - firm and persistent yet receptive and approachable. /ne interviewee described their ideal 2= as (someone the team would like to follow into the next pro,ect*.

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This emphasis on people skills over technical# commercial and even project management knowledge was also borne out in the quantitative research. Delow is a chart showing how respondents rated the importance of each attribute out of a possible score of (. Table 0 ? ,esponses to 2uestion (3, scoring the most important attributes of a web project manager out of 3, where ( is least important and 3 is most important)
E3cellent communicator 4ocused on the end goal Aood listener -oti#ates the team Ceadership +ersistence 4le3i&ility <egotiator Commercial kno"ledge G skills Aood at coaching others Technical kno"ledge G skills 2no"ledge o di erent pro,ect methods 4.44 4.!$ 4.1$ 4.14 4.1 4.0' 4.04 !.*! !.* !.$0 !.60 !.2!

&n M (59* $owever# in spite of its relatively low score in the survey# technical knowledge of the subject matter was mentioned by nearly every research interviewee as essential in enabling the project manager to run the project effectively. They need to have an understanding of the work involved# bridge the communication gap between 0T and the rest of the business# be able to gauge the quality of the proposed solution and have an informed view of work estimates. /r as one interviewee put it< (They need to see throu-h the rubbish and challen-e timin-s*9 The degree to which project managers are expected to get involved in the commercial elements of the project varies between organisations# and depends on whether there is another role in the organisation which has ownership for this aspect. 8or instance# in the agency environment the client services team may be expected to take more ownership for ensuring the commercial viability of the solution. $owever# no project manager can deliver successful projects if they are detached from the financial realities of the situation and fail to understand the commercial motivations for doing the project in the first place. To some degree the skills bias of the project manager depends on which department they are located in within the company# and what kinds of web projects they specialise in.

$ey 9inding :ood 2roject =anagement is essential for delivering successful projects. .esources therefore must be allocated to get the right people with the right skills onboard. Csing under-skilled resources @ people greatly increases the chances of failure. Food project management is e*cellent people management and the processes surrounding them are just the tools of the trade.

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8ncorporating the user into the process


The research data shows that involving the user at any stage of the project has a positive impact on success# but involving them during solution design has the most positive impact of all. 0ronically this is the stage at which most companies are least likely to seek user input. These days very few people would argue against getting feedback from the customers# in fact 39) of respondents to our survey said that they involve the customer in gathering requirements# so why dont more people involve the customer during design and buildG They think it will cause delays They think it will cost more money They struggle to justify spending time and money on it

0n actual fact the companies that are best at delivering web projects# on time# on budget# on brief involve the customer more than anyone else. %hart (2 ? 8n+ol+ement of the end customer at each project stage, mature companies +s) the a+erage propensity)
120.00F 100.00F 5 o$ res#ondents '0.00F 60.00F 40.00F 20.00F 0.00F .olution design 4ront end design Re@uirements gathering +rototyping Testing 1aseline -ature Companies

Methods o$ involving end user

&n M (4+*

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Fet users in+ol+ed early -ompanies that are the most effective at involving the customer# plan it into the process up front so that it doesnt have a negative impact on costs and timings. (/arly prototypin- has been key to ensurin- usability and an intuitive experience9 <e also do final testin- with consumers as a belts and braces supplement to the rest of our @uality Assurance* -ustomer feedback might mean rework# but why ask someones opinion if youre not prepared to act on itG The earlier you get this feedback the less rework there will be. 0snt it better to discover a problem before the site goes live rather than to see the project miss out on achieving its objectivesG (<hen you;re talkin- about user interfaces you are more likely to -et it completely wronif you ,ust work from a desi-n document9 /arly prototypin- is essential9 6ettin- lots of customer involvement at all sta-es, desi-n and testin-, -ives us a better idea of what the problems are early on9*

$ey 9inding 2lanning customer feedback into the project gives you an early indication of the effectiveness of your solution# and actually has a positive impact on costs and timings by reducing the need for rework late in the day.

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The G factor ? fle*ibility


2rojects are about introducing change# and without flexibility change is at best painful and at worst unachievable. 0n the online environment the ability to adapt and respond to the fast pace of technological and consumer change is what sets the most successful organisations apart from the rest. 8lexibility is the outcome of a number of practices and behaviours# some of which we have been able to identify in the process of conducting this research. Hust enough structure ? 0n his book ?The Art of +ro,ect Mana-ement; &499(* "cott Derkun devotes a whole chapter to (5ow not to annoy people*. 0t supports the popular view that over-engineered processes are time consuming# stifling# controlling and make the team feel as if they are not being treated with the level of trust and respect appropriate to their experience. /n the other hand good processesE >ccelerate progress 2revent problems =ake important actions visible and measurable >re supported by the people impacted by them >gile practitioners support the view of putting in place ?A barely sufficient methodolo-y; . Him $ighsmith explains that (streamlined methodolo-ies concentrate on those activities that create value and ruthlessly eliminate non1value addin- activities9 +ro-ramminusually adds valueA process mana-ement often adds overhead9 0are sufficiency means keepin- the former and eliminatin- the latter* &>gile "oftware evelopment 1cosystems# 4994*. Multiple approaches (2f at first you don;t succeed try, try a-ain9 Then )uit9 There;s no point in bein- a damn fool about it9* : <4 3ields What works for one project is not necessarily going to work for the next. .ather than persist with a sub-standard approach mature organisations will build a repertoire of different methods and techniques and use their experience to tailor their approach to each individual project. Duilding in frequent reviews of whats working and whats not allows teams to continuously improve the way they run their projects. The right method ? >ll project management methods are designed to manage change. The difference is that some quite literally assume that change is an exception rather than the rule e.g. 2rince4# Waterfall! whilst others assume that change is a positive dynamic to be embraced as part of the process# as in the case of the >gile methodologies. The right method will give you the right degree of flexibility for your project. 8n+ol+e the customer - 0nviting customer involvement and incorporating it into the process doesnt give you more flexibility per se# but it is a common practice of flexible teams. 0t allows them to exploit their flexibility as a competitive advantage# and design solutions that have a higher probability of being successful in the live environment.
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/usiness Wide prioritisation - =aintaining a business wide view on resources ensures that priority projects receive the resource they need when they need it. This is typically done via a cross-departmental steering committee# who evaluates the needs of the individual projects in relation to their contribution to the overall strategy of the business. The effectiveness of this process has a direct impact on the ability of the team to adapt to changing needs and respond to issues. Engaged senior sponsors ? .elated to business wide prioritisation# having engaged senior sponsors who are empowered to make decisions about the direction and resourcing of the project is essential in allowing teams to respond quickly to change without causing delays. Four sponsor not only needs to support you in what you are doing# but the way in which you are doing it. %ulture ? 8lexible organisations are characterised by being communicative# collaborative# innovative and empowered. > common misconception is that these organisations accept more risk. 0f anything they believe that they have a more pragmatic approach to risk management. Dy recognising that there will be change# and subsequently planning and estimating work in smaller increments# they are reducing the uncertainty and risk in each module of work. E*pect re2uirements to change ? Dy denying that change is going to happen# the team simply have a blind spot where their risk management strategy should be. > team that is expecting change can turn it to their advantage to deliver an even better solution and steal the march on the competition. >fter all# necessity is the mother of all invention<.. EPermanent beta4 is not the bogey man ? The trouble with the phrase A2ermanent beta is that it has a confused reception. 0t is derived from the idea of beta testing# which is the final stage in software or hardware testing typically involving sending out a nearly finished product to a select group of users for live testing. 8or some people this association strikes fear into their hearts# conjuring up thoughts of sub-standard quality and hidden bugs in the system that the developer couldnt be bothered to iron out. A2ermanent beta on the other hand is a buNN word that has been used &perhaps over-used* to describe an approach to web development which acknowledges that a website is never in its final permanent state and will continue to be improved through a series of small and frequent iterations. 0t views the live website as one big consumer test# which the organisation will use to inform future changes. >t the end of the day# if you plan to continuously improve your website youre in permanent beta. 0ts a good thingL 0t allows you to rapidly deploy changes informed by data from your real-life customers.

$ey 9inding 8lexibility is the most powerful competitive advantage in the online environment today. 0t is driven by company culture from the top down and is embodied in team culture and practices. The most important aspect of flexibility is to embrace change instead of hoping it wont happen.

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3)5) Ising the right methods and processes &a+e a structured approach
'() of our survey respondents say that they do not have a structured method for managing web projects. This rises to +,) amongst retail organisationsL 8inding and adopting a structured approach to delivering web projects is possibly the single most important thing an organisation can do to improve their working environment# the morale of the team and the success of their projects. 0f you havent yet put a method in place then do this one thing and according to our interviewees it will make your life much easier. The data from the survey shows that organisations that dont have defined approach to managing web projects areE the least likely to achieve their project goals least likely to involve the end user least likely to deliver customer satisfaction the least able to cope with change during the course of the project less likely to achieve deadlines and meet budgets and deliver a positive ./0

>nd for good reason too. A lack of a defined process tends to cause the followin- problems: !ac' of +isibility of the progress of the project and its4 associated ris's and issues ? problems come as a surprise and either derail the project or impact subsequent projects by causing delays. .o shared +ision of what is being deli+ered ? the requirements and therefore design of the solution are open to interpretation so the end results does not match expectations# or requires re-work. Poor or e+en no estimation of the wor' in+ol+ed in the project ? means that resource requirements arent clearly stated# and the impact of reduced resource is not known &i.e. someone can steal your resource and you cant defend it* expectations are unrealistic and unmet# budgets and deadlines are blown and there is a negative perception of the project. Projects are planned in isolation from the o+erall objecti+es of the organisation which can mean! delivery of a project that doesnt do anything for the business# the project doesnt integrate with other business milestones e.g. marketing initiatives# there is little support of sponsorship from key stakeholders who dont perceive the value of the project.

0f you are working in an environment like this and have made the decision to outsource your projects to an agency# your projects will still suffer if they are not aligned to your business strategy and have the appropriate sponsorship from an empowered decision maker. >gencies identify this as one of the key barriers to successful implementation of client projects. "o put some kind of structure in place ? it will be better than nothing.

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:re you using the right approach;


$aving any structured approach always gives your project a head start# but one of the most frequent complaints from e-commerce managers is that the approach theyre using is too onerous and complicated# and 0T managers complain about poor input and changing requirements from the rest of the business. Fes# any approach is better than nothing. Dut having the right approach is best of all. %hart (0 ? Methods of project management used by research respondents JKL
!.00F

0F 0F 6F

40F 10F <o de ined approach +rince 2 8n house process (ater all %gile E3treme +rogramming =9+> .crum Rapid %pplication ?e#elopment =R%?> Rational :ni ied +rocess =R:+> ?ynamic .ystems ?e#elopment -ethod

11F

12.00F

2!F 1'F

&n M +43*

There are a whole raft of project management and software development methods available to choose from. > few of these are reviewed in more detail in the next section of this report. =eanwhile# the table above illustrates which methods are most popular amongst the respondents to the research questionnaire. > characteristic of the most successful organisations is there ability to tailor their project approach to the needs of the web project and the characteristics of its environment. Typically these organisations will be skilled in delivering both Atraditional projects using and Aagile projects which are &as you would expect* more nimble and collaborative. "ome 53) of organisations choose to develop their own project management approach &more about this later*# but they usually still seek their inspiration from the recognised methods rather than start with a completely blank canvas. 0t truly is horses for courses.

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<hen you;re startin- up your next pro,ect ask yourself the followin- )uestions: >re requirements well known or unfixedG Will the project need to be delivered quicklyG 0s the project technically complexG >re there likely to be changes to the project as you go alongG 0s there a high degree of innovation in what you are doingG

The rule of thumb is that: 0f your project has unfi*ed re2uirements # tight or immovable deadlines# inno+ation # new or comple* technology# or a high li'elihood of change then you should try an :gile approach &e.g. B+, &crum, 4rystal, C&CM*. 0f your project has 'nown re2uirements# fle*ible deadlines# well 'nown technology# lower comple*ity# change unlikely then you may be better off using a more traditional project management approach &e.g. +M07D, +rince, <aterfall, +rops*.

The important thing is to 2uestion the approach up front rather than waiting to find out that it doesnt give you the flexibility you need. The best starting point for any project is the lessons learned from the last one. 0t will give you the best indication of how to improve your approach next time round. Dring together people who worked on your most recent project and have an open and honest discussion about what;s worked well# what;s been less fantastic and what are the thin-s that you should have done more of. 0t doesnt have to be a formal affair# but do make sure you get lots of different perspecti+es . 0t will give you a good steer on whether you need more or less process and documentation# whether you need to work together better as a team# or whether youve got it exactly right. Hust remember# theres not a method in the world thats suddenly going to make all your problems go away. >nd no process should ever become more important than the project itself.
$ey 9inding Tailor your approach to the needs of the project and the culture around you# and dont ever let process take over.

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:gile
>gile is not a specific project management methodology# itAs an umbrella term to describe a collection of software development approaches which share common principles documented in AThe =anifesto for >gile "oftware evelopmentJ &4995*.

8ndi+iduals and interactions over processes and tools Wor'ing software over comprehensive documentation %ustomer collaboration over contract negotiation ,esponding to change over following a plan

0n his book A>gile "oftware evelopment 1cosystems# Him $ighsmith is keen to clarify that >gile approaches arent dismissive of processes and tools# comprehensive documentation# contract negotiation and following a plan. $owever the =anifesto places less importance on these things than its core principles. 0n practice this translates into software and project management approaches which tend towards the following characteristicsE

-ollaborative and communicative working style elivering prioritised features first -lose team relationships -lose working environments 8requent releases of working code =ultiple iterations of relatively short Atime-boxes Testing and correction as part of the ongoing process 0ndividuals taking ownership for estimating and delivering their own work -ontinuous involvement of the customer or end user in the development process ocumentation only when necessary 2roject =anager manages an environment not a process

The purpose of agile methods is to be lean and flexible# implementing Abarely sufficient methodology to navigate the chaos within a business. $owever# >gile should not be mistaken for being just a reactive philosophy# it is about embracing change as an opportunity to get ahead of the competition. (<e often use a-ile when the client isn;t able to provide re)uirements, we need to drive the re)uirements out and need to discover what we;re buildin- really )uickly9 =ou need to consider what teams you;re workin- with a-ile -ives you a lot of client contact, they are part of the team not ,ust si-nin- off and reviewin- information9*

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PM/C$
What is it; The 2roject =anagement Dody of ;nowledge &2=/;* is Ithe sum of knowledge within the profession of project management.J and forms the basis of the 2roject =anagement 0nstitute &2=0* accreditation. 0t is not a methodology# but a continually growing resource of project management best practice and forms the definitive guide to the specific skills and techniques required of a project manager. The 2=D/; :uide provides detailed information on key processes# techniques and tools for managing projects# covering nine knowledge areas!

2roject 0ntegration =anagement "cope =anagement Time =anagement -ost =anagement Suality =anagement $uman .esource =anagement -ommunications =anagement .isk =anagement 2rocurement =anagement

>ll of these knowledge areas can be universally applied alongside any other project management methodology. The processes# on the other hand need to be tailored to suit the individual requirements of the project.

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#crum
What is it; "crum is an >gile methodology# developed by ;en "chwaber and Heff "utherland in the late 5779s. 0t was a deliberate push back against projects Ioverburdened with phases# steps# tasks and activities &with documents to support each*.J and project managers who are forced Ito pretend that they can# plan# predict and deliverJ. "crum works on the assumption that unpredictable things will happen# and that the development process needs to be flexible to respond to the changes. 0ts regarded as one of the more project management oriented methods# as opposed to P2 which has more focus on software programming practices. > 2roduct Dacklog is created which highlights all the features and requirements for the product. The 2roduct /wner prioritises the 2roduct Dacklog# and selects which items should be in the next product release. >t the 2re-"print planning meeting the 2roduct /wner identifies which features should be included in the next 69-day "print# and the development team works out what tasks are required to deliver those features. 0t is then up to the development team to calculate how much of this can be accomplished within the "print given the available resources and negotiate the final features of the sprint with the 2roduct /wner. 1ach "print is given a defined business objective to enable the team to stay focussed on what the sprint is trying to achieve rather than getting lost in the detail. /nce the "print Dacklog is agreed there are no changes during those 69 days# except for in exceptional circumstances. >t the commencement of a sprint team members sign up for tasks# and they all work towards the "print :oal. 2rogress is monitored in a 5( to 69 minute daily "crum meeting of all the team members and managers# which has the simple agenda of! 5. What was achieved yesterdayG 4. What will be achieved todayG 6. What is blocking progressG This enables the "crum =aster to monitor the progress of the "print and address any issues that are preventing progress. >t the end of the 69-day "print there is a post-sprint meeting to demonstrate features to the customer# review progress of the project and decide which features will be progressed to live. Then it starts all over again with planning for the next "print. ,oles and responsibilities #crum Master ? =ost akin to a 2roject =anager# their primary responsibility is to ensure the productivity of the "crum Team and remove any obstacles to progress. Product Cwner ? /fficially responsible for the project# controlling the 2roduct Dacklog and prioritising the features for development.

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#crum Team ? This project team organises itself in whatever way necessary to accomplish the goals of the "print. 1ach member of the team is responsible for creating the "print Dacklog# estimating and delivering tasks and highlighting barriers to success. %ustomer ? 2articipates in determining the product backlog and reviewing the outputs of the sprint at the 2ost-"print meeting. Management ? 2articipates in setting goals and requirements# making decisions at the 2ost-"print meeting and monitoring the 2roduct Dacklog. Who4s using it; /rganisations working in highly competitive# consumer driven industries. 1.g. Technology# -ommunications# 8inancial "ervices. 0ts also being adopted by >gencies and -onsultancies. "crum is ideally suited to organisations that support collaborative and communicative ways of working# and to projects where there is a high probability of changing priorities and requirements# probably driven by aggressive competition and savvy# demanding customers. What ha+e people said about it; (2t minimises risk to the pro,ect because there is no attempt to make unreliable predictions about costs, resource, risks and schedules outside of the predictable timescale of the %0 day &print9* (The 0usiness feels more in control of the pro,ect as they determine which features to prioritise for each &print backlo-, and pro-ress is communicated on a daily basis9* (The process encoura-es a positive bond between Marketin-, 2T and the developers9 2t;s collaborative and en,oyable9* (5ave to find the ri-ht developers and the ri-ht sponsors9 /ach person is responsible for their own output, so there;s a bi- cultural chan-e9 Much more accountability9* (&crum is an intense way of workin-9 3or people inside the team, workin- in the &crum is all absorbin- and they stru--le to mana-e business as usual alon-side involvement in a &crum pro,ect9 &crum needs a dedicated pro,ect team9* (% week promises are easier to keep so expectations are handled in a more convenient way9 7f course mistakes are made, but they are smaller9 +eople over and under estimate their tasks but it -oes both ways and e)uals out9 2f tasks aren;t lon-er than $E hours then this is easier to estimate9 <e work with factors e9-9 if someone is estimatin- $E hours and there;s hi-h uncertainty such as a new technolo-y, then we add a factor so there;s no underestimation9* (The team are able to work without movin- -oalposts for the %01day sprint, but the business has the flexibility to chan-e priorities in the next sprint9 2f an important feature needs to be developed it;s only ever the next sprint away, rather than months away in a typical development cycle9* (+articularly in the early days it is easy to -et drawn back into a traditional way of workin-, and it re)uires discipline to stick with it9*
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(A-ile approaches have less risk9 <aterfall is based on pure -uesstimates, so there;s more risk to mana-e9 A-ile is more fixed in timeline and bud-et, so all you have to mana-e is what you want in it9 =ou can;t overspend or miss deadlines9 The business controls what;s bein- delivered9* (Cevelopers can sometimes be over1optimistic in their estimates : it takes practice to estimate the &print 0acklo- accurately, and in the early &prints features often have to be dropped back to the next &print to accommodate this learnin- curve9* (There were problems in the first sprin- because the business chan-ed the scope every week, so nothin- could -et developed9 The trick is to really button down re)uirements up front. now expectations are really well mana-ed and if they Fthe businessG aren;t sure about what they want they take somethin- out of the sprint9 2t puts pressure on the business to deliver solid demands9* (There is a problem with the way scrum is supposed to be implemented, architecture desi-n doesn;t fit within sprint development9 <hat we do is -et a bi- team round the table and -et a desi-n down in x days9 &o in sprint $ we do the easy thin-s, or sometimes the complex stuff and then start desi-n and 2A in the next sprint9 Translations and copy approval doesn;t really fit into the normal a-ile way of workin-, so we do this in sprint Hero Fa pre1sprint plannin- sta-eG9 <ithin sprint ! we are ready to deploy, do IAT and -o live9*

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P,8.%E2
What is it; 2.0%-1 stands for 2rojects 0% -ontrolled 1nvironments and was first established in 5737 by the -entral -omputer and Telecommunications >gency. 2.0%-14 was launched in 577+ and was intended to provide guidance on all kinds of projects# not just 0T projects. The 2.0%-1 4 manual describes a 2.0%-14 project as having the following characteristicsE > finite and defined lifecycle efined and measurable business products &requirements* > corresponding set of activities to achieve the business products > defined amount of resources >n organisation structure# with defined responsibilities# to manage the product 2.0%-14 is a framework for projects# articulating the ideal project and organisational structure to satisfy the minimum requirements of the project# and doesnt offer guidance on specific project management skills and techniques. 2.0%-14 comprises of eight processes and eight components which should be tailored to suit the circumstances of each individual project. 2.0%-14 is widely known for its emphasis on upfront planning and documentation. >t project initiation it is expected that there is a clear business case# a detailed solution# budget# schedule and process. eviations from this are managed as exceptions. To that end 2.0%-14 is suited to projects that are well defined and have a low likelihood for uncertainty and change# and are less suited to projects where exploration and innovation are required. The focus throughout the project is on the initial business case# and ensuring that the solution will realise the benefits articulated in the business case. The project is managed as a series of stages# often in a sequential waterfall way# and there are controls at the beginning and end of each stage. There is an emphasis on detailed documentation of all stages of the project as well as the solution itself# to the extent where there is a specific role with the sole responsibility of managing changes to all the documentation# the -onfiguration Oibrarian. Who4s using it; 2.0%-14 is the project management standard for government organisations# so it is the prevalent method amongst organisations working with the public sector. 0ts use is also widespread within financial services and not-for profits. 0t is the most frequently used formal methodology for managing web projects. What ha+e people said about it; *2 like the formality of +rince9 2t identifies clear deliverables9 The culture of our or-anisation means that we would never use an a-ile approach, we;re too risk averse9 <e use +rince for our other development pro,ects and we;ve never had any problems9* (The structure is ideal for pro,ects of a lar-e scale the re)uirements and responsibilities are pinned down up front9 0ut it can tie you down too much9*
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(=ou have to be careful that the process doesn;t come before the pro,ect9* (+rince2 is -ood at identifyin- the stakeholders up front and -ettin- si-n offs on business re)uirements and scope9 2t;s less useful when you -et into the pro,ect, the documentation becomes too heavy9* (+rince2 doesn;t deal well with curve balls9 The pro,ects are a bit like tankers, you need very stron- conviction about re)uirements up front as the pro,ects are inflexible once they are underway9 And inte-ratin- with le-acy systems does cause issues9* (+ro,ects tend to be lon-9 As re)uirements -et de1scoped they -et put on the back burner, so they can end up takin- a lon- time to come to fruition9* (&pecification documentation is an issue9 2t can take so lon- to -et ready and is too detailed for new people to -et their heads around the pro,ect9* (<e ori-inally used +rince2 because it;s an industry standard, and because a lot of our % rd party suppliers worked in +rince2 it was easier9 <e;ve since adapted it to a #ite version, so that pro,ects take % months not % years, which -ives us more balance and control9* (+rince needs to be tailored to the situation9* (+rince is ideal for lar-e pro,ects but overkill for small pro,ects9 A li-ht touch suits 0J of what we do9*

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Waterfall
What is it; Waterfall is a software development process where each stage flows sequentially into the next. 8or instance# only when requirements are absolutely defined and approved does the design stage begin. The key stages areE

.equirements specification esign -onstruction 0ntegration Testing and debugging 0nstallation =aintenance

/rganisations that use waterfall value the fact that ambiguities and defects are ironed out early on before any construction takes place. 8ixing a problem when it is still an idea on paper is much less expensive than encountering issues whilst code is being written. This works well when its possible to set requirements and design in stone at an early stage. Waterfall also puts a greater emphasis on documentation as a universal reference point for the solution! in theory anyone should be able to pick up a document and understand how the system works. 0t also means that if the project is put on hold# it can be resurrected at a later date. $owever# the changeable nature of web projects means that its rare for a web project team to work with such certainty. etailed requirements and solution design are frequently elaborated through iteration and prototyping# and working with new applications or technologies mean that there are frequently unknowns that can only be resolved through trialling solutions. Decause of this# few organisations now run all their web projects in a purely waterfall way# and will introduce iteration at some stage of the process. Who4s using it; Waterfall is by 54) of respondents who represent a mix of industries. What ha+e people said about it; (<aterfall works well if the scope is well defined, people in your surroundin-s and the delivery team have a full understandin- of everythin- you do and there is little chan-e and low uncertainty9 2t;s a solid approach : business analysis, re)uirements, feasibility.* (<aterfall often has a solid timeplan based on va-ue estimates, so when you come to later sta-es and start development then you have underestimated timescales9 Isually the testin- period -ets eaten into, which means you end up with poor )uality in the delivery9* (<aterfall works well for discrete pieces of functionality with a defined input and output which doesn;t re)uire user interaction9*

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(3rom a web perspective this isn;t iterative enou-h for successful pro,ects9 2t doesn;t encoura-e collaboration in fleshin- out the options and overcomin- challen-es9 2terations -ive you checkpoints to help the business work out what they want9 =ou don;t need to deliver $00J of re)uirements, ,ust deliver what;s most important first9* (<aterfall process -ave clear documentation and process in reaction to a lack of formality in the past9* (The hi-h level plan at the start -ets the business thinkin- properly about their contribution9 They know what workstreams they have to prepare9 2t helps to -et confirmed timin-s from everyone and sometimes tri--ers when they need to find out more information about somethin-9 5owever we still suffer with the business failin- to deliver on its commitments9*

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GP ? E*treme Programming
What is it; 1xtreme 2rogramming has been around since 4999 and is the brainchild of ;ent Deck. 0t is best described as a software development philosophy# with associated values# principles and practices. These are some of its defining practices! #tories ? 0nstead of requirements planning is done by describing units of functionality from the customer perspective e.g. Istore the customers credit card details for next time they purchaseJ. These stories are estimated early on so the team understands the cost of each feature and can adapt or prioritise stories accordingly. "tories can be grouped into Athemes of related functionality. #it together ? P2 advocates having the team working together in a single location to foster greater collaboration# communication and consultation. Wee'ly and =uarterly cycles ? Work is planned a week at a time# with a meeting at the beginning of each weekly cycle. The purpose of the meeting is to review progress# get the customers to pick a weeks worth of stories and sign the team members up for the associated tasks. 1ach quarter the team should reflect on the project and its alignment with larger goals# and identify the themes &groups of stories* for the next quarter. %ontinuous integration ? -hanges are integrated and tested after no more than a couple of hours# on the basis that the longer you wait# the longer it will take to integrate and the more unpredictable it will become. &0n the case of web# deploying to a test environment* Test first programming ? This means that the development team write the test for the feature they are designing before they write the code i.e. work out what the code will need to be able to do to deliver the requirement rather than write a test that they think their code will pass. The idea behind this is to prevent Aextra features from being thrown into the code# and ensure that the code is evaluated completely objectively. Pair programming - /ne of the more widely known and contentious practices# two people sitting at one machine# analysing# designing and testing code together. The idea being that it is better to innovate and improve ideas when not working in isolation. 8ncremental Design ? rather than do all the design first and then code# design the system every day against the needs of that day# knowing the outline of what is required for the future. 10-hour wee' ? The philosophy of 1xtreme 2rogramming is adamantly for work@life balance on the basis that an overworked team will produce code of a deteriorating quality. Cnsite customer ? The customer is always accessible to the team in an P2 project and is actively involved in the transition from story to code. Who4s using it;
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/rganisations running web projects with a high degree technical complexity or innovation# typically those working in agencies or consultancies# and technology companies. What ha+e people said about it; (5i-h de-ree of customer acceptance because of the level of involvement of the customer* (2deal for mana-in- chan-e re)uests and fre)uent iterations9* (+rototypin- usin- B+ stories works well to -et complete understandin- and buy in to what needs to be delivered* (More biased towards software development than mana-in- web pro,ects per se9* (The business culture affectin- the development unit is a focal issue in B+9 Any resistance a-ainst B+ practices and principles on behalf of pro,ect members, mana-ement or customer may be enou-h to fail the process9*

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,IP J,ational Inified ProcessL


What is it; .ational Cnified 2rocess &.C2* is an iterative approach which implements use cases and modelling to define requirements and lay down the architecture for the solution. There are six key practices articulated by 2hilippe ;rutchen &4999*# one of .C2s founders! 5. De+elop software iterati+ely ? "oftware is developed in small increments to allow risks and issues to be identified and responded to early on 4. Manage re2uirements ? 0dentify changing requirements and highlighting those that have the greatest impact on the objectives of the project is a continuous process. .equirements are continuously prioritised# filtered and tracked. 6. Ise component-based architecture ? -omponents allow more flexible architecture and can allow the most changeable parts of the system to be isolated and more easily managed. >lso# reusable components can save time for future development '. Bisually model software ? Csing a common visualisation method &C=O is favoured in .C2* the system architecture and design can be captured unambiguously and communicated to everyone involved in the project (. Berify software 2uality ? Testing occurs at every iteration so defects can be identified early in the development cycle# greatly reducing the cost of fixing them +. %ontrol changes to software ? -hanges to requirements must be managed and their effect on the software must be traceable .C2 projects are divided into four phases! 0nception# 1laboration# -onstruction# Transition. 8nception establishes the scope# requirements and acceptance criteria of the project and identifies key use cases so that an outline solution can be devised. Elaboration is where the project plan and solution are articulated in detail and the stability of the proposed solution is assessed. .esources are fully estimated. uring %onstruction phase all the components and features are developed# integrated and tested. The emphasis is on managing resources and costs# and building as rapidly as possible whilst still maintaining acceptable quality. The final Transition phase sees the release of the product to the user community who will provide feedback so that corrections can be made before subsequent releases. >ny postponed features are also picked up again at this stage. "everal iterations are often made# between beta testing# piloting and general release. Who4s using it; >lthough not widely used by participants in this research the companies that have used it tend to be from the business services# financial services# technology or consultancy industries.

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D#DM JDynamic #ystems De+elopment MethodL


What is it; ynamic "ystems evelopment =ethod &or sometimes ynamic "olutions evelopment =odel* was developed in the C; in the mid 5779s and was originally based around .apid >pplication evelopment &.> *. 0t recommends an iterative approach with an emphasis on being responsive to changing requirements and delivering maximum business benefit. There are nine " = principles! 5. 4. 6. '. (. +. ,. 3. 7. >ctive user involvement is imperative " = teams must be empowered to make decisions The focus is on frequent delivery of products 8itness for purpose is the essential criterion for acceptance of deliverables 0terative and incremental development is necessary to converge on an accurate business solution >ll changes during development are reversible .equirements are baselined at a high level Testing is integrated throughout the life cycle > collaborative and co-operative approach between all stakeholders is essential

There are three phases in a " = project ? pre-project phase# project lifecycle phase and post project phase. 8rom the outset the project works from a list of high level requirements that have been prioritised by the business. To promote collaboration and face to face communication the project lifecycle phase of " = uses prototypes rather than documentation to capture information about the solution. /nce feasibility is established there are three main stages in the project lifecycle. 9unctional Model iteration ? .equirements are prototyped and the detailed requirements are fleshed out Design and /uild iteration ? 2rototypes are refined to meet all requirements and the code that will deliver them is written. 8mplementation ? The code is deployed into the live environment There is frequently overlap between functional model iteration and design and build. > time-box is set to constrain the length of time before benefit is delivered to the business# but functionality and resources are allowed to vary. The most important functions are prioritised over those that deliver less benefit. /ne of " =s defining features is the emphasis on the project manager to establish the right environment for the project. 0t signifies a move away from the traditional climate where the project manager is effectively contracted to deliver a specific set of requirements against a plan that is defined up front# to a situation where the project manager agrees a process for refining and delivering a set of high level requirements in the knowledge that priorities will change during the course of the project. Who4s using it; /nline betting# Travel and communications companies are more likely to use " = than other organisations. " = is less suited to projects which carry risk to personal safety e.g. healthcare because in " = the emphasis is on speed of deployment over extensive testing.
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What ha+e people said about it; (KIsed in con,unction with +rinceL 7ne of the problems has been -ivin- too small timescales to thin-s and sacrificin- a lot of )uality9* (=ou need to really empower the key members of your team and let them know where to -et decisions9 =ou can;t punish people for takin- thin-s on their own shoulders9* (The most challen-in- thin- about makin- the chan-e was keepin- the ri-ht people and not lettin- them revert to type9 Also it;s difficult to abandon waterfall alto-ether, not everythin- can be done in parallel9* (&tartin- off with a new approach can be perceived to be risky but you de1risk it by not usin- new teams and new technolo-y9 Ise people that have done it before, and brin- in external consultants if necessary9 They know where it;s -oin- to -o wron- ahead of time and they know how lon- thin-s will take9* (&ometimes the fact that we show our KinternalL customers output from the pro,ect so )uickly can be a problem9 2t;s about mana-in- stakeholder expectations : they can be a bit critical of the looks if it;s a bit rou-h and ready and don;t always have enou-h focus on what;s underneath9*

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,:D J,apid :pplication De+elopmentL


What is it; .apid >pplication evelopment &.> * was developed to allow new applications to be built and deployed quickly# sometimes at the expense of features and quality assurance &although increased user involvement is intended to counterbalance this claim that quality is compromised*. -onsequently this approach is not ideally suited to projects where quality or safety is a chief concern. What makes .> fast compared to other methods is its use of three key management techniques! Prototyping ? allows results to be demonstrated early on and encourages collaboration and feedback from the end users 8teration ? the solution is developed in increments based on refining the prototype Timebo*ing ? focuses attention on delivery over all other considerations. "cope and functionality can change but the delivery date cant. The ideal project for .> is one where business objectives are well defined and the team are experienced using the technologies involved. The ideal team is small# preferably six people or less who can perform multiple roles# and have the necessary authority to make decisions. .> projects consist of eight stages! 2roject 2lanning# 2roject >ctivation# -ontrol 2roject# .equirements 2lanning# Cser esign# .apid -onstruction# Transition and 1nd 2roject# and typically last +9-79 days. Whereas P2 is focused on software development# .> has an emphasis on data modelling making it better suited to back end data capture or integration projects rather than front end development. Who4s using it; .> is more likely to be used by those working in financial services and technology companies. What ha+e people said about it; (MAC can work for smaller pro,ects but 2;m nervous of a more iterative approach9 2 understand that it;s difficult to tie1in with user centric desi-n9 Maybe it;s too technically focussed9*

The homegrown approach


0n the experience of most of the participants of this research there is no single approach that is a perfect fit for all web projects. =any organisations have embarked on journeys of experimentation and adaptation to arrive at processes that work for them. 0n some cases the ideal formula uses >gile techniques for the design and production stages of the project# but wraps it up within a more traditional framework. /ne of our interviewees
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works with a combination of " = & ynamic "ystems evelopment =ethod* and 2rince. $eres his description of how it works. (<e produce a business definition and solution document up front then -o into a series of $5120 day time1boxed cycles9 These small cycles comprise of prioritised re)uirements9 There is an evolvin- document of the pro,ect which we produce usin- a tool called &elect9 +rince lan-ua-e is used to report back to stakeholders but we don;t use it in the team on a day to day level9* /ther organisations# typically those working within a 2rince4 0T environment# have developed a Oite version. >ppendix 6 shows a detailed process flow provided by one of the research participants. (The pro,ect mandate and pro,ect board have been kept but we have lost a lot of the documentation9 Also we don;t do sta-e plannin- in the way that +rince does9 <e have a pro,ect board for the whole pro-ramme and a pro,ect mandate -oes to them for approval9 The board acts as steerin- and exception mana-ement9 2t includes the director of e1 commerce, each function of e1commerce, sales and technolo-y9* /f course many organisations# particularly agencies# have used a framework based on the principles outlined in >shley 8riedleins book IWeb 2roject =anagementE elivering successful commercial websitesJ &4995*. The diagram below illustrates the four key phases and eight work stages contained within a typical web project

2hase 5 Pre-production
2roject clarificatio n "olution definition 2roject specification -ontent

2hase 4 Production
esign and construction Testing# launch and handover

2hase 6 Maintenanc e
=aintenance

2hase ' E+aluation


.eview and evaluation

$ey 9inding 8ew project management methods are a perfect fit. =any organisations find the ideal approach is to blend a combination of techniques and processes.

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3) ) #mall projects need structure too


:enerally speaking# organisations that deliver successful medium siNed and large web projects have the right attitudes and culture in place to be good at delivering small projects too! communication# collaboration# effective prioritisation of resource etc. The only real differences are the specific processes and tools required to see a small project through. -learly invoking a full-blown methodology is far too heavy handed for something that only requires a couple of days work. $owever# if your organisation takes small web projects for granted and assume that theyll just magic themselves onto the live server without a hiccup# you could be storing up problems for yourself in the guise of!

Oots and lots of reworking because people cant be bothered to explain properly up front what needs to be done 0nflated costs &because of lots and lots of reworking* -hanges that take 4 weeks instead of 4 days because everyone assumed someone else was doing it > nasty little problem in the call centre @0T @ operations ? because nobody had checked if there were any impacts for doing the change >nnoyed stakeholders who cant understand why something so small has taken so long and cost so much money

0n fact ,) of respondents dont use any processes at all to manage their small projectsL 1ssential tools listed by the rest of our research respondents areE #teering committee ? > regular meeting of those responsible for allocating resource to prioritise which projects should go ahead and in what timeframe 8mpact assessment ? Csually done in response to a change request# an impact assessment is where key departments review the proposed change to evaluate whether there will be an impact on their systems# people or processes. .isks and issues are highlighted up front and managed appropriately ,elease schedule ? > schedule of when changes are planned to be released to the website# ensures priorities are met and that the appropriate test environments are available at the right time ,esource plan ? typically a :>%%T chart# used to ensure that appropriate resource is available to implement the project %hange re2uest ? Csually a brief document outlining the objective and requirements of the change# which is then circulated to the project team to respond with the proposed solution# cost# timings and impacts Timing plan ? a proposed timescale for the project Testing ? epth of testing depends on the extent of the change# usually a minimum of user acceptability testing ,e2uirements document ? "ometimes called statement of work# this details the objectives and requirements of the project
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The chart below illustrates how frequently these tools are used. The trick is not to overdo it and end up needing a process to manage the process. %hart (1 ? Tools used to manage small projects, by percentage of respondents
$0.00F 60.00F 5 o$ res#ondents 00.00F 40.00F !0.00F 20.00F 10.00F Timing plan Re@uirements document 8mpact assessment .teering committee Resource plan Release schedule Testing 0.00F <one

(ools $or managing small #ro4ects

Change Re@uest

&n M ',5*

1ach of these tools does serves a different purpose# but the two processes that seem to have the greatest positive influence on the success of the project are doing an impact assessment at the commencement of the project# and testing before going live# as illustrated by the series of charts below. -onversely# not using any tools for managing projects seems to have a negative impact on success in most instances# particularly on customer satisfaction as shown in -hart 5, below.

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%hart (3 ? 8mpact of tools on ability to maintain integrity of systems


4 !.*0 !.* !.'0 !.' -aintains integrity o systems !.$0 !.$ !.60 !.6 !.00
in e < on e pl an e R e@ ue st Te st in g pl an do c en t sc he du l 1a se l re m en ts ss m m co m i tt ee

Success score out o$ 5

in g

pa ct as se

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R el ea se

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Ti m

8m

(ools $or managing small #ro4ects

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%hart (5 ? 8mpact of management tools on ability to meet deadlines


4 !.*0 !.* !.'0 Success score out o$ 5 !.' !.$0 -eets deadlines !.$ !.60 !.6 !.00 !.0 !.40
< on e 1a se lin e ed ul e pl an Te st in g pl an do c e@ ue st ss m en ts m .t ee rin g co m itt ee en t

in g

sc h

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C ha ng e

8m

(ools $or managing small #ro4ects

R el ea se

pa ct

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as se

Ti m

ce

&nM',5*

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%hart ( ? 8mpact of management tools on customer satisfaction


4.!

4.2

Success score out o$ 5

4.1

Customer satis action

!.*

!.'

!.$
sc he du le in e < on e pl an s do c pa ct as se ss m en t Te st in g e@ ue st pl an 1a se l m .t ee rin g co m i tt ee

in g

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8m

(ools $or managing small #ro4ects

R el ea se

R es ou rc e

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&nM',5*

%hart (6 ? 8mpact of management tools on effecti+e use of resources


!.$0

!.$

Success score out o$ 5

!.60

!.6

:ses resource e ecti#ely

!.00

!.0

!.40
1a se lin e < on e pl an e R e@ ue st R e@ ui re m en ts do 8m c pa ct as se ss m en t Te st in g pl an sc he du l m co m itt ee

in g

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R el ea se

(ools $or managing small #ro4ects

.t ee rin g

R es ou rc e

Ti m

&nM',5*

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3)6) The essential project managers tool'it


-ommunication is the key to effective project management# and in the view of many of the research respondents# the simplest tools are often the best ones to facilitate this! phone# email# whiteboards# wallcharts# flipcharts etc. The most important thing is that the progress of the project is clearly represented in a way that is unambiguous and easy for team members and stakeholders to access. "everal software tools were mentioned by research participants# but only a handful are in wide use# namely M# E*cel &76)* and M# Project &39)*# and even these received a mixed response. 4() and 53.() respectively see 1xcel and 2roject as essential to running their projects# whilst some commented that they found these software packages too inflexible to give them exactly what they need. > particular criticism of =" 2roject was that it only allows you to manage resource within a specific project# rather than have a programme wide view# and that users frequently had to export the :annt charts into 1xcel so that it could be read by other users. 1xcel seems to be the universal tool of choice. /asecamp# an online collaboration tool# was the next most popular piece of software# although it was only used regularly by around ,) of respondents. What Dasecamp has in its favour is that its accessible online to all team members via a log-in# so theres no need to pay for additional licences or download software. 0ts main features are a simple scheduling tool with email reminders# task lists# a shared document storage facility and an editable writeboard which can be used to collaboratively write documents involving contributions from the whole team. /ther tools listed by participants were! Prima+era# Plan+iew# Twiddlebit# #ynergist# #tudiometry# Prosight# Mindmanager# acti+%ollab# &ydra# :%E# .icu# #elect# ,ally# &ot Project and Project $ic' #tart. 0t seems that although there is a wealth of software out there# project managers are yet to be seduced by them.

$ey 9inding The project managers tools of choice are email# phone# wall charts and 1xcel spreadsheets. =" 2roject is in wide use# but not broadly acclaimed. Dasecamp is the most popular tool for online collaboration# and it is cheap - T4' per month for 5( projects.

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5) &elpful resources
www.e-consultancy.com@topic@project-management@ www.agilealliance.org www.gantthead.com www.ogc.gov.uk@methodsUprinceU4UUoverview.asp

) ,eferences
/oo's Deck# ;ent and >ndres# -ynthia &499'*# /xtreme +ro-rammin- /xplained, /mbrace 4han-e# >ddison Wesley $ighsmith# Him &4994*# A-ile &oftware Cevelopment /cosystems # >ddison Wesley 8riedlein# >shley &4995*# <eb +ro,ect Mana-ement, Celiverin- &uccessful 4ommercial <eb &ites# =organ ;aufmann 2ublishers Derkun# "cott &499(*# The Art of +ro,ect Mana-ement # /.eilly =edia 0nc. A -uide to the pro,ect mana-ement body of knowled-e: +M07D 6uide : % rd ed. &499'*# 2roject =anagement 0nstitute# 0nc Mana-in- &uccessful +ro,ects with +M2'4/2, 2005 /dition # &499(* The "tationery /ffice :rticles 2ekka >brahamasson# /uti "alo# Hussi .onkainen# Huhani Warsta &4994*# A-ile software development methods, Meview and Analysis # KTT Weinstein# Dob &499+*# The 4han-e 6ame# gantthead.com e -arlo# oug &%ovember 4' 499(*# 5ow /xtreme +ro,ect Mana-ement is Cifferent e -arlo# oug &%ovember 499(*# The /xtreme +ro,ect Mana-er;s #eadership Mole >ugustine# "anjiv &499+*# 6ettin- &tarted with A-ile Celivery :hosh# :autam &499'*# A-ile, Multidisciplinary Teamwork 2eters# Tom &5775*# +ursuin- the +erfect +ro,ect Mana-er, T2: -ommunications

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6) :ppendi* ( - The state of the nation 6)() =uantitati+e research highlights

%early half of all respondents &'(.()* do not have a structured approach to managing their web projects. This rises to +,) in the retail industry. %early (3) of respondents say that their projects always achieve their goals# and yet only 45) of them say they always achieve deadlines and only 67) always achieve budget and a positive ./0. 0n fact over 3) of respondents ne+er meet their project deadlines and nearly +) ne+er deliver their projects within budget. Oess than half &'+)* work to an annual plan that is aligned with their overall business strategy and only (+) say that they share common goals with the rest of the business. %early 39) say they involve the end customer in gathering requirements for their projects# and ,4) involve the customer in testing# yet only half consistently achieve customer satisfaction with their projects. %early 33) of respondents say that they set their requirements knowing that they are flexible to change during the course of the project and yet half of organisations say that changing requirements during the course of their projects is one of the biggest challenges they face. elivering projects quickly is important to (4) of respondents# but ,() say that their deadlines are flexible and will move during the course of the project. /ver 45) of respondents describe their projects as complex# with lots of new applications and technologies. .espondents believe that communication is the most important factor in delivering successful projects# and that the most important skill of a project manager is to be an excellent communicator. 2eople skills are considered more of a priority than technical skills. ;nowledge of different project management methods was considered by respondents to be the least important skill for someone managing web projects# which is supported by the fact that 44) of projects are managed by members of the marketing or commercial team rather than a qualified project manager. /ver ,) of people apply no processes or structure at all to managing smaller web projects and only +() document their requirements up front. Those who follow no processes in managing smaller projects are consistently less successful than people who do. =icrosoft 1xcel and 2roject are used frequently by around half of all research respondents

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6)2) =uantitati+e research results in full

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=ualitati+e =uestionnaire Discussion Fuide


#ection ( - Mour Web project team 5. 2lease tell us something about who manages your web projectsE a. o you have a specific resource for web project managementG b. o they have formal project management trainingG c. Which department@area do they report intoG d. Who are they co-located withG 4. What do you think are the ideal attributes of a web project managerG #ection 2 - Web projects in your organisation 6. What do you think are the main differences between managing web projects and other projectsG '. What processes do you use to prioritise project resourceG (. Whats the approval process for your web projectsG +. Who controls the budget for web projectsG #ection 0 - Mour Project Management approach ,. o you use a specific methodology for managing web projectsG a. $ow does this vary between projects of different siNesG b. What elements of this approach are successfulG c. What elements of this approach have been problematicG d. What influences have led you to take this approachG

3. What tools do you use to manage web projectsG a. $ow does this vary between projects of different siNesG b. What elements of this approach are successfulG c. What elements of this approach have been problematicG 7. $ow do you ensure your projects deliver a quality productG 59. What are the main challenges you face in delivering your web projectsG 55. What tips would you give for running a successful web projectG #ection 1 - The 9uture 54. What do you see as the main opportunities to improve the success of web projects within your organisationG

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:ppendi* 0 ? =uestions used in online sur+ey

Web Project Management ,esearch


2hase 4 ? Suantitative study
>ugust 499+

The purpose of this questionnaire is to understand more about different approaches to web projects. The first section deals mainly with large web projects. e.g. more than 59 days of resource. There are some questions at the end of this survey which ask for more information about how you manage smaller projects. >bout you. 5. Which industry sector do you work inG a. 8inancial services b. Travel c. :ambling d. .etail e. :aming f. %ot for profit g. Dusiness services h. Technology i. -ommunications j. >gency@-onsultancy k. /ther &please state* Managing significant web projects 4. What methodologies does your company use to manage web projectsG 2lease tick all that are applicable a. %one b. "crum c. Waterfall d. " = e. 2rince f. P2 g. .C2 h. .> i. 1ssC2 j. /ther &please state* 2lease feel free to add further comments on this
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6. What informed your decision to take this approachG a. organisation wide policy b. to integrate processes with 0T @ third party suppliers c. through researching or experimenting with different approaches d. experience from previous roles e. because changing it would be too difficult f. other companies use this approach g. initiative from $ead of 0T h. other &please explain* 2lease feel free to add further comments on this '. $ow would you describe the culture of your organisationG 2lease score your company against the following attributes with 5 as the least like your organisation and ( as the most like your organisation. a. 2repared to accept risk b. 0nnovative c. 1mpowering d. -ollaborative e. -ommunicative f. /ther &please explain* 2lease feel free to add further comments on this (. /n a typical web project how do you manager requirements settingG a. 8ixed from the start with changes difficult to implement b. "et at the start but flexible to change as we require c. We do not work with any fixed requirements &please explain* 2lease feel free to add further comments on this +. /n a typical web project how do you manage deadlinesG a. We have set deadlines which are not easily changed b. eadlines are set at the start but flexible to change as we require c. We do not work to deadlines 2lease feel free to add further comments on this. ,. $ow important is it to deliver your projects quicklyG a. Kery important b. 0ts not the main priority c. %ot important at all 2lease feel free to add further comments on this. 3. $ow technically complex are your projectsG a. =ost projects are not complex b. "ome projects offer a degree of complexity and innovation c. =ost projects are complex with lots of new technologies and applications 2lease feel free to add further comments on this.
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7. $ow would you rate the success of your projects on the following criteriaG &.ank on a scale of 5 to 6# where 5 is never and 6 is always* a. achieves goals b. meets deadlines c. meets budget d. customer satisfaction e. involvement of the end user f. embraces flexibility during development g. delivers ./0 2lease feel free to add further comments on this 59. To what extent are your web projects integrated into the overall businessG have the following<. a. >n annual plan aligned with the overall business strategy b. senior sponsorship c. cross-functional steering group d. common goals with the rest of the business e. programme management f. business wide approach to prioritising resource g. other &please explain* 2lease feel free to add further comments on this 55. >t which stage is the end customer involved in your project. 2lease tick all that are applicable a. requirements gathering b. solution design c. front end design d. prototyping e. testing f. other &please explain* 2lease feel free to add further comments on this 54. What are the biggest challenges you face in delivering successful web projects ? please choose the three most important ones. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. unrealistic expectations from the business@stakeholders lack of senior sponsorship no clear project management process obtaining resource and keeping hold of it business unable to articulate requirements changing scope or requirements lack of project specific skills or competence poor user input business fails to give input or provide content on schedule poor collaboration between the business and 0T evelopment team underestimate scale of work /ther &please state* o you

2lease feel free to add further comments on this


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56. $ow important are the following in delivering a successful web project &score 5 to (* a. $aving a defined process b. "mall and frequent iterations of work c. Tailoring the approach to the circumstances d. 8ollowing process in a disciplined way e. 0nvolving the end customer f. -ommunication g. 2rototyping h. "taying focussed on objectives i. eliver priority requirements first j. 1xcellent project management k. -o-location of project team l. 8lexibility m. /ther &please state* 2lease feel free to add further comments on this

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5'. Who manages your web projectsG a. 2roject =anager in 1-commerce@ web team b. 2roject manager from 2roject =anagement team c. 2roject =anager from the 0T team d. /utsourced 2roject =anager e. =ember of the marketing@commercial team f. /ther &please explain* 2lease feel free to add further comments on this 5(. $ow important are these attributes in a successful Web 2roject =anager. 2lease rank them on a scale of 5 to ( with 5 being the least important. a. Technical knowledge and skills b. -ommercial knowledge and skills c. 2ersistence d. 1xcellent communicator e. :ood listener f. %egotiator g. 8ocussed on the end goal h. :ood at coaching others i. =otivates the team j. 8lexibility k. Oeadership l. ;nowledge of different project methodologies m. /ther &please state* 2lease feel free to add further comments on this 5+. What tools do you use to help you manage projects. &score on the following scale! never used# use rarely# use occasionally# use often# this tool is essential* a. =" 1xcel b. =" 2roject c. Dasecamp d. $ydra e. >-1 f. %icu g. "elect h. .ally i. $ot 2roject j. 2roject kick start k. /ther &please tell us what it is and how you rate it* 2lease feel free to add further comments on this Managing smaller web projects 5,. What tools @ processes do you use to manage small projects e.g less than 59 man days. 2lease tick all that are applicable. a. none b. change request form c. requirements document d. impact assessment
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e. f. g. h. i. j.

testing timing plan release schedule resource plan steering committee /ther &please state*

2lease feel free to add further comments on this 53. $ow would you rate the success of your small projects on the following criteria &score 5 to (* a. achieves goals b. meets deadlines c. meets budget d. customer satisfaction e. speed to deliver f. uses resource effectively g. maintains integrity of web systems and architecture 2lease feel free to add further comments on this %ontact Details 2roviding your details is optional# however# if you do give us your name and e-mail address we will forward you a free copy of the Web 2roject =anagement "urvey results as soon as they are published. 57. %ame 49.Four job title 45. -ompany %ame 44. "iNe of organisationG a. 5-7 b. 59-4' c. 4(-'7 d. (9-577 e. 577-(99 f. (99V 46. 1mail address Thank you for your time.

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