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Communication, in its very rudimentary level, could be defined as the transfer of information from one point to another. It is the transfer of information from one encoder, through a medium, a decoder. It is said to be incomplete until the information from the seat or encoder gets to the destination or decoder. In the early days, communication started in the form of the use of natural voice, talking drums, whistling birds, smoke signals and other forms of communications. After which, to effect long distance communication, man resorted to the use of mechanical and optical means like telegraphy, torch light focusing mirrors etc. All these were in use in the 184 s. !owever, this had a lot of drawbacks, that is, some were very slow, unreliable, and unsafe and later became primitive to use. "adio is one of the longest established applications of electronics. In fact, prior to the second world war, radio could probably be considered to be the application of electronics. #oday, however, it is $ust one of many fields which are based on the use of electronics. "adio plays a very significant part in our daily lives and thus an introduction to the sub$ect makes a fitting part of this pro$ect.

#he military application of radio. #ransmitters were first e%ploited during the first world war &1'14 to 1'18(, and during that period radio was first used in aircrafts. )roadcasting followed later in the 1'* s and 1'+ s and

most homes in the ,nited -ingdom boasted of a .wireless/ set or .wireless radio/. "adio is thus one of the longest established applications of electronics. "adio communication was made possible through the invention of triode valve and was greatly simulated by the work done during the 0orld 0ar II. 0ith the discovery of radio communication, information could now be propagated through space as an electronic wave. It has subse1uently become even more widespread and refined through the invention and use of transistors, integrated circuits and other semiconductor devices. #he propagation of wave through space was then known to depend on the fre1uency of transmission, such as audio wave fre1uency &Af(, radio fre1uency &"f( and microwave fre1uency &2f( and other characteristics. After this, electrical communication began with its origin from elementary wire telegraphy which has finally developed into the invention of telephones, radio, television, radar, laser, to the modern means of communication using satellite communication systems. In these modern days, communication or telecommunications could be defined as the sending, reception or processing of information by electrical means. #he purpose of communication therefore is to transmit information 3 bearing signals from a source located at one point in space, to a user destination, located at another point in space. As a rule, the message produced by the source is not electrical in nature. Accordingly, an input transducer is used to convert the message generated by the source into a time4varying electrical signal called the message signal. )y using another transducer at the receiver, the original message is recreated at the user destination.

Transmi !r

C"mm#ni$a i"n $%ann!&


5ig 1.

)lock 6iagram of a Communication 7ystem


AIM AND OBJECTIVE: metres and generated signal

#he aim of this pro$ect is to design and construct a fre1uency modulated&52( transmitter with a range of 1 fre1uency of about 1 82!9. 1.12 SCOPE: #he pro$ect is limited to the construction of an 52 transmitter from an educational design perspective utili9ing discrete components.


In radio transmission, it is necessary to send audio signal &e.g. music, speech etc( from a broadcasting station over a great distance to a receiver. #his communication of audio signal does not employ any wires&wireless(. #he audio signal cannot be sent directly over the air for appreciable distance. :ven if the audio signal is converted into electrical energy, the latter cannot

be sent very far without employing large amount of power. #he energy of a wave is directly proportional to its fre1uency. At audio fre1uencies &* !9 to * -!9( the signal power is 1uite small and radiation is not practicable. #he construction of this pro$ect was carried out using discrete electronic components as will be discussed below. 2.11.1 RADIO WAVES

As with light, radio waves propagate out wards from a source of energy &the transmitter and transmitting aerial( and comprises electric &:( and magnetic &!( field at right angle to each other. #hese two components, the : field and the ! field are inseparable and the resulting wave travels always from the source with the : and ! lines mutually perpendicular to the direction of propagation, "adio waves are said to be polari9ed in the plane of the electric &:( field. #hus, if the :4 field is vertical, the signal is said to be vertically polari9ed. 0hereas, if the :4field is hori9ontal, the signal is said to be hori9ontally polari9ed. #he transmitting aerial is supplied with a high fre1uency alternating current. #his gives rise to an alternating electric field between the ends of the aerial and an alternating magnetic field around and at right angles to it. #he direction of the :4 field lines is reversed on each cycle of the signal as the waveform moves outwards form the source. #he receiving aerial intercept the moving field and voltage alongside current is induced in it. As a conse1uence this voltage and current are similar but of smaller amplitude to that produced by the transmitter. #he transmitting antenna radiates the radio waves in space in all directions, these radio waves travels with the velocity of light 1.e. +% 1 8 m;sec. #he radio waves are electromagnetic waves and posses the same general properties. #hese are similar to light and heat waves e%cept that they have longer wave

lengths. It may be emphasi9ed here that radio waves are sent without employing any wire. It can be easily shown that at high fre1uency, electrical energy can be radiated into space.


RADIO (RE)UENC* to several hundred

"adio fre1uency signals are generally understood to occupy fre1uency range that e%tends from a few tens of kilohert9 &-!<( =igahert9 &=!9(. #he lower part of the radio fre1uency range that is of practical use below + -!9 is only suitable for narrow4 band communication at the fre1uency, signals propagate as ground waves &>5( following the curvature of the earth, over very long distance. At the other e%treme, the highest fre1uency range that is of practical importance e%tends above + .=!<. at these microwave fre1uencies considerable bandwidth are available &sufficient to transmit many television channels using point 3 to 3 point links or permit very high definition radar system( and signals tend to propagate straightly along line 3 of 3 sight paths space wave At other fre1uencies signals may propagate by various means, including reflection or more correctly refraction from ioni9ed layers in the ionosphere. 7ky waves, at fre1uencies between +2!< and + 2!<

monophonic propagation, regularly permit intercontinental broadcasting and communications. 5or convenience, the radio fre1uency spectrum is divided into a number of bands each spanning a decade of fre1uency. #he use to which each fre1uency range is put depends upon a number factors paramount amongst which is the propagation characteristics within the band concerned. ?ther factors that need to be taken into consideration include efficiency of practical aerial systems in the range concerned and the band width. #he radiation of electrical energy is possible only at high fre1uencies e.g. above * -!9. #he high fre1uency signals can be sent thousands of miles even with comparatively small power. #herefore, if the audio signal is to be transmitted properly, some means must be devised which permit transmission to occur at high fre1uencies while it simultaneously allows the carrying or transportation of the audio signal. #his is achieved by superimposing the electrical audio signal on a high fre1uency carrier. #he resultant wave is known as a modulated wave or radio wave, while the process is called 2odulation. At the radio receiver, the audio signal is e%tracted by a process known as 6emodulation&the reverse of modulation(. #he e%tracted intelligence signal is then amplified and reproduced into sound by the loudspeaker.



#he transmitter is a device capable of capturing signals representing sound and light and converting them by the process of modulation into a form suitable for transmission as electromagnetic waves in the radio spectrum. Any radio communication system that transmits intelligence from one point to another re1uires a high power transmitting module that prepares signal at the radio fre1uency and drives power to the transmission medium through the antenna. #he transmitter consists of a transducer, an audio amplifier, an oscillator to generate the signal, sometimes fre1uency multiplier, radio fre1uency amplifier, power amplifier and antenna. #ransmitters are used to propagate intelligence signals between distant locations. Aropagation &transmission( could be over a variety of media, including transmission lines, optical fibers, waveguide and free space. #he signals to be broadcast may be in the form of voice i.e. speech or digitally coded data. #he output of which is of very small signal level, usually of the order of milli4volts, hence the need for amplification before further processing could be effected. :very transmitter has three basic fundamental functionsB #ransmitter must generate a signal of the correct fre1uency at the desired point in the spectrum. It must provide sufficient power amplification to ensure that the signal level is high enough in order to cover the desired distance.

It must provide some form of modulation that causes information signal to modify the carrier signal. 0ith various types of transmitters available, this pro$ect concentrates on 52 type of a transmitter. #he output power ranges from the milli watt level up to the 1 -0

for broadcast 52. 0e will note that 52 is not used at fre1uency below about ++2!9. #his is due to the phase distortion introduced to the 52 signals by the earthDs ionosphere to these fre1uencies.

Transmi in+ a!ria&

A#/i" am,&i2i!r


Os$i&&a "r

M"/#&a "r

(i+ 2.0

-!n!ra&i.!/ 0&"$1 /ia+ram "2 an (M ransmi !r

2.12.1 BASIC BUILDIN- BLOC3S O( AN (M TRANSMITTER >isted below are the basic building blocks of an 52 transmitter. Trans/#$!r #he function of any transducer is to convert energy from one form to another 5or this pro$ect, an electret microphone is being used.

T%! A#/i" Am,&i2i!r

#his is sometimes called a low fre1uency amplifier. It is basically designed to amplify electrical signal of about * !9 4* -!9. #he two principal types of audio amplifiers are the voltage and power amplifiers. Arimarily, a voltage amplifier is designed to produce large output voltage with respect to the input voltage. A power amplifier develops, primarily, a large signal current in the output circuit. 7chematically, there is no way to distinguish between the two types of the audio amplifier e%cept their types of load. In this pro$ect design, the audio amplifier circuit was employed since the audio signal from the microphone is 1uite weak and re1uires amplification. #he amplified output from the last audio amplifier is fed to the modulator for rendering the process of modulation. T%! Os$i&&a "rs An electric oscillator may be defined as one of the followingB 4 A circuit which converts 6C energy to AC energy at a very high fre1uency. 4An electronic source of alternating current of high voltage having sine, s1uare or saw tooth or pulse shapes. 4A circuit which generates an output signal without re1uiring any e%ternally applied input signal. 4An unstable amplifier. 4A circuit that produces an output which varies its output with time. #hese definitions e%clude electromagnetic alternators which convert mechanical or heat energy into electrical energy. An oscillator differs from an amplifier in one basic respect, in that the oscillators do not re1uire an

e%ternal signal either to start or maintain energy conversion process as shown in the figure below. It keeps producing an output so long as the 6C power source is connected. #his stage generates the carrier signal on which the audio signal from the A5 amplifier is super imposed for effective transmission. "adio fre1uency parallel >4C oscillator was used in this pro$ect to generate about 1 oscillator fre1uency. 2!9


7ignal output

6C power input (i+ 2.2 B&"$1 Dia+ram "2 an "s$i&&a "r 2oreover, the fre1uency of the output is determined by the passive component used in the oscillator and can be varied at will. :lectronic

oscillators may be broadly divided into two groups namelyB sinusoidal and non4 sinusoidal oscillators. Sin#s"i/a& 5"r %arm"ni$6 "s$i&&a "rsE #hese are oscillators which can produce an output having sine waveforms and produce any of the following oscillationsB damped or undamped oscillations. N"n7sin#s"i/a& 5r!&a8a i"n6 "s$i&&a "r #hese are oscillators which produce an output which ahs s1uare, rectangular or saw tooth wave4form. 7Dam,!/ "s$i&&a i"ns: ?scillations whose amplitudes keeps decreasing &or decaying( with time are called damped oscillations. #he waveform of such oscillations is shown in the figure below. #hese are produced by those oscillator circuits in which I" losses takes place continuously during each oscillation without any arrangement for compensating the same.


(i+ 2.4 Dam,!/ Os$i&&a i"n 9a'!2"rm ,ltimately, the amplitude of the oscillations decays to 9ero when there is not enough to supply circuit losses. !owever, the fre1uency or time4period remains constant because it is determined by the circuit parameters. 7inusoidal oscillators serve a variety connection in telecommunications and in electronics. Its most important application in telecommunication is the use of sine waves as carrier in both radio and cable transmission. 7ince wave are also used in fre1uency response testing of various types of systems and e1uipment including analogue communications channels, amplifier and filters and closed4loop control system.

Undamped Oscillations
?scillations whose amplitude remains constant, that is, does not change with time are called undamped oscillations. #hese are produced by those oscillators circuit which have no losses or if they have, there is provision for

compensating themB the constant4amplitude and constant fre1uency sinusoidal waves. 7hown below is an e%ample of a carrier wave used in communication transmitter for transmitting low4fre1uency audio information to far distant places.

5igE 2.: Un/am,!/ Os$i&&a i"n 9a'!2"rm In addition, oscillators can also be described as an electronic circuit whose function is to produce an alternating electromotive force &emf( of a particular fre1uency and wave. Its purpose in the design is the generation of sinusoidal carrier signal.

#he basic types of oscillators are Ahase oscillator, !artley ?scillator, Colpitts ?scillator etc. #he oscillator in this pro$ect is the Colpitts ?scillator. Capacitor and inductors are the two component found in an "5 oscillator or tank circuit. #hese two components are used together to form an >4C circuit which provide selectivity that we need in a radio receiver. when used together we refer to them as tuned circuits or .resonant/ circuit. In practice we have both series and parallel tuned circuits. this two behave 1uite differently. In the case of series tuned circuit and assuming that both of the components are .perfect/, the impedance of the circuit will be 9ero at the resonant fre1uency this circuit is thus sometimes referred to as an acceptor circuit, in other words, it will accept signal at the resonant fre1uency and re$ect signal at other fre1uencies. In the case of the parallel >4C circuit and assuming that both of the components are perfect, the impedance of the circuit will be infinite at resonant fre1uency this circuits is thus sometimes referred to as a re$ecter circuit. in other words it will re$ect signals at resonant fre1uency. In the case of both the series and parallel circuit the fre1uency of resonance can be calculated, D! !rmina i"n "2 R!s"nan (r!;#!n$<E 0here > F Inductor C F Capacitor G> F Inductive reactance Gc F Capacitive reactance G> F *Hf> IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII*.1

Gc F 1 *HfC


"esonance occurs at G>FGc IIIIIIIIIIIII*.+ At resonance, *Hf> F 1 *HfC 2aking J the sub$ect of the formula, we obtain 2= 1 ....................................................................................*.8 IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII*.4

2>?LC #his is the resonant carrier fre1uency of a Colpitt ?scillator #he tank or resonant circuit has three main specifications, namely )andwidth Kuality 5actor or K factor Insertion >oss #hese parameters define the pass band, shape and loss of the tank circuit response. 2.12.1.: Ra/i" (r!;#!n$< 5R(6 Am,&i2i!r: "5 amplifier is better described as power amplifier. It is used in radio transmitters to amplify the carrier fre1uency to the desired power output


level. "5 power amplifier is operated under either class ) or class C condition.

2.12.1.@ T%! M"/#&a "r: #his is another component of a transmitter whose operation in transmission is highly e%pedient. It, as the name implies, modulates by combining an audio fre1uency &A5( signal with a radio fre1uency &"5( carrier wave. 6uring modulation, some characteristics of the carrier wave are varied in time with the modulating signal are accomplished by combining the two. #he resultant wave produced is called the modulated wave. 2.14 M"/#&a i"n

2odulation is the process of superimposing information contained in a lower fre1uency electronic signal into higher fre1uency signal. #he higher fre1uency is called the carrier signal while the lower fre1uency, the modulation signal. In the process of modulation, some characteristics are varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of modulating signal such as sine wave which may be represented by the following e1uation. e F : sin &wtL M( IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII.*.@ 0hereE e is the instantaneous value of the sine wave, called the carrierB : is its ma%imum amplitude, w is the angular velocity M is its phase relation with respect to some reference value.


Any of these last three characteristics or parameters &N, w, and M( of the carrier may be varied by the modulating signal, giving rise to amplitude, fre1uency or phase modulation respectively in this pro$ect, fre1uency modulation is considered. A2.14.1 N!!/ 2"r M"/#&a i"n

2odulation is needed due to the following reason. 5or efficient radiation and reception of radio waves, the transmitting and receiving antennal must have heights in the multiple of y;4 &y F c;f(. where y is the signal wavelength. At low fre1uencies, the antenna height will be too long to be reali9ed. 7ignals of low fre1uencies cannot travel far, hence, it is of importance to superimpose it on a signal of higher fre1uencies for a wider coverage on the other hand, and unmodulated carrier cannot be use to convey information. )y standard, the bandwidth for commercial 1uality speech is + !9 3 +4 !9. #o allow for discrimination, each individual signal is modulated by different carriers through the process called fre1uency 6ivision 2ultiple%ing &562(. )y this method, a telephone cable is capable of carrying up hundreds of channels.


T<,!s "2 M"/#&a i"n T!$%ni;#!s


)asically, these are two types of modulation namely Amplitude modulation an/ Angle modulation. Angle modulation is further divided into fre1uency and phase modulation. #hey are each discussed below. 2.1:.1 Am,&i #/! M"/#&a i"n A signal is said to be amplitude modulated when the amplitude of the carrier wave is varied in proportion to the instantaneous amplitude of the information signal or "5 signal. ?bviously, the amplitude &and hence the intensity( of the carrier waves is changed while the fre1uency remains constant. 2.1:.1.1 LIMITATION O( AMPLITUDE MODULATION

Although theoretically highly effective, amplitude modulation suffers from the following draw backsB Ooisy "eceptionE In an 52 wave, the signal is in the amplitude variations of the carrier. Aractically all the natural and man made noises consist of electrical amplitude disturbances. As a radio receiver cannot distinguish between amplitude variations that represent noise and those that contain the desire signal, therefore reception is generally noisy >ow efficiencyE In amplitude modulation, useful power is in the side bands as they contain the signal. 7mall operating rangeE 6ue to low efficiency of the amplitude modulation, transmitters employing this method have a small operating range i.e. message cannot be transmitted over large distances.


>ack of audio 1ualityE #his is a distinct disadvantage of amplitude modulation. In order to attain high 3 fidelity reception all audio fre1uencies up to 18 -!9 must be reproduced. #his necessitates bandwidth of + -!9 since both sidebands must be reproduced. )ut 52 broadcasting stations are assigned bandwidth of only 1 -!9 to minimi9e the interference from ad$acent broadcasting station. #his means that the highest modulation fre1uency can be 8-!9 which is hardly sufficient to reproduce the music properly. 2.1:.2 P%as! M"/#&a i"n. !ere, the information signal changes the phase of the waves with the fre1uency and the amplitude kept constant. 2.1:.@ (r!;#!n$< M"/#&a i"n In this case the fre1uency of the carrier wave is varied in sympathy with some property of the modulating signal. A better and more vivid e%planation of fre1uency modulation is given along the write up. 2.1@ DEMODULATION

#he process of recovering the audio signal from the modulated wave is known as demodulation or detection. At the broadcasting station, modulation is done to transmit the signal over large distances to receiver when the modulated. 0ave is picked up by the radio receiver. It is necessary to recover the audio signal from it. #his process is accomplished in the radio receiver and is called demodulation. 2.1@.1 NECESSIT* O( DEMODULATION

It was noted previously that amplitude modulated wave consists of carrier and sideband fre1uency. #he audio signal is contained in the sideband fre1uencies which are radio fre1uencies. If the modulated wave after amplification is directly fed to the speaker as shown in fig *.+ a, no sound will be heard. It is because diaphragm of the speaker is not all able to respond to such high fre1uencies. )efore the diaphragm is able to more in one direction, the rapid reversal of current tends to move it in the opposite direction i.e. diaphragm will not move at all. Conse1uently, no sound will be heard.

>oud speaker receiver antennae &Oo sound(

S a i"n s!&!$ i"n

R( am,&i2i!r

(i+ 2.B B&"$1 Dia+ram "2 a D!m"/#&a i"n Pr"$!ss 5rom the above discussion, it follows that the audio signal must be separated from the carrier at a suitable stage in receiver. #he recovered audio signal is than amplified and fed to the speaker for conversion into sound. 2C1D #!:?"P O( (RE)UENC* AND PHASE MODULATION

5re1uency modulation is a system of modulation in which the amplitude of the modulated carrier is kept constant, while its fre1uency and rate of change are varied by the modulating signal. #he first practical system was put forward in 1'+@ as an alternative to A.2 in an effort to make radio transmissions me resistant to noise. Ahase modulation is a similar system in which the phase of the carrier is varied instead of the fre1uencyE as in 52, the amplitude of the carrier remains constant. >et us assume for the moment that the carrier of the transmitter is at its resting fre1uency &no modulation( of 1 2!9 and we apply a modulating signal. #he amplitude of the modulating signal will cause the carrier to deviate from this resting fre1uency by a certain amount. If we increase the amplitude &loudness( of the modulating signal we will increase the deviation to a ma%imum of C8kh9 as specified by the 5ederal Communications Council. If we remove the modulation, the carrier fre1uency shifts back to its resting fre1uency&1 2!9(. It can be shown that the deviation of the carrier is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating voltage. #he shift in the carrier fre1uency in comparison to the amplitude of the modulating voltage is called the 6eviation "atio. A deviation ratio of 8 is the ma%imum allowed in commercially broadcast 52. #he rate at which the carrier shifts from its resting point to a non resting point is determined by the fre1uency of the modulating signal. 5re1uency modulation can also be described as the process of changing a particular property of the carrier wave in sympathy with the instantaneous voltage or current which is the signal. #he most commonly used method of modulation are amplitude modulation &A2( and fre1uency modulation &52( in the former case, the carrier amplitude &its peak voltage varies according to

the voltage at any instant of the modulation signal in the latter case, the carrier fre1uency is varied in accordance with voltage, at any instant of the modulating signal. 2.1D.1 DESCRIPTION O( S*STEMS from e1%n *.@

#he general e1uation of an unmodulated wave, or carrier, may be written as GF A sin &wt L Q( 0here GF instantaneous value &of voltage or current( AF &ma%imum( amplitude wF angular velocity, radians per second &rads;sec( QF phase angle, rad Oote that wt represents the angle in radians If any one of these parameters is varied in accordance with another signal, normally of a lower fre1uency, then the second signal is called the modulation, and the first is said to be modulated by the second. Amplitude modulation is achieved when the amplitude is varied. Alteration of the phase angle Q will yield phase modulation. If the fre1uency of the carrier is made to vary, fre1uency modulation is achieved. It is assumed that the modulating signal is sinusoidal. #his signal has two important parameters which must be represented by the modulation process without distortion, specifically, its amplitude and fre1uency. )y the definition of fre1uency modulation, the amount by which the carrier fre1uency is varied from its unmodulated value, called the deviation, is made proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating voltage. #he rate at which this fre1uency variation changes or takes place is e1ual to the modulating fre1uency. All signals having the same amplitude will deviate the carrier fre1uency by the same amount. Conse1uently, all signals

of the same fre1uency will deviate the carrier at the same rate no matter what their individual amplitudes. #he amplitude of the fre1uency modulated wave remains constant at all times. #his is the greatest single advantage of 52. #he effect of fre1uency modulation on a sinusoidal carrier is shown in the figure below&note that the modulating signal is in this case, also sinusoidal in practice many more cycles of "5 carrier would occur in the time span of one cycle of the modulating signal.


4R M"/#&a in+ si+na&



4R (r!;#!n$< m"/#&a i"n

#he modulating or audio signal is described asE Ra F A sin *HJatIIIIIIIIIII. *.8 0here A represents the ma%imum amplitude, Ja represents the fre1uency of the audio signal, t represents time and Ra ,the instantaneous value of the modulating signal voltage. #he carrier fre1uency. 5, will vary around a resting 5c thusE 5 F 5c L S5*HfatIIIII.. IIIIII*.' #he fre1uency modulated wave will have the following descriptionE R F A sin &*H5c L S5*Hfat( TII.. IIII*.1 In this fre1uency modulated situation, S is the ma%imum change in fre1uency the modulated wave undergoes. It is called the fre1uency deviation, and the total variation in fre1uency from the lowest to the highest is referred to as a carrier swing. #herefore for a modulated signal which has e1ual positive and negative peaks, such as pure sign wave, the carrier swing is e1ual to two times the fre1uency deviation. S5 F fre1uency deviation Carrier swing F * % fre1uency deviation F*S5IIIII..*.11 It can be shown that the e1uation for the fre1uency modulated wave can be manipulated intoE

R F A sin U*Hfct L &S5;Ja( cos *HJatT IIIIIIIII.*.1* It must be noted that in this e1uation, the cosine term is preceded by the S5;Ja. #his 1uantity is called the modulation inde% and is indicated as .2J/ 2odulation inde% F 2J F S5;Ja IIIIIII*.1+ 2.1D.2 ADVANTA-ES O( (RE)UENC* MODULATION

It gives noiseless reception as discussed before, noise is a form of amplitude variations and a 52 receiver will re$ect such signals. #he operating range is 1uite large. It gives high fidelity reception. #he efficiency of transmission is very high.



#he five ma$or categories in which 52 is used are as followsB Oon commercial broadcast at 882!9 to ' 2!9. -!9 channel bandwidth at ' to

Commercial broadcast with * 1 82!9.

#elevision audio signals with 8 -!9 channel bandwidth at 84 to 882!9, 1C4 to *1@2!9 and 4C to 8 @2!9.


Oarrow band public service channels from 1 8 to 1C42!9 and in e%cess of 8 @2!9. Oarrow band amateur radio channels at *'.@2!9, 8* to 8+2!9, 144 to 14C.''2!9, 44 to 48 2!9 and in e%cess of ' *2!9. 6igital 3 57-E 5re1uency 7hift -eying &57-( is used on !5 for low speed telegraphy or data transmission, eg "##P at speeds of 48.48 or 8 baud. 57- is also used on R!5 for data transmission at 48 =+",! modulation at '@ bps. bps using the !AAO 6irect 5re1uency 2odulation &652( techni1ue, or 6igital 3 A57-: Audio 5re1uency 7hift -eying is the use of a fre1uency shift keyed audio tone to modulate a 52 or 77) transmitter. #his is commonly used for speeds of + 1* bps on !5 and bps on R!5;,!5. ?n R!5;,!5, the A57- signal is fed into

the microphone input of the transmitter to pick up pre4emphasis, and de4emphasi9ed audio is used for the demodulator.



Oote that there are several other forms of modulation particularly associated with digital communication like pulse code modulation, pulse width modulation etc. 5re1uency modulation is much more immune to noise than amplitude modulation and is significantly more immune than phase modulation. A signal4noise fre1uency will affect the output of a receiver only if it falls within its band pass. #he carrier and the noise voltages will mi%, and if the difference is audible, it will naturally interfere with the reception of wanted

signals. Ooise re$ection is obtained only when the signal is at least twice the noise peak amplitude. ?ther forms of interference found in receivers includeE Ad$acent channel interference 5re1uency modulation offers not only an improvement in the 7;O ratio but also better discrimination against other interfering signals, no matter what their source. Also wideband 52 broadcasting channel occupies * -!9& of which only 18 -!9 is used(, and the remaining * -!9 guard band goes a long way toward reducing ad$acent channel interference even further. Co4channel interferenceVcapture effect 5m receivers incorporate the use of amplitude limiters, which work on the principle of passing the signal and eliminating the weaker. #his was the reason for mentioning earlier that noise re$ection is obtained only when the signal is at least twice the noise peak amplitude. A relatively weak interfering signal from another transmitter will also be attenuated in this manner, as much as any other form of interference. #his applies even if the other transmitter operates at the same fre1uency as the desired transmitter



Ooise has a greater effect on higher modulating fre1uencies than on the lower ones. #hus, if the higher fre1uencies were artificially boosted at the transmitter and correspondingly cut at the receiver, an improvement in noise immunity could be e%pected, thereby increasing the signal4to4noise ratio.


#his boosting of the higher modulating fre1uencies, in accordance with a pre4arranged curve, is termed pre4emphasis, and the compensation at the receiver is called de4emphasis. #he standard unit for defining emphasis is microseconds. A C84Ws pre4emphasis in 52 gives a noise re$ection at least *4d) better than A2.


#he overall method and steps involved during the design of this pro$ect are briefly e%plained here. #hese can best be e%plained using the block diagram below,

Input audio

to antenna


Audio pre4 amplifier

"5 oscillator


(i+ 4.1 A 0&"$1 /ia+ram "2 an (M ransmi !r

#he various components used in the construction of this pro$ect includeE resistors, transistors, capacitors and a length of fle%ible cord. #he ma$or sections that constitute this design are #he power supply unit #he audio pre amplification unit "5 oscillator unit Antennae #he indicator


THE POWER SUPPL* UNIT #his unit consists of a + volts 6C battery made up by a pair of 1.8 volts 6C battery. #he power supply ensures the circuit functions effectively. #o an e%tent, it determines the carrier fre1uency of the oscillator circuit.


THE AUDIO PRE7AMPLI(IER UNIT #he function of this stage is to pre4amplify the audio signal from the microphone which is very weak so that it ca be set for modulation. #his stage consists of OAO transistor, common emitter configuration, with collector feedback biasing, biasing resistors and capacitors. #he input to this stage is from the base of the transistor while the output is

from the collector. #he capacitors this unit serve as a coupling unit, filter networks and fre1uency determination of input signal.


R( OSCILLATOR UNIT #his unit consists of a parallel resonant circuit which is responsible for producing the carrier wave upon which the intelligence signal is to be superimposed for modulation.


THE ANTENNAE UNIT #he antennae is responsible for the transmission of the modulated signal through space. 5or this pro$ect, the antennae is a piece of fle%ible cord. It should be noted that e%tending the length of the wire antennae conse1uently e%tends the range of signal transmission as observed during testing.


THE INDICATOR #his section consists only of a >ight :mitting 6iode whose function is to indicate power supply to the rest of the components.

5or the

design and construction of this pro$ect, some fundamental

components were used. An insight into their properties and their characteristic behavior relevant to the design under consideration are discussed below.



5or a resistor, according to ?hmXs law, the voltage dropped across it is proportional to the amount of current flowing through it. i.e. RF I" IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII..+.1 0here R is the voltage across the resistor, I F the current flowing through the resistor and ", the resistance of the resistor. Any current waveform across a resistor will produce the same voltage waveform across the resistor. "esistors are essential to the functions of almost every electronic circuit and provide means of controlling the circuit and;or voltage present. #here are almost as many types as their application. "esistors are used in amplifiers as loads for active devices in bias networks and as feedback element. In combination with capacitors they establish time constant and act as filters, they are used to set operating currents and signals levels. "esistors are used in power to measure currents and to discharge capacitor after moving power source. #hey are used in precision circuit to establish currents to provide accurate voltage ratio and to set precise gain values. 4.1E INDUCTOR

#he voltage across an inductor leads the current through it by ' degrees. #his is due to the fact that the voltage across an inductor depends on the rate of change of current entering the inductor. #he impedance of an inductor is L$w> &wF*Hf( which reflects the fact that the voltage leads the current.


=iven the dimensions of an inductor coil such as average radius of the coil&r(, number of turns of the coil&O(, length of the coil&L(, the inductance in micro !enrys&Y!( can be computed using this relationship. > F OZ* rZ* **8r L *84L 4.1B CAPACITOR stores charge or electricity in the form of IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII+.*

A capacitor temporarily

electrostatics .this should not be confused with the function of a battery ,which chemically generate electricity a capacitor is said to be like a water storage tank while the battery is like the central heating pump .pumping the water round the radiator .capacitor ,like resistor ,are so widely used that book are written about them .so capacitors are used in storing small amour of electrical energy they are used in smoothing [decoupling \power supplies , removing of voltage spikes from supplies etc


:.10 :.11


(i+ :.1 $"m,&! ! $ir$#i /ia+ram


D!si+n S,!$i2i$a i"n #he design specification is a detailed description of the e%pected characteristics of the designed 52 transmitter. 2odulation #ype E Antenna #ypeE 0orking Roltage E + volts&6C( 52 wire cord of a few centimeters long meters 5re1uency of ?perationE about 1 42!9 "ange ?btained in 5ree spaceE ,p to 1



#his section e%amines the stage by stage analysis of the module with their respective circuit diagrams.



#he current ,I, flowing into the microphone is given by ohms law R F I " from e1%n +.1 "F++k RF+ volts IFR;" IF+;++k IF ' Amps :.11.1.2 THE AUDIO PRE7AMPLI(IER SECTION


5rom the circuit diagram above, "bF12] "cF 1 k] RccF +volts hJ:F @ from the e1uation for the collector feedback biased transistor, RccFIc "c L &Ic;hJ:("bIIIIIIIIIII..4.1 2aking Ic the sub$ect of the formula, we obtain Ic F Rcc;& "c L "b;hf:(IIIIIIIIIII..4.* I$= +;1 k L 12;@

IcF .1mAmps Oow from this relationship, hJ: F Ic;IbIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII.4.+ substituting the values of Ic and hf: IbFIc; hJ: IbF .1mA;@ IbF 1.CAmps




using the above transistor characteristics and component values, the resistors 4Ck and 1 Rb F [1 k];1 k both constitute a voltage divider network k resistor, Rb, is given as therefore the voltage across the 1 kL 4Ck] +volts RbF *. volts 5rom fundamental transistor e1uation, we know that Rb F Re L RbeIIIIIIIIIIIIII..4.4 0here RbeF .@volts for a silicon transistor by standard ReF*V .@F1.4volts 0here Re is the voltage across the emitter. #he current, Ie, across the emitter is given by IeFRe;"eIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII.4.8

IeF 1.4;+'k IeF+@Amps Oow Ie is appro%imately F IcF+@ Amps #herefore, using e1uation 4.+ .and noting hJ:F@ IbF Ic; hJ: IbF +@ A;@ IbF @ Amps D! !rmina i"n "2 %! an1 $ir$#i ,aram! !rs > F Inductance C F CapacitanceF4Cp5 G> F Inductive reactance Gc F Capacitive reactance G> F *Hf> Gc F 1 *HfC "esonance occurs at G>FGc At resonance, *Hf> F 1 *HfC 2aking J the sub$ect of the formula, we obtain 2= 1 2>?LC #his is the resonant carrier fre1uency of a Colpitt ?scillator

from e1uation *.4

as in !;#a i"n 2.@

5rom e1uation +.* >&!( F OZ* rZ* **8r L *84L =iven the dimensions of the inductor coil to be as follows, OFnumber of turns F 8 r F average coil radiusF .1@mm L F length of coilF .8mm substituting these values into the e%pression, we obtain >F *8&*.*8( **8& .1@( L *84& .8( >F . 8! from e1uation *.8 Above , substituting the values for > and C we obtain, the resonant fre1uency J to be J= JF 1F2 0.0@H :E,( 1 2!9

this is thus the carrier fre1uency of the parallel >4C network



#his section describes the importance of using each of the electronic component that constitute the circuit diagram. 5or the transducer section, the electret microphone was used as the input transducer because of its high sensitivity. #he ++k resistor limits the amount

of current entering the electret microphone. #his conse1uently stabilises the gain of the microphone and maintains good stability of the sensitivity. In the pre amplifier circuit and oscillator stages, the )C848 transistor was utili9ed because of its high fre1uency response characteristics. #he capacitors were used as coupling and filter networks to the various stages of the circuitry. #he parallel >4C tank oscillator was chosen due to its ability to generate a stable sine wave at the carrier fre1uency, a better performance at high fre1uency generation of signal and its availability in the market. A fle%ible cord was used as the antenna due to the miniature nature of the circuit and under impedance matching considerations was seen to best suit this pro$ect work, A +volts 6C battery was used as the power supply for this circuitry because of its ability to produce a steady current and its ready availability.



It was observed during the testing of this pro$ect with a radio receiver that the transmitted signal produced a large s1ueal. #his unwanted phenomenon, which was due to the value of the limiting current resistor being too low&**k(, was fi%ed by using a ++k resistor across the electret microphone. #his ensured ade1uate stability. Also observed during testing was the transmitter fre1uency was at about 1 42!9 contrary to the anticipated 8'4' 2!9. this situation resulted from the variations made to the inductor wire during construction which affected

the inductance and conse1uently the carrier fre1uency. Also worth mentioning is the observation that touching of the inductor coil caused the fre1uency to drift by a reasonable amount. In addition, #he main area of instability is the oscillator part. 7hielding the oscillator helps in part to counter this and an e%tension of the antenna length increased the range of signal propagation.





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CHAPTER (IVE @.10 CONCLUSION #he 52 transmitter is essentially a design and implementation pro$ect. #o approach a pro$ect like this, a parallel path has to be taken in regards to the theory and the practical circuitry. 5or a successful completion of any pro$ect, these paths must meet and this only happens when they are fully understood. Ipso4 facto, a good grounding in the basics of communication theory and analogue designs cannot be over emphasi9ed before approaching a pro$ect like this. #o start off, looking at block diagrams or basic transmitter was a


necessity even if it seemed abstract and obscure. #he underlying meaning of each block can be found out individually. 0hich is what made the overall pro$ect challenging and rewarding.



#he design used for this pro$ect is essentially 1uite a simple one and it is this simplicity which partly brings it down when it comes to the overall reliable performance. #he main area of instability is the oscillator part. 7hielding the oscillator helps in part to counter this.


@.20 @.20.1 @.20.2 @.20.4 @.20.: @.20.@

RE(ERENCES 2odern Communications, 2iller =ary 2, #ata 2c=raw !ill, :lectronic CommunicationsE modulation and #ransmission, 7choebeck, "obert, #ata 2c=raw !ill,* 5ourth :dition, #ata 2c=raw !ill 5undamentals of "eliable Circuit 6esign, Ale%ander 2el, 1, #e%as *, Oew Pork 6avies, :lectronic Communication 7ystem, -ennedy and

1''', Oew Pork&*nd :dition(

>ongman Aress,*

A #e%tbook ?f :lectrical #echnology )y ).> #hera$a,

www.;transmitters;fre1uency modulation

A.- #hera$a, 7. Chand publishers India &*4th :dition(

@.20.D @.20.E