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JAZZ FUNDAMENTALS

Jazz Piano, Theory, and More

310-284-8200 jbdyas@monkinstitute.org

Dr. JB Dyas

Dr. JB Dyas
Dr. JB Dyas has been a leader in jazz education for the past two decades. Formerly the Director of Jazz Studies at New World School of the Arts and Executive Director of the Brubeck Institute, Dyas currently serves as Vice President for Education and Curriculum Development for the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz in Los Angeles. He oversees the Institutes education and outreach programs including Jazz In America: The National Jazz Curriculum (www.jazzinamerica.org), one of the most significant and widereaching jazz education programs in the world. Throughout his career, he has performed across the country, taught students at every level, directed large and small ensembles, developed and implemented new jazz curricula, and written for national music publications. He has served on the Smithsonian Institutions Task Force for Jazz Education in America and has presented numerous jazz workshops, teacher-training seminars, and jazz "informances" throughout the nation with such renowned artists as Dave Brubeck and Herbie Hancock. A professional bassist, Dyas has appeared with Jamey Aebersold, David Baker, Jerry Bergonzi, Red Rodney, Ira Sullivan, and Bobby Watson, among others. He received his MM in Jazz Pedagogy from the University of Miami and PhD in Music Education from Indiana University, and is a recipient of the prestigious DownBeat Achievement Award for Jazz Education.

Jazz Fundamentals

Text: Aebersold Play-Along Volume 54 (Maiden Voyage) Also Recommended: Jazz Piano Voicings for the Non-Pianist and Pocket Changes I. Chromatic Scale (all half steps) C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B C C Db D Eb E F Gb G Ab A Bb B C Whole Tone Scale (all whole steps) D E F# G# A# C Db Eb F G A B Db ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ II. The Major Scale (all whole steps except between the 3rd & 4th and 7th & 8th notes) 1 C A Eb W 2 D B F W 3H4 E C# G F D Ab W 5 G E Bb W 6 A F# C W 7H8 B C (C major scale) (A major scale) C

G# A D

Eb (Eb major scale)

note: all major scales go in alphabetical order; the first and last note are always the same (one octave apart) ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ III. Key Signatures

C no sharps or flats (Order of Flats: B E A D G C F) Mnemonic: BEAD Greatest Common Factor KEY F Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Cb (Order of Sharps: F C G D A E B) Mnemonic: Fat Cats Go Down Alleys Eating Bananas KEY G D A E B F# C#

1 flat (Bb) 2 flats (Bb, Eb) 3 flats (Bb, Eb, Ab) 4 flats (Bb, Eb, Ab, Db) 5 flats (Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb) 6 flats (Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb, Cb) 7 flats (Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb, Cb, Fb)

1 sharp (F#) 2 sharps (F# C#) 3 sharps (F# C# G#) 4 sharps (F# C# G# D#) 5 sharps (F# C# G# D# A#) 6 sharps (F# C# G# D# A# E#) 7 sharps (F# C# G# D# A# E# B#)

IV. Major Scale Piano Fingerings (right hand) C Fingering (1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5) -- Keys: C, G, D, A, E, B (right side of circle) Two-Black/Three-Black Fingering -- Keys: F, Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb (left side of circle) note: The Key of B represents both fingerings. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ V. The Five Main Chord Qualities Chord Symbol C! C7 CC Co Formula 1357 1 3 5 b7 1 b3 5 b7 1 b3 b5 b7 1 b3 b5 6 Notes in C CEGB C E G Bb C Eb G Bb C Eb Gb Bb C Eb Gb A Notes in A A C# E G# A C# E G ACEG A C Eb G A C Eb Gb Notes in Eb Eb G Bb D Eb G Bb Db Eb Gb Bb Db Eb Gb A* Db Eb Gb A* C

Chord Major 7 Dominant 7 Minor 7 Half Diminished Diminished

* technically, the b5th in the key of Eb is Bbb (B double flat) Left Hand Chord Fingering: 5 3 2 1 Right Hand Chord Fingering: 1 2 3 5 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ VI. The Ten Most Common Chord/Scale Relationships Chord C! C7 CC Co C-! C7alt C7b9 C7#5 C7 or CScale Name Major Mixolydian Dorian Locrian Diminished (W/H) Melodic Minor Super Locrian Diminished (H/W) Whole Tone Blues Scale Formula major scale major scale with a b7 major scale with a b3 and b7 notes from major scale " step higher W H W H W H W H major scale with a b3 notes from melodic minor scale " step higher H W H W H W H W all whole steps 1 b3 4 b5 5 b7 1 Scale Beginning On C* C D E (F) G A B C C D E (F) G A Bb C C D Eb F G A Bb C C (Db) Eb F Gb Ab Bb C C D Eb F Gb Ab A B C C D Eb F G A B C C Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bb C C Db Eb E F# G A Bb C C D E F# G# Bb C C Eb F Gb G Bb C

* Three of these scales have avoid tones (indicated in parenthesis above), meaning they should not be included in the related chord. That is, as a general rule, dont include a 4th in a major 7 chord, dont include a 4th in a dominant 7 chord (unless its a sus chord in which the 4th replaces the 3rd), and dont include a b2nd in a half diminished chord.

Common Piano Voicings


Basic chord symbols are merely abbreviations for particular scales (the general horizontal sounds of the symbols) from which the player may select notes to construct chords and/or improvise. These scales are by no means the only ones that can be used for improvisation, however, they are the symbols most representative sounds. The most common basic symbols are C, C7, C-, C, Co, C7b9, and C7alt, representing the general sounds of major, dominant, dorian minor, half-diminished, diminished, dominant 7 flat 9, and dominant 7 altered, respectively. The 3rd and 7th are the most representative notes of any chord or scale and should be included in every voicing (except for a sus chord where the 4th is substituted for the 3rd). Common voicings usually contain at least one other chord tone, extension, and/or alteration as well. Moreover, any or all notes from the related scale (except for avoid tones*) may be used in the pianists chord voicing, depending on the player and the musical situation. A typical C7 piano voicing, for instance, might be constructed Bb E A D G (b7 3 6 9 5) if the player is looking for a relatively evenly spread two-handed chord or, perhaps, E A Bb D (3 6 b7 9) if looking for a left-handed close voicing. Notice that all these notes come from C mixolydian, C7s related chord scale. Also notice that the root is not included. As the root is primarily the bassists responsibility, pianists and guitarists often omit the root when comping to avoid redundancy. For unaccompanied solo piano playing, however, the root is included much more often and generally voiced as the lowest note of the chord. Alt, short for altered, refers to the raised and/or lowered 5th and 9th. In other words, the dominant 7 altered chord contains no regular 5th and no regular 9th, but instead, a flat and/or sharp 5th and a flat and/or sharp 9th. The difference between the dominant 7 flat 9 sound and the dominant 7 altered sound is that the former includes the natural 5th and 6th while the latter does not. Thus, the related scale for C7b9 (half-whole diminished) is comprised of the root, b9, #9, 3 #4, 5, 6, and b7: C Db D# E F# G A Bb C; the related scale for C7alt (super-locrian) is comprised of the root, b9, #9, 3 #4, #5, and b7: C Db D# E F# G# Bb C (this scale is often enharmonically spelled C Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bb C, using the note names from its parent scale, Db melodic minor, of which C super-locrian is the seventh mode). A C7b9 might be voiced Bb E G Db (b7 3 5 b9) while its C7alt counterpart would be voiced Bb E G# Db (b7 3 #5 b9). Again, exactly which notes to use from these scales when constructing the chord is left up to the player.

* Certain scales have avoid tones, meaning they should not be included in the related chord. For example, as a general rule, dont include a 4th in a major 7 chord, dont include a 4th in a dominant 7 chord (unless its a sus chord in which the 4th replaces the 3rd), and dont include a b2nd in a half diminished chord.

Piano Voicing Mnemonics


I. One-Handed Jazz Voicings for Major 7, Dominant 7, and Minor 7 Chords A. Category A (3rd in the lowest voice) Chord Quality Voicing C C7 C3 7 9 3 b7 9 b3 b7 9 Voicing in C Mnemonic

w & Ew B w

D D D

Look at root at the top and spread out (up a whole, down a half); 3rd in lowest voice Look at root at the top and spread out (up a whole, down a whole); 3rd in lowest voice Look at root at the top and spread out (up a whole, down a whole); b3rd in lowest voice

w w E bBb & w

bw w & Ebb Bb w

B. Category B (7th in the lowest voice) Chord Quality Voicing C C7 C7 3 5 b7 3 6 b7 b3 5 Voicing in C Mnemonic Look at triad and lower root a half step Look at triad and spread out outer voices a whole step Look at minor triad and lower root a whole step Common RH Chord Fingering: 1 3 5

& B w E w w

G A G

Bb w E & w bw

Common LH Chord Fingering: 5 2 1 II. II V I Progression in Major A. Chord Qualities 1. II chord is minor 7 (II-) 2. V chord is dominant 7 (V7) 3. I chord is major 7 (I) B. Example in the key of C 1. C major scale: C C & 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 D
1

Bb bEb & w w bw

(exception -- category B dominant 7 voicing: 1 2 5)

F G A B

2.

II V I in the Key of C: D- G7 C

note: any 3 chords in a row progressing counterclockwise around the circle is a II V I in the key of the 3rd chord, e.g., C- F7 Bb is a II V I in Bb; F- Bb7 Eb is a II V I in Eb; etc.

C. Good voice-leading: 3rd to 7th and 7th to 3rd 1. the 7th moves down a half step to become the 3rd of the next chord 2. the 3rd stays on the same note to become the 7th of the next chord Note that to progress from a II- to a V7: only one note moves (the 7th of the II- moves down a half step to become the 3rd of the V7); the other two notes remain the same

Example 1: Category A to B to A II9 b7 b3


H

KEY OF C I

V7 6 3 b7
W H

9 7 3

w &Ew w C
F

DDH

G7 G7
H

w w wE B
F

w W w W w H
C
H

C D B E

KEY OF F IIV7 I

W 9 6 W 9 A A W H b7 H 3 7 F H E H b3 b7 H 3 Bb Bb H A ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

& w w bw

GG-

w bw w

7 C C7

F w w G w E w w w

KEY OF Bb II9 b7 b3
H

V7 6 3 b7
W H

I 9 7 3

w &Db b w w
Bb Eb

C- C H

w w bD w A

F7 F7
W H

W H

B b Bb
C A D

Eb

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Example 2: Category B to A to B IIV7 I KEY OF C

5 9 W 5 A A WW G H b3 b7 H 3 F F HH E b7 H 3 7 C H B B ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ KEY OF F IIV7 I

&w w w

DD-

G7 G7

w w w

w w w

H 5 9 W 5 D D W H b3 b7 H 3 Bb Bb H A b7 H 3 7 F H E E ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

w & bw w

GG-

bw w w

7 C C7
W

F w w w C w w w

KEY OF Bb II5 b3 b7 V7 9 b7 3
W H

I 5 3 7

&G b w bw w Eb
Bb

C- C H

w G bEb w w A

F7 F7
W W H H

B b Bb
F D A

IV.

One-Handed Jazz Voicings for Half Diminished and Dominant 7 Altered Chords A. Category A (3rd in the lowest voice) Chord Quality C C7alt Voicing b3 b5 b7 R 3 #5 b7 b9 Voicing in C Mnemonic m7b5 chord in rst inversion (b3 on bottom, root on top)

w C Eb & Gb b bw wBb bw & #w w

w E G# b bBb w Db

think category A dominant 7 voicing, lower 9th (and add #5 which is a whole step below the b7)

B. Category B (7th in the lowest voice) Chord Quality C C7alt Voicing b7 R b3 b5 b7 b9 3 #5 Voicing in C Bb & bC b Eb w w Gb Mnemonic m7b5 chord in third inversion (b7 on bottom, point to root) think category B dominant 7 voicing, lower 6th (and add b9 which is a half step above the root) Common RH Chord Fingering: 1 2 3 5

Bb & Db # wE w G#

w bb w

b ww

Common LH Chord Fingering: 5 3 2 1

note: for Category B half diminished chord, use 5 4 2 1

V.

II V I Progression in Minor A. Chord Qualities 1. II chord is half diminished (II) 2. V chord is dominant 7 altered (V7alt) 3. I chord is minor (I-) Example in the key of C minor: D G7alt CGood voice-leading: 3rd to 7th and 7th to 3rd 1. from the II, nd the whole step interval in your voicing and spread out, i.e., the higher note moves up a half step and the lower note moves down a half step (the other two notes remain the same), then youre automatically on the V7 alt chord 2. from the V7alt, the b7 moves down a whole step; all other voices move down a half step

B. C.

Example 1: Category A to B to A II R b7 b5 b3
H H

KEY OF C MINOR I-

V7alt b5 3 b9 b7
H H H W

9 b7 5 b3

w w w & bD w
D D
C Ab F

H H

H H

w b#w w w D#
B Ab F

G7 alt G7alt

H H HH WH

H W

bw w D bw w Bb
CCG Eb

KEY OF G MINOR II R b7 b5 b3
H H

V7alt b5 3 b9 b7
H H H W

I9 b7 5 b3

w & bA w w w G
Eb C

A A

HH H

w # b #A# w ww
F# Eb C

7alt D D7alt
H H H H H W

H W

w w A bw w F

GGD Bb

Example 2: Category B to A to B II b5 b3 R b7 V7alt b9 b7 #5 3


H W H H

KEY OF C MINOR I5 b3 9 b7

H H

w & b Ab w ww F
D C

D D

H H

H H

b wAb #w w wF
D# B

G7 alt G7alt
H WH HW H

H H

w G w bbw w Eb
D Bb

CC-

II b5 b3 R b7

V7alt b9 b7 #5 3
H W H H

I5 b3 9 b7

H H

w & Eb ww
A A
C A G

b w

KEY OF G MINOR

H H

H H

bw w # #Eb w w
C A# F#

7alt D D7alt

H W H H H

W H H

bw w w D w
GG-

Bb A F

Common Two-Handed Piano Voicings


(two notes in the LH, three notes in the RH)**
Symbol C Symbol C Scale Name Major Scale Name Major Scale Two-Hand Voicings* Mnemonic

10

Common Two-Handed Piano C D E(F)G A BC A 3 6 9 5 R (E A D GVoicings C) (two notes in the LH, three notes in the RH)** R &avoid tone:4th(F)
avoid tone: 4th (F) Scale

( )

C D E(F)G A B C Common avoid tone: 4th (F) Scale C D E(F)G A Bb C C D E(F)G B(F) C avoid tone: A 4th Common avoid tone: 4th (F)

B 7 3 6 9 5 (B E A D Voicings G) Two-Handed Piano

w &5w 9 w Two-Hand Voicings* A 3 6 9w 5 7 (E A D G B) ?6 3 w A 3 6 9 5 R (E A D G C)


A

RH pinky on the root, come down in 4ths in both hands Mnemonic same as above - just lower top note step 5 RH pinky on the root, come down in 4ths RH pinky on the 5th, come down in 4ths in in both both hands hands

(two notes in the LH, A three notes in the RH)**


A 3 6 79 5 7Voicings* (E A D G B) Two-Hand 5 9 9 5 R (E Bb D G C) A 3 b7 B A 7 33 6 6 99 55 R (B (E E AA DD G G) C)

same as above - just lower top note step Mnemonic RH pinky on the root, come down in 4ths5 RH pinky on the 5th, come down in 4ths RH pinky on the in RH; 3& b7 in root, LH come down in 4ths in both hands 3 in both hands b7 3 695 (Bb Ein Athe D G) RH pinky on the 5th, come down in 4ths (two notes in theB LH, three notes RH)** in RH; b7 & 3 in LHlower top note step A 3B 6 9 5 7 (E A D G B) same as above - just 7 C Mixolydian C D E(F)G A Bb C A 3 b7 9 5 Voicings* R (E Bb D G C) RH pinky on the root, come down in 4ths5 Symbol Scale Name Scale Two-Hand Mnemonic 5 5th mode of maj avoid tone: 4th (F) in RH; 3& b7 in 5th, LH come down in 4ths B 739 6 9 5 (B E A D Voicings G) RH pinky on the Common Two-Handed Piano 6 CDorian Eb F GA AB Bb b3 9R 5 (E R (Eb Bb D G C) C Major C D E(F)G CC A 3 6b7 95 A D G C) RH pinky on the root, come down in 4ths in both hands (two LH, three notes RH)** b7 3 695 (Bb Ein Athe D G) RH pinky on the 5th, come down in 4ths 2nd mode of maj avoid tone: 4th (F)notes in theB 3 RH ; hands b3 & b7 in LH in both 7 in RH; b7 & 3 in LH Symbol Scale Name Scale Two-Hand Voicings* Mnemonic 7 B b7 b3 5 R 4 (Bb Eb G C F) point R in and go up anote 4thin and A 36 55 7R (E ABb DG same as to above -RH just lower top 4ths step C Mixolydian C D E(F)G A Bb C b799 (E D B) G C) RH pinky on the root, come down down a 4th; b7 & b3 in LH 5th mode of maj avoid tone: 4th (F) in RH; 3& b7 in root, LH come down in 4ths C Major C D E(F)G CC A 3 6b7 95 A D G C) RH pinky on the CDorian Eb F GA AB Bb b3 9R 5 (E R (Eb Bb D G C) B 7 3 6 9 5 (B E A D G) RH pinky on the 5th, come down in 4ths 5 avoid tone: 4th (F) 2nd mode of maj both; hands hands in RH b3on & the b7 in LH in both B b7 3 6 9 5 (Bb E A D G) RH pinky 5th, come down in 4ths in RH; b7 & 3 in LH C Locrian C(Db)Eb F Gb Ab Bb C R b5 b7 b3 b6 (C Gb Bb Eb Ab) think A voicing of dominant 7 chord up a Common Two-Handed Piano Voicings A 6A 95 A D G B) same as to above just lower topanote step B 3 b7 b3 57 R(E 4 (Bb Eb G C F) point R in RH and go up 4th and 7th mode of maj avoid tone: b9th (Db) raised 5th (C = Ab7) (two notes in the LH, three notes in the RH)** down a 4th; b7 & b3 in LH 7 C Mixolydian E(F)G A Bb A 3 b7 9 5 R (E Bb D G C) RH pinky on the root, come down in 4ths b R C &C D B 7 3b7 69 5 (B E A D G) RH pinky on the 5th, come in ( ) CDorian C D Eb FG A Bb A 5 R (Eb DG C) RH pinky on the root, comedown down in4ths 4ths 5th mode of maj avoid tone: 4th (F)C in RH; & b7 in LH b5 b3 R 45 b79b3 (Gb CBb F Bb Eb) think B3 voicing of dominant 7 chord up a5 Symbol Scale Name Scale Two-Hand Voicings* Mnemonic 9 in both hands avoid tone: 4th (F) 2nd mode of maj raised 5th (C = Ab7) in RH ; b3 & b7 in LH Common Voicings b7b3 b6Piano C Locrian C(Db)Eb F Gb Ab Bb C Two-Handed R b7 (C Gb Bb Eb think A voicing of dominant 7 chord4ths up a B b5 b7 (Bb G)Ab) C Major C D E(F)G A B C A 3 63 96 59 R5(E AE DA GD C) RH pinky onthe 5th, root,come comedown downin in 4ths 3 (two notes in the LH, three notes in the RH)** 7th mode of maj avoid tone: b9th (Db) raised 5th (C = Ab7) in RH; b7 & 3 in LH B b7 b3 5 R 4 (Bb Eb G C F) point to R in RH and go up a 4th and avoid tone: 4th (F) in both hands C7 Mixolydian C D E(F)G A Bb C A 3 b7 9 5 R (E Bb D G C) RH pinky on the root, come down in 4ths down a 4th; b7 & b3 in on LHthe bottom; o C Diminished C D Eb F Gb Ab A B C a tritone in each hand with a start on any chord tone 5th mode of maj avoid tone: 4th (F) in RH; & b7 in LH Symbol Scale Name Scale Two-Hand Voicings* Mnemonic b5 R B 4 b7 b3 (Gb C F Bb Eb) think B3 voicing of dominant 7 chord up a A 3 6 3rd 9 5between 7 (E A D G B) same above - just it, lower note step above (whole-half) minor hands play aas tritone thentop skip a minor raised 5th (C the = Ab7) CDorian C D Eb F G A Bb C A b3 b7 RH pinky on root, come down in 4ths 5 9 5 R (Eb Bb D G C) (e.g., C Gb A Eb) 3rd between hands; then play a tritone in 9 B b7 3 6 9 5 (Bb E A D G) 5th, come down in 4ths C Major C D E(F)G A B C A 3 6 9 5 R (E A D G C) RH pinky on the root, come down in 4ths 2nd mode of maj 6 in RH ;b7 b3 &3 b7 in LH C Locrian C(Db)Eb F Gb Ab Bb C R b5 b7 b3 b6 (C Gb Bb Eb Ab) think A voicing of dominant 7 chord up a B 7 3 6 9 5 (B E A D G) RH pinky on the 5th, come down in 4ths the RH in RH; & in LH avoid tone: 4th (F) in both hands in both5th hands 7th mode of maj avoid tone: b9th (Db) raised (C = Ab7) 3 B b7 b3 5 each R 4 (Bb Eb GC point R chord in RHtone and on go the up a 4th and b7 in Co Diminished C D Eb F Gb Ab A B C a tritone hand with a F) start on to any bottom; A 3 6 3rd 9 5between 7 (E A D G B) same as above -& just lower top note step down a 4th; b7 b3 in LH (whole-half) minor hands play a tritone above it, then skip a minor b5 R 4 b7 (Gb CBb F G) Bb Eb) think B dominant 7 chord up a CDorian CD Eb FG GA ABb BbC C A b7 9b3 5R (Eb DG C) RH pinky on theof root, come down in a 4ths C7sus4 Mixolydian D(E)F b7 b3 4 6 9 5 (Bb F A D think A voicing voicing of minor 7 chord up 5th (e.g., C Gb A Eb) 3rd between hands; then play a tritone in 7 raised 5th (C = Ab7) 2nd modeof ofmaj maj C Mixolydian C D E(F)G Bb C A 3 b7 9 5 R (E Bb D G C) RH pinky on the root, come down in 4ths 5th mode avoid tone: A 3rd (E) sus4 in RH ; b3 & the b7 in LH B 7 3 6 9 5 (B E A D G) RH pinky 5th, come down in 4ths (C7 = on G-) the RH 5th mode of maj avoid tone: 4th (F) in both RH; 3 & b7 in LH in hands C Locrian C(Db)Eb F Gb Ab Bb C R b5 b7 b3 b6 (C Gb Bb Eb Ab) think A voicing of dominant 7 chord up a B b79 b3 5 (F R4 (Bb G C F) point R in and go a 4th and 4 b7 5R Bb DEb G C) think B to voicing of minor 7 up chord up a 5th RH 7th mode of maj avoid tone: b9th (Db) raised 5th (C =& Ab7) o B b7 3 6 9 5 (Bb E A D G) RH pinky on the 5th, come down in 4ths down a 4th; b7 b3 in LHthe C7sus4 Diminished C D Eb F Gb Ab A B C a tritone in each hand with a start on any chord tone on bottom; sus4 (C7 = G-) C7 Mixolydian C D(E)F G A Bb C b7 4 63rd 9 5between (Bb F A D G) think voicing of minor 7 chord a 5th in RH; b7 & 3above in LH (whole-half) minor hands play aA tritone it, come then skip aup minor C Mixolydian C D E(F)G Bb C A 3 b7 95 R (Gb (E Bb DBb G C) RH pinky on theof root, down in up 4ths 5th mode of maj avoid tone: A 3rd (E) sus4 b5 R 4 b7 b3 C F Eb) think B voicing dominant 7 chord (C7 = G-) (e.g., C A Gb A Eb) 3rd between hands; then play a tritone ina 5th mode of maj avoid tone: 4th (F) in RH; 3 & b7 in LH raised 5th (C = Ab7) the RH C Locrian C(Db)Eb F F# GbG Ab Bb R b5 b7 b3 b6 (C Gb Bb Eb Ab) think A any voicing of tone dominant 7 chord up a C7b9 Diminished C Eb A Bb C any diminished voicing start on chord but the rootin (i.e., b C C CDorian C Db D Eb FE G A Bb A b3 b7 9 (F 5R (Eb Bb D from G C) RH pinky on root, come down 4ths R & the 4 b7 9 5 R Bb D G C) think B voicing of minor 7 chord up a 5th b B b7 3 6 9 5 (Bb E A D G) RH pinky on the 5th, come down in 4ths 7th mode of maj avoid tone: b9th (Db) raised 5th (C = Ab7) (half-whole) any chord tone but the root 3, 5, b7, or b9); play a tritone above it, 5 2nd mode of maj sus4 9 in RH ; b3 & b7 in LH (C7 =a& G-) in RH; b7 3 in LH e.g., 3 b7 b9 5 (E Bb Db G) then skip minor 3rd between hands; then 7sus4 Co Diminished CD Eb FG Gb a tritone in each with a start any chord tone Mixolydian D(E)F A Ab Bb A CBC b7 4 6 9 5 b3 (Bb Fhand A G) A minor chord up a 5th b5 R 4b7 b7 (Gb CD F Bb Eb) think voicing dominant 7 bottom; chord up a play on aB tritone in of the RHon7the B b7 b3 R 4 (Bbhands Eb G C F) point to R in RH and go up a 4th and above (whole-half) minor 3rd between play a tritone it, then skip a minor b3 5 5th mode of maj avoid tone: 3rd (E) sus4 raised 5th (C = Ab7) (C7 = G-) down a 4th; b7 &root, b3 in LH (e.g., C Gb AR Eb) 3rd hands; then play aroot tritone in C7b9 Diminished Db Eb AC Bb C any diminished voicing startbetween on any chord tone but the (i.e., CDorian CD Eb FE GF# AG Bb A b3 b7 95 (Eb Bb D from G C) RH pinky on the come down in 4ths the RH (half-whole) any chord tone but the root 3, 5, b7, or b9); play a tritone above 2nd mode of maj 4 95 R #5 (F b9 Bb(E DBb G C) B voicing up it, a 5th in RHA ; b3 & b7of in minor LH 7 chord C7alt Super Locrian C Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bb C A b7 3 b7 #9 D# G# Db) think dominant 7 chord and B b9 5 (E Bb Db G) e.g., 3 b7 then skip a minor 3rd between hands; then o sus4 7th mode of mel min C D Eb F Gb Ab A B C RH step C Diminished a tritone in each hand with a start on any chord tone the bottom; (C7 =up G-) play aA tritone inRH the RHon C Locrian C(Db)Eb F Gb Ab Bb C R b5 b7 think voicing of dominant up a 4 b3 b6 (C Gb Bb Eb Ab) B b7 b3 5 R 4 (Bbhands Eb G C F) point to R in and go up7achord 4th and R (whole-half) minor 3rd between play a tritone above it, then skip a minor 7sus4 7th mode of maj avoid tone: b9th (Db) raised 5th (C = Ab7) C Mixolydian C D(E)F G A Bb C b7 4 6 5 (Bb F A D G) think A voicing of minor 7 chord up a 59 down a 4th; b7 & b3 in LH B b7 3 #5 b9 b5 (Bb E G# Db Gb) think B voicing of dominant 7 chord and (e.g., C Gb A Eb) 3rd between hands; then play a tritone 5th in 5th mode of maj avoid tone: 3rd (E) sus4 RH tone step but the root (i.e., (C7 = down G-) b3 the RH C7b9 Diminished C Db Eb E F# G A Bb C any diminished voicing from start on any chord 7alt b5 R 4b7 b7 b3 C Bb F Bb think B of dominant 7 chord up a C Super Locrian C Db Gb Ab Bb C , C7+9 A b7 #9tone #5 (Gb b9 (E D# Eb) G# Db) A voicing and Note: In the Jamey Aebersold books andEb in Fb =3 C7alt (half-whole) any chord but the root 3, 5, b7, or b9); play a tritone above it, raised 5th (C = Ab7) 7th mode of mel min RH up step 4 b7 9 5 R (F Bb D G C) think B voicing of minor 7 chord up a 5th C Locrian C(Db)Eb F Gb Ab Bb C R b53 b7 b3 b6 Eb A a minor 3rd dominant 7 hands; chord up a e.g., b7 b9 5(C (E Gb Bb Bb Db G)Ab) then skip between then sus4 play aA tritone the RH 7 chord up a 5th (C7 = (C G-)in 7th mode of maj avoid tone: b9th raised 5th = of Ab7) C7sus4 Mixolydian C D(E)F GA Bb(Db) C b7 4 6 9 5 (Bb F A D G) think voicing minor BB b7 3 #5 b9 b5 (Bb G# think B voicing of dominant 7 chord and * Category A chords have the 3rd in the lowest voice; Category chords have the E 7th inDb theGb) lowest voice. 5th mode of maj avoid tone: 3rd (E) sus4 (C7 = down G-) RH tone step o All voicings ** have five notes with exception ofA the diminished and dominant 7b9 voicings which have four (two notes each C Diminished C the D Eb F Gb Ab BC a tritone in each hand with a start on any chord onhand) the b5 R 4 b7 b3 (Gb C F Bb Eb) think B voicing ofin dominant 7 bottom; chord up a Note: In the Jamey Aebersold books and in , C7+9 = C7alt 7alt (whole-half) minor 3rd between hands play a tritone above it, then skip a minor C7b9 Diminished C Db Eb E F# G A Bb C any diminished voicing from start on any chord tone but the root raised 5th (C = of Ab7) C Super Locrian Fb Gb Ab Bb C A b7 3 b7 #9 D# G# Db) think B A voicing of dominant 7 chord and 4 95 R #5 (F b9 Bb(E DBb G C) think voicing minor 7 chord up(i.e., a 5th (e.g., C Gbtone A Eb) 3rd between hands; then play a tritone (half-whole) any chord but the root 3, 5, b7, or b9); play a tritone above it, in 7th mode of mel min RH up step sus4 (C7RH the e.g., 3 b7 b9 5 (E Bb Db G) then skip=aG-) minor 3rd between hands; then * Category A chords have the 3rd in the lowest voice; Category B chords have the 7th in the lowest voice. play aB tritone in of the RH o B b7 3 #5 b9 b5 (Bb E G# Db Gb) think voicing dominant 7 bottom; chord and ** All voicings have five notes with exception ofA the diminished and dominant voicings four (two in each C Diminished C the D Eb F Gb Ab BC a tritone in each 7b9 hand with a which have start on any notes chord tone onhand) the RH down step Symbol C7 C Scale Name Mixolydian Major 5th mode of maj

w & w w ?6w w Piano Voicings Two-Handed w w & w w ? w

w w w b ? w w & &

w w w w ? bw

w w w b ? bw w & &

w w w bw ? bw

RH pinky on the root, come down in 4ths5 Mnemonic point to on R in RH and go up a 4thin and RH pinky the root, come down 4ths in both hands RH pinky on the come in 4ths down a3 4th; b7 &5th, b3 in LH down in RH; & b7 in LH CRH pinky on the root, come down in 4ths C RH pinky on the RH; b7 &3 in root, LH come down in 4ths in both hands 5 in ; hands b3 & b7 in LH same as above - just lower top note step in RH both RH pinky on the 5th, come down 11 in 4ths in RH; & 3 in LH C Locrian think Ab7 voicing of dominant 7achord up a point R in and go up 4th and Symbol Scale Name Mnemonic 5th, come down in 4ths CDorian RH pinky on root, come down in 4ths same as to above -RH just lower top note step the C7 Mixolydian RH pinky on the root, come down in 4ths 7th mode of maj raised 5th (C = Ab7) down a hands 4th; b7 & b3 in LH in both 2nd mode of maj RH ;3 b3 b7 LH 5th mode of maj in RH; && b7 inin LH C Major RH pinky on the 5th, root,come comedown downin in4ths 4ths RH pinky on CDorian RH pinky on the theof root, come down in up 4ths Symbol Scale Name Mnemonic think B voicing dominant 7 chord a in both hands point to R in RH and go up a 4th the RH pinky on 5th, come down inand 4ths 2nd mode of maj in RH ; b3 & b7 in LH raised 5th (C = Ab7) C7 Locrian think A voicing of dominant 7 chord a Mixolydian RH pinky on the root, come in up 4ths down ab7 4th; & b3 in LH down in RH; &b7 3 in LH C Major RH pinky on the root, come down in 4ths same as - Ab7) just 7th raised 5th (C 5th mode of maj in RH; 3above & b7 = in LHlower top note step point to R in RH and go up a 4th and in both hands C7 Mixolydian RH pinky on the come down a 4th; b7 &root, b3 in LH down in 4ths o 5th, come down in C Diminished start on any chord tone on the think B voicing of dominant 7 chord up CDorian RH pinky on the root, come down in4ths 4ths 5th mode of maj in RH; 3 & b7 in LH C Locrian think A voicing of dominant 7bottom; chord up a a - just lower top note step same as above in both hands (whole-half) play a tritone above it, then skip a minor RH; b7 & 3 in LH raised 5th (C = Ab7) 2nd mode of maj in RH 5th ; b3(C & b7 in LH 7th mode of maj raised = Ab7) 3rd then play a tritone in RH between pinky onhands; the 5th, come down in 4ths C Locrian think A voicing of dominant 7 chord up a RH pinky on the 5th, come down in 4ths the RH in RH; b7 & 3 in LH point to R in and go up7achord 4th and RH think B voicing dominant up a in both hands 7th mode of maj raised 5th (C = of Ab7) 7 CDorian RH pinky on root, come down in the C Mixolydian RH on the root, come down in 4ths 4ths down a 4th; b7 b3 in LHthe Co Diminished startpinky on any chord tone on bottom; raised 5th (C =& Ab7) 2nd modeof ofmaj maj 5th mode in RH; && b7 inin LH RH ;3 b3 b7 LH (whole-half) play a tritone above it, then skip a minor think B dominant 7 chord up a 7sus4 CDorian RH pinky on theof root, come down in a 4ths C Mixolydian think A voicing voicing of minor 7 chord up 5th 3rd between hands; then play a tritone in raised 5th (C = Ab7) C7 Mixolydian RH pinky on the root, come down in 4ths 2ndmode modeof ofmaj maj RH pinky the 5th, come down inand 4ths 5th sus4 point to R RH and go up 4th in RH ; b3 &in b7 in LH the RH (C7 = on G-) C Locrian think A voicing of dominant 7achord up a Co Diminished start on any chord tone 5th mode of maj in RH; 3b7 && b7 LH in RH; 3in in LH down a 4th; b7 & b3 in on LHthe bottom; 7th mode of maj raised (C above = Ab7) (whole-half) play a 5th tritone it, then skip a minor point R in RH and go a 4th and think B to voicing of minor 7 up chord up a 5th 3rd between hands; then play a tritone in o RH pinky on chord the 5th, come down in 4ths C Diminished start on any tone the bottom; down a 4th; b7 & b3 in on LH sus4 C7sus4 Mixolydian A minor 7 chord up a 5th (C7 = G-) think B voicing of dominant 7 chord up a the RH in RH; b7 & 3 in LH CDorian RH pinky on the root, come down in 4ths (whole-half) play aA tritone it, then skip a minor above C Locrian think voicing of dominant 7 chord up a 5th mode of maj sus4 raised 5th (C = Ab7) (C7 = G-) 2nd mode of maj 3rd between hands; then play a tritone in in RH ; b3(C & b7 in LH 7th mode of maj raised 5th = Ab7) the RH C7sus4 Locrian C(Db)Eb F F# GbG Ab Bb C R b5 b7 b6 (C Gb Bb Eb Ab) think A voicing of tone dominant 7 chord up a C7b9 Diminished C Db E any voicing from start on but root CDorian C EbEb FG A C A b3 b7 9 R Bb (Eb Bb D G C) RH pinky on chord the root, come down in (i.e., 4ths 4 b7 99 5b3 R5 (F D G C) B any voicing of minor 7 the chord up a 5th C Mixolydian CD D(E)F G A Bb Bb A C Bb C b7 4diminished 6 5 (Bb F A D G) think A RH B b7 b3 R4 (Bb Eb GC F) point to R in and go up7above achord 4th and b5 R 4 b75 b3 (Gb C Froot Bb Eb) think B voicing of dominant up a (half-whole) any chord tone but the 3, 5, b7, or b9); play a tritone it, 7th mode of maj avoid tone: b9th (Db) raised 5th (C = Ab7) o 2nd mode of maj sus4 5th mode of maj avoid tone: 3rd (E) sus4 in RH ;ab3 b7 in b3 LH C Diminished C D Eb F Gb Ab ABC a tritone in each hand with a start on any chord tone on & (C7 =& G-) down 4th; b7 LHthe bottom; (C7 = G-) raised 5th = Ab7) e.g., 3 b7 5 (E Bb Db G) then skip a(C minor 3rdin between hands; then 5 b9 (whole-half) minor 3rd between hands play aA tritone above it, then skip aup minor b C7sus4 Mixolydian C D(E)F G A Bb C b7 4 6 9 5 (Bb F A D G) think voicing of minor 7 chord a 5th 9 b3 (Gb C F Bb Eb) play a tritone in the RH & () b5 R 4 b7 think B voicing of dominant 7 chord up a B b7 b3 5 R 4 (Bb Eb G C F) point to R in RH and go up a 4th and (e.g., C Gb A Eb) 3rd between hands; then play a tritone in 6 of minor 7 chord up 4 b7 9 5 R (F Bb D G C) think B voicing a 5th 5th mode of maj avoid tone: 3rd (E) sus4 raised (C7 5th = (C G-) = Ab7) down a 4th; b7 & b3 in LH avoid tone: 3rd (E) the RH C7b9 Diminished C Db Eb E F# G A Bb Bb C C any diminished voicing from start on chord but the root (i.e., sus4 C Locrian C(Db)Eb Gb Ab R b5 b74b3 b6 (C Gb Bb Eb Ab) think A any voicing of tone dominant 7bottom; chord up a (C7 = G-) Co Diminished C D Eb F F Gb Ab ABC a tritone intone each hand start chord tone on the (half-whole) any chord but thewith root a 3, 5, on b7,any or b9); a tritone above it, play b7 7alt 7th mode of maj avoid tone: (Db) raised 5th (C above = of Ab7) 4 b7 93rd 5 R (F b9 Bb(E D G C) think B voicing minor 7 chord up a 5th C Super Locrian C Db Eb Fbb9th Gb Ab Bb C A 3 b7 #9 #5 Bb D# G# Db) A dominant 7 chord (whole-half) minor between hands play a tritone it, then skip a minor e.g., 3 b7 b9 5 (E Bb Db G) then skip a minor 3rd between hands;and then sus4 o 7th mode of mel min RH up step (e.g., C Gb A Eb) 3rd between hands; then play a tritone in (C7 = G-) 7sus4 play aA tritone inof the RHon7the C Diminished C D(E)F D Eb FG Gb A BC C a b5 tritone in each with a start A on any chord tone bottom; C Locrian C(Db)Eb Ab Bb R b7 b3 (C Gb Bb Eb Ab) think voicing dominant 77chord up aa C Mixolydian C A Ab Bb C b7 4 6 9 5b6 (Bb Fhand A D think voicing of minor chord up a 5th C7b9 Diminished C Db EbF EGb F# GA Bb C any diminished voicing from start on any chord tone but the root (i.e., b5 R 4 b7 b3 (Gb C F G) Bb Eb) think B voicing of dominant chord up the RH above (whole-half) minor 3rd between hands play a tritone it, then skip a minor 5th modeof ofmaj maj avoidtone: tone:b9th 3rd (E) sus4 7th mode avoid (Db) raised 5th (C = Ab7) (half-whole) any chord tone but the root 3, 5, b7, or b9); play a tritone above it, (C7 = G-) raised 5th (Chands; = of Ab7) B b7 C 3 #5 (Bb E G# Db Gb) think B voicing dominant and (e.g., Gbb9 A b5 Eb) 3rd between then play7achord tritone in e.g., 3 b7 b9 5 (E voicing Bb Db G) then skip adown minor between hands; then RH 3rd step C7b9 Diminished C Db Eb E F# G A Bb C any diminished from start on any chord tone but the root (i.e., 7alt the RH C Super Locrian C Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bb C A 3 b7 #9 #5 b9 (E Bb D# G# Db) think A voicing of dominant 7 chord and b5 R 4 b7 b3 (Gb C F Bb Eb) think B voicing of dominant 7 chord up a play a tritone in the RH R R (F Bb D G C) 4 b7 95 think B voicing of minor 7 chord up it, a 5th Note: In the Jamey Aebersold books and in G , C7+9 = C7alt (half-whole) any chord the 3, 5, b7, or b9); play a tritone above 5 5tone C7sus4 Mixolydian C D(E)F A Bb C b7 4 69 (Bb but F A D root G) think A voicing of minor 7 chord up a 5th 7th mode of mel min RH up step raised 5th (C = Ab7) sus4 9 b9 5 (E Bb Db G) (C7 =aG-) e.g., 3 b7 then skip minor between hands; then Co Diminished C D Eb F Gb Ab ABC a tritone in each hand with a start on any chord 3rd tone on the bottom; 5th mode of maj avoid tone: 3rd (E) (C7sus4 = G-) play a tritone in the RH 7sus4 (whole-half) minor 3rd between hands play a tritone above it, then skip aup minor b7 B 39 #5 b5 EG) G# Db Gb) think B 7 chord and C7alt Mixolydian C D(E)F G A Bb C b7 b7 4 6 5 b9 (Bb F (Bb AD A voicing of dominant minor 7 chord a 5th 4 C Locrian C Db Eblowest Fb Gbvoice; Ab BbC A 3 #9 #5 b9 (E Bb D# think A voicing of dominant 7achord and * Category Super A chords have the 3rd in the Category B b7 chords have the 7th in G# the Db) lowest voice. (e.g., C Gb A Eb) 3rd between hands; then play tritone in RH down step 5th mode of maj avoid tone: 3rd (E) sus4 4 b7 9 5 R (F Bb D G C) think B voicing of minor 7 chord up a 5th o (C7 = G-) 7th mode of notes mel min RH up step ** All voicings have five with the exception of diminished and dominant 7b9 voicings which have four (two notes in each hand) C7b9 Diminished CD Db Eb E F# G Athe Bb C diminished voicing from start on any chord tone but the root (i.e., C Diminished C Eb F Gb Ab A B C aany tritone in each hand with a start on any chord tone on the bottom; the RH Note: In the Jamey Aebersold books and in , C7+9 = C7alt sus4 (C7 = G-) (half-whole) any tone but the 3, 5,ab7, or b9); play tritone it, (whole-half) minor 3rd between hands play tritone above it,athen skip a minor C7alt Super Locrian C Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bb C A 3chord b7 #9 #5 b9 (E Bbroot D# G# Db) think A voicing of dominant 7above chord and 4 b7 9 5 R (F5 Bb DG C) think B voicing of3rd minor 7 chord up a 5th B b7 3 #5 b9 b5 (Bb E G# Db Gb) dominant 7 chord and (e.g., C Gb A Eb) 3rd between hands; then play a tritone in e.g., 3 b7 b9 (E Bb Db G) then skip a minor between hands; then 7th mode of mel min RH up step sus4 RH down step play a tritone the RH (C7 = G-)in the RH 7sus4 * Category Mixolydian A chords have the 3rd the lowest voice; C Category B chords have 7th the lowest voice. C D(E)F G A Bb CBb b7 4 6 9 5 (Bb F the AD G)in think A any voicing of tone minor 7 the chord up a 5th , C7+9 b C7b9 Diminished C in Db E F# G A any diminished voicing from start on chord but root (i.e., Note: In the Jamey Aebersold books andEb in = b7 C7alt &C # b n B 3 #5 b9 b5 (Bb E G# Db Gb) think B voicing ofin dominant 7 chord and b ** All voicings have five notes with the exception of the diminished and dominant 7b9 voicings which have four (two notes each hand) 5th mode of maj avoid tone: 3rd (E) sus4 5 tone but the root (C7 = G-) (half-whole) any chord 3, 5, b7, or b9); play a tritone above it, b9 RH down step e.g., 3 b7 b9 Bb Db G) then skip a minor 3rd between then 7alt In theMixolydian 7sus4 C7b9 Diminished C Db E F# GAb A Bb any diminished voicing from start on any chord tone but the root C Super Locrian CD(E)F Db Eb Fb Gb Bb C C , C7+9 A= b7 #9 #55 b9 (E Bb D# G# Db) thinkA Avoicing voicing ofminor dominant 7 hands; chord C C G A Bb C b7 43 6 9 5 (Bb F(E A D G) think of 7 chord up (i.e., a and 5th Note: Jamey Aebersold books andEb in C7alt b7 4 b7 9 5 R (F Bb D G C) think B voicing of minor 7 chord up it, a 5th play a tritone in the RH * Category5th A chords have the 3rd in the lowest voice; Category B chords have the 7th in the lowest voice. (half-whole) any chord tone but the root 3, 5, b7, or b9); play a tritone above sus4 7thmode modeof ofmaj mel minavoid tone: 3rd (E) RH step 3 (C7 = up G-) sus4 ** All voicings have five notes with the exception of the diminished and 7b9 voicings four (two notes in each hand)hands; then e.g., 3 dominant b7 b9 5 (E Bb Db G) which have then skip minor 3rd between (C7 =aG-) play a tritone in the RH b7 3 b9 b5 (Bb G# thinkB Bvoicing voicingof ofminor dominant 7 chord * Category A chords have the 3rd in the lowest voice; Category B 9chords have the 7th inDb theGb) lowest voice. 4B b7 5 #5 R (F Bb D GE C) think 7 chord up a and 5th 7alt C Super Locrian C the Db exception Eb Fb Gb of Ab Bb C A and 3 b7 #9 #5 b97b9 (E Bb D# G#which Db) have think A voicing of dominant 7 chord and RH down step ** All voicings have five notes with the diminished dominant voicings four (two notes in each hand) sus4 (C7 = G-) A C7b9 In the Jamey Diminished C Db F# G A Bb C , C7+9 any diminished voicing from start any tone but the root (i.e., 7th mode of mel min on RH up chord step Note: Aebersold books andEb in E = C7alt (half-whole) any but 3, 5, b7, or b9); play a tritone7above C7alt Super Locrian C Eb Fb Gb bAb Bb C A 3chord b7 b9 #9tone #5 b9 (Ethe Bbroot D# G# Db) think A voicing of dominant chordit, and b b &Db e.g., 33 b7 (E Bb E Db G) then a minor between hands;and then b b b B b7 #5 b95 b5 (Bb G# Db Gb) thinkskip B voicing of3rd dominant 7 chord #5 b9 7th mode of mel min RH up step #9 C7b9 C Db Eb E F# G voice; A Bb C anyB diminished start on anydown chord tone but the root (i.e., play a RH tritone in the RH step * CategoryDiminished A chords have the 3rd in the lowest Category chords havevoicing the 7th from in the lowest voice. any chord tone but the root 3, 5, b7,(two or b9); play a tritone above it, Note: the(half-whole) Jamey Aebersold and in of , C7+9 C7alt b7 b9 b57b9 ** All In voicings have five notesbooks with the exception the diminished and dominant four notes each hand) B= b7 3 #5 (Bbvoicings E G# Dbwhich Gb) have think B voicing ofin dominant 7 chord and e.g., 3 b73 b9 5 (E Bb Db G) then skip a minor 3rd between hands; then RH down step play a tritone in the RH 7alt In the Jamey Note: Aebersold books andEb in Fb C7alt C Super Locrian C Db Gb Ab Bb C , C7+9 A= 3 b7 #9 #5 b9 (E Bb D# G# Db) think A voicing of dominant 7 chord and * Category 7th A chords have 3rd in the lowest voice; Category BB chords have the 7th in the lowest voice. mode of melthe min RH up step b5 ** All voicings have five notes with the exception of the diminished and dominant 7b9 voicings which have four (two notes in each hand) b9 7alt C Locrian C Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bb C A b7 #5 have b9 Bb D# G# Db) think * CategorySuper A chords have the 3rd in the lowest voice; Category B chords the 7th in the lowest voice. B3 b7 3#9 #5 b5(E (Bb E G# Db Gb) thinkA Bvoicing voicingof ofdominant dominant77chord chordand and #5 b9 7th have modefive of mel min RH up step ** All voicings notes with the exception of the diminished and dominant 7b9 voicings which have four (two notes in each hand) RH down step 3 Note: In the Jamey Aebersold books and in , C7+9 = C7alt b7 B b7 3 #5 b9 b5 (Bb E G# Db Gb) think B voicing of dominant 7 chord and RH down step Note: In the Jamey Aebersold books in , C7+9 = B C7alt * Category A chords have the 3rdand in the lowest voice; Category chords have the 7th in the lowest voice. ** All voicings have five notes with the exception of the diminished and dominant 7b9 voicings which have four (two notes in each hand) C Symbol C7

MajorName Scale Mixolydian 5th mode of maj Dorian Major 2nd mode of maj

C D E(F)G A B C A 36 95R (E A D G C) Scale Two-Hand Voicings* B 3 b7 b395 (Bb C F) C D E(F)G Bb C A b7 5R R4 (E BbEb D G C) avoid tone: A 4th (F) b7 3 6 9 5 (Bb A G) D G) B 7 3 6 9 5 (B EE AD avoid tone: 4th (F) C D Eb F G A Bb C A b3 b7 9 5 R (Eb Bb D Common Two-Handed Piano C D E(F)G A BC A 3 6 9 5 R (E A D GVoicings C)G C) avoid tone: 4th (F)notes in theA (two LH, notes in 3 6 three 9 5 7 (E A D Gthe B) RH)** B b7 3 6 9 5 (Bb E A D G) Piano Voicings F Common Gb Ab Bb C Two-Handed R b5 b7 b3 b6 (C Gb Bb Eb b B b7 b3 55 R 4 (Bb Eb G C Ab) F) Scale Two-Hand Voicings* &C(Db)Eb 7 6 9 (B EBb A D C Eb F G AbBb Bb C b A 9 5 R (Eb Bb D G C) 33 6b7 9 5 7 (E A D G B) b b6 C D E(F)G A C A b3 3 b7 9 5 R (E D G) G C) (b )tone: D (two notes in the LH, three avoid b9th (Db) b3 notes in the RH)** avoid tone: b9th (Db) avoid tone: 4th (F) b7 C D E(F)G A B C A 3 6 9 R (E E AA DD G G) C) B 7 3b7 65 9 5 C D Eb F G A Bb C A b3 9Voicings* 5(B R (Eb DG C) Scale Two-Hand b5 R 4 b7 (Gb CBb F Bb Eb) b5 b3 avoid tone: 4th (F) b3 (Bb G G) C F) B b7 3 65 9R 54 (Bb E Eb AD R C(Db)Eb FA Gb Ab Bb C R b5 b7 b3 (C Bb Gb Bb Eb Ab) C DE(F)G E(F)G Bb A 9R 5b6 R DC) G C) C D AB CC A 336b7 95 (E(E A DG A 3 6 9 5 7 (E A D G B) avoid tone: b9th (Db) 4th (F) avoid tone: 4th (F) B b7 b3 5 R 4 (Bb Eb G C F) C D E(F)G A Bb C A 3 b7 9 5 R (E Bb D G C) b3 B 7 9 5 (B E A D G) Gb Ab A BC a in each hand with a C) b7 36 6 9 5 (Bb E A D b5 R3 4 b7 b3 (Gb C F Bb Eb) C D Eb FF G A Bb C A b3 b7 9 5 R (Eb Bb D G) G avoid tone: 4th (F) b7 C(Db)Eb Gb Ab Bb C Rtritone b5 b7 b3 b6 Bb A 3 6 9 5 7 (E (C A Gb Dhands G B)Eb Ab) 4 minor 3rd between avoid tone: b9th (Db) (e.g., Gb Eb) E A D G) B b7C 3R 6 9A 5 (Bb C(Db)Eb F Gb Ab Bb C R7 b5 b3 Bb B 3 b7 6 b5 9 5 b6 (B (C E Gb AD G)Eb Ab) B b3 R4 (Bb GC F) b5 b7 R 4 b75b3 (Gb CEb F Bb Eb) avoid tone: b9th (Db) C D Eb F G A Bb C A b3 b7 9 5 R (Eb Bb D C) G C) C A Ab Bb A CBC A 3 b7 9 R (Ehand Bb D G CD D E(F)G Eb F Gb a tritone in5each with a avoid tone: 4th (F) minor 3rd between hands b5 R 4 b7 (Gb C F G) Bb Eb) D Eb FG GA ABb BbC C A b3 b7 9b3 5 (Eb Bb DG C) C D(E)F b7 4 6 9 5 (Bb F A D (e.g., C Gb AR Eb) C D E(F)G A Bb C A 3 b7 9 5 R (E Bb D G C) B b7 3 6 9 5 (Bb E A D G) avoid tone: 3rd (E) b3 5 R 4 (Bb Eb G C F) C(Db)Eb Gb Bb C R b5 b7 b3 b6 (C Gb Bb Eb C D Eb FF Gb B C a tritone in each hand with a Ab) avoid tone: 4th (F) bAb A n b Ab & b b9th avoid (Db) tone: minor 3rd between hands B b7 b79 b3 R 5 (F R4 (Bb G C F) 4 Bb DEb G C) (e.g., C5 Gb A Eb) B b7 3 6 95 (Bb E Awith D G) C Eb FG Gb a tritone in each a CD D(E)F A Ab Bb A CBC b7 4 6 9 5 b3 (Bb Fhand A D G) b5 R 4 b7 (Gb C F Bb Eb) C D Eb F F GGb A Bb C A b3b7 b7 9 5R (Eb Bb D G C) minor 3rd between hands C(Db)Eb Ab Bb C R b5 b3 b6 (C Gb Bb Eb Ab) avoid tone: 3rd (E) (e.g., C Gb A Eb) avoid tone: b9th (Db)

& bbw bw w ? bw w bw & bw w w ? bw & bw w ? bw w

w w & w w b ? w w w w w ? bw & & bw w b ? w w

bw & ##w w ? bw w & ?

b bw w #w bw w

* Category A chords have the 3rd in the lowest voice; Category B chords have the 7th in the lowest voice. ** All voicings have five notes with the exception of the diminished and dominant 7b9 voicings which have four (two notes in each hand)

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Jazz Piano Pedagogy Voicings Teaching/Learning Sequence*


I. Major A. One-Hand Voicings 1. Category A: LH root / RH chord 2. Category B: LH root / RH chord 3. Alternate A-B beginning with A: LH root / RH chord 4. Alternate B-A beginning with B: LH root / RH chord 5. All of the above: chord in LH (RH tacit) B. Two-Hand Voicings 1. Category A 2. Category B 3. Alternate A-B beginning with A 4. Alternate B-A beginning with B II. Dominant 7 A. Repeat I with dominant chords B. Play Bb Blues (first alone, then with play-along recording) 1. LH root / RH chord (start with both A and B; use best voice leading) 2. Chords in LH (RH tacit) 3. Chords in LH / head in RH 4. Two-Handed Voicings (start with both A and B; use best voice leading) 5. Chords in LH / related chord scales in RH (not in tempo) 6. Chords in LH / improvise in RH C. Play Watermelon Man: follow steps II B 1-6 above III. Minor A. Repeat I with minor chords B. Play Song for My Father: follow steps II B 1-6 above C. Play Impressions: follow steps II B 1-6 above (also learn So What voicing) D. Play Maiden Voyage: follow steps II B 1-6 above E. Play Cantaloupe Island: follow steps II B 1-6 above (also learn two-handed Cantaloupe Island accompaniment figure) IV. II V I in Major (II- V7 I) A. Alternate A-B-A beginning with A: LH root / RH chord B. Alternate B-A-B beginning with B: LH root / RH chord C. A and B above: chord in LH (RH tacit) D. A and B above: two-handed voicings E. Play Satin Doll: follow steps II B 1-6 above V. Half-Diminished - Repeat I with half-diminished chords VI. Dominant 7 Altered - Repeat I with dominant 7 altered chords VII. II V I in Minor ( II V7alt I-) A. repeat IV A-D with minor II V I B. Play Blue Bossa: follow steps II B 1-6 above C. Play Summertime: follow steps II B 1-6 above D. Play Footprints: follow steps II B 1-6 above E. Play Autumn Leaves: follow steps II B 1-6 above VIII. Diminished A. Repeat I with diminished chords B. Play Doxy: follow steps II B 1-6 above IX. Dominant 7b9 A. Repeat I with dominant 7b9 chords B. Repeat VII A, substituting V7b9 for V7alt (II V7b9 I-) C. Play F Blues: follow steps II B 1-6 above * All tunes above can be found in Jamey Aebersolds Play-Along Volume 54: Maiden Voyage and can be ordered from www.jazzbooks.com

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14

15

Tune Learning Order of Events (Do in the following order for each new tune)
1. listen to the definitive recording numerous times 2. memorize the form 3. memorize root movement, play roots with definitive or play-along recording 4. memorize chord qualities, play chords (arpeggios in quarter notes) with play-along recording as follows: 1 3 5 7 9 for chords lasting two bars (have the 9th sustain for the second bar) 1 3 5 7 for chords lasting one bar 1 3 for chords lasting two beats for II V Is in major, play*

for II V Is in minor, play*

5. play related scales in eighth notes (for chords lasting two bars, have the 9th sustain for the second bar; for chords lasting two beats, just play 1 2 3 4 6. memorize head, play with play-along recording 7. improvise with play-along recording 8. transcribe phrases from definitive recording 9. improvise with play-along recording, incorporating phrases transcribed from definitive recording * You may also have the final 7th in the penultimate measure resolve to the 6th in the last measure (i.e., practice ending the line on both the 9th
and 6th)

Elements of Jazz
1. Syncopation 2. Jazz Sounds 1. jazz instruments 2. the way each instrument is played

16

the accenting of beats that are not naturally accented; the accenting of "upbeats"

3. Improvisation spontaneous composition; composing the music as you are playing; extemporaneous soloing; musical conversing 4. Rhythm 5. Form steady beat; swing the repeated and contrasting sections in the design of a composition; the tunes harmonic (chordal) blueprint 12-Bar Blues

I Bb7 I Eb7 I C-

I Eb7 I I F7

I Bb7 I Bb7

I I G7alt
F7

I I I

I Bb7 G7alt I C-

"Song for My Father"


Form: A A B (24-Bar Tune) A: I FA: I FB: I Eb7 Other Terms: 1. Chord two or more notes played at the same time; the music that accompanies the melody, setting the mood (AKA "change," i.e., the "changes" of a song are the chords that accompany the song) the (written) melody one time through the chords of a song; one time through the songs form optional introductory music that comes before the first chorus optional ending music that comes after the last chorus one chord (or a brief chord progression) which is played over and over
Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz
Phone: (310) 284-8200 E-mail: jbdyas@monkinstitute.org Website: www.monkinstitute.org

I I I

I Eb7 I Eb7 I F-

I I I

I Db7 I Db7

I C7sus I C7sus

I FI FI F-

I I I

I I I

I Eb7 Db7 I C7sus

2 Head 3. Chorus 4. Intro 5. Coda 6. Vamp

17

Common Forms
AABA
e.g., Take the A Train
A: I C A: I C B: I F A: I C

I I I I

I D7#5 I D7#5 I I D7#5

I I I I

I I I I

DDD7 D-

I G7 I G7 I I G7

I I I I

C C DC

I I I I

D- G7 I G- C7 I

I D- G7 I
G7

ABAC
e.g., On Green Dolphin Street
A: I Eb B: I FA: I Eb C: I F- F-/Eb

I I EbI IF IE I Bb7 I Eb I Bb- Eb7 I AbI Db7 I I EbI IF IE I D G7alt I C- C-/BbI A D7alt I G- C7altI F- Bb7

I I I I

Eb Gb Eb Eb

I I I I

Eb C7alt I F- Bb7 I Eb C7alt I (F- Bb7) I

16-Bar Tune
e.g., Blue Bossa I CI EbI I Ab7 I FI Db I I I D I D I G7alt I G7alt I CI CI I I D G7alt I

12-Bar Blues
e.g., Billie!s Bounce, Now!s the Time, Straight No Chaser, etc. I F7 I Bb7 I GI Bb7 I (Bo) I C7 I F7 I C- F7 I I F7 I (D7alt) I I F7 D7alt I G- C7 I

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Uncommon Forms
Song for My Father
Form: A A B (24-Bar Tune) A: I FA: I FB: I Eb7

I I I

I Eb7 I Eb7 I F-

I I I

I Db7 I C7sus I Db7 I C7sus I Eb7 Db7 I C7sus

I FI FI F-

I I I

I I I

Peace
Form: 10-Bar Tune

I A D7b9I G- C7 I B CF7b9I Bb I C7alt B7#4I Bb I

I B- E7 I A F#- I Eb Ab7b9I Db

Stablemates
Form: A B A (14 bars--8 bars--14 bars) A: I E- A7 I Eb- Ab7 I Db

I B: I A: I I

I Bb7 FI Gb7 E- A7 I Eb- Ab7 FI Bb7


F-

I I I I

EbG7alt Db Eb-

I I I I I

I Ab7b9 I C7 I C7alt I Ab7b9 I


C7alt

AbDb B7 AbDb

I Db7 I I Bb7 I Db7 I

I Gb II I A7 I Gb II

I G C7altI I Ab7 I I G C7altI

Moments Notice
Form: A B A B(6 bars) 8-bar Vamp A: I E- A7 I F- Bb7 I Eb B: I C-

I A: I E- A7 I B : I CI V: I Eb I

Bb- Eb7 I Ab F- Bb7 I Eb Bb- Eb7 I Ab F-

I G-

I I I I I

Ab- Db7 I D- G7 I Eb- Ab7 I Db

I Ab- Db7 I Db7 I FI


Db7

I D- G7 I G- C7 I Eb F- I
G-

Ab- Db7 I Gb Eb- Ab7 I Db F- Bb7 II G- F- I Eb

I D G7b9 I I F- Bb7 I I D G7b9 I I I

Bb Pedal------------------------------------------------------------------

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Jazz History Evolution of Styles


Style Ragtime Early Jazz Swing Dates* 1896-1917 1900-1928 1930-1945 Basic Performance Practices solo piano style, steady left hand/syncopated right hand collective improvisation, use of banjo and tuba big band, written arrangements, dance music Representative Figures Scott Joplin, piano Louis Armstrong, trumpet; Jelly Roll Morton, piano Count Basie, piano; Duke Ellington, piano, Benny Goodman, clarinet; Coleman Hawkins, tenor sax; Lester Young, tenor sax Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet; JJ Johnson, trombone Thelonious Monk, piano; Charlie Parker, alto sax; Bud Powell, piano; Chet Baker, trumpet; Dave Brubeck, piano, Miles Davis, trumpet; Paul Desmond, alto sax; Gerry Mulligan, baritone sax Art Blakey, drums; John Coltrane, tenor sax; Miles Davis, trumpet; Sonny Rollins, tenor sax; Horace Silver, piano Ornette Coleman, sax; Cecil Taylor, piano Chick Corea, keyboards; Miles Davis, trumpet; Herbie Hancock, keyboards; John McLaughlin, guitar; Weather Report Chris Botti, trumpet; Kenny G, soprano sax; Dave Koz, saxophones; Najee, saxophones; David Sanborn, alto sax Ambrose Akinmusire, trumpet; Brian Blade, drums; Dave Douglas, trumpet; Kenny Garrett, alto sax; Robert Glasper, piano/keyboards; Roy Hargrove, trumpet; Dave Holland, bass; Keith Jarrett, piano; Branford Marsalis, tenor sax; Christian McBride, bass; Brad Mehldau, piano; Pat Metheny, guitar; Jason Moran, piano; Chris Potter, tenor sax; Joshua Redman, tenor sax; Kurt Rosenwinkel, guitar

Bebop

1940-1955

virtuosic, complex, rangy, jazz as art, small group, focus on the soloist

Cool

1949-1955

relaxed feel, soft, incorporation of classical music elements

Hard Bop

1951-1958

return to Afro-centric elements, complex and simple sub-styles

Free Jazz Fusion

1959-1970 1969-1990

avant-garde, no pre-determined chord progressions, atonal blending of jazz and rock elements, electronic instruments

Smooth Jazz

1980-Today

simpler, more commercial and accessible style of Fusion

Contemporary

Today

blending of jazz with classical and world musics, hard bop sensibilities, and various pop and folk musics

* all styles of jazz from Early Jazz to Contemporary are still being performed and recorded today; all style dates given are approximations of when each respective style came to the forefront of jazz
and experienced its most concentrated development; of course, styles and dates overlap

For a complete course in Jazz History and further information on the elements and evolution of jazz styles, log onto the Jazz in America website at

www.jazzinamerica.org

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FIFTY-TWO ESSENTIAL JAZZ RECORDINGS ARTIST(S) Various Various Various Louis Armstrong Bix Beiderbecke Sidney Bechet Billie Holiday Count Basie Benny Goodman Duke Ellington Coleman Hawkins Roy Eldridge Dizzy Gillespie Charlie Parker Bud Powell Thelonious Monk Woody Herman Miles Davis Lee Konitz Stan Getz Stan Kenton Charlie Parker Dave Brubeck Jay Jay Johnson Art Blakey Miles Davis Sonny Rollins Ella Fitzgerald Horace Silver John Coltrane Miles Davis Charles Mingus Ornette Coleman Miles Davis John Coltrane Wes Montgomery Bill Evans John Coltrane Wayne Shorter Herbie Hancock Miles Davis Miles Davis Chick Corea Cecil Taylor Keith Jarrett Weather Report Pat Metheny Michael Brecker Kenny Garrett Brad Mehldau Maria Schneider Wayne Shorter Vijay Iyer ALBUM Jazz The Smithsonian Anthology (6 CD Set) Ken Burns Jazz: Story of America's Music (5 CD Set) Jazz Classics 3 CD Set for Jazz Styles: History and Analysis The Complete Hot Fives & Hot Sevens (4 CD Set) Vol. 1: Singing the Blues The Legendary Sidney Bechet Strange Fruit: 1937-39 The Complete Decca Recordings (3 CD Set) Live at Carnegie Hall - 1938 Complete (2 CD Set) The Blanton-Webster Band (3 CD Set) Body and Soul Little Jazz The Complete RCA Victor Recordings (2 CD Set) The Complete Savoy & Dial Master Takes (3 CD Set) Jazz Giant The Best of Thelonious Monk: The Blue Note Years Thundering Herds 1945-1947 The Complete Birth of the Cool Subconscious Lee The Roost Quartets New Concepts of Artistry in Rhythm Jazz at Massey Hall The Essential Dave Brubeck (2 CD Set) The Eminent Jay Jay Johnson Vols. 1 & 2 (2 CDs) A Night at Birdland Vols. 1 & 2 (2 CDs) Round About Midnight Saxophone Colossus The Complete Ella in Berlin: Mack the Knife The Best of Horace Silver Vols 1 & 2 (2 CDs) Blue Train Milestones Mingus Ah Um The Shape of Jazz to Come Kind of Blue Giant Steps Incredible Jazz Guitar Sunday at the Village Vanguard Live at Birdland The Best of Wayne Shorter: The Blue Note Years The Best of Herbie Hancock: The Blue Note Years Miles Smiles Bitches Brew (4 CD Set) Now He Sings, Now He Sobs Silent Tongues Staircase (2 CD Set) Heavy Weather Bright Size Life Michael Brecker Songbook Art of the Trio Volume 4 Back at the Vanguard Allegresse Footprints Live Accelerando LABEL/NUMBER Smithsonian/Folkways SI-146-2011 Legacy/61432 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-600561-2 Sony 63527 Columbia/CK 45450 RCA Bluebird/6590-2-RB Jazztory/102423 Decca Jazz-GRP/GRD3-611 Columbia/Legacy 65143 RCA Bluebird/ 5691-2-RB Victor Jazz/09026-68515-2 Columbia/CK 45275 RCA Bluebird/07863-66528-2 Savoy Jazz/17149 Verve/829 937-2 Blue Note/95636 Sony 44108 Capitol/94550 Fantasy/OJCCD-186-2 Roulette/96052 Capitol/92865 OJC/044 Columbia/Legacy C2K 86993 Blue Note/81505 & 81506 Blue Note/46519/46520 Columbia/40610 Prestige OJCCD-291-2 Verve/519 564 Blue Note/91143 & 93206 Blue Note/46095 Columbia/40837 Columbia/CK 40648 Atlantic/1317-2 Columbia/CK 64935 Atlantic/1311-2 OJC/036 Fantasy/OJCCD-140-2 Impulse!-GRP/GRD-198 Blue Note/91141 Blue Note/91142 Columbia/CK 48849 Columbia/C4K 65570 Blue Note/90055 Freedom/FCD-741005 ECM/78118-21090-2 Columbia/CK 65108 ECM 1073 MCA-Impulse MCAD-5980 Warner Bros. 46551 Warner Bros. 47463 Enja ENJ 9393/2 Verve 314 589 679-2 Act Music & Vision 9524-2 DATE 1899-2003 1917-99 1917-2000 1925-29 1927-28 1932-41 1937-39 1937-39 1938 1940-42 1939-56 1935-40 1937-49 1945-54 1949-50 1947-51 1945-47 1948-50 1949 1950-51 1952 1953 1949-2002 1953-55 1954 1956 1956 1960 1964-72 1957 1958 1959 1959 1959 1959 1960 1961 1963 1964-69 1962-68 1966 1969-70 1968 1974 1976 1977 1975 1987 1997 1999 2000 2002 2012

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Glossary
Axe Synonym for instrument Basic Chord Symbol Symbol indicating the fundamental vertical (chordal) sound of its related scale; any note from the related scale (except for any avoid tones) may be used in the pianists or guitarists chord voicing; the most common basic chord symbols are C (major), C7 (dominant 7 AKA mixolydian), C- (dorian), C (half diminished AKA locrian), Co (wholehalf diminished), C7b9 (half-whole diminished), C7+5 (whole tone), and C7alt (diminished whole tone AKA super locrian); (please note that C7alt is written as C7+9 in the Aebersold Play-Along and Pocket Changes books) Bossa (Bossa Nova) Straight-eighth, medium tempo Latin groove that usually incorporates the underlying two-measure repeated rhythmic pattern:

or variation thereof (e.g., Solar Flair/Blue Bossa, Song for My Father) Change Synonym for chord (e.g., the changes of a tune = the chords of a tune) Chops Synonym for technique Chord Two or more notes played at the same time; the music that accompanies the melody, setting the mood (AKA "change," i.e., the "changes" of a song are the chords that accompany the song); harmony Chorus One time through the chords of a song; one time through the songs form Coda Optional ending music that comes after the last chorus (see Ending) Comp To play chords in a rhythmically interesting fashion, accompanying a melody (comes from the words accompany and complement) Contrafact a jazz tune based on an extant chord progression, usually of a standard; common examples include Oleo (based on I Got Rhythm), Donna Lee (based on Back Home Again in Indiana), Groovin High (based on Whispering), Ornithology (based on How High the Moon), Hot House (based on What Is This Thing Called Love), and Dig (based on Sweet Georgia Brown) Ending Optional music that comes after the last chorus of a jazz performance providing a sense of finality (endings are either written by the tunes composer or decided upon and inserted by the performers) Fakebook Book containing lead sheets of numerous tunes (see Lead Sheet) Form The repeated and contrasting sections in the design of a composition; the tunes harmonic (chordal) blueprint; common forms include: 12-bar blues, e.g., Shuffle Time, Tootsie, Footprints; 16-bar tune, e.g., Watermelon Man, Cantaloupe Island, Solar Flair/Blue Bossa, Summertime, Doxy; and AABA, e.g., Impressions, Maiden Voyage, Satin Doll; uncommon forms include AAB, e.g., Song For My Father, and AABC, e.g., Autumn Leaves Funk Straight-eighth, medium tempo rock groove incorporating syncopated sixteenth notes against a steady, underlying pulse Gig Synonym for job Head The written melody of a tune (previously composed, not improvised), usually played as the first and last chorus in a jazz performance Homonym A chord that has different names and functions depending on its root (e.g., the notes E Bb D G comprise a 3 b7 9 5 voicing of a C7 chord, a b7 3 #5 b9 voicing of a Gb7alt chord, a R b5 b7 b3 voicing of an E chord, and a 6 b3 5 R voicing of a G-6 chord; therefore C7, Gb7alt, E, and G-6 are considered homonyms of each other) Improvisation Spontaneous composition; composing the music as you are playing; extemporaneous soloing; musical conversing

22

Intro Optional introductory music that comes before the first chorus (intros are either written by the tunes composer or decided upon and inserted by the performers) Jazz Waltz Medium to up tempo swing groove in 3/4 time, i.e., a feeling of three beats to the bar (please note that a tune does not necessarily have to be written in 3/4 to be played as a jazz waltz; for example, Footprints is written in 6/4 but is generally played with a jazz waltz feel, i.e., each 6/4 bar feels like two bars of 3/4); tunes in the jazz repertoire usually played as a jazz waltz include All Blues, Black Narcissus, Bluesette, A Child is Born, Emily, Footprints, How My Heart Sings, My Favorite Things, Someday My Prince Will Come, Up Jumped Spring, Valse Hot, West Coast Blues, and Windows Latin Catchall term used by jazz musicians denoting any straight-eighth groove that incorporates bossa and/or samba rhythms (or other Latin dance rhythms including Afro-Cuban, baion, beguine, calypso, cha-cha, conga, guaguanco, mambo, merengue, paso doble, rumba, salsa, and songo) Lead Sheet Sheet of music indicating the basic melody and chord symbols (i.e., head and changes) of an entire tune (e.g., the way each tune is written in the Aebersold play-along books - or any fakebook - is considered a lead sheet) Modal Tune Type of tune that is harmonically based on a small number of modes (scales), each lasting a long time (four or more bars) rather than a progression of rapidly changing chords; examples of modal tunes include Impressions, Maiden Voyage, and Cantaloupe Island Real Book Fakebook (see Fakebook) Rhythm Changes The chord progression (i.e., the changes) that accompanies the tune I Got Rhythm by George Gershwin; the chords (including their many substitutions and variations) that accompany the tune I Got Rhythm and its many contrafacts Shuffle Medium tempo swing groove incorporating a repeated pattern of dotted eighth/sixteenth notes on every beat (in jazz, the dotted eighth/sixteenth note rhythm is interpreted with more of a triplet feel, i.e., a repeated pattern of triplet quarter note /triplet eighth note on every beat) Specific Chord Symbol Symbol indicating the specific notes to be included in a chord, e.g., Cmaj9 indicates that the chord contains C E G B D, Cmi11 indicates C Eb G Bb D F, etc. (although a specific chord symbol is able to indicate the notes that should be included in a particular chord, it does not indicate any particular voicing) Straight-ahead Term used by jazz musicians to denote the style of jazz that is mainstream, i.e., bebop, hard bop, and cool jazz; tonal, acoustic jazz with a repertoire of standards and jazz classics; (an example of one of the greatest straight-ahead jazz groups of all time is the Miles Davis Quintet of the mid-1950s) Straight-eighth Groove in which the underlying beat is comprised of non-swung eighth notes, i.e., eighth notes are even in length (eighth notes played on downbeats or upbeats each receive exactly 1/2 of the beat), e.g., Cantaloupe Island, Maiden Voyage, Solar Flair/Blue Bossa, Song for My Father, Watermelon Man Swung-eighth Interpretation of eighth notes in which notes played on downbeats and upbeats receive 2/3 and 1/3 of the beat, respectively, providing a rhythmic lilt (swing) to the music Syncopation The accenting of beats that are not naturally accented; the accenting of "upbeats" Tag Type of ending in which a III- VI7 II- V7 progression (or variation thereof) is substituted for the last chorus final I chord, elongating or repeating the last phrase before culminating on the ultimate I chord Tune Any song or composition that is part of the jazz repertoire Turnaround A short melodic or harmonic passage usually comprised of a I VI II V progression (or variation thereof) that returns (turns around) to the beginning of a section or top of the form (e.g., last two bars of Tootsie) Vamp One chord (or a brief chord progression) which is played over and over (e.g., ending of Cantaloupe Island, Song for My Father, and Summertime); a numerously repeated section of music, usually two or four bars in length (e.g., Track 15 of Aebersold Play Along Volume 54) Voicing The particular order of notes in a chord (e.g., E Bb D G is a 3 b7 9 5 voicing of a C7 chord)