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Pertemuan 5: 30 Maret 2013 Modul 5 : Infinitives and Gerunds I Modul 6 : Infinitives and Gerunds II

Bonita Dilasari

Universitas Terbuka
Korea Selatan

Unit 1 Introduction to Infinitives and Gerunds Unit 2 Gerunds as Objects of Prepositions Unit 3 Gerunds as Objects of Verbs Unit 4 Gerunds and Infinitives as Subjects

Finite Verbs Finite Verbs are those verbs that have a definite relation with the subject or noun. These verbs are usually the main verb of a clause or sentence and can be changed according to the noun. She walks home. - Here we see that the finite verb is walks and the pronoun is 'she'. She walked home. - Here we can see how the verb changed/modified to change the tense of the sentence. Non-Finite Verbs These verbs cannot be the main verb of a clause or sentence as they do not talk about the action that is being performed by the subject or noun. They do not indicate any tense. They are used as nouns, adverbs and adjectives. He loves camping in the woods. - Here the non-finite verb is camping and it is used as a noun. These kind of non-finite verbs are called Gerunds. I need to go to sleep. - Here the non- finite verb phrase is to sleep, it is acting as a noun. Non-finite verbs that use to before them are called Infinitives. The sleeping dog caused a delay. - The non-finite verbs that have -ing or ed as suffixes and cause the verb to come an adjective are called Participles.

(to) + Verb 1 Tuti studies very hard to pass the final exam. She wakes up very early in the morning and goes to sleep after midnight everyday. Sometimes she forgets to eat or to take a shower.

Verb 1 + ing
1. 2. 3. 4.

Gerund sebagai subjek Gerund sebagai objek kata kerja Gerund sebagai objek preposisi Gerund sebagai pelengkap

from without about from in

+ verb ing

be given to be used to be accustomed to look forward to object to pleed innocent (guilty) to

+ verb ing

keep on + verb ing put off go on be interested in approve/disapprove of be afraid of be excited about be good at + verb ing care about insist on ....

Fixed preposition

Fixed phrase

Verbs can only be followed by gerund Appreciate Admit Enjoy Worth Escape Practice Risk Avoid Finish Prevent Recent Prefer Forgive Complete Quit Dread Consider Resist Do you mind ...? Would you mind ...?

Recall Delay Deny Suggest Mind Imagine Keep Postpone

Waiting is boring. To wait for him for hours is boring. Writing is not that difficult. To write a poem is not that difficult.

Its nice ... Its worth ... Its no use ... Its not much good ...

for + object + infinitive

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZBR2GiI3-I

1. Kelompok 1 (Verb + Infinitve)


a. b.

c.
d. e. f. g. h. i.

j.

Afford to Agree to Appear to Arrange to Care to Decided to Deserve to Demand to Expect to Endeavor to

k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t.

Fail to Hesitate to Hope to Learn to Plan to Pretend Promise Refuse Seem struggle

u. v. w. x.

Swear Threaten Volunteer Wait

2. Kelompok 2 [Verb + Pro(noun) + Infinitive


a. b.

c.
d. e. f. g. h. i.

j.

Allow Cause Challenge Convince Command Dare Encourage Forbid Force Hire

k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u.

instruct Invite Oblige Order Permit Persuade Remind Tach Tell Urge warm

3. Kelompok 3
Kata-kata kerja yang dapat diikuti oleh infinitive dan bisa juga diikuti oleh noun/pronoun, kemudian infinitive
a. b. c. d. e. f.

Ask Beg Expect Want Wish Promise

Kata-kata kerja yang memiliki pengertian berbeda ketika diikuti oleh infinitives dan diikuti oleh gerunds:

begin* neglect o cant bear prefer** plan o cant stand continue start o cant help dislike dread intend love hate

forget like remember regret try need* require* stop

Penggunaan by apabila kita mengatakan apa yang kita lakukan untuk memperoleh hasil yang kita inginkan.
1. 2. 3.

Dalam kalimat pasif, by digunakan sebagai (penunjuk) pelaku. By dapat digunakan untuk mengacu pada alat transportasi. Penggunaan by yang berkaitan dengan waktu.

Sementara penggunaan with untuk menyatakan bagaimana seseorang mengerjakan sesuatu.

Harry Potter story is written by J.K. Rowling. I like traveling by train. You must arrive here by ten a.m. They made a living by fishing and hunting. Fire was kept all night by covering the coals and wood with ashes. The hair is cut with scissors.

A.

Too

Noun/ Noun phrase + be/Verb + too + adjective/ noun + to infinitive Noun/ Noun phrase + be/Verb + too + adjective/ noun + for + object + to infinitive

A.

Too

He has too much book to read. The task is too difficult for me to do. She walks too fast for the others to follow.

B. Enough Noun/ Noun phrase + be/Verb + Adjective/ Adverb + enough + for + object + to infinitive His grades are good enough for him to pass the exam. The speed is not fast enough for the car to win the race.