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Anton Reicha

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Tumba de Anton Reicha. Anton (Antonin o Antoine) Reicha (o Rejcha) (Praga, 1 ! " Par#s, 1$%&), 'ue un 'lautista, com(ositor ) terico musical checo nacionali*ado 'ranc+s. Su (adre muere cuando era ni,o ) lo cr#a su t#o -ose' en .onn, en 1 /0 se traslada a 1amburgo (or cinco a,os. 2ue amigo de 3uventud de .eethoven ) alumno de 1a)dn. 4n 1$!% com(one %& 'ugas, que dedica a 1a)dn. 4n 1$!$ se traslada de'initivamente a Par#s. 5racias al +6ito obtenido (or sus 7& quintetos (ara instrumentos de viento, en 1$1$ 'ue nombrado (ro'esor del 8onservatorio de Par#s, donde tuvo como disc#(ulos a .erlio*, 9is*t, 2ranc: ) 5ounod. Se nacionali*a 'ranc+s en 1$7/. 8om(uso catorce sin'on#as ) escribi abundante msica, as# como varios tratados tericos ) (edaggicos (Tratado de meloda, 1$10; Tratado de alta composicin musical, 1$7&; El arte del compositor dramtico, 1$%%).

Anton Reicha
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Portrait o' Anton Reicha made in 1$1> b) ?.2. @ien. Anton (Antonn, Antoine) Reicha (Rejcha) (2ebruar) 7&, 1 ! A ?a) 7$, 1$%&) Bas a 8*echCborn naturali*ed 2rench com(oser. A contem(orar) and li'elong 'riend o' .eethoven, Reicha is noB best remembered 'or his substantial earl) contribution to the Bind quintet literature and his role as a teacher A his (u(ils included 2ran* 9is*t and 1ector .erlio*. Reicha Bas also an accom(lished theorist and Brote several treatises on various as(ects o' com(osition. Some o' his theoretical Bor: dealt Bith e6(erimental methods o' com(osition, Bhich he a((lied in a variet) o' Bor:s such as 'ugues and +tudes 'or (iano and string quartets. Reicha Bas born in Prague into a 'amil) o' a toBn (i(er. 1is 'ather died Bhen Reicha Bas 3ust 1! months old, and his mother Bas uninterested in the bo)Ds education. At the age o' 1! the )oung com(oser ran aBa) 'rom home, and Bas subsequentl) raised and educated in music b) his uncle -ose' Reicha. <hen the 'amil) moved to .onn, -ose' secured 'or his ne(heB a (lace at the 1o':a(elle, but 'or Reicha this Bas not enough. 1e studied com(osition secretl), against his uncleDs Bishes, and entered the Eniversit) o' .onn in 1 $/. <hen .onn Bas ca(tured b) the 2rench in 1 /0, Reicha had to 'lee to 1amburg, Bhere he made his living b) teaching harmon) and com(osition, and studied mathematics and (hiloso(h). .etBeen 1 // and 1$!1 he lived in Paris, tr)ing to achieve recognition as an o(era com(oser, Bithout success. Fn 1$!1 he moved to Gienna, Bhere he studied Bith Salieri and Albrechtsberger and (roduced his 'irst im(ortant Bor:s. 1is li'e Bas once again a''ected b) Bar in 1$!$, Bhen he had to leave Gienna. Reicha settled in Paris, Bhere he s(ent the rest o' his li'e teaching com(osition; in 1$1$ he Bas a((ointed (ro'essor at the 8onservatoire. ReichaDs out(ut during his Gienna )ears included large semiCdidactic c)cles o' Bor:s such as 36 Fugues for piano (Bhich e6(lored ReichaDs HneB method o' 'ugal BritingH), L'art de arier (a set o' > variations on an original theme), and e6ercises 'or the treatise !ractische "eispiele. @uring the later Paris (eriod, hoBever, he 'ocused his attention mostl) on theor) and (roduced a number o' treatises on com(osition. <or:s o' this (eriod include some 7> Bind quintets, some o' the earliest im(ortant music 'or Bind ensembles. Fdeas he advocated in his music and Britings include (ol)rh)thm, (ol)tonalit) and microtonal music; none Bere acce(ted b) the com(osers o' the time. @ue to ReichaDs oBn attitude toBards (ublishing his music, he 'ell into obscurit) immediatel) a'ter his death; his li'e and Bor: remain (oorl) studied.

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1 9i'e 1.1 1 !A1$!>= 4arl) )ears, 'irst visit to Paris and the Giennese (eriod 1.7 1$!&A1$= @e(arture 'rom Gienna and li'e in Paris 7 <or:s % <ritings 0 Kotable recordings > Re'erences & Kotes 46ternal lin:s o .1 5eneral re'erence
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Life
17701805 !arl" "ears, first #isit to $aris and the %iennese period
Reicha Bas born in Prague. 1is 'ather Limon, the toBn (i(er o' the cit), died Bhen Anton Bas 3ust 1! months old.I1J A((arentl) ReichaDs mother Bas not interested in her sonDs education, and so in 1 $! Reicha ran aBa) 'rom home 'olloBing a sudden im(ulse A as is recounted in his memoirs, he 3um(ed onto a (assing carriageI7J. Reicha Bent to Mlatov) to his grand'ather 'irst, and then Bas ado(ted b) his uncle -ose' Reicha, a virtuoso cellist, conductor and com(oser, Bho lived at <allerstein, .avaria.I1J -ose' and his Bi'e did not have children, and a((arentl) the )oung Anton had their 'ull attention= -ose' taught him violin and (iano, his Bi'e insisted that the bo) learned 2rench and 5erman, and Reicha also received instruction in 'lute.I%J Fn 1 $> the 'amil) moved to .onn, Bhere Reicha became a member o' the 1o':a(elle o' ?a6 2ran*, 4lector o' 8ologne, under the direction o' his uncle, (la)ing the violin and the second 'lute.I1J The )oung .eethoven became a viola (la)er and organist in the 1o':a(elle in 1 $/ and Reicha be'riended him; the tBo became li'elong 'riends. 8hristian 5ottlob Kee'e, Bho Bas one o' the most im(ortant 'igures in the musical li'e o' the cit) at the time, might have instructed both Reicha and .eethoven in com(osition, and (ossibl) also introduced them to the Bor:s o' -ohann Sebastian .ach, such as the <ellCTem(ered 8lavier. 2rom about 1 $> Reicha studied com(osition secretl), against his uncleDs Bishes, )et alread) b) 1 $ he com(osed and conducted his 'irst s)m(hon). Fn 1 $/ he entered the Eniversit) o' .onn. Reicha Bas stud)ing and Bor:ed as (er'ormer until 1 /0, Bhen .onn Bas attac:ed and ca(tured b) the 2rench 'orces. Reicha managed to esca(e to 1amburg,I1J voBed never to (er'orm again, and started earning his living b) teaching harmon) and com(osition, as Bell as the (iano. 1e also occu(ied himsel' Bith com(osition, studied mathematics, (hiloso(h) and, signi'icantl), methods o' teaching com(osition. Fn 1 // Reicha moved to Paris, ho(ing to achieve success Bith his o(eras. These ho(es Bere dashed, hoBever= he could neither get his old librettos acce(ted, nor

'ind suitable neB ones, des(ite su((ort 'rom his 'riends and in'luential members o' the aristocrac). Fn 1$!1 Reicha le't Paris 'or Gienna. Fn Gienna he began stud)ing Bith Antonio Salieri and -ohann 5eorg Albrechtsberger.I1J .oth Bere renoBned teachers Bhose (u(ils included Schubert (Salieri) and .eethoven (both), and Albrechtsberger Bas also an im(ortant theorist. Reicha visited 1a)dn, Bhom he alread) met several times in .onn and 1amburg during the 1 /!s, and reneBed his 'riendshi( Bith .eethoven, Bhom he had not seen since 1 /7, Bhen the latter moved 'rom .onn to Gienna. ReichaDs move to Gienna mar:ed the beginning o' a more (roductive and success'ul (eriod in the com(oserDs li'e. Reicha himsel' re'lected on this time in his memoirs= HThe number o' Bor:s F 'inished in Gienna is astonishing. Nnce started, m) verve and imagination Bere inde'atigable. Fdeas came to me so ra(idl) it Bas o'ten di''icult to set them doBn Bithout losing some o' them. F alBa)s had a great (enchant 'or doing the unusual in com(osition. <hen Briting in an original vein, m) creative 'aculties and s(irit seemed :eener than Bhen 'olloBing the (rece(ts o' m) (redecessors.HI0J Fn 1$!1 ReichaDs o(era L'ouragan, Bhich 'ailed in Paris, Bas (er'ormed at the (alace o' Prince -ose(h 2ran* ?a6imilian 9ob:oBic*, .eethovenDs (atron. 4m(ress ?aria Theresa commissioned another o(era a'ter this (er'ormance, Argine# regina di $ranata, Bhich Bas also (er'ormed (although (rivatel)). ReichaDs studies in 1amburg came to 'ruition here Bith the (ublication o' several semiCdidactic, enc)clo(edic Bor:s such as 36 Fugues for piano ((ublished in 1$!%, dedicated to 1a)dn)I1J and L'art de arier, a largeCscale variation c)cle (com(osed in 1$!%C0 'or Prince 9ouis 2erdinand), and the treatise !ractische "eispiele ((ublished in 1$!%), Bhich contained 70 com(ositions.

180&18 Depart're fro( %ienna and life in $aris


ReichaDs li'e and career in Gienna Bere interru(ted b) Ka(oleonDs militar) activities. Fn Kovember 1$!> the cit) Bas occu(ied b) 2rench troo(s. Fn 1$!& Reicha travelled to 9ei(*ig to arrange a (er'ormance o' his neB Bor:, the cantata Lenore (sto((ing at Prague to see his mother 'or the 'irst time since 1 $!), but because 9ei(*ig Bas bloc:aded b) the 2rench, not onl) Bas the (er'ormance cancelled, but Reicha could not return to Gienna 'or several months. <hen he did return, it Bas not 'or long, because b) 1$!$ the Austrian 4m(ire Bas alread) (re(aring 'or another Bar, the <ar o' the 2i'th 8oalition, so Reicha decided to move, once again, to Paris.I1J This time three o' ReichaDs man) o(eras Bere (roduced, and all 'ailed to attract attention; nevertheless, his 'ame as theorist and teacher increased steadil), and b) 1$1 most o' his (u(ils became (ro'essors at the 8onservatoire de Paris. Reicha himsel' Bas a((ointed (ro'essor o' counter(oint and 'ugue at the 8onservatoire in 1$1$.

Anton ReichaDs gravestone at POre 9achaise, Paris. This second Paris (eriod (roduced several im(ortant theoretical Britings. %ours de composition musicale, (ublished b) 1$1$, became the standard te6t on com(osition at the 8onservatoire; the Trait& de m&lodie o' 1$10, a treatise on melod), Bas also Bidel) studied. Another semiCdidactic Bor:, %0 Ptudes 'or (iano, Bas (ublished b) 1$1 . Ft Bas also in Paris that Reicha started com(osing Bind quintets, Bhich (roved to be his most enduring Bor:sI1J (but Bhich Bere 'ar removed 'rom the e6(erimental Briting o' the Gienna (eriod 'ugues). ReichaDs (ersonal li'e also im(roved= he got married in 1$1$ to Girginie 4naust. The cou(le had tBo daughters. Reicha sta)ed in Paris 'or the rest o' his li'e. @uring the last decade o' his li'e, Reicha Bas 'ull) acce(ted in 2rance= he became a naturali*ed citi*en in 1$7/ I>J, then a 8hevalier o' the 9+gion dDhonneur in 1$%>, and also in 1$%> he succeeded 2ranQoisC Adrien .oieldieu at the Acad+mie 'ranQaise. 1e (ublished tBo more large treatises= Trait& de haute composition musicale (1$70A&), Bhich dealt Bith com(osition, and Art du compositeur dramati'ue (1$%%) on Briting o(era. ReichaDs ideas e6(ressed in the 'ormer Bor: s(ar:ed some controvers) at the 8onservatoire. Fn 1$7& 2ran* 9is*t and 1ector .erlio* became ReichaDs students, 8harles 5ounod 'olloBed some time later. 2r+d+ric 8ho(in considered stud)ing Bith him in 1$7/, but decided not to. Fn -une 1$%> 8+sar 2ranc: started stud)ing Bith him, although onl) did so 'or 1! months, until Reicha died in ?a) 1$%&. 1e Bas buried at the POre 9achaise 8emeter).

Works
See also= 9ist o' com(ositions b) Anton Reicha Ft is di''icult to (resent a coherent list o' ReichaDs Bor:s, because the o(us numbers assigned to them at the time o' (ublication are in disarra), some (ieces Bere su((osedl) lost, and man) Bor:s Bere (ublished several times, sometimes as (art o' larger collections. ReichaDs surviving oeuvre covers a vast arra) o' genres and 'orms, 'rom o(era to (iano 'ugues. 1e is best :noBn toda) 'or his Bind quintets A 7> Bor:s com(osed in Paris betBeen 1$11 and 1$7!, Bhich Bere (la)ed all over 4uro(e. Reicha claimed in his memoirs that his Bind quintets 'illed a void= HAt that time, there Bas a

dearth not onl) o' good classic music, but o' an) good music at all 'or Bind instruments, sim(l) because the com(osers :neB little o' their technique.HI&J. Fndeed, ReichaDs e6(eriences as a 'lautist must have hel(ed in the creation o' these (ieces, in Bhich he s)stematicall) e6(lored the (ossibilities o' the Bind ensemble and invented an e6tended sonata 'orm that could accommodate as man) as 'ive (rinci(al themes.I J The Bind quintets re(resent a more conservative trend in ReichaDs oeuvre, hoBever, es(eciall) Bhen com(ared to his earlier Bor:, namel) the com(ositions o' the Giennese (eriod. Technical Bi*ardr) (revails in com(ositions that illustrate ReichaDs theoretical treatise !ractische "eispiele o' 1$!%, Bhere techniques such as bitonalit) and (ol)rh)thm are e6(lored in e6tremel) di''icult sight reading e6ercises.I$J 36 fugues for piano, (ublished in 1$!%, Bas conceived as an illustration o' ReichaDs neue Fugens(stem, a neB s)stem 'or com(osing 'ugues. Reicha suggested 'ugal ansBers could be (laced on an) scale degree (rather than the standard dominant) to Biden the (ossibilities 'or modulation and undermine the tonal stabilit) o' the 'ugue.I/J The 'ugues o' the collection not onl) illustrate this (oint, but also em(lo) a variet) o' e6tremel) convoluted technical tric:s, such as (ol)rh)thm (no. %!), combined (nos. 70, 7$), as)mmetrical (no. 7!) and sim(l) uncommon (no. 1! is in 17R0, no. 17 in 7R$) metres and time signatures, some o' Bhich are derived 'rom 'ol: music, an a((roach that directl) antici(ates that o' later com(osers such as .+la .art:.I1!J Kumber 1% is a modal 'ugue (la)ed on Bhite :e)s onl), in Bhich cadences are (ossible on all but the th degree o' the scale Bithout 'urther alteration. Si6 'ugues em(lo) tBo sub3ects, one has three, and number 1> em(lo)s si6 sub3ects. Fn several 'ugues Reicha establishes a lin: Bith the old tradition b) using sub3ects b) 1a)dn (no. %), .ach (no. >), ?o*art (no. ), Scarlatti (no. /), 2rescobaldi (no. 10) and 1andel (no. 1>). ?an) o' the technical accom(lishments are unique to 'ugue literature. The +tudes o' o(. / , )tudes dans le genre fugu&, (ublished in Paris b) 1$1 , are similarl) advanced. 4ach com(osition is (receded b) ReichaDs comments 'or )oung com(osers Bho choose to stud) the Bor:. Thirt) o' thirt)C'our +tudes included are 'ugues, and ever) +tude is (receded b) a (relude dedicated to a (articular technique or com(ositional (roblem. Again an e6ce(tionall) large number o' 'orms and te6tures is used, including, 'or e6am(le, the variation 'orm Bith e6tensive use o' invertible counter(oint (no. %), or an Andante in 8 minor based on the 'amous 2olia harmonic (rogression. ReichaDs massive c)cle o' variations, L'art de arier, uses the same (edagogical (rinci(le and includes variations in the 'orm o' 'ourCvoice 'ugues, (rogram music variations, toccataCli:e handCcrossing variations, etc, 'oreshadoBing in man) as(ects not onl) .eethovenDs @iabelli Gariations, but also Bor:s b) Schubert, <agner and @ebuss).I11J ?an) o' ReichaDs string quartets are similarl) searching, and too 'oreshadoB numerous later develo(ments. The eight Gienna string quartets (1$!1A>) are amongst his most im(ortant Bor:s. Though largel) ignored since ReichaDs death, the) Bere highl) in'luential during his li'etime, and le't their mar: on the quartets o' .eethoven and SchubertI17J, much li:e .achDs <ellCTem(ered 8lavier Bas ignored b) the (ublic but BellC:noBn to .eethoven and 8ho(in. Reicha also Brote (roli'icall) 'or various :inds o' ensembles other than Bind quintets and string quartets= there are violin sonatas, (iano trios, horn trios, various Bor:s 'or Bind or string instrument accom(anied b) strings, Bor:s 'or voice, etc. 1e also Brote much largeCscale music A at least eight s)m(honies are :noBn, seven o(eras, choral Bor:s including a Requiem, and man) more.

?uch o' ReichaDs music remained un(ublished andRor un(er'ormed during the com(oserDs li'e, and virtuall) all o' his Bor: 'ell into obscurit) a'ter his death. This is (artl) e6(lained b) ReichaDs oBn decisions Bhich he re'lects on in his autobiogra(h)= H?an) o' m) Bor:s have never been heard because o' m) aversion to see:ing (er'ormances I...J F counted the time s(ent in such e''orts as lost, and (re'erred to remain at m) des:.HI0J Ft must also be noted that Reicha 'requentl) advocated ideas, such as the use o' quarter tones, that Bere too 'ar ahead o' his time to be understood b) his contem(oraries.I1%J

Writin)s
ReichaDs ma3or theoretical and (edagogical Bor:s included the 'olloBing=

!ractische "eispiele* ein "eitrag +ur $eistescultur des Tonset+ers ,,, -egleitet mit philosophisch.practischen Anmer/ungen (1$!%), a didactic Bor: that includes 7> sightCreading e6ercises o' e6treme di''icult), some o' Bhich Bere later (ublished se(aratel) or in collections such as the 36 fugues. The e6ercises are divided into three grou(s= one 'or (ol)rh)thm, one 'or (ol)tonalit) and one that included e6ercises Britten on 'our staves and so required :noBledge o' the alto and tenor cle's. Trait& de m&lodie (Paris, 1$10), on melod), translated into 5erman b) 8*ern) %ours de composition musicale# ou Trait& complet et raisonn& d0harmonie prati'ue (1$1$), on com(osition, translated into 5erman b) 8*ern) Trait& de haute composition musicale (7 vols. 1$70A1$7&), translated into 5erman b) 8*ern) around 1$%>. Fn this late treatise Reicha e6(ressed some o' his most daring ideas, such as the use o' quarter tones and 'ol: music (Bhich Bas almost com(letel) neglected at the time).I10J L'art du compositeur dramati'ue (0 vols., 1$%%), on the Briting o' o(era. Provides an e6haustive account o' contem(orar) (er'ormance techniques and is su((lemented Bith e6am(les 'rom ReichaDs oBn o(eras.

Fn addition to these, a number o' smaller te6ts b) him e6ist. These include an outline o' ReichaDs s)stem 'or Briting 'ugues, 1-er das neue Fugens(stem ((ublished as a 'oreBord to the 1$!> edition o' 36 fugues), 2ur la musi'ue comme art purement sentimental (be'ore 1$10, literall) HNn music as a (urel) emotional artH), !etit trait& d0harmonie prati'ue 3 4 parties (c. 1$10, a short H(ractical treatiseH on harmon)), a number o' articles and the (oem An 5oseph 6a(dn, (ublished in the (re'ace to 36 fugues (Bhich Bere dedicated to 1a)dn).

*otable recordin)s
<ind Suintet N(. $$ Ko. 7 in 4C'lat ma3or A 1. 9ento C Allegro ?oderato Per'ormed b) the Soni Gentorum <ind Suintet 5rand @uo C 9ento Per'ormed b) 2eli6 S:oBrone: ('lute) and ?arshall <insloB ((iano)

Gariations 'or bassoon and a string quartet, transcri(tion 'or bassoon and (iano Per'ormed b) Arthur 5rossman (bassoon) and Keil ND@oan ((iano)
!ro-lems listening to these files7 2ee media help,

%omplete 8ind 9uintets (1//!). The Albert SchBeit*er Suintet. 1! 8@s, 8PN /// !77C7 to /// !%1C7 ABarded the @eutscher Schall(latten(reis (ri*e. Also includes Andante arioso# Andante and Adagio 'or Bind ensemble. 36 Fugues :p, 36 (1//1A/7). Tin) <irt* ((iano). 7 8@s, 8PN /// !&>C7 36 Fugues (7!!&). -aroslav TTma ('orte(iano Anton <alter, 1 /!). 7 8@s, ARTA 21!10&7, see I>J

References

Nlga LotolovU, Antonn Rejcha* A "iograph( and Thematic %atalogue, @er)c: Gine), translator. Su(ra(hon, Prague, 1//!. FS.K $!C !>$C1&/C . The standard monogra(h on Reicha. 8ontains numerous errors, but is richl) in'ormative on man) as(ects o' ReichaDs li'eI7J Peter 4liot Stone. HAntoine ReichaH, $ro e ;usic :nline, ed. 9. ?ac) (accessed 70 Nctober 7!! ), grovemusic.com (subscri(tion access). @emuth, Korman (A(ril 1/0$). HAntonin ReichaH. ;usic < Letters +, (7)= 1&>A 1 7. doi=1!.1!/%RmlR7/.7.1&>. htt(=RRBBB.3stor.orgRstableR %!$$0. Retrieved 7/ Nctober 7!!$.

*otes
1. V a b c d e f g h WernuXU:, 5raciUn (ed.); LtYdroZ, .ohum#r; KovU[e:, \den:o (ed.) (1/&%).
7. =es/oslo ens/> hude-n slo n/ ??, ;@A. Prague= StUtn# hudebn# v)davatelstv#. (. 01>. -C.ech/ V a b 1o)t, Peter A. (?arch 1//%). HRevieB o' Nlga SotolovaDs DAntonin Re3chaD (@er)c: Gine), translator)H. Botes# 4nd 2eries (?usic 9ibrar) Association) 0, (%)= //&A $. doi=1!.7%! R$/$/0>. htt(=RRBBB.3stor.orgRstableR$/$/0>. Retrieved 7/ Nctober 7!!$. 1 @emuth, 7 (1&&) V a b ReichaDs autobiogra(h), Botes sur Antoine Reicha, quoted in Ron @rummond, HProgram Kotes 'or a Per'ormance o' Anton#n Re3chaDs 8 ?inor String SuartetH. See I1J 1 @emuth, (. 1& . 1 ReichaDs autobiogra(h), Botes sur Antoine Reicha, quoted in .ill ?c5laughlinDs HA <orld N' <inds= ?a:ing ]our NBn Suintet " The 2ather o' the <ind SuintetH, see I7J 1 Ron @rummond. HAnton Reicha= A .iogra(hical S:etchH, see 1 @emuth, (1 1) 1 <al:er, Alan (1/$ ). Fran+ Lis+t* Colume :ne# the Cirtuoso Dears# EFEE@EFGH. Fthaca, K]= 8ornell Eniversit) Press. (. /0. FS.K !C$!10C/071C0.

%.
0. >. &. . $. /.

1!. 1 GUclav -an S^:ora. Pre'ace to an edition o' 36 fugues for piano, Massel= ._renreiter catalogue numbers 1/11 A11/. 1/ % 11. 1 -an Race:. 2oreBord to the critical edition o' H9Dart de varierH, Praha= StUtn# hudebn# v)davatelstv#, 1/&1 17. 1 See Ron @rummondDs articles on Reicha 'or an e6tensive discussion o' his quartets= I%J. The 'irst modern edition in score and (arts o' ReichaDs Gienna quartets Bas (ublished in -une 7!!& b) ?erton ?usic o' 9ondon, see I0J. 1%. 1 @emuth, >C& (1&/A !) 10. 1 @emuth, $ (1 7)

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