1
Electrical capaci
tance
farad F C/V m
2
kg
1
s
4
2
Electrical resistance ohm V/ m
2
kgs
3
2
Electrical conduct
ance
siemens S /V m
2
kg
1
s
3
2
Magnetic flux weber Wb Vs m
2
kgs
2
1
Magnetic flux densi
ty
tesla T Wb/m
2
kgs
2
1
Inductance henry H Wb/ m
2
kgs
2
2
Luminous flux lumen lm cdsr
Luminous flux lux lx m
2
cdsr
Radioactivity becquerel Bq s
1
s
1
Absorbed dose gray Gy J/kg m
2
s
2
17
4. Objects of Measurement
Objects of measurement may be represented by any parameters of phys
ical entities and processes describing their properties.
4.1. Measurands
Measurement of geometric quantities: length; diameters; angles; form
and location deviation; surface finish; clearance.
Measurement of mechanical and kinematic quantities: mass; force;
stress and strain; hardness; torque; linear and rotational speed; kinematic pa
rameters of gears and gear drives.
Measurement of parameters of liquids and gases: flow, level, volume;
static and dynamic pressure; parameters of boundary layer.
Physicalchemical measurements: viscosity; density; concentration of
components in solid, liquid and gaseous materials; humidity; electrochemical
measurements.
Thermophysical and thermodynamic measurements: temperature;
pressure, thermal quantities; cycle parameters; energy conversion efficiency.
Time and frequency measurement: time and periods of time; measure
ment of frequency of periodic processes.
Measurement of electrical and magnetic quantities: voltage, electric
current, resistance, capacitance, inductance; magnetic field parameters; mag
netic properties of materials.
Radioelectronic measurements: signal intensity; signal form and spec
trum; properties of substances and materials by radioengineering methods.
Acoustic quantities measurement: in air, gas and water media; in solid
medium; audiometry and noiselevel measurement.
Optical and opticalphysical measurement: measurement of optical
properties of materials; pulse parameters of incoherent optical radiation;
spectral and frequency characteristics; laser polarization; parameters of opti
cal elements, optical characteristics of materials; photomaterial characteris
tics.
Measurement of ionization radiation and nuclear constants: dosimet
ric characteristics of ionizing radiation; spectral characteristics of ionizing
radiation; radionuclide activity; radiometric characteristics of ionizing radia
tion.
18
4.2. Dimension of a measurand
The purpose of measurement is to receive information on the value of
physical quantity.
Physical quantity is defined as a property which, in a qualitative sense,
is universal for many objects, but in a quantitative sense is individual for each
object. Leonhard Euler defined quantity in the following way: quantity is
anything that can be reduced or increased, or it is anything you can add or
take away from.
Dimension is a quantitative characteristic of the measurand.
In practice, it becomes necessary to take measurements of quantities
which characterize properties of phenomena and processes. Some properties
reveal to be qualitative, other quantitative. Representation of properties as a
set of elements or numbers or symbols is a measurement scale of the given
properties.
A measurement scale is an ordered set of values that the quantity may
take serving as a basis for its measurement. Lets explain the notion by the
example of temperature scales. The Celsius scale takes icepoint temperature
as a starting point and a steam point as the fundamental interval (reference
point). One hundredth part of this interval is a temperature unit (Celsius de
gree).
There are several types of scales: nominal, ordinal, difference (inter
val), ratio, absolute etc.
Nominal scales are characterized only by relation of equivalence (rela
tion of equality). Nominal scale is qualitative; it doesnt contain any quantita
tive information and doesnt have zero and units of measurement. The ele
ments of these scales are characterized only by relation of equivalence
(equality) and similarity of specific qualitative demonstration of properties.
As an example we can call colorimetric atlas (colour scale). The measure
ment process consists of visual comparison of a coloured item with test col
ours (samples of atlas).
Ordinal scales characterize the dimension of measurand in numbers.
These scales describe properties for which not only relations of equivalence
but also rank relations in ascending or descending order are meaningful. The
typical examples of such scales are scales of hardness, earthquake intensity
scales, wind strength scales, nuclear event scales, etc. Highly specialized or
dinal scales are widely used in methods of testing various products.
It is impossible in these scales to implement units of measurement since
they are not only basically nonlinear but also the type of their nonlinear na
19
ture can be different and unknown on different parts of the scale. The hard
ness measurements, for example, are expressed in Vickers hardness numbers,
Rockwell hardness numbers, Brinell numbers, Shore numbers and not in
units of measurement. Ordinal scales allow monotonic transformation, they
can have or not a zero value.
Interval scales (difference) differ from ordinal scales in that they pro
vide both relation of equivalence and order and summation of interval values
(differences) between different quantitative demonstrations of properties. The
typical example is a time scale.
The time intervals (for example, working periods and study periods) can
be added and subtracted but it is senseless to summarize the dates of some
events.
Another example, a length (distance) scale of space intervals is applied
by fixing of zero mark of the scale at one point and making the reading at the
second point. This type of scales includes the centigrade Celsius scale, Fahr
enheit temperature scale, Reaumur temperature scale.
Interval scales have standard (agreed) units of measurement and zeros,
based on reference elements or data.
These scales allow linear transformations; procedures for finding of
mathematical expectation, standard deviation, skewness and displaced mo
ments are applicable for them.
Ratio scales have natural zero, and the unit of measurement is deter
mined by agreement. For example, mass scales starting with zero can be
graded differently in accordance with required weight accuracy. Just compare
chemical balance and household scales. These scales apply relations of
equivalency and order operations of subtraction and multiplication (ratio
scales of the 1
st
type proportional scales) and in many cases the sum opera
tions (ratio scales of the 2
nd
type additive scales).
The masses of different objects can be summarized but it is no use in
summarizing temperatures of different bodies, though we can estimate the
difference and relation of their thermodynamic temperatures. The examples
of ratio scales include mass scales (2
nd
type), thermodynamic temperature
scale (1
st
type).
The ratio scales are widely used in physics and engineering allowing all
arithmetic and statistic operations.
Absolute scales possess all the characteristics of ratio scales but they
additionally have natural unambiguous determination of unit of measure
ment. Such scales are used to measure relative quantities (relations of similar
quantities: magnitude ratio, attenuation ratio, efficiency coefficient, reflection
and absorption coefficients, amplitude modulation index and so on).
20
5. Standard Conditions for Linear and Angular Measurements
Standard conditions of linear measurements within 1500 mm and angu
lar measurements with the smaller side of an angle up to 500 mm are defined
in the standard GOST 8.05073. Standard conditions must be provided to
practically eliminate additional errors of measurements. The standard defines
the following values of basic parameters that influence measurement accura
cy:
Parameter Value
Environmental temperature, C
Atmosphere pressure, kPa (mmHg)
Relative humidity, %
Acceleration of free fall, m/s
2
20
101.3 (760)
58
9.8
Allowable deviations from standard values are: for atmosphere pressure
4 kPa (30 mmHg), for relative humidity +2218%.
Temperature deviations have the highest influence on measurement ac
curacy. In accordance with tolerances and range of measured dimensions
there are fixed limits of allowable variations of temperature of a measured
part and workplace area (Table 3.)
Table 3
Limits of allowable variations of temperature, C,
of the measured object and work place,
from standard value during the measurement
Dimension rang
es, mm
Tolerance grade
01 0 From 1 to 5 From 6 to 8 From 9 to 10
Over 1 to 18 0.8 1.0 1.5 3.0 4.0
Over 18 to 50 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0
Over 50 to 500 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0
In angle measurements the limits of allowable variations of temperature
of the measuring object and workplace area from standard value are 3.5 C.
The waiting period of the part to be measured and measuring instrument
in the workplace area before starting the measurements must be not less than
stated in the Table 4. The standard GOST 8.05073 specifies the standard di
21
rection of measurement line. For measurements of external linear dimensions
up to 160 mm the direction of measurement line is vertical; for dimensions
more than 160 mm and for dimensions of holes, width and depth of slots the
direction of measurement line is horizontal. Position of the flat surface for
angular measurements is horizontal.
Table 4
The waiting period of the part to be measured and measuring instrument in
the workplace area, h
Mass of the
measured object,
kg
Tolerance grade
01 and 0 From 1 to 5 From 6 to 8 From 9 to10
To 10 6 4 3 2
Over 10 to 50 14 8 6 4
Over 50 to 200 24 14 10 7
Over 200 to 500 36 20 16 12
The allowable variations from standard direction of measurement line
must be not more than 1 for the IT 01 and IT 0; 2 for the IT 15; 5 for
the IT 610.
To reduce the error of measurement it is necessary to align the standard
direction of measurement line with the corresponding direction of the refer
ence gages and reference parts.
Standard conditions in workplace area must be provided during the
whole process of measurement.
22
6. Means of Measurement
Measurements are performed with the use of technical means. Technical
means required for measurements are:
material measure measuring instruments intended for reproduc
ing the physical quantity with a given value. The measures of the
highest order of accuracy are called measurement standards or eta
lons;
measurement standards are measuring instruments or systems that
ensure reproduction, storage and transfer of legal units of physical
quantities to the measuring instruments of the lower levels;
reference measuring instruments are material measures, measur
ing instruments or transducers approved as a reference for the verifi
cation of the other means of measurement;
working measuring instruments are the instruments designated for
measurements not connected with transfer of the quantities.
6.1 Measurement Standards
The means of measurement of the highest accuracy the standards
are divided into several grades.
The standard reproducing unit with the highest accuracy in the country
is called the state primary standard. The standard of the unit of a physical
quantity is reproduced with almost the highest possible accuracy using spe
cial tools.
In 1983, at the XVII General Conference on Weights and Measures the
metre was approved as a standard unit of length the length of the path trav
eled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299792458 of a second.
Previously, the standard of the meter was equal to 1650763.73 wavelengths
of light in vacuum of the radiation corresponding to the transition between
the levels 2p10 and 5d5 of the isotope krypton86.
The second was adopted as a standard unit of time, equal to the duration
of 9192631770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition be
tween the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom.
23
The standard of the mass unit (1 kg) is a cylinder made from an alloy of
platinum (90%) and iridium (10%) with diameter and height being approxi
mately the same (about 30 mm).
The mole was recognised as a unit of amount of substance. The mole is
the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary enti
ties as there are atoms in 12.000 grams of carbon12.
As a standard unit of luminous intensity the candela was adopted, which
is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits mono
chromatic radiation of frequency 540x10
12
Hz and radiant intensity in that di
rection of 1/683 watt per steradian.
As a standard unit of current the ampere was adopted, which is the con
stant electric current which, flowing in two parallel straight conductors of in
finite length, of negligible circular crosssectional area, located one metre
apart in vacuum, produces between these conductors an interaction force
equal to 2x10
7
newtons per metre of length.
The standard unit of thermodynamic temperature is Kelvin, constituting
the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of
water.
If the direct transfer of the unit value from the existing etalons with the
required accuracy is not technically feasible in view of the special conditions,
then the special standards are produced for the unit reproduction. Such condi
tions may include: high or low pressure, high humidity, measurements at ex
treme boundaries of the range of values of the measured quantity.
In metrological practice secondary standards, working standards and
reference standards are widely used. These standards are produced and ap
proved for organization of verification procedures, as well as to ensure safety
and minimize wear of the state primary standard.
The following categories of standards are also used:
transfer standard is the secondary standard used to compare stand
ards, which for some reason cannot be checked against each other;
duplicate standard is the secondary standard used to test the integri
ty of the state standard or to replace it in case of damage or loss;
reference standard is the secondary standard to transfer unit value
to the working standards. It may not always be an exact physical
copy of the state standard;
working standard is the secondary standard that is used to store the
unit and transfer it to the reference measuring instruments or to the
most accurate working measuring instruments.
24
The working standards can be implemented as a single standard (or sin
gle material measure), as a collective standard, as a complex of measuring
instruments and as a group standard.
An example of a single standard is the standard of mass in the form of
platinumiridium weight. An example of a collective standard is the reference
standard of volt, consisting of 20 normal cells. An example of a measuring
instruments complex is the standard unit of the molar fraction of the concen
tration of components in gas mixtures. In this case the different components,
different concentration ranges and different diluent gases create a large num
ber of measurement tasks with the general formulation. Therefore, in this
case a standard consists of several tens of measuring instruments. An exam
ple of a group standard is a set of instruments for measuring density of liq
uids in different parts of the density range.
Such a wide range of varieties of standards is not specified in the inter
national metrological documents. International standards stored at the Inter
national Bureau of Weights and Measures reproduce a limited number of
physical units. Typically, this is either the basic units of the SI system or
units which can be reproduced at accuracy equal to or exceeding the accuracy
of the standard of basic unit. An example of such a standard is the standard of
volt based on the Josephson effect, which consists in the flow of direct cur
rent across the junction formed by two superconductors separated by a thin
dielectric layer (stationary effect), or in the flow of alternating current across
the junction of two superconductors, to which direct voltage is applied (non
stationary effect).
The number of international standards is small in comparison with Rus
sian standards due to the fact that the concept of standards and reference
measuring instrument does not have a clear distinction in many countries.
There is a vast concept a standard, which can be applied to the secondary
standard (reference measuring instrument) or an etalon (original reference
measuring instrument).
25
6.2 Measures and Reference Measuring Instruments
The measures and the reference measuring instruments are examples of
the reference measuring means. They are intended for verification and gradu
ation of other measuring instruments. These means have a reading error that
23 times smaller than that of the instruments being verified, these means are
issued a certificate for the right to carry out verification.
The measure could be implemented in the form of a body, substance or
device for reproducing, storing and transferring unit of physical quantity
from one measuring instrument to another. The measure reproduces quantity,
which value is associated with the accepted unit of a certain wellknown
equation.
Measures and reference measuring instruments, serving for reproduction
and storage of units with the highest accuracy possible at the present stateof
theart, belong to the standards. In contrast to the standard, the measure re
produces not only a unit, but its submultiples and multiple values. For ex
ample, one metre rod or a set of gauge blocks of various sizes can be used as
a measure of length.
Measures of mass are not only the reference kilogram weights and their
copies, but also weights of different masses.
Measures are essential means of measurement, because they are used as
means of transferring units of physical quantities from one instrument to an
other.
In many countries, including Russia, special storages of measures are
constructed, which functions include comparison of state measures with in
ternational. The first storage in Russia was established in 1842 as the Depot
of Standard measures, and in 1893 the Central Office of Weights and
Measures under the direction of D.I. Mendeleev was established.
Measures as means of measurements are available in various grades of
accuracy, which are regulated by the relevant state standards and verification
procedures. The socalled certified reference materials belong to a particular
class of measures.
A certified reference material is a measure in the form of substance with
which a size of the unit of physical quantity is reproduced as property or as a
composition of matter, from which the certified reference material is made.
Examples of such measures are substances that under certain conditions re
produce a unit or its submultiple or multiple value. Examples include con
stant temperature corresponding to the transition from one state of matter into
another 1063 C the melting point of gold, 960.8 C the melting point of
26
silver, 444.6 C the melting point of sulphur, 100 C boiling point of wa
ter, 182.97 C the boiling point of oxygen etc.
Another example of the certified reference material, which uses the
properties of matter, is folic acid. The combustion of a certain mass of folic
acid in a closed volume generates a fixed quantity of heat. According to the
results of preliminary tests the certificate is issued on the certified reference
material, and the material is registered in the State Register of certified refer
ence materials. Certified reference material, as well as other measures are pe
riodically compared and stored in the metrological organizations.
In the Russian Federation, the State Register of certified reference mate
rials is kept in a special institute in Yekaterinburg. A special place in the sys
tem of measures is occupied by the certified reference materials of composi
tion reference gas mixtures. These reference materials have features that
distinguish them from reference materials made in the form of liquids or sol
ids. The main difference is that the reference gas mixture is consumed in the
process of measurement, which may lead to changes in gas composition. It is
also impossible to store the reference gas mixture that is being analysed.
Therefore, a batch of vessels with mixtures is prepared for analysis.
The measures are divided into singlevalued and multivalued.
Singlevalue measures are measures that reproduce constant value of
the physical quantity. It can be a unit or a multiple or a submultiple value
(weights, gauge blocks, receiving flasks, standard cells of electromotive
force, electrical resistance coils etc.). For convenience of use the sets of
measures (weights, gauge blocks and other measures) are manufactured. A
set of measures combined in one mechanical unit with a device is called a
measure box (resistance box, capacitance box, and so on).
Multivalued measures reproduce not one, but several submultiple or
multiple values of units. Such measures are, for example, a millimeter ruler
and other graduated measures, graduated variable capacitors, variometer and
so on. To reproduce a length the line gauge blocks and end gauge blocks are
widely used in the industry. The line gauge blocks are made in the form of
samples, rulers, tape measures and scales with the indicating elements.
27
6.3 Gauge Blocks
The planeparallel end measures of length or gauge blocks come in sets
of parallelepipeds (plates and blocks), which are made of steel for lengths up
to 1000 mm or carbide for lengths up to 100 mm with two mutually parallel
planar measuring surfaces (GOST 903890). They are designed for the direct
measurement of the linear dimensions, as well as for transferring unit of
length from the primary standard to gauge blocks of lower accuracy.
Gauge blocks are used for verification, calibration and adjustment of the
measuring instruments, measuring devices, machine tools etc. With the
wringability (i.e., adhering), due to the action of intermolecular forces of at
traction, gauge blocks can be assembled into stacks of the required size,
which do not fall apart while handling. The gauge block sets are made from
various numbers of gauge blocks (from 2 to 112 blocks).
The gauge blocks are available in the following accuracy grades: 00, 01,
0, 1, 2, 3 for steel blocks; 00, 0, 1, 2 and 3 for carbide blocks. Each set of
gauge blocks is supplied with a certificate according to GOST 2.60195 and
an instruction manual. By stacking four or five gauge blocks, from a set with
block sizes from 0.001 mm to 100 mm, it is possible to build up stacks of de
sired size.
GOST 903890 applies to the planeparallel end measures of length
(hereinafter gauge blocks) made of steel with lengths up to 1000 mm and to
carbide gauge blocks with lengths up to 100 mm, having a rectangular paral
lelepiped shape with two opposing measuring surfaces ground flat and mutu
ally parallel.
The gauge blocks are designed to be used as: working measures to ad
just and set up indicating instruments for direct measurement of linear di
mensions of industrial products; reference measures to transfer the size of a
unit of length from the primary standard to the gauge blocks of the lower ac
curacy and for verification and calibration of measuring instruments.
Nominal length of a gauge block must meet the requirements specified
in the Table 5.
Gauge blocks are manufactured of the following accuracy grades: 0, 1,
2, 3 for steel blocks, 0, 1, 2 and 3 for carbide blocks. Steel and carbide
gauge blocks of accuracy grades 00 and 01 are supplied upon request.
The gauge block used as a reference should be verified as reference, of
the 1, 2, 3, and 4
th
class according to the MI 1604. The reference gauge
blocks should have a distinctive mark stamped during manufacture. Accuracy
grade of a gauge blocks set is determined by the lowest accuracy grade of the
28
individual gauge block of the set. Gauge block of 1.005 mm available in sets
1, 2, 3, 12, and 15 of the third accuracy grade, should have accuracy grade
not lower than 2
nd
.
Table 5
Nominal length of gauge blocks
Size increment Gauge block nominal lengths
 1.0005
0.001
From 0.99 to 1.01
From 1.99 to 2.01
From 9.99 to 10.01
0.005 From 0.40 to 0.41
0.05
From 0.1 to 0.7
From 0.9 to 1.5
From 2 to 3
From 9.9 to 10.1
0.1 From 0.1 to 3
0.5 From 0.5 to 25
1 From 1 to 25
10 From 10 to 100
25 From 25 to 200
50 From 50 to 300
100 From 100 to 1000
Cross section dimensions of gauge blocks (a, b) must meet the require
ments specified in the Table 6.
Table 6
Cross section dimensions of gauge blocks
Gauge block nominal
lengths
Cross section dimensions b
a b
From 0.1 to 0.20
15
0.45
5
0.3
Over 0.20 to 0.29
30
0.45
03 . 0
3 . 0
9
Over 0.29 to 0.6
20
0.3
30
0.3
Over 0.6 to 10.1
Over 10 to 1000 35
0.3
29
Examples of gauge block designation according to the GOST 903890:
set 2: steel gauge blocks of
the 1
st
accuracy grade
gauge blocks 1H2 GOST 903890;
set 3: carbide gauge blocks
of the 2
nd
accuracy grade
gauge blocks 2H3T
GOST 903890;
steel gauge block of 1.49 mm
of the 3
rd
accuracy grade
gauge block 31,49 GOST 903890;
set of the reference gauge
blocks of the 1
st
class
reference gauge blocks 1KO
GOST 903890;
set 3: reference gauge blocks
of the 2
nd
class
reference gauge blocks 2HO3
GOST 903890
Technical requirements: gauge blocks have to be manufactured in ac
cordance with the requirements of the standard and working drawings.
Permissible length deviations and deviations from flatness of the meas
uring surfaces of the gauge blocks at 20 C must not exceed values, given in
the Table 7.
Table 7
Gauge blocks deviations
Nominal length
of a gauge
block, mm
Permissible deviations
from nominal length, m,
related to the accuracy grade
from flatness and parallelism,
m, related to the accuracy grade
00 01 0 1 2 3 00 01 0 1 2 3
To 0.29    0.20 0.40 0.80    0.16 0.30 0.30
Over 0.29 to
0.9
  0.12 0.20 0.40 0.80   0.10 0.16 0.30 0.30
Over 0.9 to 10 0.06 0.20 0.12 0.20 0.40 0.80 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.16 0.30 0.30
Over 10 to 25 0.07 0.30 0.14 0.30 0.60 1.20 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.16 0.30 0.30
Over 25 to 50 0.10 0.40 0.20 0.40 0.80 1.60 0.06 0.06 0.10 0.18 0.30 0.30
Over 50 to 75 0.12 0.50 0.25 0.50 1.00 2.00 0.06 0.06 0.12 0.18 0.35 0.40
Over 75 to 100 0.14 0.60 0.30 0.60 1.20 2.50 0.07 0.07 0.12 0.20 0.35 0.40
Over 100 to
150
0.20 0.80 0.40 0.80 1.60 3.00 0.08 0.08 0.14 0.20 0.40 0.40
Over 150 to 0.25 1.00 0.50 1.00 2.00 4.00 0.09 0.09 0.16 0.25 0.40 0.40
30
Nominal length
of a gauge
block, mm
Permissible deviations
from nominal length, m,
related to the accuracy grade
from flatness and parallelism,
m, related to the accuracy grade
00 01 0 1 2 3 00 01 0 1 2 3
200
250 0.30 1.20 0.60 1.20 2.40 5.00 0.10 0.10 0.16 0.25 0.45 0.50
300 0.35 1.40 0.70 1.40 2.80 6.00 0.10 0.10 0.18 0.25 0.50 0.50
400 0.45 1.80 0.90 1.80 3.60 7.00 0.12 0.12 0.20 0.30 0.50 0.50
500 0.50 2.00 1.00 2.00 4.00 8.00 0.14 0.14 0.25 0.35 0.60 0.60
600 0.60 2.50 1.30 2.50 5.00 10.0 0.16 0.16 0.25 0.40 0.70 0.70
700 0.70 3.00 1.50 3.00 6.00 11.0 0.18 0.18 0.30 0.45 0.70 0.80
800 0.80 3.20 1.60 3.20 6.50 13.0 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.50 0.80 0.80
900 0.90 3.60 1.80 3.60 7.00 14.0 0.20 0.20 0.35 0.50 0.90 0.90
1000 1.00 4.00 2.00 4.00 8.00 16.0 0.25 0.25 0.40 0.60 1.00 1.00
These requirements are not applied to the zone adjacent to the edges of
the measuring surfaces; the zone is 0.5 mm wide for gauge blocks of nominal
length up to 0.29 mm and 0.8 mm wide for gauge blocks of nominal length of
more than 0.29 mm.
Deviations from flatness of the measuring surfaces of gauge blocks with
the nominal length from 0.9 to 3 mm in free state (not wrung) should not ex
ceed 2 m.
Wringability of the gauge block measuring surfaces must meet the re
quirements specified in the Table 8.
Flatness tolerance of the optical flats is equal to 0.03 m for accuracy
grades 00, 01 and 0, and is equal to 0.1 m for accuracy grades 1, 2 and 3.
Gauge blocks surface roughness parameter Rz<0.063 m is in accord
ance with GOST 2789.
The edges of the measuring surfaces of gauge blocks should be rounded
to a radius less than 0.3 mm or have a chamfer of less than 0.3 mm.
The measuring surfaces of gauge blocks, including zone of the chamfers
transition to the measuring surface, should be free of defects that adversely
affect the use of gauge blocks.
Scratches on the measuring surfaces of gauge blocks are allowed as long
as they do not affect wringability, deviation of length from the nominal value
and deviation from flatness and parallelism.
31
Table 8
Wringability requirements
Accuracy
grade
Wringability of gauge blocks to
the lower (supporting) optical
flats of 60 mm in diameter ac
cording to TU 33.2123
Wringability of gauge blocks to
each other
Steel gauge
blocks with
lengths from
0.6 to 100 mm
Carbide gauge
blocks with lengths
from 0.99 to 100
mm
00
01
Without fringes and shades
viewed with white light
Sliding pres
sure from 29.4
to 78.5 N

0
Sliding pressure
from 29.4 to 98.1 N
1, 2 and 3
Without fringes. Shades in the
form of bright spots, viewed
with white light
The measuring surfaces of carbide gauge blocks, at a distance of 1 mm
from the center of the measuring surface and at the corner points at a distance
of 12 mm from the nonworking surfaces, are not allowed to have dents
larger than 120 m in width for the 00 and 0 accuracy grades, and larger than
200 m in width for the 1, 2 and 3 accuracy grades. The porosity should not
be higher than 0.4% according to GOST 9391.
Coefficient of thermal expansion of the steel gauge blocks per 1 m and
1 C must be within 10.512.5 m in the temperature range from 10 to 30 C.
Table 9
Coefficients of thermal expansion for the carbide gauge blocks
Nominal length of a
gauge block, mm
Coefficient of thermal expansion, m,
per 1 m and 1
Accuracy grade
From 2 to 5 3.5 12.5 1; 2 and 3
Over 5 to 10 8 12.5 1
Over 5 to 10 3.5 12.5 2 and 3
Over 10 to 25 8 12.5 1; 2 and 3
Over 25 to 100 10.5 12.5 1; 2 and 3
32
Carbide gauge blocks should have a coefficient of thermal expansion
and allowable elongation at a temperature range from 10 to 30 C in accord
ance with the Tables 9 and 10. The carbide gauge blocks should be manufac
tured as entirely solid carbide gauge block or as steel block with carbide
tipped measuring surfaces.
Table 10
Permissible change of the gauge block length
Accuracy grade
Permissible change of the gauge block length (l, mm)
in the course of year, m
00 and 01 0.02 + 0.0002l
0 0.02 + 0.0005l
1; 2 and 3 0.05 + 0.001l
Manufacturer of the carbide gauge blocks must indicate a coefficient of
thermal expansion corresponding to the grade of the carbide used. Hardness
of the measuring surfaces of steel gauge blocks should be at least 800 HV ac
cording to GOST 2999.
The change in length of the gauge blocks in the course of year, due to
instability of the material, must not exceed the values given in the Table 10.
The requirements for the stability of the gauge blocks over time should be
ensured by the manufacturer, provided that the gauge blocks are not subject
ed to sudden temperature shocks, vibrations and impacts, as well as the ef
fects of magnetic fields, excluding magnetic field of the earth.
The perpendicularity tolerance of the nonworking surfaces with respect
to the measuring surfaces must meet values specified in the Table 11.
Table 11
Perpendicularity tolerance of the nonworking surfaces of gauge blocks
Nominal length of a gauge
block, mm
Perpendicularity tolerance of nonworking surfaces
with respect to the measuring surfaces over the whole
length of the gauge block, m
From 10.5 to 25 70
Over 25 to 60 90
Over 60 to 150 110
Over 150 to 400 140
Over 400 to 1000 180
33
Nonworking surfaces of gauge blocks of nominal length over 100 mm
should have marks engraved at a distance of l 211 . 0 from the block sides.
To clamp gauge blocks together with the ties, according to GOST 4119,
the gauge blocks of the sets 8 and 9, as well as gauge blocks longer than
100 mm of the sets 2224 should have two holes; wear blocks of 50 mm
nominal length and gauge blocks of 51.4 and 71.5 mm nominal length of the
sets 2224 should have one hole.
The holes should be located at a distance of 25 mm from the measuring
surfaces, and for gauge blocks of 51.4 and 71.5 mm length at the distance
from one of the measuring surfaces.
Explanation of terms used in this section is given in the Tables 12 and
15.
Each set of gauge blocks and kits of the set should be packed in a case
with an enclosed certificate in accordance with GOST 2.601, and for the ref
erence gauge blocks a calibration certificate according to the MI 1604 should
be enclosed as well.
The nominal length of a block should be stamped on it. For the gauge
blocks of length equal to and smaller than 5.5 mm, the nominal length mark
ing should be shifted from the middle of the measuring surface, so that its
central zone of 9 mm long remains free of markings.
For the gauge blocks of length greater than 5.5 mm, the nominal length
marking and trademark of the manufacturer should be applied to the non
working surface. Additional distinctive sign, in addition to the markings men
tioned above, should be applied to the wear blocks and reference gauge
blocks. It is allowed to label gauge blocks of the 00, 01 and 0 accuracy
grades with the set number or other additional information.
Marking on the case of the gauge block set should include:
trademark of the manufacturer (on the outer surface of the cover);
serial number of the set or kit;
accuracy grade (for working gauge blocks), class (for reference
gauge blocks), the words reference gauge blocks (on the outer sur
face of the case cover of a set or kit of reference gauge blocks);
reference to GOST 903890;
letter "T" (for carbide gauge blocks) on the inner surface of the case.
Each pocket should be supplied with an indication of the nominal length
of the gauge block placed in.
Gauge blocks sets and gauge block of length from 500 to 1000 mm, de
livered individually, must be packed in cases made of materials specified in
GOST 13762.
34
Each gauge block in a set must be placed in the appropriate pocket and
shouldnt fall out when the closed case is turned upsidedown.
Acceptance of gauge blocks
To verify compliance of the gauge block with the requirements of
GOST 903890, the following activities are carried out: state tests, metrologi
cal certification (for reference gauge blocks), acceptance inspection, periodic
testing and testing for compliance of coefficient of thermal expansion and
stability of the gauge blocks length over time.
State tests are conducted in accordance with GOST 8.383 and 8.001,
metrological certification according to GOST 8.326.
During the acceptance inspection, each gauge block is checked for com
pliance with the requirements of wringability to optical flats. The sliding
pressure is checked selectively.
Periodic tests are conducted at least once every three years for compli
ance with all requirements of GOST 903890. Periodic testing should be per
formed on typical representatives:
any set of steel gauge blocks with lengths to 100 mm of any accuracy
grade and/or class;
any set of steel gauge blocks with lengths from 100 mm of any accu
racy grade and/or class;
any set of carbide gauge blocks of any accuracy grade and/or class.
At least 10% of the gauge blocks, but not less than four, are selected
from each set.
From the set composed of carbide and steel gauge blocks, 10% of car
bide and 10% of steel blocks, but at least in fours of carbide and steel blocks,
are selected.
The results of periodic testing are considered satisfactory if all tested pa
rameters of the gauge blocks meet all requirements.
The testing in accordance with MI 1604 is held at least once every three
years, on at least four blocks of each representative group. In case tests are
performed together with periodic tests, the gauge blocks selected for periodic
testing are used.
It is allowed to carry out testing on at least four separately manufactured
carbide and steel blocks.
The results of testing are considered satisfactory if all tested parameters
of the gauge blocks meet all requirements.
35
Inspection and testing of gauge blocks
Verification of gauge blocks is performed in accordance with MI 2079,
MI 2186, GOST 8.367 and MI 1604.
The effect of climatic factors of environment on transportation is tested
in climatic chambers. Tests are carried out in the following conditions: at a
temperature of plus (50 3) C, at a temperature of minus (50 3) C and
relative humidity of (95 3) % at a temperature of (35 3) C. Exposure
time in the given conditions in a climate chamber is equal to 2 hours.
Upon completion of tests, all tested gauge blocks must comply with the
requirements of the standards mentioned above.
For testing effect of transport shaking a shock table, which creates shak
ing with acceleration of 30 m/s
2
and frequency of 80120 beats per minute, is
used.
Boxes packed with gauge blocks are attached to the table and undergo a
total of 15,000 strokes. After the test, the metrological characteristics of the
gauge blocks should not exceed values, specified in GOST 903890.
Description of terms used in the section and gauge block sets is given in
the Tables 12, 13 and 14.
Table 12
Terms concerned with the gauge blocks
Term Explanation
Length of a gauge
block (at any point)
Length of a perpendicular from a given point of a measuring
surface to the opposite measuring surface.
Note. As an opposite measuring surface, in absolute inter
ferometric method of measurement of the block length, a
flat surface of the auxiliary plate made of the same material
and same surface finish as the gauge block, to which it is
wrung, is used.
Deviation of the
gauge block nominal
length
The highest difference in absolute value between the length
of the gauge block at any point and nominal length of the
gauge block.
Deviation from flat
ness and parallelism
The difference between the maximum and minimum lengths
of the gauge block.
36
Term Explanation
Wringability of a
gauge block
Property of the measuring surfaces of a gauge block that
provides a firm bond between gauge blocks or between a
gauge block and a flat metal or optical flat when a block is
applied or slid across a block or a plate. Wringability is
characterized by sliding pressure.
Wear block
The block included at the ends of the gauge blocks stack to
protect the gauge blocks from wear.
A set of special gauge
blocks
A set of gauge blocks designed for verification of certain
products and measuring devices (wires, micrometers, verni
er calipers, optikators).
Table 13
Sets of gauge blocks
Set
num
ber
Quan
tity of
blocks
in a set
Size
incre
ment,
mm
Nominal lengths,
mm
Block
quan
tity
Wear blocks
Accuracy
grade
Nominal
length,
mm
Quanti
ty of
blocks
Steel
blocks
Carbide
blocks
1 83
 1.005 1
 
0; 1; 2
and 3
1; 2 and
3
0.01 From 1 to 1.5 51
0.1 From 1.6 to 2 5
0.5 0.5 1
From 2.5 to 10 16
10 From 20 to 100 9
2 38
 1.005 1
 
1; 2
and 3
1; 2 and
3
0.01 From 1 to 1.1 11
0.1 From 1.2 to 2 9
1 From 3 to 10 8
10 From 20 to 100 9
3 112
 1.005 1
 
0; 1; 2
and 3
1; 2 and
3
0.01 From 1 to 1.5 51
0.1 From 1.6 to 2 5
0.5
0.5 1
From 2.5 to 25 46
10 From 30 to 100 8
4 11 0.001 From 2 to 2.01 11   0;1; 2 
5 11 0.001 From 1.99 to 2 11   0; 1; 2 
37
Set
num
ber
Quan
tity of
blocks
in a set
Size
incre
ment,
mm
Nominal lengths,
mm
Block
quan
tity
Wear blocks
Accuracy
grade
Nominal
length,
mm
Quanti
ty of
blocks
Steel
blocks
Carbide
blocks
6 11 0.001 From 1 to 1.01 11   0; 1; 2 0 and 1
7 11 0.001 From 0.99 to 1 11   0; 1; 2 0 and 1
8 10
25
50
100
From 125 to 200
From 250 to 300
From 400 to 500
4
2
2
50 2
0; 1
2 and
3
9 12 100
From 100 to
1000
10 50 2
0; 1; 2
and 3

10 20 0.01 From 0.1 to 0.29 20  
1; 2
and 3

11 43
0.01
0.1
From 0.3 to 0.7
Over 0.8 to 0.9
41
2
 
0; 1; 2
and 3

12 74

0.01
0.1

0.5
1.005
From 0.9 to 1.5
From 1.6 to 2
0.5
From 2.5 to 5
1
61
5
1
6
1; 2; 3
13 11

10
5
From 10 to 100
1
10
  1; 2; 3 
14 38
0.5
10
From 10.5 to 25
From 30 to 100
30
8
 
0; 1;
2; 3

15 29
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
1.005
From 1 to 1.1
From 1.2 to 2
From 3 to 10
1
11
9
8
1; 2
and 3
16 19 0.001
From 0.991 to
1.009
19  
0; 1
and 2
0 and 1
17 19 0.001
From 1.991 to
2.009
19  
0; 1
and 2

18 2    1 2 
1; 2 and
3
19 2    2 2 
1; 2 and
3
Note: The carbide gauge blocks of sets 1, 2 and 3 with length over 5
mm may be replaced by steel gauge blocks.
38
Table 14
Set of special gauge blocks
Nominal lengths, mm
Accuracy grade of
a set
Class of
a set
Steel
blocks
Carbide
blocks
Set 20 (23 blocks)
0.12; 0.14; 0.17; 0.2; 0.23; 0.26; 0.29; 0.34; 0.4; 0.43;
0.46; 0.57; 0.7; 0.9; 1.0; 1.16; 1.3; 1.44; 1.6; 1.7; 1.9;
2; 3.5
1 and 2  1, 2, 3, 4
Set 21 (20 blocks)
5.12; 10.24; 15.36; 21.5; 25; 30.12; 35.24; 40.36;
46.5; 50; 55.12; 60.24; 65.36; 71.5; 75; 80.12; 85.24;
90.36; 96.5; 100
1 and 2 1 and 2 1, 2, 3, 4
Set 22 (7 blocks)
21.2; 51.4; 71.5; 101.6; 126.8; 150; 175
3 3 
Set 23 (13 blocks)
1.00; 1.00; 1.05; 1.10; 2.00; 2.00; 21.2; 51.4; 71.5;
101.6; 126.8; 150; 175
2 and 3 
Set 24 (25 blocks)
1.00; 1.00; 1.04; 1.05; 1.06; 1.10; 1.11; 1.12; 1.13;
1.17; 1.18; 1.19; 2.00; 2.00; 21.2; 51.4; 71.5; 101.6;
126.8; 150; 175; 250; 400; 600; 1000
 2 and 3 
Set 25 (15 blocks)
0.990; 0.992; 0.994; 0.995; 0.996; 0.998; 1.000;
1.002; 1.005; 1.010; 1.015; 1.020; 1.030; 1.040;
1.050
  2
Set 26 (8 blocks)
0.990; 0.995; 1.000; 1.005; 1.010; 1.020; 1.030;
1.050
  2
Set 27 (9 blocks)
1.00; 1.02; 1.04; 1.05; 1.06; 1.08; 1.10; 1.15; 1.20
  3
Set 28 (28 blocks)
1.00; 1.02; 1.04; 1.06; 1.08; 1.10; 1.12; 1.14; 1.16;
1.18; 1.20; 1.24; 1.28; 1.30; 1.32; 1.36; 1.40; 1.50;
1.60; 1.70; 1.80; 1.90; 2.0; 2.2; 2.4; 2.6; 2.8; 3.0
  3
39
Nominal lengths, mm
Accuracy grade of
a set
Class of
a set
Steel
blocks
Carbide
blocks
Set 29 (8 blocks)
0.990; 0.995; 1.000; 1.005; 1.010; 1.020; 1.030;
1.040
  3
Set 30 (7 blocks)
5.12; 10.24; 15.36; 19.50; 20; 21.50; 25
  4
Set 31 (9 blocks)
1; 1.01; 1.02; 1.03; 1.04; 1.05; 1.06; 1.08; 1.10
  3
Set 32 (7 blocks)
0.995; 1; 1.005; 1.010; 1.020; 1.030; 1.040
  3
Set 33 (7 blocks)
1; 1.06; 1.10; 1.12; 1.18; 1.20; 1.30
  3
Set 34 (9 blocks)
1.001; 1.002; 1.003; 1.005; 1.006; 1.007; 1.008;
1.009
  1
Set 35 (9 blocks)
1.01; 1.02; 1.03; 1.04; 1.05; 1.06; 1.07; 1.08; 1.09
  1
Set 36 (13 blocks)
1; 1.001; 1.002; 1.003; 1.004; 1.005; 1.006; 1.010;
1.020; 1.030; 1.040; 1.050; 1.060
  2
Set 37 (8 blocks)
1 2 pcs; 10 2 pcs; 50 2 pcs; 100 2 pcs
  1
Note: The carbide gauge blocks of sets 23 and 24 with length over 5
mm may be replaced by steel gauge blocks.
40
6.4 Angle Gauge Blocks
Angle gauge blocks (GOST 287588) are intended for inspection of the
inner and outer angles of tools, templates, parts and verification of devices,
etc. The angle gauge blocks of five types are available: 1 and 2 with one
working angle either with a truncated top or sharp top; 3 with four working
angles; 4 regular polyhedrons; 5 with three working angles. Angle gauge
blocks of types 1, 2 and 3 are manufactured of three accuracy grades (0, 1
and 2), multifaceted blocks of type 4 are made of four accuracy grades (00,
0, 1 and 2), angle blocks of type 5 are available of grade 1. A wide range of
nominal angles is possible by wringing angle gauge blocks together.
GOST 287588 applies to angle blocks accessories and angle gauge
blocks of plane angle (hereinafter the angle gauge blocks) having shape of
a right prism with a number of side faces, some of them or all of them are
measuring surfaces, pairs of which form the working angles.
Angle gauge blocks are intended to be used as:
working measures for adjusting and settingup angle measuring in
struments and direct measurement of angles of industrial products;
reference measures for transferring size of the unit of plane angle
from the primary standard to working angle measuring instruments.
Terms and their explanations used in GOST 287588, as well as descrip
tion of angle gauge block sets are given in the Tables 15 and 16.
Table 15
Terms and their explanations used in GOST 287588
Term Explanation
Right prism Prismatic block of a plane angle, the base of which is a
regular convex polygon, the nominal values of the interi
or angles at the vertices of the polygon are equal and less
than 180, the nominal values of the lengths of its sides
are equal.
Working angle of a
block
Angle in the plane of measurement made by two measur
ing surfaces or two normals to the measuring surfaces.
Plane of measurement The imaginary plane which is placed in the body at pos
sibly equal distances from the base and top surfaces and
oriented so that the measuring surfaces, chosen to fix it,
41
Term Explanation
were equally inclined thereto. It is allowed to place the
plane of measurement parallel to the base surface of the
block or the block mount.
Wringability of an
angle gauge block
Property of the angle gauge block measuring surfaces,
which provides a strong bond with an optical flat or be
tween two blocks when lapped measuring faces are put or
slid together.
Basic parameters and dimensions of angle gauge blocks
Angle gauge blocks are produced in sets or as individual blocks of the
following types:
1 with one working angle and truncated top;
2 with one working angle and sharp top;
3 with four working angles;
4 a multifaceted right (nsided) prism.
Table 16
Angle gauge block sets
Set
num
ber
(quan
tity of
blocks
in the
set)
Block
type
Incre
cre
ment
Nominal values of working an
gles
Quan
tity of
blocks
Accu
racy
grades
Mass of
a set, kg,
less than
1
(93)
2
1 From 10 to 79 70
1, 2 15
10' From 1510' to 1550' 5
1' From 1501' to 1509' 9
3 
80 81 100 99
82 83 98 97
84 85 96 95
86 87 94 93
88 89 92 91
90 90 90 90
6
42
Set
num
ber
(quan
tity of
blocks
in the
set)
Block
type
Incre
cre
ment
Nominal values of working an
gles
Quan
tity of
blocks
Accu
racy
grades
Mass of
a set, kg,
less than
8910'  8920'  9050'  9040'
8930'  8940'  9030'  9020'
8950'  8959'  9010'  9001'
3
2
(33)
2
10 From 30 to 70 5
1, 2 5
1 From 10 to 20 11
 45 1
10' From 1510' to 1550' 5
1' From 1501' to 1509' 9
3 
80 81 100 99
90 90 90 90
2
3
(8)
2  10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55,60 7
1, 2 2
3  90 90 90 90 1
4
(8)
2 
1510', 3020', 4500', 4530',
5000', 6040', 7550'
7
1 2
3  90 90 90 90 1
5
(24)
1
1 From 1 to 9 9
1 4
2' From 1' to 29' 15
Examples of designation of:
a set 2 composed of angle gauge
blocks, accuracy grade 1
angle gauge block H21 GOST
287588;
an angle gauge block of type 4, 24
sided prism, accuracy grade 0
angle gauge block 4240 GOST
287588;
an angle gauge block of type 3
with working angles 808110099,
accuracy grade 2
angle gauge block 380, 81, 100,
992 GOST 287588.
Basic dimensions and accuracy grades of angle blocks must be con
sistent with those indicated in the Table 17.
43
Table 17
Angle gauge blocks
Block type Drawing
Accuracy
grade
1
B
5
1; 2
2
7
0
M
1
M
2
N
B
5
1; 2
3
M
2
M
1
M
3
M
4
o
3
o
1
o
4
o
2
B
5
3
0
1; 2
4
M
4
M
6
M
1
M
2
M
3
B
20min
0; 1; 2
Note. Designations used in the drawings are as follows: M measuring
surface; N nonmeasuring surface; B base surface; T top (engraved)
surface; working angle.
Nominal values of working angles of angle blocks of types 1, 2 and 3
must correspond to the angles indicated in the Table 18.
44
Table 18
Working angles
Block type Measurement range Increment
1
1' 29'
From 1 to 9
2'
1
2
From 10 to 79
From 15 to 16
From 15 to 1510'
From 15 to 1501'
From 1510' to 7550'
1
10'
1'
15"
1010'
3
80 81 100 99; 82 83 98 97;
84 85 96 95; 86 87 94 93;
88 89 92 91; 90 90 90 90;
1
8910' 8920' 9050' 9040'
8930' 8940' 9030' 9020'
8950' 8959' 9010' 9001'
90 90 90 90;
10'
8959'30" 8959'45" 9000'30" 9000'15
90 90 90 90;
15"
Blocks of the types 1, 2 and 3 should have holes for clamping them to
gether into stacks with the holders from accessory sets.
Blocks of the type 4 must be manufactured with 6, 8, 10, 12, 18, 20, 24
and 36 measuring surfaces (side faces).
Angle gauge blocks with the number of measuring surfaces 6 8, 10 and
12 should have a central hole with a diameter d = 20H7; angle gauge blocks
with the number of measuring surfaces 18, 20, 24 and 36 should have a cen
tral hole with a d = 32H7.
Width of the measuring surfaces (length of a polygon) must be not less
than 15 mm. The difference between the maximum and minimum width of a
measurement surface should not exceed 0.8 mm.
The distance from the measuring surface to the wall of the central hole
should be at least 15 mm.
45
Specification requirements for angle gauge blocks
Permissible deviations of gauge blocks from the nominal values, toler
ances of perpendicularity of the measuring surfaces to the base surface of the
block or the block mount, as well as tolerances of the measuring faces flat
ness should not exceed values given in the Table 19.
Deviations of working angles from the nominal value are determined
between the adjacent faces.
Hardness of the measuring surfaces of steel blocks must be not less than
61 HRC.
Surface roughness parameters of the gauge block surfaces are set in
technical specifications for specific types of gauge blocks.
Failurefree performance of gauge blocks of types 1, 2 and 3 shall be not
less than 220 wringings.
Mean life of the gauge blocks of types 1, 2 and 3 must be at least 2
years, gauge blocks of the type 4 no less than 10 years.
The established full service life of the gauge blocks of types 1, 2 and 3
must be at least 1 year, gauge blocks of the type 4 at least 5 years.
Failure criteria and limit state of a block are set in the technical specifi
cations for specific types of gauge blocks.
Gauge blocks of types 1, 2 and 3, and a special ruler should be made of
steel 15 GOST 80178 or other steel grades compliant with the basic
characteristics of the mentioned grade.
Gauge blocks of the type 4 must be made of optical grade glassceramic
0115M. It is allowed to use optical glass 8 or 7 GOST 351476 or steel
15 GOST 80178.
Table 19
Tolerances and deviations of the angular gauge blocks
Block
type
Permissible deviations
from nominal values
Tolerance
Perpendicularity of the
measuring surfaces
with respect to the base
surface of the block or
the block mount
Flatness of the meas
uring surfaces, m
Accuracy grades
0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2
1
2
3
4



5"
10"
10"
10"
8"
30"
30"
30"
15"



5"
60"
60"
60"
20"
100"
100"
100"
30"



0.05
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.07
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.10
46
Note. Flatness requirements are not applied to the area of the measuring
surfaces adjacent to the nonmeasuring surfaces; the area is 3 mm wide from
the short edges and 1 mm wide from the long edges for gauge blocks of types
1, 2 and 3. Flatness tolerance for these areas for the mentioned gauge blocks
types is 0.6 m. Flatness tolerances for the edge areas of the measuring sur
faces and their dimensions for gauge blocks of the type 4 should be set in en
gineering documentation.
Sets of gauge blocks of types 1, 2 and 3 (see the Table 16) include a
special ruler, clamping accessories and screwdriver.
All sets (individual blocks) or a multifaceted prism in a mount are
packed in a case or packing box. The set includes a certificate in accordance
with GOST 2.00193 and a manual.
Gauge blocks are marked according to GOST 1376286. Nominal val
ues of working angles should be marked on the upper surface of each block
of type 1, 2 and 3.
The upper surface of each block of the type 1 should be labeled with
plus sign (+) and minus sign (), indicating the direction of the imaginary in
tersection of measuring surfaces (dihedral angle vertex). The minus sign ()
must be marked on the side of the angle vertex.
The upper surface of the blocks of the type 4 must be marked with: the
serial number according to the numbering system of the manufacturer; accu
racy grade; order number of faces (1, 2, 3, .. n) or nominal value of the angles
in degrees (0, ..., N) from the first face in the direction opposite to the
clockwise direction.
The table on the case of the gauge blocks should include: designation
for the gauge blocks of types 1, 2, 3 or 4; the order number according to the
numbering system of the manufacturer; year of production or reference des
ignation of the year.
For the blocks of types 1, 2 and 3 each pocket in a case should be sup
plied with an indication of the nominal value of the gauge block placed in.
47
Acceptance and Test
To verify compliance with the requirements of the standard, the state
check testing, acceptance testing, periodic testing and reliability testing are
carried out.
The state check tests are carried out in accordance with GOST 8.00180
and GOST 8.38380.
During the acceptance tests, each gauge block must be tested for com
pliance with GOST 287588.
Gauge blocks should be subjected to periodic tests at least once every
three years for compliance with all requirements of GOST 287588.
Gauge blocks of the types 1, 2 and 3 are selected in fives from the sets
1 and 2 for tests.
If the tests reveal that the gauge blocks comply with all requirements of
the standard, periodic testing results are considered satisfactory.
Reliability testing is carried out at least once every three years for com
pliance with the requirements of the standard. It is allowed to combine relia
bility tests with periodic tests.
The effect of climatic factors of environment on transportation is tested
in climatic chambers. Tests are carried out in the following conditions: first at
a temperature of minus (50 3) C, then at a temperature of plus (50 3) C
and finally at a relative humidity of (95 3) % at a temperature of (35 3)
C. Exposure time in each of the given conditions in a climate chamber is at
least 2 hours. Upon completion of the tests, gauge blocks deviations must not
exceed values given in the Table 18.
6.5 Transfer of Physical Quantity
The procedure of transfer of units of physical quantity from the standard
or base reference measuring instruments to the standards of lower accuracy,
including working standards, is provided in accordance with the verification
chain. The verification chain of length transfer involves parallel intercompar
ison and verification. The transfer of unit is done from working standard to
reference standard, then to standards of lower accuracy, then to working
measuring instruments (optimeters, measuring machines, automatic checking
machines, etc.). The structure of the verification chain consists of several lev
els, corresponding to stages of transfer of units.
There are various types of verification of measuring instruments.
48
1. The usage of a reference standard being calibrated according to the
standards. This type of verification may be conducted by any service
agency, including industrial standardization service.
2. Intercomparison of the instrument readings and readings of the ref
erence instrument or reference device. Reference instrumentation has
higher accuracy grade and respectively quite high cost, for these rea
sons, as a rule, verification is carried out in special organizations
centres of standardization and metrology.
3. Elementalequivalent method is the most timeconsuming type of
verification. The method consists in the fact that if the instrument
has, for example, a sensor, an amplifier, an analogdigital converter
and some other auxiliary devices, then the working performance and
measurement errors are determined for all the elements of the in
strument, without verification of the instrument as a whole. In this
case, depending on the type of auxiliary devices, these may be tested
as the instruments that measure physical quantities different from
those for measurement of which the instrument is intended. For ex
ample, profilographprofilometer may consist of a diamond stylus, an
electrical measuring converter, an amplifier, an integrating block and
a high voltage directwriting instrument or output to computer. It is
possible to verify the mechanical, electrical and electronic parts of
the instrument individually and to arrive at conclusions about work
ing performance and accuracy grade of the instrument as a surface
layer quality measuring instrument.
In some cases, when a new type of the measuring instrument is verified,
the mentioned type of verification turns out to be more suitable and even in
some cases the only one possible. Verification of some types of measuring
instruments can be conducted without using reference instruments or stand
ards. The measuring instrument readings may be checked by the tables of
physical constants and standard reference data. Among these constants, for
example, there are electromagnetic constant, Avogadro constant the num
ber of particles in one mole of a substance, Newtonian gravitational constant
and so on. Readings of these measuring instruments are checked with physi
cal constants or standard reference data.
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6.6 Measuring Instruments and Devices
The measurements of physical quantities in production are carried out
with the help of working measuring instrumentation measuring instruments
or measuring units.
The measuring instrument is a measuring device aimed at obtaining
measuring data in such a form which is comprehensible to an observer. The
measurement instrument represents a device calibrated as a rule in units of
the measurand.
The measuring instruments include: a measuring transducer (sensor), da
ta digitizer or analog transducer, signal amplifier, readout device.
In addition, the modern measuring instruments can be equipped with
various electronic devices. For example, they may include digital readout de
vices, recorders or magnetic storage, special devices for jointing instrument
and computer. If the measuring instrument has digital outputs, such as USB,
the user has some extra options, for example, statistical processing of data
under dynamic conditions of measurement, measurement of parameters of
rapidly changing processes.
Depending on the software used for measuring procedure, different pos
sibilities are available, such as: computer can manage the measurement pro
cess, carry out an analysis of current measurement information, etc.
The measuring transducer is a device designed to issue signal of meas
urement information in an easytouse form for its transfer, conversion, pro
cessing and storage. The transducer includes a sensor (primary transducer),
an intermediate transducer, a transmitting transducer and a multiplier:
the sensor comes first in the measurement chain and directly acquires
measurement information. The sensor has a sensitive element (con
tact or noncontact) which is influenced by the measurand;
the intermediate transducer is placed second in the measurement
chain;
the transmitting transducer is intended for remote signal transmis
sion;
the multiplier is designed to increase the quantity in several times.
The transducers differ in construction and operating principles. They are
available of the following types: mechanical, optical, capacitance, inductive,
laser and etc.
The amplifiers are realized as cathode amplifiers, frequency converters
and matching devices with computer output.
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The measuring device is a complex including several devices and auxil
iary components. The differences between instruments and devices are very
subtle. For example, if the temperature is measured with the help of thermo
couple and voltmeter, one can call it either a thermoelectric device or an elec
tric thermometer.
Another example is a universal measuring microscope (MMM) which is
used to measure geometrical parameters of parts, but essentially is a measur
ing device with a variety of auxiliary devices and appliances.
Besides measuring devices and auxiliary devices the measuring systems
may include measures or reference sets. For example, there are sets of re
placeable scales, interchangeable lenses with different focal distance, weight
sets, resistance multipliers and inductance boxes, normal galvanic cells, etc.
At the present time geographically spread means of measurement may
be connected by communication channels, forming a network. All in total
represent information and measurement system. Information in such a system
is provided in the most comprehensible form and can be transmitted via the
network. The measuring system allows carrying out electronic information
processing, analyzing and using it for automatic control of production pro
cesses.
6.7 Metrological Parameters and Characteristics of Measuring In
struments
Metrological parameters and characteristics of measuring instruments
and devices include scale range, measurement range, scale interval, scale
spacing, sensitivity and variation, etc.
The indication range is a range of scale values limited by initial and fi
nite values of the scale. The maximum and minimum values of a measurand
marked at the scale are called initial and finite values of the instrument scale.
For example, for optimeters of IKV3 type the scale range corresponds to
0.1 mm; for length gauges of IZV type the scale range corresponds to
0100 mm.
The measurement range is a range of measurand values, within which
the measuring instruments errors are standard. For the optimeters of IKV3
type the measurement range is equal to 0200 mm, and for the length gauge
to 0250 mm.
The scale interval is a difference in values of the quantity corresponding
to the two adjacent marks on the scale. For example, for optimeters and
length gauges it equals to 0.001 mm, and for a micrometer 0.01 mm.
51
The scale spacing is a distance between centres of two adjacent marks
of the scale measured along the imaginary line passing through the centres of
the marks of the scale. It is clear that the bigger the scale spacing is, the high
er the magnification is and the easier the way of comprehension of measure
ment information by an observer is.
The measuring instrument sensitivity is a relation of the measuring in
strument output signal variation to the caused variation of the measurand. For
example, if the measurand variation equals to 0.01 mm , when measuring a
shaft diameter with nominal dimension x=100 mm, caused travel of a pointer
of the given device over 100 mm, then it means that absolute sensitivity is
10/0.01 = 1,000, and relative sensitivity equals to 10(0.01/100) = 10,000. For
the indicating measuring instrument the absolute sensitivity is numerically
equal to the transmission ratio and with change of scale interval the instru
ment sensitivity remains invariant. But sensitivity may differ with respect to
the section of the scale. The concept of sensitivity can be determined by
transfer function as the function of a relationship between input and output
signals of a transducer. Depending on the type of the function, the sensitivity
may be a constant quantity or a quantity dependent on this function. If a func
tion is linear, then the scale of an instrument is linear and vice versa. The
scale linearity depends not only on the transducer characteristics but also on
the type of physical quantity unit.
Together with sensitivity there is a concept of threshold of sensitivity,
which is the minimum value of measurand variation which may be shown by
the device. The lower the threshold of sensitivity is, the greater the sensitivity
is. Furthermore it is dependable on definite conditions of observation, such as
possibility to differentiate small deviations, stability of indications, static fric
tion magnitude and others.
Reading variation is defined as a difference in device indications ob
tained for a point of the measurement range, when the point is slowly ap
proached from the left and from the right. The reading variation represents
algebraic difference of the maximum and minimum values of the multiple
measurements of the same quantity in fixed conditions. Variation character
izes instability of indications of a measuring instrument.
A calibration characteristic is a relationship between input and output
values of a measuring instrument represented by a formula, table or diagram.
In most cases instruments are calibrated in such a way that the scale interval
exceeds the maximum calibration error but this principle is not always appli
cable. Thus, although there is a certain relation between accuracy and sensi
tivity, we should not confuse these concepts. The device calibration charac
teristics can be used for refinement of measurement results.
52
The important characteristic of contact measuring instruments is meas
uring pressure, which is applied on a measurement line and creates defor
mation at the contact of a measuring point with a part surface.
The measuring instruments can be analog and digital. In analog instru
ments the indications are determined by the scale and are continuous function
of measurand variation. In digital devices the discrete signals of measuring
information are produced and the result is represented in a digital form.
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7. Measurement Errors and Causes of the Errors
The quality of measurement is characterized by accuracy, certainty, cor
rectness, repeatability and reproducibility of measurement. The measuring
device accuracy is a metrological characteristic determined by measurement
error within the limits of which we can use the given measuring instrument.
In metrology a concept of accuracy grade of a device or material
measure is used. The accuracy grade of means of measurement (GOST
8.40180) is a general characteristic which is determined by the limits of in
trinsic or complementary errors including some other properties influencing
accuracy which values are specified by the standards issued on different
types of measuring instruments.
The accuracy grade describes properties of measuring instruments but
not accuracy of the measurement itself, as to determine measurement errors it
is necessary to take into account errors of the method of measurement, cali
bration errors, etc.
Depending on accuracy all devices are divided into grades: the first, the
second, etc. The permissible errors for different types of instruments are
specified in national standards. Accuracy is a measurement quality that repre
sents closeness of measurement results to the true value of a measurand.
Quantitative assessment of accuracy is a reciprocal absolute value of a rela
tive error. For example, if the measurement error is equal to 10
6
, then the ac
curacy equals to10
+6
.
The measurement accuracy depends on measurement errors:
absolute error of measurement is a difference between measured val
ue of a quantity and its true value expressed in units of a measurand;
relative error of measurement is a relation of absolute error of meas
urement to the true value of a measurand;
systematic error of measurement is an error component being con
stant or varying in accordance with a definite law within repeated
measurements of the same quantity. Systematic error can be elimi
nated with the help of corrections;
random error of measurement is an error component varying within
measurements of the same quantity repeated in a random manner;
gross error of measurement is defined as an error, which value is es
sentially greater than the expected one.
54
According to the sequence of errors origin there are several types of er
rors:
instrument error is a measurement error component depending on er
rors of the given measuring instruments. These errors are determined
by the quality of measuring instruments;
error of the method of measurement is a measurement error compo
nent caused by imperfection of a measurement method;
calibration error is a measurement error component caused by imper
fection of the calibration process;
reading error is a measurement error component caused by inaccurate
reading of a measuring instrument. The error is caused by visible var
iation of the relative positions of scale marks as a result of move
ments of the line of sight; this error is called a parallax error;
verification error is a measurement error component which is a result
of imperfection of verification of means of measurement. The errors
due to measuring pressure take place when a contact measuring in
strument is used. In estimating of measuring pressure effect on meas
urement error it is vital to define elastic deformation of a positioning
part of the instrument and deformation in a contact area of a measur
ing point with a part;
influence quantity is a physical quantity that is not being measured
by a given instrument, but which influences the value of the measur
and, for example, temperature and ambient pressure, relative humidi
ty and other parameters different from standard values.
The error of a measuring instrument that occurs when the instrument is
used in standard conditions, when the influence quantities are within the lim
its of reference range, is called intrinsic error.
If the value of the influence quantity is out of the standard range, the
complementary error arises.
Standard conditions for the measuring instruments application are the
conditions in which influence quantities have normal values or are within the
limits of a standard (working) range. The standard conditions for
implementation of linear and angular measurements and verification are
specified in GOST 8.05073 and GOST 8.39580 respectively.
Standard temperature of measurements is equal to 20C (293 K), here
with the working range of temperatures is equal to 201 C.
Thermal errors are caused by thermal deformations. The reason for the
deformations is a difference of temperatures of an object being measured and
a measuring instrument. There are two basic reasons that cause errors by
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thermal deformations: deviation of air temperature from 20 C and shortterm
variation of air temperature during the measurement.
Personal errors are the errors depending on an operator. Four types of
personal errors are possible:
1. reading error;
2. presence error (influence of operators thermal radiation on ambient
temperature and thus on a measuring instrument);
3. implementation error (brought in by an operator during the device
setting up);
4. professional errors (are connected with operators qualification and
his/her attitude to the procedure of measurement).
Observation result is the value of a quantity obtained under individual
observation.
Result of a measurement is the value of a quantity obtained during
measurement after observation results analysis.
Stability of a measuring instrument is a qualitative characteristic of a
measuring instrument, reflecting invariability of its metrological properties.
Uncertainties of a measuring instrument or variations in its indications
serve as a quantitative evaluation of stability. The reliability of measurements
characterizes the degree of confidence in measurement results. The reliability
of error evaluation is determined by the laws of probability theory and math
ematical statistics. It allows choosing means and methods of measurement for
each individual case providing results, which errors do not exceed the nomi
nal values with the necessary certainty.
Correctness of measurement is the quality of measurement that reflects
closeness of the systematic errors to zero in the measurement results.
Repeatability is the quality of measurement that reflects closeness of
measuring results to each other, taken on the same parameter, by the same
instrument, the same method of measurement, in the same conditions and
with the same care.
Reproducibility is the quality of measurement that reflects closeness of
measuring results to each other, made in different conditions (in different
time, places, by different methods and means).
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8. Measurement Traceability Assurance
Measurement traceability assurance is activity of metrological or other
services of the country aimed at establishment of necessary standards, refer
ence and working measuring instruments, correct selection and application of
the instruments; development and application of metrological standards and
regulations; implementation of other metrological activities required for pro
vision of required quality of measurements at the workplace, in enterprises
and organizations, in industry and in the national economy.
Measurement assurance is aimed at provision of traceability and accura
cy of measurements in order to achieve desired characteristics of the equip
ment functioning in accordance with specifications. Measurement assurance
represents a set of scientific, technical and organizational activities carried
out by corresponding organizations and specialists. Measurement assurance
includes: theory and techniques of measurement, inspection and assurance of
accuracy and traceability; technical and organizational issues of traceability
of measurements, including technical documents such as national standards,
procedural guidelines, technical specification and conditions that specify pro
cedure and rules of processes implementation.
The practice of measurement assurance organizations covers a large
range of issues. Application of statutorily prescribed system of physical
quantities is monitored by the organizations. Traceability and accuracy of
measurements is assured by dissemination of physical quantities from nation
al standards to reference measuring instruments and then to working measur
ing instruments. Functioning of national and departmental verification
schemes is also monitored. New methods of measurements providing pin
point accuracy are constantly developed. Thereupon standards and reference
measuring instruments are established.
The condition of means of measurement in departments and ministries is
monitored. Measurement assurance of measuring instruments solves quite
specific issues on the different stages of the instruments service life:
specification of requirements to volume, quality and nomenclature of
measurements and control means, the parameters and characteristics
of metrological systems and measuring instruments are studied;
analysis and selection of means of measurement and inspection
among the seriesproduced ones. If there are no appropriate means of
measurement, then specifications for production of the new ones are
developed;
57
implementation of the verification of means of measurement;
analysis of the manufacturing processes in terms of selection of
measuring instruments, sequence of the inspection operations and
metrological characteristics of corresponding measuring instruments;
production support of batch measuring instruments and inspection
means with the purpose of timely reequipment of enterprises;
metrological testing of drawings and engineering documentation to
gether with updating of methods of measurement and inspection.
Responsibility for correctness, timeliness and integrity of measurement
assurance of technical equipment is laid on the users. Metrological services
of organizations and enterprises are in charge of solution of issues on meas
urement assurance.
Technical foundations for measurement traceability assurance are the
following:
a system (set) of national standards of units and scales of physical
quantities known as a national standard base;
a system of dissemination of units and scales of physical quantities
from standards to all measuring instruments with the help of stand
ards and other means of verification;
a system of development, manufacture startup and production of
working measuring instruments which ensure activities connected
with research, development, identification of product characteristics,
manufacturing processes and other objects with required accuracy;
a state system of testing of measuring instruments (approval of meas
uring instruments type) designed for batch production or mass pro
duction and import;
a system of state and departmental metrological certification, verifi
cation and calibration of measuring instruments;
a system of certified reference materials of composition and proper
ties of materials;
a system of standard reference data on physical constants and proper
ties of materials.
58
8.1 Verification, Inspection and Expertise of Measuring
Instruments
One of the most important forms of state supervision of measuring
equipment is state (or departmental) verification of measuring instruments,
which ensures metrological accuracy.
The measuring instruments undergo initial, periodic, additional or in
spectional verifications:
initial verification is carried out along with the output of measuring
instruments after the manufacture or repair;
periodic inspection is carried out when measuring instruments are in
operation or storage, at appropriate intervals determined in such a
way so that to provide metrological accuracy of measuring instru
ments for the periods between verifications;
additional verification is carried out when it is necessary to prove ac
curacy of a measuring instrument in the process of correction of veri
fication intervals, in cases of damage of verification mark or seal or
loss of documents, including some other cases, while the timing of
the inspection is determined independently from the timing of period
ic inspections;
inspectional verification is carried out to identify metrological accu
racy of the currently used measuring instruments; during metrologi
cal inspection in organizations, at enterprises and supply bases.
The following measuring instruments are subjected to compulsory state
verification:
measuring instruments used by national service of legal metrology
and reference measuring instruments serving as initial ones in metro
logical organizations of ministries and departments;
measuring instruments used for estimation of the material values, in
mutual settlements and trade;
measuring instruments related to health care of population and safety
regulations;
measuring instruments used for state testing of new measuring in
struments, as well as instruments, the readings of which are used in
registration of official international and national sport records;
measuring instruments used for merchandise accounting: weight
measuring devices, flow meters, electricity meters, gas meters, oil
meters, water meters etc.;
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devices used in population health care: sound level meter, dosimeters,
roentgen meters, tonometers, medical thermometers, etc.;
measuring instruments that ensure safety of works: radiometers, mi
crowave fieldintensity meters, gasanalyzers, etc.
Other measuring instruments are subjected to compulsory departmental
verification. Timing of the inspection (verification intervals) are assigned and
corrected by metrological departments of enterprises, organizations and other
establishments exploiting measuring instruments in such a manner to provide
their metrological accuracy for the periods between verifications.
Initial verification interval is determined in state testing of the measur
ing instrument. Verification of measuring instruments should be carried out
in accordance with current national standards that cover measurement chains,
methods and means of verification.
The successful results of verification are certified by giving a verifica
tion mark to the measuring instrument and issuing a verification certificate.
Metrological inspection includes verification of measuring instruments con
ditions and implementation of a verification procedure. The results of metro
logical inspection are filed under the act containing particular verification re
sults including also proposals on withdrawal of measuring instruments
acknowledged as nonserviceable, and proposals on corrective measures with
time indication.
8.2 State Testing of Measuring Instruments
The measuring instruments designed for batch production and import
from abroad are put to compulsory state testing by agencies of National ser
vice of legal metrology. State testing involves examination of engineering
documentation of measuring instruments and experimental investigation of
the instruments in order to determine the conformance to the specified stand
ards and manufacturing requirements. Stateoftheart of the measuring
equipment is also evaluated for reasonability of manufacture or purchase of
new equipment.
State testing can be of two types: state acceptance testing of the proto
types of measuring instruments of new types that designed for a batch pro
duction or import into the Russian Federation, and state check testing of the
pilot samples from the preproduction batch and batchproduced measuring
instruments.
60
State acceptance tests are carried out by corresponding national services
of legal metrology or special national commissions consisting of representa
tives of institutes of metrology, organizationsdevelopers, manufacturers and
customers. In the process of state acceptance testing of pilot samples of the
measuring instruments the service checks conformity of measuring instru
ments with the stateoftheart, requirements of the performance specifica
tion, specification project and national standards.
Normalized metrological characteristics and possibility of their inspec
tion during manufacturing, after repairing and in operation, the possibility of
verification and maintainability of the measuring instruments being tested are
also subjected to inspection. On the basis of study and analysis of the engi
neering documentation and instruments being tested the state acceptance
commission makes recommendations on expediency (or nonexpediency) of
production of the measuring instruments of the given type.
The governmental agency on standardization and metrology studies the
materials of the state testing and concludes on approval of output of a meas
uring instrument. After that this type of a measuring instrument is registered
in the national registry of measuring instruments.
State check testing is carried out by territorial organizations of the gov
ernmental agency on standardization and metrology.
The purpose of state check testing is verification of conformity of the
manufactured measuring instruments and measuring instruments imported
from abroad with the standard requirements and standard specifications.
Check testing of batchproduced measuring instruments is carried out in cer
tain cases. Tests of this type are required during the manufacture of new
measuring instruments of a preproduction batch, in case there is a quality de
terioration of the measuring instruments produced by a manufacturer.
Check testing is carried out if there are some changes in the structure or
technology of measuring instruments production, which influence standard
ized metrological characteristics. The testing also takes place in order to con
trol quality of the manufactured measuring instruments within the terms
which are assigned by the governmental agency.
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9. Product Quality Control
Product quality is a set of product properties that determines product
ability to meet some definite requirements in accordance with the product
application.
Quality control is acquisition and processing of information on an ob
ject with the purpose of finding object parameters within the specified limits.
The process of control involves identifying if the actual values of physical
quantities correspond to the specified limit values. The purpose of control is
to answer the question whether the inspected physical quantity is within the
tolerance zone or not.
Control of parameters and characteristics of an object related to deter
mination of actual values of physical quantities is called inspection by meas
urement.
When there is no need to determine numerical values of a physical
quantity, but it is required to determine the fact that the parameter is within
the tolerance zone or out of it, a qualitative estimation of object parameters,
i.e. quality inspection is made. Quality inspection unlike inspection by meas
urement is simply called inspection.
9.1 Types of Inspection
Classification of types of quality inspection is based on various criteria:
time and position of measurement in the manufacturing route, control action
of the inspection, object of inspection, etc. Lets consider the most common
types of inspection.
Inspection can be of destructive or nondestructive type.
In destructive testing to perform checking operations it is required to
destruct an object making it unsuitable for further use. The example of de
structive testing, when the checking of compliance of a controlled parameter
with the specified limit deviations is accompanied by the object destruction,
is the product strength testing.
In nondestructive testing the compliance of a controlled value with the
specified limit deviations is determined on the results of acquired information
on the object of inspection. Interaction of measuring instrument elements
with the object of inspection doesnt cause destruction of the object and
doesnt change its properties. The examples of nondestructive testing can be:
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inspection of the part dimensions, form deviation and location deviation,
pressure, temperature, etc.
The results of inspection can be used to work on the manufacturing pro
cess. Depending on nature of this action the inspection is divided into in
process (or active) control and passive control.
Inprocess control is carried out in the technological process of product
shaping, for example during the part machining. The active results of in
process control give information on necessity of change of the machining pa
rameters or correction of manufacturing equipment parameters, for example
the necessity of change of position between cutting tool and part. Inprocess
control can be manual when the machine is operated by a man during manu
facturing process or automatic when operation is carried out with the help of
commands from the control unit. Application of inprocess control helps to
increase labour productivity, improve quality of manufacture, introduce sim
ultaneous handling of component parts of equipment, achieve high accuracy
of products, and employ semiskilled operators to such kind of work. The cre
ation of inprocess control devices that operate according to reference models
without any adjustment is rather futureoriented. These can be both tangible
objects (for example, reference parts) and corresponding software.
Unlike the inprocess control the passive control is carried out after the
completion of either a single manufacturing operation or entire technological
cycle of the object manufacturing (batch of parts or product). At the stages of
product life cycle, including production process, the given type of control has
different purposes and time needed for implementation.
There are incoming quality control, operational inspection, acceptance
inspection and also continuous, periodic and casual inspection.
Raw materials, initial materials, semifinished products, component
parts, engineering documentation and etc. are put to incoming quality con
trol. The control is carried out in accordance with several parameters, includ
ing visual inspection control and instrumental verification of product geome
try, compliance with shipping documents, defects evidence etc. The devel
opment of product quality in the process of manufacturing at the enterprise
starts with income quality control.
Operational or interoperational inspection is carried out at different
stages of manufacturing process of batch production. Its purpose and proce
dure is specified in manufacturing documentation by route or operation
sheets.
Acceptance inspection consists of inspection of finished products and
critical components. Relative position of the product elements, quality of
joints (tightening force and torque of the threaded joints, quality of adjust
ment of joint surfaces etc.), correctness of positioning and presence of parts
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in assemblies, the mass of components and product in whole, balance of ro
tating parts, etc. are subjected to this kind of control.
Continuous and periodic inspection means either continuous checking
of the controlled parameters compliance with the standards of accuracy or
correspondingly the periodic inspection in definite time intervals.
The casual inspection may take place at any arbitrary time.
The inspection is carried out in endtoend manner; objects of govern
mental, regional and international significance are subjected to state control
and supervision. For example, it refers to the objects subjected to the re
quirements of technical regulations, state supervision on measuring equip
ment, supervision of application of statutorily prescribed system of units of
physical quantities.
Another stage is inspection checkup which can be departmental, inter
departmental, nondepartmental.
Further, there are manufacturing inspection, inspection implemented by
the quality control department (QCD) of the enterprise, shop inspection by a
shop foreman and individual inspection at the workplace.
Depending on the site of inspection implementation, there can be non
stationary and stationary inspection.
Most of the inspection types are carried out directly at the workplaces:
at the machine tool, at production areas, in the workshops etc. Such kind of
inspection is called nonstationary. But in some cases it is impossible to carry
out nonstationary type of inspection, since it requires use of special means of
inspection such as separate test areas, inspection stands, laboratories and
sometimes detached structures as, for example, for radiation control. This
type of inspection is called stationary.
The objects of the inspection are: manufactured products; engineering,
trade and accompanying documentation; parameters of manufacturing pro
cess; fixtures and tools; reclamation documentation; rules of observance of
operational conditions; technical discipline and qualification of employees.
According to production output there are two types of inspection: single
and multiple inspections.
In accordance with sampling procedure there can be 100% inspection
and inspection sampling. 100% inspection of all the manufactured products
without any exception takes place in job production and smallbatch produc
tion.
In case of largebatch production or mass production the statistical qual
ity inspection is carried out.
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10. Measurement and Inspection of the Product Parameters
10.1 Measurement and Inspection
The main requirement for carrying out inspection during the manufac
turing process is to ensure accuracy. The measurement accuracy depends on a
number of factors, the main are: the maximum errors of the means of meas
urement and inspection, metrological principles of the instruments design,
accuracy of the implemented measurement methods, influence of the external
factors.
The development and adoption of procedures of measurement and in
spection is of great importance. The measurement procedure is a series of
methods, tools, procedures, conditions of preparation and implementation of
measurements, as well as rules for the processing of the experimental data to
perform specific measurements.
Measurements should be carried out in accordance with the appropriate
ly certified procedures. The development of the measurement procedures
should include:
analysis of technical requirements for the accuracy of the object be
ing measured;
identification of the required conditions of measurement;
selection of measuring instruments;
designing of the supplementary metrological equipment;
testing of the means of measurement and inspection;
planning of the processes of measurement and inspection;
development and selection of an algorithm for analysis of the results
of observation;
designing of the execution and presentation of the results of meas
urement.
Technical documents that regulate measurement procedures are:
GOSTs and procedural guidelines on procedures of measurement.
Standards are issued in case the means of measurements are regis
tered in National registry of measuring instruments;
industrial procedures of measurement that are used within the branch
of industry;
65
standards of enterprises on procedures of measurement that are used
in the enterprise. The procedures of measurement include: the stand
ards of the measurement accuracy; functional features of the meas
ured value; the need for measurement automation; the use of software
for data processing, etc.
Measurement procedures before the implementation should be certified
or standardized.
Certification of measurement procedures is performed by the state and
departmental metrological services. Here, the state metrological services cer
tify procedures of the extra accurate and vital measurements.
The standardization of procedures is used for the measurements that are
widely used in enterprises. Measurement procedures are reviewed periodical
ly for the purpose of their improvement.
10.2 Selection of Means of Measurement and Inspection
Selection of means of measurement and inspection provides the solution
of the issues related to the selection of organizational and technical forms of
inspection, expediency of inspection of the specified parameters and perfor
mance of these means.
The same metrological task can be solved with the help of various
measuring instruments that have different costs and different metrological
characteristics. The set of metrological, operational and economic character
istics should be considered in interconnection.
The metrological parameters, which should be primarily taken into ac
count are:
maximum error;
scale interval;
measurement force;
measurement limits.
Operational and economic characteristics include: cost and reliability of
measuring instruments, operating period until repair, time spent on setup and
the measurement process, weight, dimensions, etc.
In most cases, the higher the required accuracy of measurement tools is,
the heavier and more expensive the instrument is, the higher the requirements
for the operating conditions are.
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10.3 Accuracy of Means of Measurement and Inspection
Accuracy of means of measurement and inspection influences applica
tion of the standard tolerance T of the part dimension, which is reduced in a
way (Fig. 1a). Let the measuring tool be perfect, i.e. without errors, then it
can be set to the limits E
1
and E
2
, and the tolerance T would remain un
changed.
Fig. 1 Variants of the acceptance borders relative to the tolerance zone
In fact, there is always a metrological error of measurement
METR
A ,
thus to avoid acceptance of defective parts and admission of the parts, by
mistake, as nondefective, value of the tolerance T must be reduced to the
value of the manufacturing tolerance
METR r
T T A = 4 (Fig. 1, b). The vari
ant, corresponding to the situation when an instrument is set to the limits of
error
METR
A , which are the limits of the tolerance zone
1
E' and
2
E' , reduces
the manufacturing tolerance and, therefore, increases the cost of manufacture.
Reduction of manufacturing costs can be achieved either by reducing a met
rological error
METR
A , or by changing the setup, i.e. establishing acceptance
67
limits outside of the tolerance zone (Fig. 1d). Thus, the tolerance will extend
to the guaranteed value
G
T . The actual combination of measurement error
and deviation of the measured parameter is a random event.
Assuming that both components are subjected to the normal distribution,
the following can be written
2
METR r
T T A + ' = . Analysis of these dependen
cies shows that if 1 . 0 / = A T
METR
, then almost all the tolerance is used to
compensate for manufacturing errors, since 995 . 0 9 . 0 / = T T
r
in this case.
Assuming that 4 . 0 / = T T
r
, then T ) 917 . 0 6 . 0 ( can be used to compensate
for manufacturing errors. According to GOST 8.05181, the maximum per
missible error of measurement, for a range of 500 1 mm, can range from
20% (for lower accuracy grades) to 35% of the standard tolerance value.
Standardized measurement errors include both random and systematic
errors of the measuring instruments, including errors of gauge blocks, locat
ing elements, etc. They are the maximum permissible total errors.
In practice, it is economically reasonable to take value of the random er
ror of approximately 0.1 of the standard tolerance value. Consequently, the
accuracy of measuring instruments must be an order of magnitude higher
than the accuracy of the parameter being inspected. The increase in accuracy
of product manufacturing, in order to ensure the required level of quality,
leads to the need to create measuring instruments with much greater accuracy
of measurement, i.e. the principle of advanced raise of accuracy of measuring
instruments compared to the accuracy of the manufacturing tools must act.
Another variant of positioning measurement error zone is symmetrical
location with respect to the limits of size (Fig. 1, c). However, in case of such
location, there is a risk, though not large, that defective parts can be mistak
enly accepted and good parts will be rejected. If it is necessary to reduce the
risk of accepting defective parts the acceptance limits are shifted inside the
tolerance zone on the value of c (Fig. 1, d).
Value of the acceptance limits offset can be taken equal to 2 /
METR
c A = ,
if the accuracy of the manufacturing process is known, then c is to be calcu
lated. The permissible error of measurement depends on the part tolerance
and, thus is taken into account when selecting measuring instrument. Permis
sible errors of measurement for IT2  IT17 grades and range of sizes from 1
to 500 mm are given in GOST 8.05181.
The relative error of measurement is expressed by the following equa
tion:
T A
METR METR
/ ) ( o = o ,
where
METR
o is the standard deviation of the error of measurement.
68
The influence of the measurement errors in acceptance inspection upon
linear dimensions can be estimated with the help of parameters m, n and c
(Fig. 2), where: m portion of the measured parts with dimensions exceeding
the limits of size, but taken among the good parts (wrongly accepted); n
portion of the parts with dimensions not exceeding limits of size, but rejected
(wrongly rejected); c the probabilistic maximum value of the wrongly ac
cepted parts sizes overrun.
Fig. 2 shows the distribution curves of the part dimensions (
manuf
y ), and
measurement errors (
metr
y ), with the center of distribution of the measure
ment errors coinciding with the tolerance limits.
Fig. 2 Distribution curves of the inspected parameters with measurement errors
taken into account
69
The superposition of curves of
manuf
y and
metr
y distorts the distribution
curve y (
METR
o ,
MANUF
o ), as a result, the probability areas of m and n appear,
which cause the size to exceed the tolerance limit on the value of c. The
greater the ratio T
METR
/ A is, which means more accurate manufacturing pro
cess, the smaller the number of incorrectly accepted parts compared to incor
rectly rejected parts is, since 1 . 1 1 . 0 / = n m . The maximum value of the c is
in the range (1.51.73)
METR
o .
The parameters m, n, and c may be defined according to the Table 20, it
is recommended to take ) (o
METR
A =0.16 for the grades IT2IT7;
) (o
METR
A =0.12 for the grades IT8, IT9; ) (o
METR
A =0.1 for the grade IT10
and lower. The smaller values of m, n and c in the Table 20 correspond to the
normal distribution of measurement error, the greater values correspond to
the law of equal probability.
With the unknown law of measurement error distribution the values of
m, n and c can be defined as the average of the range values given in the Ta
ble 20. Limit values of m, n and c/T include only the influence of the random
component of the error of measurement. Values of m, n and c are also given
in the literature as nomograms.
GOST 8.05181 provides two methods of establishing acceptance bor
ders. The first method implies that the acceptance borders coincide with the
limits of size, in the second method the acceptance borders are shifted inward
with respect to the limits of size.
Table 20
Values of the relative error of measurement for different distribution laws
) (o
METR
A , %
m, % n , % / c T
1.60 0.37...0.39 0.70...0.75 0.01
3.0 0.87...0.90 1.20...1.30 0.03
5.0 1.60...1.70 2.00...2.25 0.06
8.0 2.60...2.80 3.40...3.70 0.10
10.0 3.10...3.50 4.50...4.75 0.14
12.0 3.75...4.11 5.40...5.80 0.17
16.0 5.00...5.40 7.80...8.25 0.25
Lets consider examples of the measuring tools accuracy selection.
70
Example 1. Determine the accuracy of the measuring instruments
required for the procedure of acceptance of manufactured shafts with
C100h6(
0.022
), and determine values of the statistical parameters m, n, and c.
Acceptance limits are set matching the limits of size.
The permissible error of measurement, according to GOST 8.05181, is
6 = A
METR
microns for % 16 ) ( = o
METR
A (accuracy grade IT6). According to
the Table 20 the number of defective parts being accepted is m=5.2%, the
number of incorrectly rejected parts is n=8%, and c=5.5%. The general
dispersion of the error of measurement of the accepted defective parts is in
the range from 5 . 27 to 5.5 microns (see Fig. 1, c), i.e. up to 5.2% of
defective parts with permissible deviations of +0.0055 mm and 0.0275 mm
can be found among the accepted ones.
Example 2. The decrease in accuracy due to errors of measurement is
unacceptable, therefore acceptance borders are shifted inside the tolerance
zone on the value c (see Fig. 1, d).
Depending on whether the manufacturing process accuracy is known or
unknown, there may be two ways of manufacturing tolerance defining. In the
first case it is needed to define limits of size when the accuracy of the manu
facturing process is unknown. In accordance with GOST 8.05181 the limits
of size are shifted by half of a permissible error of measurement. For the ex
ample considered, it would be C
003 . 0
019 . 0
100
.
10.4 Measurement Results Analysis
Processing of measurement results, using statistical methods, is applied
in practice towards the following tasks:
determination of the measuring instrument error;
identification of whether the manufacturing process parameters meet
the specified accuracy of the product;
calculation of the manufacturing tolerance;
71
determination of accuracy characteristics of the preproduction batch
es and sample batches of parts, to control and manage quality of the
products;
setting of the quality scattering parameters of similar products;
etc.
Measurement results are obtained by appropriate processing of observa
tions, readings obtained by means of measurements.
The following concepts are implemented here:
result of observation the value of the instrument readings, obtained
by an individual measurement;
result of measurement the value, obtained after processing the re
sults of observations.
During the manufacture of the batch of parts, scattering of their geomet
rical and physicalmechanical parameters inevitably occurs. Therefore, re
sults of measurement of the parameters of each individual part are random
variables. The same thing happens with repeated measurements of one part
with a given means of measurement.
In manufacture and measurements there are systematic and random er
rors.
Systematic errors are errors constant in magnitude and sign, or changing
in a predetermined law, depending on the effects of certain predictable rea
sons.
Systematic errors occur, for example, because of inaccurate machine
tool setup, measuring instrument errors, deviations of temperature from the
standard operating temperature (including the subjective actions of the opera
tor), deformations, etc.
Systematic errors of measurement can be partially or completely elimi
nated, for example, with the help of a correction table to the incorrectly grad
uated scale of the device or by determining the arithmetic mean values of
several readings in opposite positions, for example, when measuring the
thread pitch and half angle of the thread profile or by correcting wrong ac
tions of an operator (the effect of breath or touch on the temperature, the ex
ceeding of the measurement force).
Random errors are variable in magnitude and sign errors, which occur
in the manufacture or measurement, and take a particular numerical value de
pending on the number of randomly acting reasons.
A characteristic feature of the random error is a variation of their values
in repeated experiments.
72
The random errors are caused by many randomly varying factors, such
as: inaccuracies of the measuring instrument components, machining allow
ance, mechanical properties of the material, cutting force, measuring force,
varying accuracy of installation of parts on the measuring position and other
factors, and in general, none of these factors prevails.
Manufacturing errors and measurement errors are random variables. Ex
amples of random variables are: dimensions of parts during manufacture,
clearances in sliding joints, results of repeated measurements of the same
quantity, etc.
Random errors are difficult to eliminate, thats why they are taken into
account when assigning a tolerance for a dimensional or any other parameter.
The numeric value of a random variable being a result of a measurement
is considered as a random event. The same thing happens during product test
ing, for example, when it is needed to establish product quality indicators.
The ratio of n events of a random value A to the N produced tests, in
which the event might occur, is called relative frequency of W(A)=n/N.
With a sufficiently large number of trials N, the ratio value for most of
the random events is found to be stable. The value of W(A) for the event A
will fluctuate around some constant number equal to one. This number, al
ways less than one, is called the probability P(A) of the event A, i.e., P(A) is a
measure of the objective possibility of occurrence of the event A.
The probability of a certain event is equal to one, probability of an im
possible event to zero.
The relative frequency can be taken as the approximate value of the
probability P(A) of the event A at a sufficient number of tests:
N n A W A P / ) ( ) ( = ~ . (1)
Relative frequency W(A) is different from the probability P(A) that it is
a random variable, which in various series of similar tests may take, depend
ing on the random factors, different values, whereas the probability P(A) is a
constant, for a given event, number, which on average determines the relative
frequency of the event occurrence in the experiments.
With the increasing N the relative frequency approaches the probability.
The relationship between the numerical values of the random variable
and the probability of their occurrence is established by the law of probability
distribution of random variables. Probability distribution of a discrete random
variable can be represented as a table or diagram, showing how likely a ran
dom variable x takes a particular numerical value x
i
.
Probability distribution of the continuous random variable, which can
take any value within a given interval, can not be represented as a table.
The distribution is represented as a differential function of distribution
or probability density function px(x). This function is the limit of the ratio of
73
the probability of the fact that the random variable x takes the value that lies
in the interval from x to x x A + to the value of the interval x A , when x A
tends to zero.
The nature of the scattering of the essentialy large set of values of a ran
dom variable usually corresponds to a theoretical distribution law.
The scattering of the random variable values, the change of which de
pends on a number of factors, when no one factor has predominant influence,
follows the normal distribution law (Gaussian), shown in Fig. 3.
o +o
3o +3o
y
x
a
Fig. 3 Curve of the normal distribution
To this law with some approximation may be subjected: variance of er
rors of the multiple measurements; variance of manufacturing errors; errors
of measurement of linear and angular dimensions; masses of parts; values of
hardness and of other mechanical and physical quantities.
Normal distribution law has the following properties:
the probability of positive errors is equal to the probability of nega
tive errors;
small in magnitude errors have a greater probability of occurrence
than the errors of larger magnitude;
the algebraic sum of the deviations from the mean value is equal to
zero.
The dependence of the probability density is defined by the equation:
74
2
2
2
) (
2
1
o
t o
=
a x
x
e y , (2)
where a and are the parameters of the distribution; x is the argument of the
probability density function, i.e. a random variable that varies in the range
< < x ; e is the base of natural logarithms.
The normal distribution curve is symmetrical about the ordinate axis.
The value of a is equal to the mathematical expectation M(x) of the random
variable x, which is determined by the equations:
for discrete values
=
=
k
i
i i
x p x x M
1
) ( ) ( , (3)
where
i
x is the possible value of a discrete random variable; ) (
i
x p is the
probability of the value
i
x of a discrete random variable;
for continuous variables
}
=
+
dx x xp x M ) ( ) ( , (4)
where p(x) is the probability density of a continuous random variable x.
The value of M(x) represents the position of the center of variance of
random variables, the place where, for example, the sizes of the most parts of
the batch are grouped around.
In the absence of systematic errors in the results of repeated measure
ments of the same quantity in the same conditions, the expectation can be re
garded as the closest approximation to the true value of the measurand.
In analysis of the nature of the variance of the machined parts dimen
sions, the expectation can be regarded as the dimension, for which the ma
chine tool has been set up.
The magnitude of the random variable variance from the expected value
is defined by the parameter , which is called standard deviation of a random
variable and is determined by the equation:
for discrete value
 
= o
=
k
i
i i
x p x M x x
1
2
) ( ) ( ) ( , (5)
for continuous variable
 
}
= o
+
dx x p x M x x ) ( ) ( ) (
2
. (6)
Scattering of the random variables is also characterized by variance
2
) ( ) ( x x D o = .
75
Formula (2) represents an equation of the curve for the case when the
origin is located at an arbitrary position on the xaxis. If the center of vari
ance coincides with the origin of xaxis, the equation of the normal distribu
tion curve will take the form:
2
2
2
2
1
) (
o
t o
=
x
e x y . (7)
At the same time, there are other distribution laws that describe the ran
dom variables, which have the nature of a somewhat different nature.
In this case it is necessary to mention Maxwell law, to which the essen
tially positive quantities are subjected; such quantities are: the scattering of
eccentricity values, axial and radial runout, concentricity deviation, imbal
ance and other quantities that cannot be negative.
To evaluate the reliability of products Weibull law, which gives an idea
of the probability of failures, is used.
Simpson law (or the triangular distribution law) and the law of equal
probability also have become widespread.
However, for the analysis of observations the normal distribution law
Gaussian law is used.
The probability for the value to fall into a given interval can be defined
as follows. The branches of the theoretical normal distribution curve (Fig. 3)
go into infinity, asymptotically approaching the xaxis. The area enclosed by
the curve and the abscissa is equal to the probability that the random variable,
for example, error of size, belongs to range . The area under the distribu
tion curve is equal to 1 or, what is the same, 100%, and is determined by the
integral:
1
2
1 2
2
2
=
}
t o
+
o
dx e
x
. (8)
The origin is located at the point coincident with the center of variance.
Since the integrand is even and the curve is symmetrical with respect to the
maximum ordinate, we can write:
5 . 0
2
1 2
2
2
=
}
t o
+
o
dx e
x
. (9)
To express the random variable x as a fraction of its lets assume that
z x = o / hence z x o = , dz dx o = . In this case, the abscissa in Fig. 3 is ex
76
pressed in fractions of . If 0 and z are taken as limits of integration, then the
integral in equation (8) is a function of z, i.e.:
}
t o
= u
z
n
z
dz e z
z
2
0
2
1
) ( . (10)
The function ) (
0
z u is called a normalized error function (Laplace func
tion): 0 ) 0 (
0
= u ; ) ( ) (
0 0
z z u = u ; 5 . 0 ) (
0
= u ; 5 . 0 ) (
0
= + u .
It is followed from equation (9) and Fig. 4 that the area enclosed by a
segment z
1
+z
1
of the xaxis, the probability density curve and the two ordi
nates corresponding to the boundaries of the segment is the probability that a
random variable z
1
falls into the given interval.
Values for functions ) (
0
z u are given in the handbooks. Using data giv
en in these handbooks it is possible to determine the probability that a ran
dom variable x, expressed in terms of , will be within a particular interval
o
1
z . For example, we find that for z
1
=3, which corresponds to the random
variable x=3, error function is equal to 49865 . 0 ) 3 (
0
= u or
9973 . 0 ) 3 ( 2 ) 3 ( ) 3 (
0 0 0
= u = u u .
Since the area enclosed by the Gauss curve and abscissa axis is equal
to 1, then the area, which lies outside the values x=3, is equal to 1
0.9973=0.0027 and is located symmetrically in 0.00135 or 0.135% on the
right and on the left relative to the yaxis (Fig. 4).
y
x 3 2 1 0 1 2 3
0,135 % 0,135 %
u
0 1
( ) z u
0 1
(+ ) z
Fig. 4 Normal distribution curve and representation of integrands
77
Therefore, with a probability close to unity, one can assert that the ran
dom variable x will not exceed the limits of 3. Therefore, with the distribu
tion of the random variable according to the Gaussian law, the range of dis
persion is equal to o = 6
lim
V or the range o 3 is considered as a sensibly
limiting range of dispersion of a random variable and is taken as the stand
ard of accuracy tolerance. Here the probability of a random variable to ex
ceed the limits of 3 is equal to 0.0027 or 0.27%.
In production environment, due to the limited number of measurements,
analysis involves not the mathematical expectation and variance but their ap
proximate statistical estimates the empirical average x and the empirical
variance s
2
respectively, which characterise the average result of the meas
urements and the degree of results variance. These estimates are determined
by the equations:
=
+ + +
+ + +
=
=
k
i
i
i
k
k k
N
n
x
n n n
n x n x n x
x
1
2 1
2 2 1 1
...
...
; (11)
~
=
k
i
i
N
n
x x s
1
2
) ( . (12)
In these equations x
i
is the value, corresponding to the middle of the ith
interval, and k is the number of intervals. The smaller the value of s is, the
higher the accuracy of the manufacturing process or the measurement is, i.e.
the smaller the magnitude of random errors is. Hence, the parameter s is used
as a measure of the manufacturing process accuracy or, in repeated measure
ments of the same value, as a measure of the measurement method accuracy.
10.5 Examples of Measurement Results Analysis
If a set of random variables follows the law of normal distribution or the
law close to the normal distribution, then it is possible to establish, using cor
responding criteria that the considered empirical distribution in the best way
conforms to that law.
In the process of inspection of dimensions of a batch of parts or multiple
measurement of any parameter of the same part, one can find out that the ob
servation results represent a set of values of discrete random variable, i.e. set
of actual dimension values or values of size errors.
Lets study the examples of observation results analysis.
78
The method of statistical analysis of observation results is considered on
the example of measurement of discrete sizes of the shafts with C12h10(
0.07
)
machined on a lathe. The size of a sample out of the statistical population
(batch size) is equal to N = 200. Measurements are carried out by instruments
like length gage or optimeter with the scale interval 0.001 mm.
Analyzing the observation results, we conclude that among these values
there are such values which are significantly different from most of the re
sults, so we can call them gross errors. Such observations can be caused by
inspectors inattention, by extraneous parts in the sample and some other
causes that break normal conditions of experimental results generation. We
should keep in mind that these observations differ visually significantly from
the average for the given sample. In the case of gross errors, their causes
should be analyzed and eliminated.
The result that is the gross error is excluded from the population and the
remained results are processed again and new values of x and s are calculat
ed; then the furthest analysis is carried out and, if necessary, other gross er
rors are also excluded by means of Kolmogorov criterion, Irwins criterion or
others. In preliminary calculations the errors, i.e. deviations from x , exceed
ing absolute value o 3 are excluded.
The observation results after the preliminary analysis are arranged in or
der of magnitude forming the variational series. We shall find maximum and
minimum values of d
max
and d
min
and find the range of the series.
In our example the minimum value of the observed dimension equals to
11.915 mm, the maximum value to 12.005 mm and then the range R, equal
to the difference of the found limit values, is equal to:
R=d
max
d
min
=12.005 11.915=0.09 mm.
Then we shall divide the variational series into k intervals. The number
of k intervals, to some extent, depends on the sample size N and can be taken
by the following recommendations: 5 7 k < < with 40 N < ; 7 9 k < < with
40 100 N < < ; 9 12 k < < with 100 500 N < < , moreover with the small num
ber of intervals it is better to take k as an odd number. So we can see that the
values are considerably overlapped and selection of the interval number is
not determinant, thus the recommendations are only suggestive, not literal.
Taking k = 9, the interval value is equal to R/k= 0.09/9 = 0.01 mm and a
half interval totals to 0.5 R/k= 0.005 mm. We shall find the values of the class
marks and form interval series, for that we shall add 0.5R/k to d
min
, then to
the found value we shall add 0.5 R/k again and so on, as a result we shall ob
tain k R d / 5 . 0
max
, i.e. 12.000 mm.
Then we shall find a number of observations falling in each interval, for
example, 20 results have fallen in the interval 11.93511.945; 12 results
79
have fallen in the interval 11.97511.985 and so on. We should keep in
mind that the values that coincide with the interval boundary are included in
to the left interval.
The number of observations fallen in the given interval is called fre
quency.
The order of results analysis and the example of analysis presentation is
given in the Table 21. The values x and s are determined by equations (11)
and (12):
960 . 11 200 / ) 2 000 . 12 ... 6 930 . 11 2 920 . 11 ( = + + + = x mm;
015 . 0 01 . 0 ) 04 . 0 ( ... 03 . 0 ) 03 . 0 ( 01 . 0 ) 04 . 0 (
2 2 2
~ + + + + = S mm.
Table 21
The example of measurement results analysis
Intervals of actual
dimensions d
i
, mm
Average x
i
of
an interval,
mm
Number n
i
of
parts in an
interval
Deviation from av
erage x x v
i i
=
,
mm
Relative
frequency
N n
i
/
from 11.915
to 11.925
11.920 2 0.04 0.01
over 11.925
to 11.935
11.930 6 0.03 0.03
over 11.935
to 11.945
11.940 20 0.02 0.10
over 11.945
to 11.955
11.950 48 0.01 0.24
over 11.955
to 11.965
11.960 56 0.00 0.28
over 11.965
to 11.975
11.970 34 +0.01 0.17
over 11.975
to 11.985
11.980 20 +0.02 0.10
over 11.985
to 11.995
11.990 12 +0.03 0.06
over 11.995
to 12.005
12.000 2 +0.04 0.01
96 . 11 = x  200 N =
=
(
+
=
i
i
v 0
10 . 0
10 . 0
=
i
i
N
n
1
The dispersion pattern of values of the random variable, which in the
considered example is actual dimension of the shaft, is graphically represent
80
ed by the histogram consisting of rectangles, which height equals to frequen
cy and width to the range of the interval.
The dispersion is also determined by the empirical curve of distribution,
which is called distribution polygon (Fig. 5). Graphical representation of re
sults in manual analysis is easier to perform with the help of squared paper.
Xdirection means intervals of the actual dimensions of the shaft, Ydirection
is the height of rectangles equal to frequency.
Distances along Xaxis and Yaxis are recommended to plot in relation
equal to 0.8 1.0. In Fig. 5 you can see polygon and histogram of distribu
tion of shaft dimensions and location of tolerance zone that reflects require
ments to accuracy according to the drawing; as we can see the empirical re
sults do not meet the requirements of engineering documentation and this is
as it should be.
Histogram
Polygon
n
i
50
40
30
20
10
0
11.92 11.94 11.96 11.98 12.00 x
i
, mm
Tolerance zone 70 m
d
min
=11.93 d
max
=12.00
e
c
=0.035 0 e
i
=0.07
Tolerance zone
midpoint 11.965
Empirical center of
variance 11.96
Histogram
Polygon
n
i
50
40
30
20
10
0
11.92 11.94 11.96 11.98 12.00 x
i
, mm
d
min
=11.93 d
max
=12.00
e
c
=0.035 0 e
i
=0.07
Empirical center of
variance 11.96
Fig. 5 Histogram and frequency polygon of a random value
81
For example, noncoincidence of tolerance zone midpoint with empirical
centre of variance is equal to 0.005 mm and the range exceeds tolerance by
the value equal to 0.09 0.07 = 0.02 mm. In order to make conclusion on
batch acceptance, it is necessary to analyze the obtained results according to
the following features:
compliance of empirical distribution with the normal distribution
law;
estimation of confidence probability of empirical parameters;
manufacturing tolerancing.
The results analysis of random variable measurement becomes possible
if we know which theoretical law of random value distribution the empirical
distribution corresponds to.
On the basis of empirical curve shape and values of empirical parame
ters, the correspondence of the curve to one of theoretical laws is suggested.
We shouldnt forget about the importance of graphical representation of
the empirical curve, which is influenced, among other things, by selection of
intervals number and ratio of values along X and Yaxes.
Correspondence of empirical distribution to the supposed theoretical
distribution is determined on the basis of criteria
2
_ , for example, of the
Kolmogorov criterion, according to GOST 11.00674.
Comparison of characteristics of empirical and theoretical distributions
is carried out in the following manner. Values of parameters of empirical and
assumed theoretical distributions are considered. The parameters x and s, de
termined by sampled data, give only approximate response of accuracy of en
tire population of the objects.
Mathematical expectation M(x) and standard deviation o serve as a
characteristic of random variable values dispersion in entire assembly.
The difference between probabilistic characteristics M(x) and and em
pirical values x and s lies in that the first are considered as unknown con
stants characterizing distribution of the statistical population, and the second
are random variables, defined from the sample, and give only approximate
estimate of M(x) and .
The difference between M(x) and x and between and s reduces with
the increase of sample size and number of observations.
Analysis of the observation results of the sample allows to define the
limits, within which the values of the statistical population parameters will
lie.
82
The degree of that confidence that is so called confidence interval is se
lected in accordance with standard specifications to the product performance
characteristics.
Limits of the confidence interval determine confidence probability,
which characterizes reliability of the results.
In case of normal distribution, such confidence interval for mathemati
cal expectation M(x), for example, is the interval with the limits of M(x)
equal to
x
o 3 where
x
o is a standard deviation for distribution of values x .
Since
1
= o
N
s
i
x
,
the limits of confidence interval will be
i
s
N
x
1
3
.
From the table of values ) (
0
z u we shall find that within the limits
o = 3
1
z , there is 99.73% of all values of random variable x, expressed by z,
as 9973 . 0 49865 . 0 2 ) 3 (
0
= = u . Thus, with reliability 0.9973 we can predicate
that the M(x) value is within the interval
x
x o 3 .
As x and s are random variables, the confidence intervals, as it follows
from the calculation given above, depend on a factor multiplying
x
o 3 , which
we shall denote for general case by z.
It is evident that the reliability of that the value of M(x) will be within
limits of
x
z x o is more than 0.9973 if z>3 and is less than 0.9973 with z<3.
It is common when reliability is equal to one of the following quantities:
0.90, 0.95, 0.99, 0.999, which is equivalent of z equal to 1.645, 1.96, 2.576,
3.291.
Lets study the example, assume that the distribution described above is
the sample with N = 200 and is normal distribution, then:
001 . 0
199
015 . 0
1
~ =
= o
N
s
i
x
mm.
The confidence interval for M(x) is determined by the equation:
x x
z x x M z x o + < < o ) ( .
83
So with reliability 0.9 or 90% we may expect:
001 . 0 645 . 1 96 . 11 ) ( 001 . 0 645 . 1 96 . 11 + < < x M
or
962 . 11 ) ( 958 . 11 < < x M .
For the samples of small sizes the multiplier x should be replaced by a
multiplier

t which is determined in the Table 22 according to Students dis
tribution.
Table 22
The value of Students coefficient with different confidence probability P
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
o
b
s
e
r
v
a
t
i
o
n
s
The value of Students coefficient
with different confidence probabil
ity P
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
o
b
s
e
r
v
a
t
i
o
n
s
The value of Students coeffi
cient
with different confidence prob
ability P
0.05 0.90 0.95 0.98 0.99 0.05 0.90 0.95 0.98 0.99
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1.0
0.82
0.77
0.74
0.73
0.72
0.71
0.71
6.31
2.92
2.35
2.13
2.01
1.94
1.90
1.86
12.71
4.30
3.18
2.78
2.57
2.45
2.36
2.31
31.82
6.96
4.54
3.75
3.65
3.14
2.97
2.90
63.66
9.92
5.84
4.60
4.03
3.71
3.50
3.36
10
15
20
30
60
120
0.70
0.69
0.69
0.68
0.68
0,68
0,67
1.84
1.76
1.73
1.70
1.67
1.66
1.65
2.26
2.14
2.09
2.04
2.00
1.98
1.96
2.76
2.60
2.53
2.46
2.39
2.36
2.33
3.25
2.98
2.86
2.76
2.66
2.62
2.58
The value

t depends on the sample size, i.e. on N  1; using these table
we may find that with N = 20 and reliability 0.9 the coefficient

t is equal to
1.73; with the same value N and reliability 0.95, 0.99 and 0.999 the

t equals
correspondingly to 2.09, 2.86 and 3.88.
The selection of reliability is defined by the object of manufacture, for
example: for generalpurpose products the reliability can be equal to 0.9; for
critical parts 0.95; for aeronautical equipment 0.99; and finally 0.999 for
84
critical equipment which malfunction can pose a hazard to human health and
life.
Thus, if the values 96 . 11 = x and 015 . 0 = s were obtained from the sample
of 20 pieces, but not 200 pieces (as it has been shown in the previous exam
ple), so with reliability 0.9 the limits of confidence interval would be the fol
lowing:
001 . 0
199
015 . 0
1
~ =
= o
N
s
i
x
mm.
001 . 0 73 . 1 96 . 11 ) ( 001 . 0 73 . 1 96 . 11 + < < x M
or
965 . 11 ) ( 955 . 11 < < x M .
For the reliability equal to 0.999, the confidence interval is significantly
larger:
001 . 0 88 . 3 96 . 11 ) ( 001 . 0 88 . 3 96 . 11 + < < x M
or
972 . 11 ) ( 948 . 11 < < x M .
With the sample size decreasing and the required reliability increasing,
the width of the confidence interval will increase, i.e. the limits of possible
values M(x) will expand.
Similarly to this, the confidence intervals for the value
x
o can be found.
10.6 Example of Creating Frequency Polygon and Histogram in
Excel 2007
Open Microsoft Excel 2007 and into the Table (Fig. 6) enter data of
the example given in Section 10.5 (Table 21): average value
i
x of the interval
and number
i
n of parts in interval, having doubled the column with the val
ues
i
n .
85
Fig. 6 Initial data
Perform the following actions:
1. At the toolbar push the button Insert (Fig. 7). First choose the
type Histogram. Then push the button OK.
Fig. 7 Choosing Histogram type of graphic representation
2. Secondly it is necessary to specify the source of the diagram data.
To do this, click the right mouse button in the opened white panel
and choose Select data. In the bar Range of data for the dia
gram push the button with red arrow and having pressed the left
mouse button select two columns with values
i
n , then push the but
ton with red arrow again returning to the panel of diagram master.
86
3. Then in the same panel Select data go to tab Bar/Column. In
the bar Labels on horizontal axis click on Edit and also push
the button with red arrow and select column with values xi, then
push the button with red arrow again returning to the panel of dia
gram master. Click OK.
4. At the constructed diagram click the right mouse button on any
column of the histogram and select Format data series, go to the
tab Parameters of series and set the width of side clearance equal
to zero, press OK. So we have constructed the distribution histo
gram for the given values (Fig. 8).
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
2,2190 2,2202 2,2214 2,2226 2,2238 2,2250
1
2
Fig. 8 Completed histogram
5. The next step is the construction of distribution polygon. On the con
structed distribution histogram we do the following actions: click by
left mouse button on any column of the histogram and at the toolbar
select Insert, then Diagram and select one of the suggested dia
grams. As a result we have got histogram and distribution polygon
(Fig. 9).
87
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
2,2190 2,2202 2,2214 2,2226 2,2238 2,2250
1
2
Fig. 9 Histogram and distribution polygon
10.7 Example of Creating Histogram, Polygon and Curve of
Normal Distribution in Statistica 7.0
The system Statistica is a package for complete statistical analysis
which involves broad graphic possibilities. The package Statistica includes a
great number of different categories and diagram types.
In order to construct histogram and polygon with curve of normal distri
bution it is necessary to have only initial data for the histogram. These data
should be entered into the table of Statistica 7.0 (Fig. 10). Fig. 10 represents
only small part of data.
88
Fig. 10 Initial data
Then, in horizontal menu, select Graphs and Histograms (Fig. 11).
Fig. 11 2D histograms
89
With the next step it is necessary to set the number of histogram col
umns (Categories). In our case we set 6 columns and push the button
OK. Now we can see the window of data selection for the histogram
(Fig. 12). Select a column with data and press OK again.
Fig. 12 Data selection window
So we have the constructed histogram and theoretical curve of normal
distribution (Fig. 13).
Fig. 13 Histogram and distribution curve
90
For the construction of distribution polygon it is necessary to push the
right mouse button on the constructed histogram and in the dropdown menu
select Fitting. Then it is needed to push Add new fit (Fig. 14) and select
the type Lowess (Fig. 15).
Fig. 14 Fitting window
Fig. 15 Fit type selection
So we have got the histogram, polygon and theoretical curve of normal
distribution for the entered data (Fig. 16).
91
Fig. 16 histogram, polygon and theoretical curve of normal distribution
Thus, the package Statistica 7.0 substantially helps to simplify analysis
and processing of data and provides simple tools of diagram construction.
The outlined method allows to estimate any manufacturing process, nu
merically assess accuracy of the process, determine values of the parameters
that exceed acceptance limits.
92
Conclusion
A limited volume of the book is not allowed to consider a number of
practical issues of engineering measurements in mechanical engineering. The
degree of importance varies and the questions are commonly examined in the
literature.
The issue of the maximum achievable accuracy of measurements, which
depends on the accumulated knowledge in the basic sciences, is expected to
be considered in a separate book.
Verification of measuring instruments, as well as metrological certifica
tion, calibration and graduation is received relatively little attention. Further
information on these questions can be found in the recommendations MI
196789.
Of great importance for the practical activities are the development of
techniques of measurement of the required quantity, the choice of the method
and means of measurement, planning of the inspection process, etc. Further
information on these questions can be found in handbooks on engineering
measurements in the relevant areas of industrial production.
93
Index
A
abscissa axis, 74
absolute error of measurement, 53
absolute measurements, 11
absolute scale, 19
acceptance border, 69
acceptance inspection, 34
accuracy grade, 25
actual dimension, 77
analog, 48
analysis of measurements results, 70
area under the curve, 76
automatic control, 62
B
base unit, 14
batch of parts, 62
batch production, 59
C
calibration, 8
calibration characteristic, 51
calibration error, 54
casual inspection, 63
center of variance, 74
certain event, 72
certified reference material, 26
clearance, 72
collective standard, 24
comparison measurements, 11
complementary error, 54
complex of measuring instruments,
24
component parts, 62
confidence interval, 82
confidence probability, 82
contact method of measurement, 12
continuous inspection, 62
continuous quantity, 74
correction table, 71
correctness of measurement,53
cutting force, 72
D
defective part (faulty part), 66
derived unit, 14
destructive testing, 61
deviation, 12
dimension, 9
direct measurement, 9
discrete quantity, 74
duplicate standard, 23
E
elementalequivalent method of veri
fication, 48
empirical average, 77
empirical variance, 77
engineering documentation, 46
Engineering measurements, 11
error function, 76
error of method of measurement, 54
essentially positive quantity, 73
event (random event), 67
extraneous part, 78
94
F
frequency, 15
frequency polygon, 80
gauge block, 12
gauge block holder, 44
G
Gaussian law, 73
gross error, 53
group standard, 24
guaranteed tolerance, 67
H
handbook, 76
histogram, 80
I
imbalance, 75
implementation error, 55
incoming quality control, 62
indication range / scale range, 50
indirect measurement, 10
influence quantity, 54
initial material, 62
inprocess control, 62
inspection / review, 7
instrument error, 54
instrument error, 70
integrand, 76
interchangeable, 50
intermediate transducer, 49
interoperational inspection, 62
interval, 19
interval scale, 19
interval series, 78
intrinsic error, 54
Irwin's criterion, 78
J
job production, 63
joint measurement, 11
K
Kolmogorov criterion, 78
L
length measuring gauge, 78
limit of integration, 76
M
machining allowance, 72
maintainability, repairability, 60
manual inspection, 62
manufacturing documentation, 62
manufacturing process, manufactur
ing route, 62
manufacturing tolerance, 66
mass production, 63
material measure, 22
mathematical expectation, 19
Maxwell law, 75
mean life, 45
means of measurement, measuring
instrument, 7
measurand, 9
measure box, 26
measurement, 9
measurement datum, 49
measurement error, 11
measurement force, 65
measurement method, 9
measurement position, 72
measurement range, 50
95
measurement result, 10
measurement standard, standard, eta
lon, 22
measurement traceability (uniformity
of measurement), 7
measuring instrument, 7
measuring instrument sensitivity, 51
measuring transducer, 49
method of comparison with a stand
ard measure, 12
method of direct evaluation, 12
multiplier, 49
multivalue measure, 26
N
nominal scale, 18
noncontact method of measurement,
12
nondestructive testing, 61
normal distribution, 67
normal distribution law, 73
O
observation result, 55
operation sheet, 62
operational inspection, 62
optimeter, 12
ordinate, 73
ordinate axis, 80
P
passive control, 62
periodic inspection, 34
personal error, 55
physical quantity, 9
presence error, 55
principle of measurement, 64
probability, 55
probability density, 73
product quality, 61
production process, 62
professional error, 55
Q
quality control, 61
quality control department, 63
R
random error, 53
random variable, 71
range, 20
range of dispersion, 77
ratio scale, 19
raw material, 62
reading error, 25
reading variation, 51
reference measuring instruments, 25
reference standard, 23
reject, 67
relative error of measurement, 53
relative frequency, 72
relative frequency, 72
reliability, 47
repeatability, 53
reproducibility, 53
route sheet, 62
S
sample, 71
sample size, 81
scale, 18
scale interval, 50
scale spacing, 50
sensor, 48
service life, 45
96
Simpson distribution (Triangular dis
tribution), 75
singlevalue measure, 26
squared paper, 80
stability of a measuring instrument,
55
standard conditions, 20
standard deviation, 19
standard of accuracy, 77
standard tolerance, 66
state testing, 34
statistical analysis, 78
statistical estimate, 77
statistical population, 78
Student's coefficient, 83
Student's distribution, 83
surface layer quality, 48
systematic error, 53
T
testingcalibrating measurements, 11
thread pitch
threshold of sensitivity, 51
tie, 33
tolerance, 20
tolerance zone, 66
transfer standard, 23
transmitting transducer, 49
transposition measurement, 9
true value, 53
U
unit, 8
unit of physical quantity, 14
V
variance, 73
variational series, 78
verification, 7
verification error, 54
W
wear block, 33
Weibull law, 75
working measuring instruments, 22
working standard, 23
workshop, 63
wringability, 27
97
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100
Educational Edition
, 2013
Published in authors version
Translator A.B. Kim
Linguistic Advisor Senior lecturer
E.A. Panasenko
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Print XEROX. Arbitrary printers sheet 000. Publisher's signature 000.
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