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Product Manager

Small Arms Systems

Soldier Lethality and Wound Ballistics from a Swedish Perspective


NDIA 51st Joint Services Small Arms Symposium
Atlantic City, May 18, 2005 Presentation to

Per G. Arvidsson
Product Manager Small Arms Systems Swedish Armed Forces Materiel Command Tel: +46-8-782 4181, Fax: +46-8-782 6412 E-mail: per.arvidsson@fmv.se Web-site: www.fmv.se

Agenda
4 Wound ballistics. 4 Small arms lethality.

Two ways to incapacitate


1.

Hit to the central nervous system.


7

Immediate incapacitation regardless of caliber or type of projectile! This happens if the projectile can create a large wound. The projectile has to have:
4 4 4

2.

Loss of blood pressure by massive bleeding.


7 7

High kinetic energy (velocity and mass). Large braking area (large caliber, expanding or fragmenting projectile). Large penetration.

Incapacitation can take time!

Wound ballistics
4 Energy dump in the target is an indication that work has

been done. 4 This work means that a temporary and permanent cavity has been created. 4 The temporary cavity is caused by the hydrodynamic shock wave. 4 The permanent cavity represents the destroyed tissue.

Swedish wound ballistic research


4 Large study in the 1970s concluded that human

and pig muscles were similar. 4 Wound ballistic research was done on anesthetized pigs. 4 These are still used for medical training in Sweden.

Test medias
4 Wood 4 Water soaked paper 4 Plasticine 4 Clay 4 Water 4 Gelatin 4 Soap

Swedish ballistic soap


4 In Sweden we use ballistic soap as a test media. 4 It shows the temporary cavity. 4 Swedish research has concluded that 140mm of

ballistic soap corresponds to the amount of human tissue destroyed if the target is hit from the frontal arc.

140mm

Soap block ballistic test setup


2 meters

Start

Soap block

Stop

100 m

The impact and exit velocities are recorded, and the energy dump is calculated.

Energy dump in 140mm soap at 100m


Typical values: 4 5.56 NATO: 180J 4 7.62 NATO: 250J
In tissue this would be the temporary cavity. The diameter corresponds to the dumped energy at that point.

Small arms lethality


Shot placement Distance Target

Lethality
Ammunition Caliber Weapon

Shot placement The single most important factor!

80%

Movies and computer games


4 By watching movies and playing computer

games some soldiers believe that a hit anywhere will bring the enemy down 4 and that he will stay down!

Target
4 Size. 4 Motivation. 4 Protection (body armor).

Ranges are short!


100 90 80

Jungle Urban Rural

Targets Engaged (%)

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Desert

Legend Desert: Arab Israeli War Rural: WW II, Korea Jungle: WW II, Vietnam Urban: Street & Bldg Survey Statistics from JSSAP, USA

100

200

300

400

500

600

Range (m)

Information from the NATO Infantry Weaponry Master Plan 2004

USMC after action report from Iraq


4 Engagements conducted with small arms

occurred in the 20-30m range. 4 Shots over 100m were rare. 4 The maximum range was less than 300m.

Information from the NATO Infantry Weaponry Master Plan 2004

Weapon
4 Barrel length (muzzle velocity). 4 Rifling twist.

US M4A1

SWE Ak 5C

GE G36K

GE G36C

Future individual weapons


4 Evolution no revolution! 4 Caliber 5.56 NATO. 4 Mil-Std-1913 rail. 4 Red-dot sight. 4 Short barrel.
GE G36K SWE Ak5C

US Mk16 Information from the NATO Infantry Weaponry Master Plan 2004

Inner ballistics
V (m/s) P (MPa) 280 240 200 800 600 400 200 160 120 80 40
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

s (mm)

50% of V0 within 80mm (3)!

Caliber
4 Energy.
E0 (J) 20 000 18 000 16 000 14 000 12 000 10 000 8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0

4 Capability.
17 000J

3300J 500J 9x19mm NATO 1700J 5.56x45mm NATO 7.62x51mm NATO 12.7x99mm NATO

Ammunition
4 Projectile:
7 Type: 4FMJ 4Tracer 4AP 7 Mass 7 Velocity

4 Stability. 4 Fragmentation.

5.56 NATO (FN SS109/US M855)


CG
Lead core

CP
Steel core

Brass jacket

Momentum

Basic data:
4 V0 = 930 m/s 4 mP = 4.0 g 4 S = 1/7 (1/178mm)

Projectile yaw angle


4 4

Projectile in flight = Spinning top! Three phases:


1. 2. 3.

Large initial yaw angle = precession. Stable. Tilt.

= Precession

Yaw characteristics 5.56 NATO


Mach 1.0

TRANSONIC

Mach 1.2

SUPER

SONIC

SUB SONIC

DSTO
A U S T R A L I A

Weapons Systems Division

Mach 0.8

408m/s

270m/s

Fragmentation
4 If the velocity is high enough the projectile can

fragment. 4 This creates fragments that work like secondary projectiles, which creates a larger wound channel. 4 For the 5.56 NATO projectile the threshold velocity for fragmentation is approx. 760 m/s (2500 fps).

890 m/s (2900 fps)

760 m/s (2500 fps)

650 m/s (2100 fps)

Swedish error budget study


4 Shooting errors (SARA). 4 Weapon and ammunition. 4 Range estimation. 4 Target lead. 4 Shooting uphill or downhill. 4 Temperature difference. 4 Drift due to rotation. 4 Wind.

S=Position A=Breathing R=Aiming A=Trigger pull

Results: two scenarios


4 Short range (< 100m):
7 Shooting

errors (SARA). 7 Target lead.


4 Long range (> 100m):
7 Shooting

S=Position A=Breathing R=Aiming A=Trigger pull

errors (SARA). 7 Target lead. 7 Range. 7 Wind.

How to improve shot placement


4 Proper basic shooting training (SARA). 4 Realistic combat training! 4 Good sights. 4 Smaller targets.

S=Position A=Breathing R=Aiming A=Trigger pull

SWE Aimpoint CS Red-Dot Sight

New Swedish pop-up target


Sheet metal (w=120mm) Cardboard

Sheet metal

Original target

Modified target

Summary
4 Shot placement is the key to lethality! 4 Proper shot placement is reached by basic

shooting training, and realistic combat training!

Questions?
Visit our web site at www.fmv.se