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The Authorship of

1 & 2 Samuel
John R. Neal, Sr.
OT9316A Ol Testament Te!t " & "" Samuel
Sprin# 2$1%
Contents
I. Abbreviations . v-vii
II. Definitions . x
III. Outline of 1 & 2 Samuel .. xi-xiii
IV. Charts .. xiv-xv
A. Chart Comparison of ! "ith #$$ xiv
%. Chart from &o"er&oint &resentation on Authorship xv
V. Authorship of 1 & 2 Samuel 1-1'
A. Intro(u)tion 1-2
%. !ra(itional Vie" of Authorship .. 2-*
C. Other &ossible Authors *-'
D. Deuteronomisti) +istorian .. '-,
-. .n(erl/in0 Sour)es . ,-11
1. !ext Criti)al Issues . 11-1'
C. Con)lusion ... 1'
V. %iblio0raph/ 12-13
A&&re'iations
A&&re'iations
Ol Testament (oo)s
1
(oo) A&&re'iation
4enesis 4en.
-xo(us -xo(.
#eviti)us #ev.
5umbers 5um.
Deuteronom/ Deut.
6oshua 6osh.
6u(0es 6u(0.
7uth 7uth
1 Samuel 1 Sam.
2 Samuel 2 Sam.
1 8in0s 1 8in0s
2 8in0s 2 8in0s
1 Chroni)les 1 Chron.
2 Chroni)les 2 Chron.
-9ra -9ra
5ehemiah 5eh.
-sther -sth.
6ob 6ob
&salms &s.
&roverbs &rov.
-))lesiastes -))les.
Son0 of Solomon Son0
Isaiah Isa.
6eremiah 6er.
#amentations #am.
-9e:iel -9e:.
Daniel Dan.
+osea +os.
6oel 6oel
1Don ere(ith; Supplement to Turabian 8
th
Edition <emphis= +ar(in0 S)hool of !heolo0/; 2>1*?.
""".hst.e(u@"p-)ontent@uploa(s@2>1*@>A@!urabian-B>>-%C.p(f. A))esse( ar)h 2B; 2>1B.
5
Amos Amos
Oba(iah Oba(.
6onah 6on.
i)ah i).
5ahum 5ah.
+aba::u: +ab.
Dephaniah Deph.
+a00ai +a0.
De)hariah De)h.
ala)hi al.
6
TB Babylonian Talmud
D+ or Drt+ E Deuteronomisti) +istorian
! E asoreti) !ext
#$$ - Septua0int
7
8
9
*efinitions
(a&+lonian Talmu, !he term !almu( )omes from the +ebre" meanin0 Fstu(/;G Finstru)tion.G
F!he "or( Talmud is the )omprehensive term for the ishnah an( its a))ompan/in0
)ommentar/; )alle( the 4emara <here meanin0 Ftea)hin0G?. !he 4emara )ontains a "i(e variet/
of material <proverbs; tales; )ustoms; fol:lore; et).? bearin0 (ire)tl/ or remotel/ on the subHe)ts
of the ishna; as "ell as stri)t exposition on the text in le0al ar0umentation an( exe0esis. !he
stru)ture of the !almu( is therefore that of the ishna; havin0 six or(er (ivi(e( into sixt/-three
tra)tates; a form it ha( obtaine( b/ the thir( )ent. !he 4emara; bein0 the "or: of the rabbis
:no"n as Amoraim <expoun(ers?; (evelope( primaril/ in t"o )enters; %ab/lon an( &alestine
<!iberias?; from the *
r(
throu0h the '
th
)enturies.G
!here are t"o e(itions of the !almu(; :no"n as the %at/lonian !almu( <some ';A,B pa0es total;
four times lon0er than her )ounterpart; the &alestinian? an( the &slestinian !almu(. u)h of the
&alestinian has been lost over time. FOf the sixt/-three tra)tates in the %ab/lonian !almu(; onl/
thirt/-six )ontain 4emara <)ommentar/?.G
2
-asoreti. Te!t= asoreti) !ext or ! Frefers to the re)eive( text of the +ebre" O! as
annotate( for pun)tuation <"ith a))ents? an( vo)ali9ation <"ith FpointsG? b/ the asoretes <or
asorites?; the authoritative tea)hers of s)riptural tra(ition <+eb= Masorah?.G %/ '>> A.D.; t"o
asoreti) S)hools emer0e( <the Cest in !iberias an( the -ast in %ab/lonia@Sura? "hi)h helpe(
transform the )onsonantal text to )ontain the text "ith vo"el points; to help "ith pronun)iation;
as "e have the text to(a/. Durin0 the ,
th
an( 1>
th
)enturies A.D.; the t"o lea(in0 asoreti)
families from !iberias "ere the ben Asher famil/ an( the ben 5aphtali famil/. Durin0 the 1B
th

)entur/; the t"o famil/ Ftra(itionsG "ere )ombine( to form a Fmixe( textG :no"n as the
TEXTUS RECEPTUS or the Fre)eive( text.G !he ori0inal Biblia ebrai!a "as base( upon
this text. !he mo(ern (a/ %+S is base( upon the #enin0ra( Co(ex % 1,
A
that is part of the ben
Asher famil/. -ven more re)ent proHe)ts approa)h the +ebre" %ible b/ )omparin0 variants
mu)h li:e the .%S an( 5estle-Alan( 4ree: 5e" !estaments.
3
Septua#int= Or #$$; this term refers to the Fearliest 4ree: !7A5S#A!IO5 of the +ebre"
!O7A+I it later )ame to in)lu(e the "hole +% an( the A&OC7J&+A G !ra(itionall/; the
&entateu)h "as translate( at the reKuest of &tolem/ II <Alexan(ria; -0/pt?; "ho rule( from 2A'-
2B3 %.C. FIn O! text-)riti)al (is)ussions; the s/mbol #$$ often (enotes the #u)iani)
7-C-5SIO5 of the #$$ <#u)ian (. *12 C.-.?; hen)e terms su)h as FOl( 4ree:G or F&roto-
#$$G refer to the earliest forms of the text.G
4
2 7i)har( 5. Soulen an( 7. 8en(all Soulen; andboo" o# Bibli!al Criti!ism$ 1ourth -(ition <#ouisville=
Cestminster 6ohn 8nox &ress; 2>11?; 2>3.
3 Ibi(.; 12*.
4 Ibi(.; 1,2.
Outline of 1 & 2 Samuel
I. Samuel as 6u(0e <1 Sam. 1-3?.
A. !he Chil(hoo( of Samuel <1 Sam. 1=1-*=*1?.
%. !he en( of the Shiloh &riesthoo( <1 Sam. B=1-22?.
C. !he Ar: in the "ar a0ainst the &hilistines <1 Sam. '=1-2=21?.
D. 7e(e(i)ation near i9pah <1 Sam. 3=1-13?.
II. Samuel an( Saul <1 Sam. A-1'?.
A. SamuelLs a))ession to the peopleLs reKuest for a :in0 <1 Sam. A=1-22?.
%. !he anointin0 of Saul <1 Sam. ,=1-1>=23?.
C. Vi)tor/ over Ammonites <1 Sam. 11=1-1'?.
D. 7esponsibilities of :in0ship in Covenant <1 Sam. 12=1-2'?.
-. SaulLs earl/ rei0n= mental affli)tion an( reHe)tion <2 Sam. 1*=1-2'?.
III. Saul an( Davi( <1 Sam. 12-2 Sam. 1?.
A. !he )hoi)e of Davi( <1 Sam. 12=1-2*?.
%. !he last (a/s of Saul <1 Sam. 13=1-*1=1*?.
1. Davi( battles 4oliath <1 Sam. 13=1-'A?.
2. Saul is Healous over Davi( <1 Sam. 1A=1-*>?.
*. Saul tries to :ill Davi( <1 Sam. 1,=1-13?.
B. Davi( flees Saul <1 Sam. 1,=1A-*>=*1?.
'. SaulLs (eath <1 Sam. *1=1-1*?.
2. Davi( aven0es the (eath of Saul <2 Sam. 1=1-12?.
3. Davi(Ls lamentation over Saul an( 6onathanLs (eath <2 Sam. 1=13-23?.
11
IV. Davi( 7ei0ns as 8in0 over 6u(ah an( Israel <2 Sam. 2-A?.
A. !he rival anointin0 of Isbosheth b/ Abner <2 Sam. 2=1-B=12?.
%. Davi( )aptures 6erusalem <2 Sam. '=1-2'?.
C. !he soli(it/ of Davi(Ls D/nast/ <2 Sam. 2=1-3=2,?.
D. +i0hli0ht of Davi(Ls "ars an( prominent offi)ials <2 Sam. A=1-1A?.
V. -vents at the 7o/al Court of Davi( <2 Sam. ,-2>?.
A. Davi( reinstates lan( of ephibosheth <2 Sam. ,=1-1*?.
%. Davi(Ls "ars a0ainst Ammonites an( S/rians <2 Sam. 1>=1-11=1?.
C. Davi(Ls sin "ith %athsheba an( ConseKuen)es of A)tions <2 Sam. 11=2-12=2B?.
1. Davi(Ls a(ulter/; mur(er of .riah; an( subseKuent marria0e to %athsheba <2 Sam. 11=2-23?.
2. 5athan (enoun)es Davi(Ls a)tions an( the :in0 repents <2 Sam. 12=1-2*?.
*. %irth of Solomon <2 Sam. 12=2B?.
D. AmnonLs rape of !amar; AbsalomLs reven0e an( fli0ht <2 Sam. 1*=1-*,?.
-. Absalsom is allo"e( to return from exile <2 Sam. 1B=1-**?.
1. AbsalomLs )oup an( (eath <2 Sam. 1'=1-1A=*2?.
4. Davi( laments over AbsalomLs (eath <2 Sam. 1A=**-1,=3?.
+. 6oab rebu:es Davi( for his mournin0 an( Davi(Ls attempt at reor0ani9in0 <2 Sam. 1,=A-B*?.
I. 7evolt of 5orthern !ribes <2 Sam. 2>=1-22?.
VI. Appen(ix <2 Sam. 21-2B?.
A. %urial of SaulLs 1amil/ <2 Sam. 21=1-22?.
%. &salm of Davi( <2 Sam. 22=1-'1?.
12
C. +i0hli0ht of the a))omplishments of Davi(Ls mi0ht/ men <2 Sam. 2*=1-*,?.
D. Davi(Ls )ensus an( )onseKuen)es <2 Sam. 2B=1-2'?.
5
5 7.8. +arrison; %ntrodu!tion To The &ld Testament 'ith a !omprehensi(e re(ie' o# &ld Testament studies
and a spe!ial supplement on the )po!rypha <4ran( 7api(s= -er(mans; 1,2,; 7epr. 1,,1?; 2,'-,2.
13
Chart Comparin0 the ! "ith the various 4ree: !ranslations or Versions of the O!
6
6 Google Images. http=M.sersMAsminM&i)turesMSeptua0intMtetrafi011.0if A))esse( ar)h 1,; 2>1B.
14
We know that the compile o! 1 " 2 #am$el is
$nknown% &$t 'oman Geisle gi(es the !ollowing
possi&ilities a&o$t the time peio) he li(e) an) the
so$ces he $se) *+hat !om ,owe,oint
,esentation-.

/1 0 1he &ooks ma2 ha(e &een complete) onl2 a!te #olomon3s


)eath *931 4.+.-% since thee is a e!eence to the )i(i)e) monach2
in which 5$)ah is sepaate !om Isael *I #am. 7.26-.
/2 0 #ince the naation o! #am$el en)s with the )eath o! 6a(i)% it
can &e ass$me) that the oiginal witten eco) comes !om some
time a!te 971 4.+.
/3 0 1he &ooks seem to ha(e &een witten &e!oe the capti(it2 o! the
nothen king)om &2 the 7ss2ians *722 4.+.-% since thee is no
e!eence to this impotant e(ent.
/4 0 #am$el the pophet )ie) &e!oe 6a(i) &egan eigning *1811
4.+.- in I #am$el 25.1-. 9ence% he co$l) not &e the a$tho o! the est
o! I #am$el o an2 pat o! pat II #am$el.
/5 0 #am$el !o$n)e) a school o! pophets o(e which he was hea)
*I #am. 19.28-. #am$el himsel! wote a &ook a&o$t the acts o! :ing
6a(i) as )i) the pophets 'athan an) Ga) *1 +hon. 29.29-. 'o
)o$&t the pophet who compile) I an) II #am$el $se) these pophetic
histoies in compiling his &ooks *'oman Geisle% A Popular Survey
Of The Old Testament% 187-.
15
The Authorship of
1 & 2 Samuel
Intro(u)tion
!he histori)al boo:s "e :no" of to(a/ as 1 an( 2 Samuel "ere on)e one lon0 s)roll Hust
as "ere the boo:s of 8in0s; but later separate( into t"o volumes. %oth boo:s are :no"n in the
+ebre" %ible as o_o<or 1 Samuel? an( oo_o <or 2 Samuel?.
7
-vi(en)e for this )an be seen
in the +ebre" text "here at the en( of 2 Samuel the asoreti) note is penne(. !his o))urs at the
en( of ever/ F)anoni)alG boo: in the +ebre" %ible. !he translators of the 4ree: Ol( !estament
(ivi(e( the boo: of Samuel into 1irst an( Se)on( 8in0(oms. !he boo:s of 8in0s "ere 0iven
the title !hir( an( 1ourth 8in0(oms. !he first +ebre" %ible to (ivi(e Samuel into t"o s)rolls is
Daniel %omber0Ls -(ition <also :no"n as the &ratensis %ible? that "as publishe( in Veni)e; Ital/
in 1'12-13.
8
!he boo: is name( after one of the F:e/ fi0uresG "hose le0a)/ lives on throu0hout
the rest of Samuel as Hu(0e; priest; an( anointer of IsraelLs first t"o :in0s. !he Flife an(
ministr/G of Samuel; even thou0h )omprises Fless than a KuarterG of both boo:s; /et he
Fpre)ipitate( the :e/ fi0ures an( events in the texts as a "hole.G
9
Jet no"here in this histori)al boo: is there a F(ire)t )laimG for Samuel bein0 the author.
18

1irth points out that the author is simpl/ anon/mous.
11
!he fa)t that there is not )laim of
authorship shoul( not )ause problems for )onservative s)holars. !he same (ilemma arises
7&eter C. Cra0ie; The &ld Testament* %ts Ba!"+round$ ,ro'th$ - Content <5ashville= Abin0(on &ress;
1,A2?; 1*B.
8+arrison; 2,'.
9Cra0ie; 1*B.
185orman #. 4eisler; ) Popular Sur(ey &# The &ld Testament <4ran( 7api(s= %a:er; 1,33; 7epr. 1,A2?;
1*B.
11Davi( 4. 1irth; . - / Samuel$ Apollos Ol( !estament Commentar/; vol A. Series -(. Davi( C. %a:er
an( 4or(on 6. Cenham. <5ottin0ham; -n0lan(= Apollos@Do"ners 4rove; I#= InterVarsit/ &ress; 2>>,?; 22.
16
"ithin the stu(/ of the S/nopti) 4ospels an( the 1ourth 4ospel. One often relies 0reatl/ on
internal evi(en)e an( extra-bibli)al sour)es for information on authorship of boo:s su)h as
Samuel. 1irst; this paper "ill examine the internal an( external evi(en)e for the tra(itional vie"
of Samuel as the author. Se)on(l/; this paper "ill loo: at some of the other possible )an(i(ates
of authorship an( the (ate of )omposition. !hir(; "e "ill (eal "ith the issues of sour)es that are
behin( the text of Samuel. Some attention "ill be 0iven to text )riti)al issues that relate to the
state of the !.
!ra(itional Vie" of Authorship
Dealin0 "ith the issue from the stan(point of external evi(en)e; the !almu( <T0B0 Baba
Bathra 1Bb? attributes the authorship of Samuel; Falon0 "ith the boo: of 6u(0es; to Samuel
himself.G !he %ab/lonian !almu( referen)es the authors of the Ol( !estament %oo:s; in
parti)ular; oses; Samuel; an( Davi(.
Cho "rote the S)ripturesN E oses "rote his o"n boo: an( the portion of
%alaam an( 6ob. 6oshua "rote the boo: "hi)h bears his name an( Othe lastP ei0ht
verses of the &entateu)h. Samuel "rote the boo: "hi)h bears his name an( the
boo: of 6u(0es an( 7uth.
12
In spite of this an)ient 6e"ish tra(ition; fe" s)holars to(a/ a))ept this position.
13
Sin)e the (eath
of Samuel is mentione( in 1 Sam. 2'=1; those "ho a))ept the tra(itional vie" "oul( ar0ue that
the rest of Samuel "as )omplete( b/ one of the prophets li:e F4a( an( 5athanG <see 1 Chron.
12TB Baba Bathra 1Bb. Baba Bathra$ Translated %nto En+lish 1ith 2otes$ ,lossary$ )nd %ndi!es0
Chapters I-V; auri)e SimonI Chapters V-$; Israel C. Slot:iI -(. 7abbi Dr. I. -pstein.
http=@@hala:hah.)om@bababathra@in(ex.html.
13Davi( . +o"ar(; 6r. )n %ntrodu!tion To The &ld Testament istori!al Boo"s <Chi)a0o= oo(/ &ress;
1,,*?; 1B2.
17
2,=2,-*>?.
14
!his "oul( be the same line of ar0umentation that sa/s oses "rote the
&entateu)h; but the han( of 6oshua "rote the posts)ript or (eath of oses. !his is in line "ith
"hat the !almu( states. !hus )laimin0 Samuel as the author "ith some (is)iple finishin0 the
"or: is a reasonable ar0ument that )an be supporte( b/ the external an( internal evi(en)e.
!he Ol( !estament spea:s of the "ritin0s of Samuel. !he Chroni)ler spea:s of the
Fre)or(s of Samuel the seerG <a))or(in0 to 1 Chron. 2,=2,?. !he prophet Samuel also "rote on a
s)roll about the monar)h/ of Israel; a))or(in0 to 1 Sam. 1>=2'. Do these t"o passa0es refer to
the F)anoni)al boo:s of SamuelG or (o the/ refer to the sour)es that "ere use( to "rite 1 an( 2
SamuelN !he ans"er to that Kuestion Fis impossible to :no"G for )ertain.
15
Chether "e believe
Samuel helpe( "rite the boo: of Samuel or simpl/ )ompile( sour)es that "ere utili9e( b/ the
author<s? to "rite Samuel ma/ not be )lear; but the Chroni)ler also mentions the Fre)or(sG or
a))ounts of 8in0 Davi( that "ere "ritten b/ F5athan the prophetG an( F4a( the seer.G
16
Other &ossible Authors
If Samuel is not the author <of part of Samuel?; then "ho else )oul( be a possible )hoi)eN
!he internal evi(en)e points to the author or authors bein0 an e/e"itness to the events re)or(e(
in the boo:.
17
1irst; the boo:s are not )omplete until after the (eath of Solomon <"ho (ie(
aroun( ,*1 %.C.?; sin)e 1 Sam. 23=2 ma:es a Freferen)e to the (ivi(e( monar)h/ in "hi)h 6u(ah
14%en 1. &hilbe):; 6r. F1-2 Samuel;G in The Broadman Bible Commentary$ (ol 3$ . Samuel42ehemiah
<5ashville= %roa(man &ress; 1,3>?; *.
15+o"ar(; 1B2.
16Ibi(.
174eisler; 1>3. 7an(all C. %aile/; 5a(id %n 6o(e )nd 1ar* The Pursuit o# Po'er in / Samuel .74./0
6ournal for the Stu(/ of the Ol( !estament Supplement Series <Sheffiel(; -n0lan(= Sheffiel( A)a(emi) &ress; 1,,>?;
2A.
18
is separate from Israel.G Se)on(l/; sin)e the boo: of 2 Samuel )loses "ith Davi(Ls (eath <"hi)h
is re)or(e( in 1 80s. 1?; one )an surmise that the )anoni)al boo: is finishe( after ,31 %.C.
!hir(; the boo:s of Samuel seems to be "ritten prior to the Ass/rian invasion an( F)aptivit/G of
Israel in 322 %.C.; for there is no mention of this si0nifi)ant even in Samuel. 1ourth; Samuel
(ies before Davi( be0ins to rei0n in 1>11 %.C. <1 Sam. 2'=1?. !hus Samuel )oul( not be the
author of 1 Samuel 22-*1 nor an/ part of 2 Samuel. 1ifth; Samuel is the hea( of a 0roup of
prophets <2 Sam. 1,=2>? an( some of them <su)h as 5athan an( 4a(? ma/ be authors of part or
all of both boo:s.
18
%esi(es 5athan an( 4a(; "hat other )hara)ters )oul( fit the reKuirement of bein0 an
e/e"itness to these events of the pre an( post-monar)h/N !he name of Seraiah; "ho is a priestl/
s)ribe an( belon0s to Ahitub an( Ahimele)h; is a possible )an(i(ate. 8lostermann su00ests that
the true FauthorG is possibl/ FAhimaa9; the son of Da(o:; "ho ma/ have ha( some :no"le(0e of
the events )onne)te(G "ith the Ar: of the Covenant. +o"ever; Duhm ma:es a proposal for the
priest Abiathar bein0 the author; (ue to Fhis )lose )onne)tions "ith Davi(G (urin0 his
Flifetime.G
19
Choever one a))epts as the author or authors of Samuel must also ta:e into
)onsi(eration the (ate for )omposition. !here are t"o main eras that s)holars vie" as possible
(ate for the "ritin0 of 1 an( 2 Samuel. !he first option that man/ )onservative Ol( !estament
s)holars ar0ue for is an earl/ (ate; sometime aroun( the 1>
th
)entur/ %.C.; )lose to the time of the
events. !here other )onservative s)holars; su)h as Steinmueller; oeller; an( Joun0; "ho ar0ue
that a Fpre)ise terminus a( KuemG )an be no more (efinite than bet"een ,*>-322 %.C. !here is a
184eisler; 1>3.
19+arrison; 2,,-3>>.
19
se)on( 0roup "ho leans to"ar(s a unifie( authorship of a 6oshua throu0h 8in0s b/ a
Deuteronomisti) +istorian; ar0ue for a (ate as late as the time of the 6u(ean 8in0 6osiah or even
to a post-exili) perio(. Chile this theor/ pla)es the (ate of the boo: t"o to three )enturies after
the events re)or(e(; the/ (o at least see a literar/ unit/ of the "hole of these histori)al boo:s.
28

Choever is the author of 1 an( 2 Samuel; one )an safel/ sa/ that the author is "ritin0
anon/mousl/. An/ position one ta:es )on)ernin0 authorship; "hether Samuel an( a later
(is)iple or a unifie( Deuteronomisti) +istorian; no one shoul( be (o0mati) be)ause "e simpl/
(o not :no" the name of the author. !he (ate of )omposition is some"here in the 1>
th
)entur/
%.C. <,>>Ls?. !he F)hronolo0i)al s)opeG of both 1 an( 2 Samuel )an be more narro"l/ (efine(
to 1>'>-,2> %.C.
21

Another important Kuestion in (ealin0 "ith authorship is "hether Samuel <if he be the
author? is a )ompiler or )reatorN artin 5oth )onsi(ere( the "or: of the Deuteronomist as a
F)ompiler of existin0 material to "hi)h small supplements have been a((e(.G %oth Cross an(
Smen( basi)all/ a0ree( "ith 5othLs approa)h; but &ol9in loo:e( at the "or: of the
Deuteronomisti) +istorian as a F)reative author rather than a )ompiler of tra(itions.G
22
!hus the
use of histori)al sour)es (oes not pre)lu(e one from referrin0 the "riter of Samuel as an author.
!he Cor: of the FDeuteronomistG in Samuel
an/ s)holars approa)h the authorship of Samuel from the stan(point of sour)es an( a
unif/in0 author :no"n as the Deuteronomist. Cellhausen an( his )amp (ivi(e( 1 Samuel into
281irth; 22-2*.
21Cra0ie; 1*B.
221irth; 2*.
28
the Fpro- an( anti-monar)hi) sour)es that "ere ultimatel/ i(entifie( "ith his &entateu)hal
sour)es 6 an( -.G -issfel(t "oul( )ome alon0 later an( a(( the F#G sour)e. artin 5othLs "or:
<the ori0inal 4erman e(ition appeare( in 1,B1? su00este( that the boo: of Samuel as a "hole
F"as part of a unifie( pie)e )reate( in exile b/ an author he )alle( the Deuteronomisti)
+istorian.G
23
Althou0h the true nature of the Deuteronomist is still (ebate( to(a/; Fthis remains
the (ominant )riti)al mo(el for rea(in0 Samuel; un(erstan(in0 it as )reate( in an( a((resse( to
the exiles.G
24
7obert &ol9in "oul( ar0ue in 1,A>; 1,A,; an( a0ain in 1,,* b/ proposin0 that Fthe term
QDeuteronomistL to refer to the author.
25
G +o"ever; 1irth notes that Fthe ubiKuit/ of su)h
lan0ua0e mas:s the (eep (ivisions in "hat is un(erstoo( b/ the term.G 5oth vie"e( the "or: of
the FDeuteronomisti)G +istorian as a F)ombine(G one that "as F)reate(G (urin0 the exile perio(;
but the Ameri)an bibli)al s)holars <su)h as Cross an( 5elson? propose( Ft"o sta0es of
)omposition; the first (urin0 the time of 6osiah an( then a se)on( in the exile.G Jet )ompli)atin0
the issue even further is the s)hool of thou0ht )onne)te( "ith Smen( "ho ar0ues for a Fbasi) text
<Dtr+? that has been variousl/ supplemente( b/ a le0al <or nomisti); Dtr5? an( propheti) <Dtr&?
sour)es.G
26
Chile one mi0ht have a problem "ith the i(ea of a Deuteronomisti) +istorian pennin0
most of the histori)al boo:s in the +ebre" %ible; this theor/ at least (eals "ith the issue of a
bibli)al theolo0/ of the Ol( !estament. A))or(in0 the D+ proponents; the sin0le theme that
unifies all of these approa)hes is the belief that Fthe exileG is the Fpivotal point for SamuelLs
231irth; 22.
24Ibi(.; 2*.
25Ibi(.
26Ibi(.
21
)omposition; albeit in (ifferent "a/s.G
27
Campbell )laims that 1 Sam.1=1-2 80s. 1>=2A are base(
upon a F(o)umentG or sour)e :no"n as the F&ropheti) 7e)or(;G /et he maintains the existen)e of
this sour)e.
28
!he &ropheti) 7e)or( is eventuall/ Finte0rate( into the Deuteronomisti) +istor/ as
an exile "or:;G but the Fprimar/ settin0 is )onsi(erabl/ )loser to the time of Davi(.G !sumura
even point to Flin0uisti)G evi(en)e that su00ests an even Fearlier (ateG for the )omposition of
Samuel; even Fthou0h the value of his observations (epen(s upon CampbellLs frame"or:; sin)e
the/ mi0ht other"ise be re0ar(e( as ar)haisms rather than evi(en)e of the textLs a0e.G
29
%oth
CampbellLs an( !sumuraLs "or: ma:es a rather Fstron0 )aseG for mu)h of Samuel Fori0inatin0
far earlier than the exile.G
38
!hus from the perspe)tive of men li:e Campbell an( !sumura; the boo: of Samuel )an be
seen as the F"or: of a )reative author en0a0in0 "ith earlier sour)es G If one (ates the boo: of
Deuteronom/ from the time of 8in0 6osiah; Fthen a ninth-)entur/ settin0 for mu)h of the
material prevents oneG from referrin0 to Samuel as FDeuteronomisti)G sin)e Samuel "oul(
Fpre(ateG the boo: of Deuteronom/. %ut if as )Conville ar0ues that mu)h of Deuteronom/Ls
settin0 (ates from the time of the Fpremonar)hi) perio(;G then there is Fno reason to assume that
the so-)alle( &ropheti) 7e)or( )oul( not therefore be Deuteronomisti) in outloo:.G
31
%ut ho" (oes one )ate0ori9e a boo: as bein0 FDeuteronomisti)G in outloo:N 5oll
su00ests that if a boo: uses F"or(s an( phrasesG that (erive from the boo: of Deuteronom/ an(
also Faffirms its i(eolo0/;G then a boo: )an be )alle( Deuteronomisti). 5oll uses his Fmo(elG to
27Ibi(.
28Ibi(.; 2*-2B.
29Ibi(.; 2B.
38Ibi(.
31Ibi(.
22
(ate man/ of these boo:s <su)h as Samuel? mu)h later than most )onservatives "oul( a))ept.
1irthLs problem "ith this te)hniKue of 5oll an( that of Ceinfel(Ls list of "or(s that 0o ba): to
Deuteronom/ is Fthat man/ of them are not a)tuall/G foun( in the boo: at all. In fa)t; in
Ceinfel((Ls F1irst se)tion on the stru00le a0ainst i(olatr/ he lists ei0hteen items; but 0ives no
examples for nine of them in Deuteronom/.G
32
Chile there are some F)on)eptual lin:sG bet"een
the t"o; /et Fthis is not the same as a semanti) or textual one.G 1irth )ontinues his )ritiKue b/
statin0 that F"ithin the subset of terms an( phrasesG that o))ur in the boo: of Deuteronom/ an(
the so-)alle( Deuteronomisti) +istor/; /et remar:abl/ the Freferen)es to Samuel are so sparse.G
!his (oes not mean that there are no important lin0uisti) points of F)onta)t bet"een Samuel an(
Deuteronom/; but these are mostl/ )lustere( aroun( I Sam. 3; A; 12; 1'; an( 2 Sam. 3.G
33

!he "or: b/ 4raeme Aul( <Samuel at the Threshold? proposes that "hat s)holars en( up
(oin0 is rea(in0 Fba):"ar(s from 8in0s to Deuteronom/; so the 1ormer &rophets; an( espe)iall/
8in0s; are the primar/ influen)e an( Deuteronom/ the result.G
34
!he stu(/ b/ Aul( Fbuil(s
uponG his earlier "or: on the s/nopsis of 8in0s an( Chroni)les "here he ar0ues Fthat their
s/nopti) materialG (erives Ffrom a )ommon sour)eG that he later )ame to F)all Q!he %oo: of
!"o +ousesL rather than; as has been )ommonl/ assume(; be)ause Chroni)les borro"s from
8in0s.G
35

Chen surve/in0 all of the s)holarship on the relationship bet"een Samuel@8in0s an(
Deuteronom/; the boo:s of Chroni)les seems to be a later "or: that (epen(s lar0el/ upon
Samuel; "hile 8in0Ls relation to Deuteronom/ sho"s there are Flin0uisti) lin:s bet"een them.G
32Ibi(.
33Ibi(.
34Ibi(.
35Ibi(.; 2'.
23
Still the boo: of 8in0s seems to be a"are of the boo: of Samuel. 1irth ar0ues that 1 8in0s 1-2 is
a later (o)ument that presuppose( :no"le(0e of 2 Samuel ,-2>. Jet several passa0es in Samuel
Fsho" a stron0 a"areness of Deuteronom/.G !hus 1irth states that Fthe tra(itional solution is the
best.G
36
!he boo: of Samuel "as F"ritten "ith some :no"le(0e of Deuteronom/ an( 8in0s
"ith some of Samuel. !herefore the boo: of Deuteronom/ Fpre(atesG 1 an( 2 Samuel; an( 1 an(
2 Samuel pre(ates 1 an( 2 8in0s.
37
Jet the Fevi(en)eG points to the fa)t that the boo: of
Deuteronom/ be)omes Fmore influential at the time of the final )omposition of 8in0s;G a fa)t
that is F)onsistentG "ith the reli0ious reforms of 6osiah <2 80s. 22=A-2*=23?; Fas "ell as
Deuteronom/Ls apparent influen)e on 6eremiah.G
38
1irth )on)lu(es the issue of the D+ b/ sa/in0 that Fit is appropriate to note the presen)e
of Deuteronomisti) material an( themesG in 1 an( 2 Samuel; but that Fthere is no nee( to re0ar(G
the "or: of the DeuteronomistsL as the multiple authors of Samuel. !he boo: of SamuelLs
Fliterar/ )oheren)e alon0 "ith the "a/ that (ifferent se)tions of the boo: intera)t all su00ests
that Samuel is a planne( )omposition.G Chile the boo: (oes (ra" on Fsour)es;G /et Four abilit/
to tra)e these earlier levels is limite( b/ the fa)t that "e have them onl/ in the form in "hi)h
Samuel presents them.G !he boo: of Samuel F"as )ompose( b/ a )reative author "ho (re" on
earlier material but still )ompose(G a theolo0i)al narrative from a propheti) perspe)tive. Ce are
unable to i(entif/ the name of this author; Fbut "e )an appre)iate the s:ill "ith "hi)h the stor/ is
tol(.G
39
36Ibi(.
37Ibi(.
38Ibi(.
39Ibi(.; 22.
24
Sour)es Dra"n .pon In Samuel
-ver sin)e the time of the 1A
th
)entur/ O! s)holar 6ulius Cellhausen; the inKuir/ into the
Funit/G of Samuel as a literar/ "or: fo)uses upon the sour)es that un(erlie the boo:.
48

Cellhausen )laime( he i(entifie( t"o sour)es behin( Samuel; the so-)alle( anti-monar)h/
sour)e <1 Sam. 3=2-A=22I 1>=13-23I 12I 1'? an( the pro-monar)h/ sour)e <1 Sam. ,=1-1>=12I 11I
1*-1B?.
41
#ater one three other sour)es "oul( be pointe( out as bein0 the foun(ation for 1 an( 2
Samuel. 1irst; the so-)alle( Far: narrativeG <1 Sam. B=1b-3=1I 2 Sam. 2?. Se)on(l/; there is
as)ension of Davi( narrative )overin0 the (eath of Saul an( Davi(Ls unitin0 of the t"o :in0(oms
<1 Sam. 12=1B-2 Sam. '?. !hir(; the Fsu))ession narrativeG <2 Sam. ,-2>I 1 80s. 1-2? that )overs
the ro/al )ourt of Davi( an( )ontinuin0 into the rei0n of his son; Solomon.
42
5o one "oul( (oubt that some sour)es un(erlie 1 an( 2 Samuel. !he author of Samuel
an( the Chroni)ler Fin(i)ates that various sour)es existe( for the perio(s )overe( b/ these
boo:sG <see 2 Sam. 1=1AI 1 Chron. 2,=2,?. -ven the "riter of the thir( 0ospel mentions the
histori)al sour)es he sou0ht out in the "ritin0 of his 0ospel <#:. 1=1-*?. Jet the extent that
Cellhausen an( others "ent to in or(er to fin( &entateu)hal sour)es in Samuel an( his pro- an(
anti-monar)h/ F(i)hotom/ is some"hat over(ra"n.G
43
-ven the so-)alle( ar: sour)e is
suppose(l/ F(ivi(e(G <b/ the author? Finto t"o se)tions; the se)on( "i(el/ (ispla)e( from the
first.G !he Davi(i) su))ession sour)e Fis interrupte( b/ the FAppen(ixG to 2 Samuel <)haps. 21-
2B?.G Atomi9in0 these in(ivi(ual sour)es ta:es a"a/ from the overall unit/ of the narrative of 1
48 +o"ar(; 1B*. 4arr/ 5. 8noppers; F!he +istori)al Stu(/ of the onar)h/= Developments an( Detours;G in
The 8a!e &# &ld Testament Studies* ) Sur(ey o# Contemporary )pproa!hes$ -(. Davi( C. %a:er an( %ill !. Arnol(
<4ran( 7api(s= %a:er; 1,,1?; 21>.
41 +o"ar(; 1B*.
42 8noppers; 2>,. +o"ar(; 1B*.
43 +o"ar(; 1B*.
25
an( 2 Samuel. -ven the s)hools that fo)us upon Fhistori)al;G Fpoliti)al;G an( Fso)iolo0i)alG
issues intro(u)e Kuestions an( rea(in0s into the text that ma/ not be inten(e( b/ the ori0inal
author or authors.
44

One issue that le( to i(entif/in0 so man/ histori)al sour)es is the suppose( Fpresen)eG of
F(oubletsG in the text. !he term (oublet refers to F(upli)ate a))ounts of the same events that
have survive( in the textLs final form.G !he so-)alle( pro- an( anti-monar)h/ sour)es point to
(oublets or F(ifferent reasonsG "h/ Saul is anointe( :in0 <4o(Ls )omman( an( the peopleLs
(esire?. !"i)e Saul is FreHe)te(G as :in0 <1 Sam. 1*=1*-1BI 1'=1>-*1?. Davi( seems to meet
8in0 Saul t"i)e <1 Sam. 12 & 13?. !"i)e Davi( atta)hes himself to a &hilistine :in0 <1 Sam.
21=1>-1' O! 11-12PI 23=1-B?. Davi( spares 8in0 SaulLs life on t"o o))asions <1 Sam. 2B; 22?
an( 4oliath is seemin0l/ :ille( t"o times Fb/ t"o (ifferent peopleG <see 1 Sam. 13I 2 Sam.
21=1,?.
45
!he falla)/ "ith this line of reasonin0 is the supposition that Fevents )oul( never be
repeate( in similar fashion or that i0nore the real (ifferen)es bet"een a))ountsG that appear to be
the same Fon the surfa)eG or ma/ not ta:e into a))ount Ftextual )orruption.G All of these
(oublets that s)holars sa/ point to multiple sour)es )an be Fa))ounte( for a(eKuatel/G b/ use of
apolo0eti)s; utili9in0 a harmon/ approa)h to Samuel; 8in0s; an( Chroni)les; or Fb/ literar/
rea(in0s of various t/pesG su)h as a narrative approa)h.
46
44 I&i).% 144.
45 Ibi(.
46 Ibi(.
26
!ext Criti)al Issues
!he FpresentG form of the text of Samuel as foun( in the ! Fhas suffere( 0reatl/ in
transmission; more so than almost an/ other O! boo:.G
47
Often textual )riti)s are able to
re)onstru)t the text of Samuel base( upon parallel passa0es from Chroni)les an( )omparin0 the
rea(in0s of the ! "ith the Fan)ient versionsG <su)h as the 4ree: !ranslation; the #$$; an( to
some extent even the #atin version? as "ell as the texts (is)overe( at Rumran.
48
Althou0h the
4ree: version is not al"a/s reliable; /et in the )ase of the boo: of Samuel; there are o))asions
"here the 4ree: text <"hen )ompare( "ith the +ebre" bibli)al texts at Rumran? appears to be
base( upon an Fearlier; an( purer +ebre" textsG than the later !.
49
Chile the 4ree: text (oes
a0ree often "ith the Rumran s)rolls; there are times "here the Dea( Sea S)rolls part )ompan/
"ith both the 4ree: version an( the !. !he bibli)al manus)ripts from Rumran are mu)h ol(er
than the ! an( )loser to the ori0inal auto0raphs; /et ultimatel/ textual )riti)al (e)isions Fmust
be ma(e on a )ase-b/-)ase basis.G
58
Some of the pla)es "here the #$$ is missin0 portions of passa0es foun( in the ! are=
1 Sam. 13=12-*1; ''-'AI 1A=1-'; 1>-11; 13-1,. Some of this )oul( be attribute( to the 4ree:
versions ten(in0 to paraphrase passa0es; this )annot al"a/s be sai( to be the )ase here in
Samuel.
51
!here are (efinitel/ some pla)es "here the 4ree: version helps in our un(erstan(in0
of the rea(in0 of the !. 1or example; there is the passa0e in 1 Samuel 1*=21 "here the #$$
helps in our exe0esis of the !. !he )ontext (eals "ith the Israelites 0oin0 to the &hilistines to
47Ibi(.
48S. S9i:s9ai; FI an( II Samuel;G in %nterpreter9s 5i!tionary o# the Bible$ R4:$ -(. 4eor0e Arthur %uttri):
<5J@5ashville= Abin0(on &ress; 1,22?; 2>,.
49+o"ar(; 1B'.
58Ibi(.
51S9i:s9ai; 2>,.
27
sharpen their farm implements <plo"share; matto):; ax; an( si):le?. In verse 21 the +ebre" text
seems to sa/ that &hilistines ha( a file for the Israelites matto):s. Jet the #$$ su00ests that
"hat is 0oin0 on is the &hilistines are )har0in0 an inflate( pri)e for sharpenin0 their farmin0
tools. Chatever the +ebre" term ,:o means <a measure of "ei0ht or a pri)e?; the 4ree: version
0ives us the rea(in0 trei=j si/kloi or three she:els as the pri)e for )har0e( to file the Israelites
eKuipment.
52

!he 4ree: version also )omes to our assistan)e in the )ase of 1 Sam. 1B=B1 "here a
FportionG of a passa0e missin0 from the !. !he #$$ )larifies the passa0e b/ rea(in0; FAn(
Saul sai(; FO #or(; 4o( of %srael; /h+ ha'e +ou not ans/ere +our ser'ant this a+0 "f the
ini1uit+ is in me an m+ son Jonathan, O 2or, 3o of "srael, #i'e 4rim 505, &ut if this
ini1uit+ is in th+ people %srael; 0ive !hummin<N?G !he portion of S)ripture in bol( t/pe <in
bet"een Israel in itali)s? is not foun( in the ! an( as the text stan(s in tra(itional +ebre" text
ma:es no sense.
53
&erhaps this is an example of the textual )riti)ism term :no"n as
homoioteleuton; "here a s)ribe ma:es an omission (ue to Ft"o "or(s or phrases that en(
similarl/.G &erhaps the +ebre" s)ribe a))i(entl/ Humpe( from the first o))urren)e of the "or(
Israel to the thir( time the "or( is foun( in this verse. Chile this ma/ not affe)t our theolo0/;
the ai( of the 4ree: version (oes help the passa0e ma:e sense.
54
. !he 4ree: version also )larifies the Fm/ster/ of the !Ls rea(in0G in 2 Sam. B=2-3. !he
rea(in0 from the ! rea(s in v. 2= FAn( the/ entere( as far as the mi(st of the house to ta:e
"heat an( the/ smote him in the bell/. An( 7ahab; an( %aanah; an( his brother fle(.G !he
521re(eri): C. Dan:er; Multipurpose Tools 8or Bible Study; !hir( -(ition Sli0htl/ 7evise(. <St. #ouis;
O= Con)or(ia &ublishin0 +ouse; 1,3>?; A,.
53&aul D. Ce0ner; The ;ourney 8rom Te<ts to Translations* The &ri+in and 5e(elopment o# the Bible
<4ran( 7api(s= %a:er A)a(emi); 1,,,?; 1A>.
54Ibi(.
28
4ree: version; ho"ever; relates Fho" the assassins; 7e)hab an( %aanah; "ere able to enter the
house unseen an( sla/ Ishbosheth.G !hen "hile the F(oor:eeper "as )leanin0 "heatG she (rifts
off to sleep. !his explains ho" the/ slippe( in unnoti)e(.
55
Chile the #$$ (oes (iffer here an(
is supporte( b/ some of the -n0lish versions su)h as the 7SV an( 57SV; /et 1irth "arns that
Fretorvertin0 this to a text from "hi)h the alternative rea(in0s )an be explaine( is problemati).G
56

+e )ontinues b/ statin0 that re"or:in0 b/ the 4ree: version reKuires Fan other"ise unatteste(
meanin0G for the verb to flee or es)ape; <_oo; a 5iphal perfe)t?. !he Rumran text; BRSam
a
;
resolves the problem b/ omittin0 the passa0e )ompletel/. F!he (iffi)ulties mi0ht have been
0enerate( b/ v. 3Ls apparent repli)ation of the :illin0 after the brothersL es)ape in v. 2.G
57
Jet
1irth points out a parallel example is foun( in 1 Sam. 13='>-'2 in the Davi( an( 4oliath
narrative "here the Fseverin0G of 4oliathLs Fhea(G is tol( after Davi( :ills him. !here is also the
possibilit/ that v. 3 a)ts as a )larifi)ation of the Frepetition;G an( shoul( be Fun(erstoo( as
pluperfe)t.G Althou0h there ma/ be some F(ama0eG to the text here; the explanation 1irth 0ives
of the ! rea(in0 is plausible. +e also points out that the Ral parti)iple in v. 2; :__ceo;
shoul( not be un(erstoo( as meanin0 FQinten(in0 to ta:eL sin)e the parti)iple here shoul( re)ount
a sin0le a)t.G
58
Dan:er also points to ho" the 4ree: translation explains the repetitious seKuen)eG in the
! of 1 Sam. ,=2'; 22. !he translators of the 4ree: %ible evi(entl/ Frea( a sli0ht transposition
of the ! )onsonants in the form x_o._:oan( translate( _._o_xo:o"ith the preposition
oin pla)e of ,oa.G !he en( result of this )han0e in the #$$ is the rea(in0= kai\ die/strwsan t%=
55Dan:er; A*.
561irth; *'B.
57Ibi(.
58Ibi(.
29
Saoul% or Fthe/ sprea( a )ou)h for Saul.G
59
Chile one )an ma:e a F0oo( )aseG for follo"in0 the
#$$ here rather than the F(efe)tiveG rea(in0 in the !; 1irth notes that Fthe maHor issueG at
sta:e here is Fthe inter)han0e bet"eenG the usa0e of the sin0ular an( the plural; an( this use of
Finter)han0e is a feature of this narrative.G
68
Another textual issue is sKuarin0 2 Sam. 21=1, "ith 1 Chron. 2>='. !he author of Samuel
)laims -lhanan sle" 4oliath the 4ittite; "hile the Chroni)ler states that -lhanan sle" #ahmi
4oliathLs brother. A simple solution )oul( be that the author of Samuel meant brother; an( even
some -n0lish translations in)lu(e brother in itali)s. Coul( the term for brother have fallen out of
the !N In response to some )onservative s)holars "ho ar0ue that the term -lhanan is another
name for Davi(; 1irth insists that this is the same -lhanan son of Do(o liste( amon0 Davi(Ls
mi0ht/ men in 2 Sam. 2*=2B.
61
Con)lusion
!he boo: of Samuel "as "ritten anon/mousl/. As to "hom the author is; several
)an(i(ates are possible= Samuel; 5athan; 4a(; or some other (is)iple of the Samuel )ir)le. !he
author seems to be an e/e"itness or at least )lose to the time of the events re)or(e(. &erhaps the
most honest ans"er one )an 0ive is "hat the -arl/ Chur)h 1athers sai( about the authorship of
the boo: of +ebre"s= onl/ 4o( :no"s. A se)on(ar/ issue that ties in "ith authorship is the time
of )omposition. Chile most Ol( !estament s)holars toa(/ "oul( push for a late pre- or post-
exili) (ate of the 6u(ean onar)h/. A stron0 )ase has been ma(e b/ more )onservative s)holars
59Dan:er; A*.
681irth; 11,.
61Ibi(.; '1>.
38
to sho" that the Samuel tra(ition is mu)h ol(er an( )loser to the events re)or(e( than most
"oul( )are to a(mit.
Another important issue in (ealin0 "ith Samuel is the state of the ! that appears in the
%+S. Chile the text of 1 an( 2 Samuel is probabl/ more problemati) than an/ other Ol(
!estament boo:; this shoul( not )ause us to (espair. 1irth ma(e some )ompellin0 ar0uments that
ma/ explain some passa0es that are often )onsi(ere( to be textual )orruptions. !he asoretes
too: 0reat )are in passin0 on the textual tra(ition han(e( (o"n to them. Some of the bibli)al
texts (is)overe( at Rumran share the same textual famil/ as the later !. Jet even for passa0es
"here there are Kuestions; "e have enou0h an)ient texts no" <from Rumran? from before the
first )entur/ A.D.; plus the ai( of the an)ient versions <the various 4ree: versions of the Ol(
!estament? an( at times the Aramai) !ar0ums )an help explain "h/ a passa0e is problemati).
One thin0 "e learn from the families "ho passe( on the tra(ition of the ! <su)h as the ben
Asher an( ben 5aphtali families? is that the/ "ere )areful to pass on "hat the text sai( an(
"oul( onl/ pla)e the )orre)t rea(in0 in the mo(ern (a/ eKuivalent of the footnote.
!he evi(en)e presente( in this paper "ill hopefull/ help reassure an/one "ho ma/ be
(isturbe( b/ mo(ern (a/ s:epti)s that there are no real textual or theolo0i)al issues in the boo:s
of Samuel that shoul( sha:e our faith. !he Kuestion about authorship is minorI as in the )ase
"ith the 4ospels; the true importan)e is their messa0e. Ce have available enou0h "i(e-sprea(
textual families to )ome up "ith a s)ientifi) text that is on par "ith the .%S an( 5estle-Alan(
4ree: 5e" !estament.
31
(i&lio#raph+
S%ab/lonian !almu( %aba %athra 1Bb.S Chap. Chapters I-IV; auri)e SimonI Chapters V-$; Israel C.
Slot:i in Baba Bathra$ Translated %nto En+lish 1ith 2otes$ ,lossary$ )nd %ndi!es; e(ite( b/
7abbi Dr. I. -pstein. n.(.
%aile/; 7an(all C. 5a(id %n 6o(e )nd 1ar* The Pursuit o# Po'er in / Samuel .74./0 6ournal for the
Stu(/ of the Ol( !estament Supplement Series. Sheffiel(; -n0lan(= Sheffiel( A)a(emi) &ress;
1,,>.
Cra0ie; &eter C. The &ld Testament* %ts Ba!"+round$ ,ro'th$ - Content0 5ashville= Abin0(on &ress;
1,A2.
Dan:er; 1re(eri): C. Multipurpose Tools 8or Bible Study0 !hir( -(ition Sli0htl/ 7evise(. St. #ouis; O=
Con)or(ia &ublishin0 +ouse; 1,3>.
1irth; Davi( 4. . - / Samuel0 Apollos Ol( !estament Commentar/. -(ite( b/ Series -(. Davi( C. %a:er
an( 4or(on 6. Cenham. Vol. A. 5ottin0ham; -n0lan(@Do"ners 4rove; I#= Apollos@InterVarsit/;
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4eisler; 5orman #. ) Popular Sur(ey &# The &ld Testament0 4ran( 7api(s= %a:er; 1,33; 7epr. 1,A2.
S4oo0le Ima0es.S Pi!tures Septua+int0 n.(. http=M.sersMAsminM&i)turesMSeptua0intMtetrafi011.0if <a))esse(
ar)h 1,; 2>1B?.
+arrison; 7.8. %ntrodu!tion To The &ld Testament 'ith a !omprehensi(e re(ie' o# &ld Testament studies
and a spe!ial supplement on the )po!rypha0 4ran( 7api(s= -er(mans; 1,2,; 7epr. 1,,1.
+o"ar(; Davi( .; 6r. )n %ntrodu!tion To The &ld Testament istori!al Boo"s0 Chi)a0o= oo(/ &ress;
1,,*.
8noppers; 4arr/ 5. S!he +istori)al Stu(/ of the onar)h/= Developments an( Detours.S In The 8a!e
&# &ld Testamnet Studies* ) Sur(ey o# Contemporary )pproa!hes; e(ite( b/ Davi( C. %a:er an(
%ill !. Arnol(; 21>. 4ran( 7api(s= %a:er; 1,,1.
ere(ith; Don. Supplement to Turabian 8
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Edition0 emphis= +ar(in0 S)hool of !heolo0/; 2>1*.
'''0hst=edu='p4!ontent=uploads=/7.3=78=Turabian4>774B10pd#0 <a))esse( ar)h 2B; 2>1B?.
&hilbe):; %en 1.; 6r. ?.4/ Samuel?0 Vol. Vol *; in The Broadman Bible Commentary$ . Samuel42ehemiah;
Vol *; e(ite( b/ Clifton 6. Allen. 5ashville= %roa(man &ress; 1,3>.
Soulen; 7i)har( 5. an( 7. 8en(all Soulen. andboo" o# Bibli!al Criti!ism0 1ourth -(. #ouisville=
Cestminster 6ohn 8nox &ress; 2>11.
S9i:s9ai; S. SI an( II Samuel.S In The %nterpreter@s 5i!tionary o# the Bible$ R4:; e(ite( b/ 4eor0e Arthur
%uttri):; 2>2-2>,. 5J@5ashville= Abin0(on &ress; 1,22.
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