Anda di halaman 1dari 10

GM-COUNTER (Geiger-Muller Counter) A Geiger counter, also called a GeigerMller counter, is a type of particle detector that measures ionizing

radiation. They detect the emission of nuclear radiation: alpha particles, beta particles or gamma rays. A Geiger counter detects radiation by ionization produced in a low-pressure gas in a GeigerM ller tube. !ach particle detected produces a pulse of current, but the Geiger counter cannot distinguish the energy of the source particles. "n#ented in $%&', Geiger counters remain popular instruments used for measurements in health, physics, industry, geology and other fields, because they can be made with simple electronic circuits.

Description
Geiger counters are used to detect ionizing radiation, usually beta particles and gamma rays, but certain models can detect alpha particles. An inert gas-filled tube (usually helium, neon or argon with halogens added) briefly conducts electricity when a particle or photon of radiation ma*es the gas conducti#e. The tube amplifies this conduction by a cascade effect and outputs a current pulse, which is then often displayed by a needle or lamp and+or audible clic*s. Modern instruments can report radioacti#ity o#er se#eral orders of magnitude. ,ome Geiger counters can be used to detect gamma radiation, though sensiti#ity can be lower for high energy gamma radiation than with certain other types of detectors. The density of gas in the de#ice is usually low, allowing most high energy gamma photons to pass through undetected. -ower energy photons are easier to detect, and are better absorbed by the detector. !.amples of this are the /-ray and 0eta 1anca*e Geiger Tube. Good alpha and beta scintillation counters also e.ist, but Geiger detectors are still fa#ored as general purpose alpha+beta+gamma portable contamination and dose rate instruments, due to their low cost and robustness. A #ariation of the Geiger tube is used to measure neutrons, where the gas used is boron trifluoride or 2elium 3 and a plastic moderator is used to slow the neutrons. This creates an alpha particle inside the

detector and thus neutrons can be counted. Types and applications

A modern digital Geiger counter is used with applications ranging from nuclear medicine, mining, contamination monitoring, and national security.

A Geiger counter and metal detector combined for detecting both metal and radioacti#e materials for security purpose.

The configuration of GM tubes determines the types of radiation that it can detect. 4or e.ample, a thin mica window on a GM Tube (shown here) will allow for the detection of alpha radiation, whereas GM Tubes without a thin mica window are too thic* for the alpha and low energy beta radiation to pass through and be detected. A GM instrument is one of many different types of radiation detectors. The Geiger M ller tube is one form of a class of radiation detectors called gaseous detectors or simply gas detectors. Although useful, cheap and robust, a counter using a GM tube can only detect the presence and intensity of radiation (number of particles detected in an inter#al of time, as opposed to energy or wa#elength). The GeigerM ller counter has applications in the fields of nuclear physics, geophysics (mining), and medical therapy with isotopes and .-rays. ,ome of the proportional counters ha#e many electrodes and are called multi-wire proportional counters or simply M516s.

Geiger plateau
The Geiger plateau is the #oltage range in which the GeigerM ller counter operates. "f a GM tube is e.posed to a steady radiation source and the applied #oltage increased from zero, at first the count rate increases rapidly7 at a certain #oltage the rate of increase flattens out (only changing a few per cent for e#ery $&& #olts increase). 8epending on the characteristics of the specific tube (manufacturer, size, gas type etc.) the e.act #oltage range may #ary. "n this plateau region, the potential difference in the counter is strong enough to ionize all the gas inside the tube, upon triggering by the incoming ionizing radiation (alpha, beta or gamma radiation). 0elow the plateau the #oltage is not high enough to cause complete discharge7 a limited Townsend a#alanche is the result, and the tube acts as a proportional counter, where the output pulse size depends on the initial ionization created by the radiation. 2igher #oltages gi#e a pulse size independent of the initial ionization energy. "f the applied #oltage is too high, a continuous glow discharge is formed and the tube cannot detect radiation. The plateau has a slight incline caused by increased sensiti#ity to low energy radiation, due to the increased #oltage on the de#ice. 9ormally when a particle enters the tube and ionizes one of the gas atoms, complete ionization of the gas occurs. :nce a low energy particle enters the counter, it is possible that the *inetic energy in addition to the potential energy of the #oltage are insufficient for the additional ionization to occur and thus the ion recombines. At higher #oltages, the threshold for the minimum radiation le#el drops, thus the counter;s sensiti#ity rises. The counting

rate for a gi#en radiation source #aries slightly as the applied #oltage is #aried7 for standardization of the response of the instrument, a regulated #oltage is used to maintain stable counting characteristics. <3=

GM tubes
The usual form of GM tube is an end-window tube. This type is so-named because the tube has a window at one end through which ionizing radiation can easily penetrate. The other end normally has the electrical connectors. There are two types of endwindow tubes: the glass-mantle type and the mica window type. The glass window type will not detect alpha radiation since it is unable to penetrate the glass, but is usually cheaper and will usually detect beta radiation and /-rays. The mica window type will detect alpha radiation but is more fragile. Most tubes will detect gamma radiation, and usually beta radiation abo#e about >.? Me@. GeigerM ller tubes will not normally detect neutrons since these do not ionise the gas. 2owe#er, neutron-sensiti#e tubes can be produced which either ha#e the inside of the tube coated with boron or contain boron trifluoride or helium-3 gas. The neutrons interact with the boron nuclei, producing alpha particles or with the helium-3 nuclei producing hydrogen and tritium ions and electrons. These charged particles then trigger the normal a#alanche process. Although most tubes will detect gamma radiation, standard tubes are relati#ely inefficient, as most gamma photons will pass through the low density gas without interacting. Asing the hea#ier noble gases *rypton or .enon for the fill effects a small impro#ement, but dedicated gamma detectors use dense cathodes of lead or stainless steel in windowless tubes. The dense cathode then interacts with the gamma flu., producing high-energy electrons, which are then detected.

Quenching n! !e ! ti"e
The ideal GM tube should produce a single pulse on entry of a single ionising particle. "t must not gi#e any spurious pulses, and must reco#er Buic*ly to the passi#e state. Anfortunately for these reBuirements, when positi#e argon ions reach the cathode and become neutral argon atoms again by obtaining electrons from it, the atoms can acBuire their electrons in enhanced energy le#els. These atoms then return to their ground state by emitting photons which can in turn produce further ionisation and hence cause spurious secondary pulse discharges. "f nothing were done to counteract it, ionisation could e#en escalate, causing a so-called current Ca#alancheC which if prolonged could damage the tube. ,ome form of Buenching of the ionisation is therefore essential. The disad#antage of Buenching is that for a short time after a discharge pulse has occurred (the so-called dead time, which is typically a few microseconds), the tube is rendered insensiti#e and is thus temporarily unable to detect the arri#al of any new ionising particle. This effecti#ely causes a loss of counts at sufficiently-high count rates. !.ternal Buenching uses control electronics to temporarily remo#e the high #oltage between the electrodes. ,elf-Buenching or internal-Buenching tubes stop the discharge without e.ternal assistance, by means of the addition of a small amount of a

polyatomic organic #apor such as butane or ethanol7 or alternati#ely a halogen such as bromine or chlorine. "f a poor diatomic gas Buencher were introduced to the tube, the positi#e argon ions, during their motion toward the cathode, would ha#e multiple collisions with the Buencher gas molecules and transfer their charge and some energy to them. 9eutral argon atoms would then be produced and the Buencher gas ions would reach the cathode instead, gain electrons in e.cited states which would decay by photon emission, thereby producing spurious tube discharge as before. 2owe#er, effecti#e Buencher molecules, when e.cited, do not lose their energy by photon emission but by dissociation into neutral Buencher atoms. 9o spurious output pulses are then produced.

# logen tube
The halogen GM tube was in#ented by ,idney 2. -iebson in $%DE,<D= The discharge mechanism ta*es ad#antage of a metastable state of the inert gas atom to more-readily ionize a halogen molecule, enabling the tube to operate at much lower #oltages, typically D&&F&& #olts instead of %&&$>&& #olts. This type of GM tube is therefore by far the most common form now. "t has a longer life than tubes Buenched with organic compounds, because the halogen ions can recombine while the organic #apor is gradually destroyed by the discharge process (gi#ing the latter a life of around $&' e#ents)

Radiolabeling and Isotopic Markers - Introduction


Nomenclature Purpose

Radiolabeling and Isotopic Markers


All elements can exist as two or more isotopes that differ in the number of neutrons in the nucleus. Some isotopes are stable indefinitely, while others are unstable (radioactive). Radioactive isotopes decay with a defined half life, and primarily throu!h release of helium nuclei (" particles), electrons or positrons (# particles), and $ radiation. %he ready detection of this emitted radiation, even on a very small scale, underlies the utility and hi!h sensitivity of a radioactive label. %his website focuses on the isotopes primarily of interest to or!anic chemists, which include the non metal &ain 'roup elements. (nce prepared, radiolabeled compounds meet a variety of fates, but the !oal is ultimately to detect the labeled molecule, fra!ment or metabolite) a suitable radiolabel or isotopic mar*er should allow normal chemical or biochemical processes to be monitored without causin! any interference %his article addresses radiolabelin! and isotopic labelin! in the context of or!anic synthesis. +n !eneral, this labelin! involves the application of *nown synthetic methods to tar!et molecules in which at least one atom (or a statistical portion thereof) is present as an isotope other than its naturally most abundant one. &olecules that contain such an isotope are

referred to bein! labeled because such isotopically distinct atoms serve to mar* the molecule (or a fra!ment thereof) for later detection by various means. All elements can exist as two or more isotopes that differ in the number of neutrons in the nucleus. Some isotopes are stable indefinitely, while others are unstable (radioactive). Radioactive isotopes decay with a defined half life, and primarily throu!h release of helium nuclei (" particles), electrons or positrons (# particles), and $ radiation. %he ready detection of this emitted radiation, even on a very small scale, underlies the utility and hi!h sensitivity of the radioactive label. %his article focuses on the isotopes primarily of interest to or!anic chemists, which include the non metal &ain 'roup elements. %he isotopes of metals within the &ain 'roup, as well as al*ali metals, al*aline earths, transition metals, lanthanides and actinides have many important applications in medicine, !eolo!y, inor!anic chemistry, but are outside the scope of this discussion. %he nuclei considered here are listed in the table below. Minor Main-group Isotopes Family ,ydro!en 7arbon Nucleus
3

Natural abundance .../012 trace 8 /./2 9/. /8 ..312 8 8 ...362 ..-/2 ..:12 4.32 8 ...-2 8 :.. = /. /0

Half-life stable 40..56 d -. m stable 0,:3. y ;.;: m stable /4.- d /-- s stable stable stable stable 6: d stable //. m 3../ = /.0 y /1.- h /3.- h /...3 h 0;.4 d 6..- d

, , 7 7 7 N N P ( ( ( S S S S < 7l >r + + + +

// /3 /4

Pnictides

/3 /0 3-

7halco!ens

/0 /: /6 33 34 30 31

,alo!ens

/6 31 :1

/-3 /-4 /-0 /3/

d) days? m) minutes? s) seconds? y) years %he person !enerally credited with developin! the radiotracer techni@ue is the ,un!arian radiochemist 'yAr!y ,evesy ('eor!e de ,evesy), who was awarded the /;43 Nobel PriBe in

7hemistry for this achievement. ,is initial published experiments nearly a century a!o involved the use of -/.Pb (radium C) and -/-Pb to study the chemistry of lead, and later to conduct tracer studies in plants. %he analysis methods used in the present time are si!nificantly more sophisticated. (nce prepared, labeled compounds meet a variety of fates, but the !oal is ultimately to detect the labeled molecule, fra!ment or metabolite. %he differences between isotopes in terms of chemical behavior are nearly ne!li!ible for all elements but hydro!en, and in fact this is the reason isotopic labelin! is used. %he presence of the label is usually assumed to exert no effect on the physical or chemistry of the molecule, and it thus serves as a label or mar*er that allows normal chemical or biochemical processes to be monitored without causin! any interference. Dhen a new labeled molecule is prepared based on a biolo!ically active compound, it is necessary to verify that it behaves substantially the same as the parent, by determinin! that the probe is active in vitro to ensure that attachment of the label has not impaired the biolo!ical activity. <or a radiolabeled compound, the minimal levels of radioactivity in the environment provide a sufficiently low bac*!round a!ainst which it can be detected. Additionally, since the amount of radiation released by the radiolabeled molecule is independent of structure, accurate @uantitation of the parent molecule and any de!radation or metabolic products can be done without the use of reference standards so lon! as the radioactive atom is still attached. 3) (nly very small amounts of radiolabel are re@uired for analysis and detection, while the health haBards, cumbersomeness in handlin!, and costs increase with the amount of label present. <or this reason, many researchers dilute the label by addin! unlabeled or EcoldF compound as a carrier. 'iven that the isotopically enriched precursors employed in preparin! these labeled compounds are more expensive, and that the use of radioactive compounds can entail a ris* of contamination or dama!e to health, the synthetic methods employed should optimally be hi!hly efficient (hi!h yield) and simple, and the labeled component is best introduced as late in the synthesis route as possible. +n practice, however, yield becomes secondary to expediency, reflected in the speed of conversion or minimiBation of waste. %hus, the rapidity of the procedure is particularly important in the case of radioisotopes with relatively short half lives such as //7 (half life) -. min) and /6< (half life) //. min). %he use of radioisotopes with even shorter half lives, such as /3N (half life) ;.;: min) and /0( (half life) min), in synthesis procedures is !enerally not practical, althou!h these do find applications when used in simple inor!anic forms such as cyanide, ammonia, water, oxy!en !as and carbon monoxide and dioxide. Dhen usin! these relatively short lived radioisotopes, yield is often sacrificed for rapidity, as the obGective is to have the final product sterile, pyro!en free and in a physiolo!ical vehicle within three half lives. 'eneral approaches used to promote efficiency include the use of one pot reactions, micro reactors, ultrasound, microwaves,tt and solid support lin*ed reactants and rea!ents. /) %his area is the subGect of a recent review. -) Dhen it is not possible to introduce a radiolabel with a short half life as the final step in a se@uence, any remainin! steps should li*ewise proceed rapidly and cleanly. An example is the use of Eclic* chemistryF to incorporate a label into a radiopharmaceutical./;) %he application of clic* chemistry to /6< and //7 containin! intermediates has been covered in a recent review, 30) and this method can also be adapted to parallel synthesis. <inally, it was mentioned above that isotopes differ little in terms of chemical behavior except for hydro!en. %his is related to the fact that the chan!e in nuclear mass is substantial in the series of hydro!en (/,) H deuterium (-,) H tritium (3,), and the differences in the Bero point ener!y of bonds to these hydro!en isotopes are si!nificant and affect rate of any reaction in which that bond is bro*en or formed. &ore detail about this *inetic isotope effect is outside the scope of this article, but it is sufficient to note that when a molecule is labeled with a hydro!en isotope at the position that under!oes reaction (bond cleava!e andIor formation), differences in chemical behavior will be evident.

Nomenclature of Radiolabels
%he standard way to indicate a labeled compound is to prefix the name of the compound with the isotope desi!nation in s@uare brac*ets. <or example, deuterium oxide (C -() would be J-,K,-( by this convention. %he trivial labels C for deuterium and % for tritium are still used @uite commonly, thou!h. +n many cases, the yield for the step in which the radiolabel is introduced is described in terms of the Eradiochemical yieldF (RL)) %he yield of a radiochemical separation expressed as a fraction of the activity ori!inally present J+MPA7K. Nssentially, this means that the radiolabelin! a!ent is the limitin! rea!ent in the reaction. Some preparations of radiolabelin! a!ents or final radiolabeled compounds are characteriBed as Eno carrier addedF (N7A or n.c.a.)? this means a preparation of a radioactive isotope which is essentially free from stable isotopes of the element in @uestion J+MPA7K. Some researchers present a radiochemical yield that is @ualified by the expression Ec.f.d.F, which means Ecorrected for decayF. %his means that the expected decay over the synthesis cycle is factored into the yield to !ive a more optimistic representation. 7ompounds labeled with non radioactive isotopes are referred to as S+O (stable isotope labeled) compounds.

Purpose of Radiolabeling
"sotopic labeling is used to monitor the fate of a molecule or a fragment thereof through the use of detection methods that specifically distinguish the isotope used against a natural abundance bac*ground. There are many applications for the specific labeling of molecules with radioacti#e or stable isotopes. The techniBue can be used to prepare substrates for the study of reaction mechanism, in either an artificial or a biological medium. "t can also be used to trace the mo#ement of a molecule, or its degradation or metabolic product, in #i#o, in #itro, or in the en#ironment. "n the medical field, a #ariety of imaging techniBues ha#e been de#eloped that rely on materials labeled with radioacti#e isotopes. The use of radiolabeled compounds is also of critical importance in the drug de#elopment process for use as radioligands in lead disco#ery, as metabolic tracers in de#elopment, and in phase "@ clinical studies.3) They play a similar role in the compound de#elopment process for crop protection chemicals, being used in metabolic in#estigations and en#ironmental fate studies.
radiolabelin! and isotopic labelin! in the context of or!anic synthesis. +n !eneral, this labelin! involves the application of *nown synthetic methods to tar!et molecules in which at least one atom (or a statistical portion thereof) is present as an isotope other than its naturally most abundant one. &olecules that contain such an isotope are referred to bein! labeled because such isotopically distinct atoms serve to mar* the molecule (or a fra!ment thereof) for later detection by various means. All elements can exist as two or more isotopes that differ in the number of neutrons in the nucleus. Some isotopes are stable indefinitely, while others are unstable (radioactive). Radioactive isotopes decay with a defined half life, and primarily throu!h release of helium nuclei (" particles), electrons or positrons (# particles), and $ radiation. %he ready detection of this emitted radiation, even on a very small scale, underlies the utility and hi!h sensitivity of the radioactive label.

%his article focuses on the isotopes primarily of interest to or!anic chemists, which include the non metal &ain 'roup elements. %he isotopes of metals within the &ain 'roup, as well as al*ali metals, al*aline earths, transition metals, lanthanides and actinides have many important applications in medicine, !eolo!y, inor!anic chemistry, but are outside the scope of this discussion. %he nuclei considered here are listed in the table below.

Safety and Precautions


Ooss of Oabel Stora!e Cisposal Loss of label Nxcept in specific case where an exchan!e reaction is bein! studied, the isotopic mar*er should not be in a labile functional !roup that is easily exchan!ed under normal conditions, such as deuterium (-,) or tritium (3,) in place of an alcoholic, phenolic or acidic (,, or a /0(, /: ( or /6( as a carbonyl oxy!en in an a@ueous environment, since the label will be readily washed out. Althou!h isotopic labelin! is used extensively to study biochemical reactions, certain unanticipated bioreactions can lead to an unexpected loss of label. Problems such as in vivo dehalo!enation can arise with substrates that contain isotopic halo!ens, as a result of enBymatic cleava!e due to structural similarities to the thyroid hormones. %he stron! 7 < bond ma*es the loss of isotopic fluorine rare, but bromine and particularly iodine can under!o dehalo!enation in vivo. %his can be especially problematic with lon! lived iodide isotopes, which can subse@uently experience si!nificant and undesirable accumulation in both the thyroid and stomach tissues. Storage 7ompounds or rea!ents enriched with stable isotopes can be stored in the same manner as the unenriched materials. >y definition, radiolabeled compounds and rea!ents emit radiation, and this can accelerate various decomposition processes. 'eneral !uidelines to follow include) protection from li!ht and stora!e under N - or Ar? stora!e at low temperatures (9 6. P7)? stora!e as a solution (alcohols, especially ethanol, and acetonitrile are !ood solvents, water should be avoided)? and when a compound is stored as a solid, it should be in crystalline form and not amorphous.3) isposal Daste disposal procedures for materials that contain stable isotopes are !enerally not much different than those for handlin! the correspondin! unenriched materials. %he accompanyin! documentation commonly employed for handlin! laboratory waste often allows the user to note any special characteristics of the materials submitted, and the presence of the isotopes can be declared in this way. %he disposal of radioactive waste can pose a challen!e, and must be handled separately by appropriately trained personnel. Radioactive waste materials should not by mixed with !eneral laboratory waste. %he disposal of mixed waste such as flammable or hi!hly toxic radioactive waste (e.!., mercury or lead waste) can be extremely expensive, and in some cases, it is not even possible to find a vendor willin! to handle the disposal. 3) +n all cases, the waste should be handled accordin! to local re!ulations by properly certified companies.

$C%NT%&&'T%ON COUNTER
The scintillation counter is a solid state radiation detector. Oper tion o( scintill tion counter to inclu!e)

* R !i tion !etection b* Three cl sses o( phosphors c* +hoto"ultiplier tube oper tion The scintillation counter is a solid state radiation detector which uses a scintillation crystal (phosphor) to detect radiation and produce light pulses. 4igure >D is important in the e.planation of scintillation counter operation. As radiation interacts in the 4igure >D !lectronic !nergy 0and of an "onic 6rystal scintillation crystal, energy is transferred to bound electrons of the crystalGs atoms. "f the energy that is transferred is greater than the ionization energy, the electron enters the conduction band and is free from the binding forces of the parent atom. This lea#es a #acancy in the #alence band and is termed a hole. "f the energy transferred is less than the binding energy, the electron remains attached, but e.ists in an e.cited energy state. :nce again, a hole is created in the #alence band. 0y adding impurities during the growth of the scintillation crystal, the manufacturer is able to produce acti#ator centers with energy le#els located within the forbidden energy gap. The acti#ator center can trap a mobile electron, which raises the acti#ator center from its ground state, G, to an e.cited state, !. 5hen the center de-e.cites, a photon is emitted. The acti#ator centers in a scintillation crystal are referred to as luminescence centers. The emitted photons are in the #isible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. He#. & 1age D? "6-&F