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FPGA Implementation of One Bit ΔΣ Control System

Processor
Mr. Mohan S*, Dr. Kamala J**
*Master of Engg, Department of ECE, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai-25.
**Faculty of Electronics and Communication, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai-25.

Abstract:--A Novel Delta Sigma (ΔΣ) Control System Processor is for the D/A converter are both removed. For this reason, ΔΣ
a new technology and architecture for digital control system. Control based signal processing has been widely investigated in the
laws can be efficiently implemented with one-bit signals at both the context of finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters [2], [3], infinite-
input and output of the system. Delta Sigma modulation is used to impulse-response (IIR) filters [4], audio processing [5], and
shape either analogue or multi-bit digital signals into 1-bit format at control system processing [6].
very high sampling frequencies. This 1-bit format contains all the
useful information of the input. Thus making it possible to perform
ΔΣ-based control systems can be implemented as software
digital signal processing directly control to any physical device. The running on existing digital processors, but this does not result in a
delta sigma control system processor utilizes 1-bit processing with cost effective solution, particularly when taking the 1-bit feature
the direct benefit of making multi-bit multiplication operations into consideration. This paper describes a novel, ΔΣ-based control
redundant. A simple conditional- negate-and-add (CNA) unit is used system processor for very demanding control applications and its
for operations in control law implementations. One bit architecture performance, hardware cost, and maximum sampling rates are
for processor results in less hardware and very high sampling rate. compared to other digital controllers, either standalone (including
The proposed architecture provides higher efficiency in terms of direct, hardwired implementations of control laws) or as software
performance, low cost, and high sampling rates compared to other applications executing on very high performance, multi-parallel
digital controllers.
VLIW architectures.
Index Terms:--1-bit processing ΔΣ modulation, control system The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. The
processor, VLSI, FPGA. concept of 1-bit processing is introduced in Section II. Section III
describes a direct, hardwired implementation of control laws with
1-bit processing. The processor architecture is given in Section
I. INTRODUCTION IV, and a case study evaluating the performance of the ΔΣ-CSP in
real-life control applications is presented in Section V. Section VI

R eal-world automatic control systems were initially based


is temperature control application for one bit signal processing
where the high speed ΔΣ-CSP can be utilized. Section VII
concludes and suggests of ΔΣ-Control System Processor.
on analog electronics. With the availability of low-cost high-
performance digital platforms such as microprocessors and
microcontrollers, control system implementation evolved into the
more flexible digital form which is now used almost exclusively. II. 1-BIT PROCESSING
The main objective of such digital systems is the implementation
of the control law, meeting the system real-time constraints, and 1-bit processing is a new concept in digital control and was
the interfacing to the analog world via multi-bit analog-to-digital originally proposed for reducing the area occupied by complex
(A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters. In typical VLSI-based control systems [7].
applications, the control law implementation directly drives such A conventional (bit-parallel) structure is a continuous signal is
high performance electromechanical systems at sample rates of digitized into a binary (bit-parallel) representation using a multi-
greater than 10 kHz; failure to meet the real-time control bit A/D converter. The resulting digital signal is digitally
requirements of these target applications can lead to critical processed within the controller and then used to control physical
failure. Many A/D and D/A converters make use of an systems after undergoing D/A conversion via an A/D converter.
intermediate ΔΣ modulating stage for high quality data Fig. 1 depicts a 1-bit control system in which the continuous
conversion. This ΔΣ modulator converts signals into a simple 1- signal is shaped into a single bit-stream via ΔΣ-modulation. The
bit stream, at very high sampling frequencies. This bit-stream digital ΔΣ-modulator is embedded within the controller, in the
contains all the useful information of the input thus making it main loop, resulting in a 1-bit [pulse density modulation (PDM)]
possible to perform digital signal processing directly on those 1- signal after control processing. That processed 1-bit signal is then
bit signals. VLSI integration ΔΣ of the modulator along with the used to control physical systems directly through PDM which
control system processor and other associated systems results in works similarly to pulse-width-modulation (PWM). A
very high performance and small form-factor control systems [1]. characteristic common to both control system architectures is the
Moreover, these systems interface to analog signals directly as the control law, which is designed using the same approach in both
decimating filter for the A/D converter and the interpolating filter cases, i.e., either classic or modern control theory.
1
A. ΔΣ Modulation sensitivity with traditional control system processing using the
shift operator z [10], a characteristic that becomes particularly
Fig. 2 shows a second-order ΔΣ-modulator in which two
critical with the much higher sample rates required for 1-bit signal
integrators are cascaded in the forward loop to create a higher-
processing. It has been recognized that alternative forms, using
order filter, with each integrator receiving an additional input
the δ-operator, overcome a number of these issues [11].
from the quantizer.
The δ-operator is defined as
Ai Controller
ΔΣ ΔΣ q 1
1-Bit 1-Bit PDM (2)
T
in which q is the shift operator and T is the sampling period.
Equation (2) shows that there is a unification between discrete
Physical System
and continuous time since resembles the continuous time operator
Fig. 1.One-bit control system. d/dt as T→0. This expression can also be simplified even further
[12].
xn q(x)
z/ (z-1) z/ (z-1) Q (*) δ=q-1 (3)
u
There is just a difference of scaling factors between these two
definitions, with the second expression being more direct since it
does not involve the division operation of the first equation. The
equation y=δ-1x is implemented using the equation
Fig. 2. ΔΣ Modulation
The output of the quantizer is a binary value (+/-1) which can y(n+1)=x(n)+y(n) (4)
be stored in a 1-bit register. For decoding, a decimating filter is Fig. 4 shows these fourth order controller structures, both using
required. After decimating, the multi-bit format of the input û is the δ-operator. These controller structures have precisely the same
calculated as overall transfer function, although the set of internal controller
N states (x1, x2, etc.) is different in each case. This paper
1 concentrates on two primary aspects of control system design: 1)
û= q ( xn)i (1)
N i. 0
achieving very high sampling rates and 2) minimizing the circuit
complexity (area) through taking advantage of 1-bit processing.
Where N is the number of samples, xn is the last integrator’s As a result of these objectives, the modified forms from [6] attract
output, and q(xn) is the output of the 1-bit quantizer. If xn is particular interest. The modified canonic architecture has been
positive or 0, q(xn) is +1. If xn is negative, then q(xn) is -1 [8]. adopted in a conventional control system processor and will be
used as a benchmark against the proposed ΔΣ-CSP, which takes
the third form [see Fig. 4] when implementing control laws.
However, this form results in very small coefficients with high
sampling frequency, which is difficult to represent using a fixed-
point number format.
Fig. 5 illustrates a controller architecture implemented with the
fourth-order ΔΣ-modulator. In this case, the input u is a 1-bit
signal from the 1-bit A/D converter thus, all multiplications in
Fig. 3. ΔΣ Modulation waveform this architecture are performed between that 1-bit signal (+/-1),
The above Fig. 3 is a waveform of ΔΣ Modulation. However, with a multi-bit coefficient, effectively only changing the sign of
the decimating filter is redundant in 1-bit processing. Because û is that multi-bit coefficient. Multiplication therefore becomes a
the average value of q(xn) over N samples, in the case of N being simple ―conditional-negate‖ operation, thus removing the
1 (i.e., no decimator), each sample is directly related to the requirement for large, multi-bit multipliers. This is particularly
original input but with quantization noise [9]. When the over- 1-bit
sampling frequency is sufficiently high, this quantization noise u
can be ignored as the noise spectrum within the signal bandwidth
P0 P1 P2 P3 P4
is much smaller than the input signal spectrum. x1 y
x2 x3 x4
-1 -1 -1
B. Controller Structure δ δ-1 δ δ
n-
1-bit processing requires a very fast sampling frequency which bit 1-bit
may result in long word lengths for both coefficients and q0 q1 q2 q3
variables within the controller, primarily because the differences
between successive values of the input and output become
increasingly small. There are known issues on coefficient Fig. 4. Alternative modified canonic δ-form.
2
important for VLSI implementations and is a clear advantage of forms shown in Fig. 4, where is a binary scaling factor. The
the ΔΣ-CSP over traditional designs, resulting in reduced circuit transfer function for this structure (not considering the ΔΣ-
complexity and computation latency. modulator) is
1-bit
u
P0 P1 P2 P3 P4
1-bit PDM Therefore, the coefficients become
x2 x3 x4
-1 -1 -1 -1
δ δ δ δ ΔΣ P0 = a5T4k-4; q0 = b4T4k-4
n- y P1 = a4T3k-3; q1 = b3T3k-3
bit
q0 q1 q2 q3 P2 = a3T2k-2 ; q2 = b2T2k-2
P3 = a2T1k-1; q3 = b1T1k-1
p4 = a1T0k-0; (9)
Fig. 5. Modified canonic δ-form combined with ΔΣ modulation.
The coefficients are multiplied with a scaling factor. Choosing
1-bit the value of the scaling factor k requires a careful study as
u arbitrary values may involve multiplications which will increase
the circuitry complexity. To avoid this, is chosen to be a negative
P0 P1 P2 P3 P4
1-bit PDM power of 2 thus reducing multiplications to shift operations.
x2 x3 x4
δ-1 δ -1 δ-1 δ-1
ΔΣ D. Word Length
n- & k &k &k &k y
The signal range requirements are usually modest in well-
bit
q0 q1 q2 q3 designed digital control algorithms as full IEEE-754 floating-
point compliant arithmetic [13] is expensive in terms of power
consumption, area, and validation cost. For this reason, the ΔΣ-
CSP adopts a fixed-point arithmetic format [1]. Table I. shows the
Fig.6. Remodified canonic δ-form with scaling k.
general number format for the coefficients and state variables.

C. Coefficients TABLE I
The transfer function of the modified δ-form controller structure Number Format
in Fig. 4 can be written as
Sign Part Integer Part Fraction Part
1 Bit 7 Bits 16 Bits

A simple criterion used to determine the number of fractional


Consider for example a generalized single-input–single output bits in the range of 8–16 bits and signal with amplitude -128 to
(SISO) controller of fourth order. Its transfer function can be 127 which is sufficient for most control applications utilizing ΔΣ-
represented by modulation, considering that input and output are ±1. There are
no overflow or underflow bits specified as they are unnecessary in
1-bit processing [14]. Underflow problem is easily overcome due
to the lack of multi-bit multiplications when using the proposed
From (3), it is obvious that the operator approximates to sT. controller architecture of Fig. 6.
when the sampling time T is very small. Here, is the Laplace
operator. Hence, from (5) and (6), the following coefficients are
obtained: III. DIRECT IMPLEMENTATION
P0 = a5T4; q0 = b4T4
3 The most straightforward approach to realize ΔΣ-based control
P1 = a4T ; q1 = b3T3
2 systems in VLSI is to implement the controller architecture of
P2 = a3T ; q2 = b2T2
1 Fig. 6 directly. Fig. 7 depicts such a direct implementation of a
P3 = a2T ; q3 = b1T1
0 fourth-order ΔΣ based control system with the 1-bit variables
p4 = a1T (7)
denoted by the thin lines and the multi-bit variables of the format
As T is very small compared with the time constant of the depicted in Table I shown. The input data comes from a ΔΣ-
transfer function, the coefficients become increasingly smaller modulator which is located off-chip, but the ΔΣ modulator for the
with increasing controller order. This makes it more difficult to output data is integrated with the controller and thus resides on-
represent such small values in a fixed-point format. In order to chip. The states that are required for the next-sample calculations
scale these coefficients, the controller architecture has to be are stored in registers. The sample timer is used to determine
modified as shown in Fig. 6, essentially a hybrid between the two when to read new input data and write new output data.
3
As all the calculations operate on 2-complement numbers, the placement etc. The FPGA floor planning of virtex2pro device as
sign bit identifies a value as positive or negative, where 1 means a shown in Fig. 9. Second Fig is enlarged floor planning of FPGA.
negative value and 0 means a positive value. In 1-bit signal Floor planning allows us to predict this interconnect delay by
representation, -1 is assigned the 0 value; it is thus easy to estimating interconnect length. At the start of floor planning we
implement the 1-bit quantizer of the ΔΣ modulator with an have a net list describing circuit blocks, the logic cells within the
inverter. Also, in the ΔΣ modulator, the first, third, fifth and blocks, and their connections. Floor planning is thus a mapping
seventh adders require only the addition of a 1-bit signal to the between the logical description and the physical description. In
eight most significant bits of the 24-bit signal. this floor planning we wish to predict the interconnect delay
before we complete any routing. At the floor planning stage we
know only the fanout of a net list and the size of the block that the
o o o o net list.
1-bit p1 p2 p3 p4

u δ-1 δ-1 δ-1 δ-1


o
p0 > > > >
D k D D
k k D
k
24-bit
o o o o 24-bit
q0 q1 q2 q3
1-bit

y
x x[23]
D D Sample
Timer

Fig. 7. Direct implementation of a fourth-order ΔΣ control system Fig. 9. Floor planning of fourth-order ΔΣ control system (a) Full
in VLSI. Overview. (b) Enlarged Floor planning.
ΔΣ control system is implemented with a second order sample The timing-analysis tool reports that the critical path of clock in
timer and fourth order controller used. Increase the order of the the optimized delay is 26.348 ns. The total power consumed by
system provides good accuracy with circuit complexity. The the device is 95 mW, when we use 3.3 V for operating I/O ports
output of sample timer y is one bit signal as shown Fig. 8. and supply voltage. These details describe by Table III.
TABLE III
Power and Delay Estimation Summary

Parameter Current (mA) Power (mW)

Total Power Consumption -- 95


Fig. 8. Waveform of a fourth-order ΔΣ control system in VLSI.
Vccint 2.50V: 30 75
The fourth-order ΔΣ control system implemented in ISE design Vccaux 3.30V: 05 17
environment, the synthesis report was carried out by using the Vcco25 3.30V: 01 03
FPGA device Xilinx virtex2pro, speed grade -6. The Table II is
details about device utilization summary, Parameter Delay (ns)
TABLE II
Device Utilization Summary Minimum Clock period (37.954MHz) 26.348
Minimum input arrival time before clock 28.498
Logic Utilization Available Used Maximum output required time after clock 04.182
No. of Slices 3008 226 The proposed direct implementation allows us to perform the
No. of Slice FF 6016 146 whole control system processing in a pipelined manner. After
No. of 4 input LUTs 6016 438 completing the calculations, the circuit stops working and awaits
No. of bonded IOBs 140 3 the next sample trigger event. Hence, this is the fastest and
The logic synthesis provides a link between an HDL and a net simplest implementation of a 1-bit controller. However, this
list. Logic synthesis, after getting the pre-simulation result with architecture is not flexible enough as it is fully hardwired for one
the help of test bench and we can generate floor planning, particular control task.
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IV. MICROARCHITURE AND PROCESSOR in the ΔΣ-CSP that stores the instructions is known as the
program RAM or as a single-port SRAM block. The data RAM
To alleviate the rigidity of the direct implementation a novel, maximum size of 512 x 24-bit words, utilizes a dual-port
processor has been developed resulting in a ΔΣ-based control configuration and stores the coefficients and initial data.
system processor (ΔΣ-CSP). Fig. 10 depicts the block diagram of As the program counter is 24-bit wide, it can address a
the ΔΣ-CSP. All calculations take place in the arithmetic and maximum of 16 mega-instructions whereas compile-time
logic unit (ALU) which has direct access to data read from the I/O switches allow for the static-configuration of both the instruction
unit. The Instruction Set Architecture of the proposed bit-width as well as the instruction memory size. The program
programmable solution is shown in Table IV. The instruction set counter maintains a pointer to the currently executing instruction
is fairly small and specialized to control law implementation. of the control law in the program RAM. The ALU takes the
opcode and three input operands, from the I/O block, the
TABLE IV
accumulator, and the data RAM, respectively, for each calculation
ΔΣ-CSP Instruction Set Architecture
cycle. The controller architecture, conditional-negate-and-add
(CNA) unit is performs
Binary Opcode Description
D= (-) B|A+C (10)
000 HLT No operation
001 RDW Read data from program RAM Where B is either a coefficient or a state variable, A is a 1-bit
010 WRB Write result to digital output port signal, and C is a state variable. (-) is a symbol which signifies
011 WRW Write the intermediate states to the data RAM conditional-negate. After completing the CNA operation, the
100 SRS Right shift result of the conditional-negation is added to the state variable
101 CAN Conditional negate and accumulate and C stored in the accumulator. The ALU includes conditional-
110 SET Set timer sampling frequency negate-accumulate and shift units only needed [14]. After
111 WPC Set control law start address processing in the ALU, each result is stored in the accumulator
for the following instruction at the next clock cycle. Note that the
data in this accumulator will be cleared as soon as an ―HLT‖
The overall word-length of the ΔΣ-CSP 16-bit word format.
instruction is read.
Each instruction was utilized 3 bits for the opcode, 4 bits for the
digital I/O, leaving 9 bits for data RAM addressing. The
V. MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATION
External Interface
To thoroughly evaluate the performance of 1-bit processing in
USB core real-life control applications, a practical dc motor controller is
demonstrated in this section.

Data RAM (512x24bits) Program RAM (2^16x24bits) A. DC Motor and Controller


The details of dc motor model using Laplace transfer function
PC Addr Instr was given in [6]. The objective is to control the position of a
Data rotating load with flexibility in the drive shaft. In this particular
Inst-Decoder example the important variable that will be affected by high
Opc frequency noise due to the heavily-sampled 1-bit signals is the
Addr motor current. A fourth-order position controller was designed
including a proportional–integral (PI) filter transfer function is
ALU IO
1-bit
Address

Data
For 1-bit processing, the SNR is related to the sampling
Accumulator
frequency given the proposed controller architecture. The SNR
improves when the sampling frequency increases. Therefore, the
sampling frequency must be at least 300 Hz to meet the SNR
Timing and Control requirement (27 dB). The coefficients for the controller, when the
sampling frequency is selected at 1000 Hz, are calculated
according to (9) and are listed as follows:
Fig. 10. ΔΣ-CSP high-level diagram
p0=2.684354560000000x10^-3
instructions, coefficients, and initial data are stored in program p1=5.244977151999999x10^0
and data RAMs (SRAMs) respectively, allowing reprogramming p2=4.096655359999999x10^0
of the controller with different control laws. The memory blocks p3=1.280512000000000x10^0

5
p4=1.000000000000000x10^0 bit digital signal, and fed into FPGA. The output of the FPGA 1-
q0=0 bit PDM signal and directly fed into dc motor. PDM is produced
q 1=2.097152000000000x10^1 by use of ΔΣ-modulator. The output of dc motor is analog signal
q 2=1.802240000000000x10^1 with the help of position transducer.
q 3=1.408000000000000x10^1
K=128 (12)
VI. TEMPERATURE CONTROL APPLICATION
B. Simulation Results
Simulations have been carried out in MATLAB/Simulink using This section describes another application of a microprocessor
the ΔΣ controller interfacing, with a continuous time based controller for temperature control in an air-flow system.
representation of the physical system. The step response of the Fig. 13 gives hardware description of the temperature control
overall control system simulation is as shown in Fig. 11. system. Let us examine briefly the function of each block. The
The coefficients are represented in a 24-bit fixed-point word block labeled keyboard interfaced to the microcomputer through a
format. A small portion of the simulation results is the peak programmable keyboard display interface chip. The LED display
response at 1 to 1.5ns in x-axis. The only identifiable difference is unit provides display of the actual temperature of the heating
that the motor oscillates a bit more heavily in simulation. This is chamber. The temperature range for the system under
due to the effect of Pulse Density Modulation (PDM) and will not consideration is 20 to 60oC. When a thermistor is used as
affect the whole system performance. After 2ns in x axis, the temperature transducer, it is necessary to convert the change in its
motor response becomes steady; there is a maximum error within resistance to an equivalent analog voltage. This is accomplished
2.5% due to the effect of fixed point word format, which is with Wheatstone bridge; the thermistor exposed to the process air
acceptable for the particular control system. forms one arm of the bridge. Millivolt range of the bridge error
voltage is amplified to the range required by ΔΣ converter. The
output of the ΔΣ converter is one bit digital measurement of the
actual temperature of the process air. This data is fed to the
microcomputer through an input port.

Key board
Micro- 1-bit Triacs &
ΔΣ Firing Heater
computer
LED Circuit
n-bit Triac Control
ΔΣ
Analog Signal Heating
Amplifier Chamber
Fig. 11. Step responses of simulink result Transduce
r
Hardware simulation verifies the feasibility of the Direct
implementation ΔΣ control system. Here, ΔΣ control system was Fig. 13. Block diagram of temperature control system.
implemented in an FPGA technology. The FPGA device chosen
The microcomputer compares temperature and generates an
was the Xilinx virtex2pro XC2VP4-6FG256, speed grade -6.
error signal. The error signal is then processed as per control
Synthesis was carried on the Xilinx synthesis technology (XST),
algorithm, resulting in a control signal in 1-bit PWM (similarly
part of the ISE design environment. It is fourth-order controller
PDM). The power input to the plant may be controlled with the
for demonstration. Fig. 12 shows hardware simulation scheme.
help of triacs and firing circuit interface. If the triac closes the
circuit for tp sec. out of T sec. the average power applied to the
1-bit plant over the sampling period T is
Xilinx Virtex2pro 1-bit
ADS1201 tp= (u*R/V2) T (13)
Controller ΔΣ PDM
Analog Signal Where, V-rms value of the applied voltage and R- resistance of
the heater. Depending on the control signal u, tp is calculated in
microcomputer. The function of the triacs and firing circuit
Transduce DC MOTOR interface is to process the PWM output of the microcomputer
r such that the heater is ON when the PWM output is logic 1, and
Fig. 12. Hardware simulation scheme. OFF when it is logic 0. Since the heater is operated off 230 V ac
at 50 Hz, the firing circuit should also provide adequate isolation
Here, the hardware simulation result is same as the simulink between the high voltage ac signals and the low voltage digital
result. The ADS1201 [15] is used to convert analog signal into 1- signals.
6
VII. CONCLUSION [14] S. Jones, R. Goodall, and M. Gooch, ―Targeted processor
architectures for high-performance controller
The ΔΣ-CSP is an extremely small and fast application-specific implementation,‖ Control Eng. Practice, vol. 6, pp. 867–878,
processor. Despite its simplicity, the ΔΣ-CSP is a very potent 1998.
platform for the execution of complex control laws. With the [15] Burr–Brown Corporation, Tucson, AZ, ―High dynamic
exception of the direct VLSI implementation of the control law, range delta-sigma modulator,‖ 1997 [Online]. Available:
the ΔΣ-CSP provides substantial performance improvement, in http://www.burrbrown.com
terms of the absolute sampling rate and very low power budget,
particularly compared to the VLIW architectures. At the same
time, it maintains a fully programmable programmer’s model that
can easily be retargeted to different control applications whereas
the direct implementation would need to be redesigned from
scratch.

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