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Processor

Mr. Mohan S*, Dr. Kamala J**

*Master of Engg, Department of ECE, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai-25.

**Faculty of Electronics and Communication, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai-25.

Abstract:--A Novel Delta Sigma (ΔΣ) Control System Processor is for the D/A converter are both removed. For this reason, ΔΣ

a new technology and architecture for digital control system. Control based signal processing has been widely investigated in the

laws can be efficiently implemented with one-bit signals at both the context of finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters [2], [3], infinite-

input and output of the system. Delta Sigma modulation is used to impulse-response (IIR) filters [4], audio processing [5], and

shape either analogue or multi-bit digital signals into 1-bit format at control system processing [6].

very high sampling frequencies. This 1-bit format contains all the

useful information of the input. Thus making it possible to perform

ΔΣ-based control systems can be implemented as software

digital signal processing directly control to any physical device. The running on existing digital processors, but this does not result in a

delta sigma control system processor utilizes 1-bit processing with cost effective solution, particularly when taking the 1-bit feature

the direct benefit of making multi-bit multiplication operations into consideration. This paper describes a novel, ΔΣ-based control

redundant. A simple conditional- negate-and-add (CNA) unit is used system processor for very demanding control applications and its

for operations in control law implementations. One bit architecture performance, hardware cost, and maximum sampling rates are

for processor results in less hardware and very high sampling rate. compared to other digital controllers, either standalone (including

The proposed architecture provides higher efficiency in terms of direct, hardwired implementations of control laws) or as software

performance, low cost, and high sampling rates compared to other applications executing on very high performance, multi-parallel

digital controllers.

VLIW architectures.

Index Terms:--1-bit processing ΔΣ modulation, control system The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. The

processor, VLSI, FPGA. concept of 1-bit processing is introduced in Section II. Section III

describes a direct, hardwired implementation of control laws with

1-bit processing. The processor architecture is given in Section

I. INTRODUCTION IV, and a case study evaluating the performance of the ΔΣ-CSP in

real-life control applications is presented in Section V. Section VI

is temperature control application for one bit signal processing

where the high speed ΔΣ-CSP can be utilized. Section VII

concludes and suggests of ΔΣ-Control System Processor.

on analog electronics. With the availability of low-cost high-

performance digital platforms such as microprocessors and

microcontrollers, control system implementation evolved into the

more flexible digital form which is now used almost exclusively. II. 1-BIT PROCESSING

The main objective of such digital systems is the implementation

of the control law, meeting the system real-time constraints, and 1-bit processing is a new concept in digital control and was

the interfacing to the analog world via multi-bit analog-to-digital originally proposed for reducing the area occupied by complex

(A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters. In typical VLSI-based control systems [7].

applications, the control law implementation directly drives such A conventional (bit-parallel) structure is a continuous signal is

high performance electromechanical systems at sample rates of digitized into a binary (bit-parallel) representation using a multi-

greater than 10 kHz; failure to meet the real-time control bit A/D converter. The resulting digital signal is digitally

requirements of these target applications can lead to critical processed within the controller and then used to control physical

failure. Many A/D and D/A converters make use of an systems after undergoing D/A conversion via an A/D converter.

intermediate ΔΣ modulating stage for high quality data Fig. 1 depicts a 1-bit control system in which the continuous

conversion. This ΔΣ modulator converts signals into a simple 1- signal is shaped into a single bit-stream via ΔΣ-modulation. The

bit stream, at very high sampling frequencies. This bit-stream digital ΔΣ-modulator is embedded within the controller, in the

contains all the useful information of the input thus making it main loop, resulting in a 1-bit [pulse density modulation (PDM)]

possible to perform digital signal processing directly on those 1- signal after control processing. That processed 1-bit signal is then

bit signals. VLSI integration ΔΣ of the modulator along with the used to control physical systems directly through PDM which

control system processor and other associated systems results in works similarly to pulse-width-modulation (PWM). A

very high performance and small form-factor control systems [1]. characteristic common to both control system architectures is the

Moreover, these systems interface to analog signals directly as the control law, which is designed using the same approach in both

decimating filter for the A/D converter and the interpolating filter cases, i.e., either classic or modern control theory.

1

A. ΔΣ Modulation sensitivity with traditional control system processing using the

shift operator z [10], a characteristic that becomes particularly

Fig. 2 shows a second-order ΔΣ-modulator in which two

critical with the much higher sample rates required for 1-bit signal

integrators are cascaded in the forward loop to create a higher-

processing. It has been recognized that alternative forms, using

order filter, with each integrator receiving an additional input

the δ-operator, overcome a number of these issues [11].

from the quantizer.

The δ-operator is defined as

Ai Controller

ΔΣ ΔΣ q 1

1-Bit 1-Bit PDM (2)

T

in which q is the shift operator and T is the sampling period.

Equation (2) shows that there is a unification between discrete

Physical System

and continuous time since resembles the continuous time operator

Fig. 1.One-bit control system. d/dt as T→0. This expression can also be simplified even further

[12].

xn q(x)

z/ (z-1) z/ (z-1) Q (*) δ=q-1 (3)

u

There is just a difference of scaling factors between these two

definitions, with the second expression being more direct since it

does not involve the division operation of the first equation. The

equation y=δ-1x is implemented using the equation

Fig. 2. ΔΣ Modulation

The output of the quantizer is a binary value (+/-1) which can y(n+1)=x(n)+y(n) (4)

be stored in a 1-bit register. For decoding, a decimating filter is Fig. 4 shows these fourth order controller structures, both using

required. After decimating, the multi-bit format of the input û is the δ-operator. These controller structures have precisely the same

calculated as overall transfer function, although the set of internal controller

N states (x1, x2, etc.) is different in each case. This paper

1 concentrates on two primary aspects of control system design: 1)

û= q ( xn)i (1)

N i. 0

achieving very high sampling rates and 2) minimizing the circuit

complexity (area) through taking advantage of 1-bit processing.

Where N is the number of samples, xn is the last integrator’s As a result of these objectives, the modified forms from [6] attract

output, and q(xn) is the output of the 1-bit quantizer. If xn is particular interest. The modified canonic architecture has been

positive or 0, q(xn) is +1. If xn is negative, then q(xn) is -1 [8]. adopted in a conventional control system processor and will be

used as a benchmark against the proposed ΔΣ-CSP, which takes

the third form [see Fig. 4] when implementing control laws.

However, this form results in very small coefficients with high

sampling frequency, which is difficult to represent using a fixed-

point number format.

Fig. 5 illustrates a controller architecture implemented with the

fourth-order ΔΣ-modulator. In this case, the input u is a 1-bit

signal from the 1-bit A/D converter thus, all multiplications in

Fig. 3. ΔΣ Modulation waveform this architecture are performed between that 1-bit signal (+/-1),

The above Fig. 3 is a waveform of ΔΣ Modulation. However, with a multi-bit coefficient, effectively only changing the sign of

the decimating filter is redundant in 1-bit processing. Because û is that multi-bit coefficient. Multiplication therefore becomes a

the average value of q(xn) over N samples, in the case of N being simple ―conditional-negate‖ operation, thus removing the

1 (i.e., no decimator), each sample is directly related to the requirement for large, multi-bit multipliers. This is particularly

original input but with quantization noise [9]. When the over- 1-bit

sampling frequency is sufficiently high, this quantization noise u

can be ignored as the noise spectrum within the signal bandwidth

P0 P1 P2 P3 P4

is much smaller than the input signal spectrum. x1 y

x2 x3 x4

-1 -1 -1

B. Controller Structure δ δ-1 δ δ

n-

1-bit processing requires a very fast sampling frequency which bit 1-bit

may result in long word lengths for both coefficients and q0 q1 q2 q3

variables within the controller, primarily because the differences

between successive values of the input and output become

increasingly small. There are known issues on coefficient Fig. 4. Alternative modified canonic δ-form.

2

important for VLSI implementations and is a clear advantage of forms shown in Fig. 4, where is a binary scaling factor. The

the ΔΣ-CSP over traditional designs, resulting in reduced circuit transfer function for this structure (not considering the ΔΣ-

complexity and computation latency. modulator) is

1-bit

u

P0 P1 P2 P3 P4

1-bit PDM Therefore, the coefficients become

x2 x3 x4

-1 -1 -1 -1

δ δ δ δ ΔΣ P0 = a5T4k-4; q0 = b4T4k-4

n- y P1 = a4T3k-3; q1 = b3T3k-3

bit

q0 q1 q2 q3 P2 = a3T2k-2 ; q2 = b2T2k-2

P3 = a2T1k-1; q3 = b1T1k-1

p4 = a1T0k-0; (9)

Fig. 5. Modified canonic δ-form combined with ΔΣ modulation.

The coefficients are multiplied with a scaling factor. Choosing

1-bit the value of the scaling factor k requires a careful study as

u arbitrary values may involve multiplications which will increase

the circuitry complexity. To avoid this, is chosen to be a negative

P0 P1 P2 P3 P4

1-bit PDM power of 2 thus reducing multiplications to shift operations.

x2 x3 x4

δ-1 δ -1 δ-1 δ-1

ΔΣ D. Word Length

n- & k &k &k &k y

The signal range requirements are usually modest in well-

bit

q0 q1 q2 q3 designed digital control algorithms as full IEEE-754 floating-

point compliant arithmetic [13] is expensive in terms of power

consumption, area, and validation cost. For this reason, the ΔΣ-

CSP adopts a fixed-point arithmetic format [1]. Table I. shows the

Fig.6. Remodified canonic δ-form with scaling k.

general number format for the coefficients and state variables.

C. Coefficients TABLE I

The transfer function of the modified δ-form controller structure Number Format

in Fig. 4 can be written as

Sign Part Integer Part Fraction Part

1 Bit 7 Bits 16 Bits

Consider for example a generalized single-input–single output bits in the range of 8–16 bits and signal with amplitude -128 to

(SISO) controller of fourth order. Its transfer function can be 127 which is sufficient for most control applications utilizing ΔΣ-

represented by modulation, considering that input and output are ±1. There are

no overflow or underflow bits specified as they are unnecessary in

1-bit processing [14]. Underflow problem is easily overcome due

to the lack of multi-bit multiplications when using the proposed

From (3), it is obvious that the operator approximates to sT. controller architecture of Fig. 6.

when the sampling time T is very small. Here, is the Laplace

operator. Hence, from (5) and (6), the following coefficients are

obtained: III. DIRECT IMPLEMENTATION

P0 = a5T4; q0 = b4T4

3 The most straightforward approach to realize ΔΣ-based control

P1 = a4T ; q1 = b3T3

2 systems in VLSI is to implement the controller architecture of

P2 = a3T ; q2 = b2T2

1 Fig. 6 directly. Fig. 7 depicts such a direct implementation of a

P3 = a2T ; q3 = b1T1

0 fourth-order ΔΣ based control system with the 1-bit variables

p4 = a1T (7)

denoted by the thin lines and the multi-bit variables of the format

As T is very small compared with the time constant of the depicted in Table I shown. The input data comes from a ΔΣ-

transfer function, the coefficients become increasingly smaller modulator which is located off-chip, but the ΔΣ modulator for the

with increasing controller order. This makes it more difficult to output data is integrated with the controller and thus resides on-

represent such small values in a fixed-point format. In order to chip. The states that are required for the next-sample calculations

scale these coefficients, the controller architecture has to be are stored in registers. The sample timer is used to determine

modified as shown in Fig. 6, essentially a hybrid between the two when to read new input data and write new output data.

3

As all the calculations operate on 2-complement numbers, the placement etc. The FPGA floor planning of virtex2pro device as

sign bit identifies a value as positive or negative, where 1 means a shown in Fig. 9. Second Fig is enlarged floor planning of FPGA.

negative value and 0 means a positive value. In 1-bit signal Floor planning allows us to predict this interconnect delay by

representation, -1 is assigned the 0 value; it is thus easy to estimating interconnect length. At the start of floor planning we

implement the 1-bit quantizer of the ΔΣ modulator with an have a net list describing circuit blocks, the logic cells within the

inverter. Also, in the ΔΣ modulator, the first, third, fifth and blocks, and their connections. Floor planning is thus a mapping

seventh adders require only the addition of a 1-bit signal to the between the logical description and the physical description. In

eight most significant bits of the 24-bit signal. this floor planning we wish to predict the interconnect delay

before we complete any routing. At the floor planning stage we

know only the fanout of a net list and the size of the block that the

o o o o net list.

1-bit p1 p2 p3 p4

o

p0 > > > >

D k D D

k k D

k

24-bit

o o o o 24-bit

q0 q1 q2 q3

1-bit

y

x x[23]

D D Sample

Timer

Fig. 7. Direct implementation of a fourth-order ΔΣ control system Fig. 9. Floor planning of fourth-order ΔΣ control system (a) Full

in VLSI. Overview. (b) Enlarged Floor planning.

ΔΣ control system is implemented with a second order sample The timing-analysis tool reports that the critical path of clock in

timer and fourth order controller used. Increase the order of the the optimized delay is 26.348 ns. The total power consumed by

system provides good accuracy with circuit complexity. The the device is 95 mW, when we use 3.3 V for operating I/O ports

output of sample timer y is one bit signal as shown Fig. 8. and supply voltage. These details describe by Table III.

TABLE III

Power and Delay Estimation Summary

Fig. 8. Waveform of a fourth-order ΔΣ control system in VLSI.

Vccint 2.50V: 30 75

The fourth-order ΔΣ control system implemented in ISE design Vccaux 3.30V: 05 17

environment, the synthesis report was carried out by using the Vcco25 3.30V: 01 03

FPGA device Xilinx virtex2pro, speed grade -6. The Table II is

details about device utilization summary, Parameter Delay (ns)

TABLE II

Device Utilization Summary Minimum Clock period (37.954MHz) 26.348

Minimum input arrival time before clock 28.498

Logic Utilization Available Used Maximum output required time after clock 04.182

No. of Slices 3008 226 The proposed direct implementation allows us to perform the

No. of Slice FF 6016 146 whole control system processing in a pipelined manner. After

No. of 4 input LUTs 6016 438 completing the calculations, the circuit stops working and awaits

No. of bonded IOBs 140 3 the next sample trigger event. Hence, this is the fastest and

The logic synthesis provides a link between an HDL and a net simplest implementation of a 1-bit controller. However, this

list. Logic synthesis, after getting the pre-simulation result with architecture is not flexible enough as it is fully hardwired for one

the help of test bench and we can generate floor planning, particular control task.

4

IV. MICROARCHITURE AND PROCESSOR in the ΔΣ-CSP that stores the instructions is known as the

program RAM or as a single-port SRAM block. The data RAM

To alleviate the rigidity of the direct implementation a novel, maximum size of 512 x 24-bit words, utilizes a dual-port

processor has been developed resulting in a ΔΣ-based control configuration and stores the coefficients and initial data.

system processor (ΔΣ-CSP). Fig. 10 depicts the block diagram of As the program counter is 24-bit wide, it can address a

the ΔΣ-CSP. All calculations take place in the arithmetic and maximum of 16 mega-instructions whereas compile-time

logic unit (ALU) which has direct access to data read from the I/O switches allow for the static-configuration of both the instruction

unit. The Instruction Set Architecture of the proposed bit-width as well as the instruction memory size. The program

programmable solution is shown in Table IV. The instruction set counter maintains a pointer to the currently executing instruction

is fairly small and specialized to control law implementation. of the control law in the program RAM. The ALU takes the

opcode and three input operands, from the I/O block, the

TABLE IV

accumulator, and the data RAM, respectively, for each calculation

ΔΣ-CSP Instruction Set Architecture

cycle. The controller architecture, conditional-negate-and-add

(CNA) unit is performs

Binary Opcode Description

D= (-) B|A+C (10)

000 HLT No operation

001 RDW Read data from program RAM Where B is either a coefficient or a state variable, A is a 1-bit

010 WRB Write result to digital output port signal, and C is a state variable. (-) is a symbol which signifies

011 WRW Write the intermediate states to the data RAM conditional-negate. After completing the CNA operation, the

100 SRS Right shift result of the conditional-negation is added to the state variable

101 CAN Conditional negate and accumulate and C stored in the accumulator. The ALU includes conditional-

110 SET Set timer sampling frequency negate-accumulate and shift units only needed [14]. After

111 WPC Set control law start address processing in the ALU, each result is stored in the accumulator

for the following instruction at the next clock cycle. Note that the

data in this accumulator will be cleared as soon as an ―HLT‖

The overall word-length of the ΔΣ-CSP 16-bit word format.

instruction is read.

Each instruction was utilized 3 bits for the opcode, 4 bits for the

digital I/O, leaving 9 bits for data RAM addressing. The

V. MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATION

External Interface

To thoroughly evaluate the performance of 1-bit processing in

USB core real-life control applications, a practical dc motor controller is

demonstrated in this section.

The details of dc motor model using Laplace transfer function

PC Addr Instr was given in [6]. The objective is to control the position of a

Data rotating load with flexibility in the drive shaft. In this particular

Inst-Decoder example the important variable that will be affected by high

Opc frequency noise due to the heavily-sampled 1-bit signals is the

Addr motor current. A fourth-order position controller was designed

including a proportional–integral (PI) filter transfer function is

ALU IO

1-bit

Address

Data

For 1-bit processing, the SNR is related to the sampling

Accumulator

frequency given the proposed controller architecture. The SNR

improves when the sampling frequency increases. Therefore, the

sampling frequency must be at least 300 Hz to meet the SNR

Timing and Control requirement (27 dB). The coefficients for the controller, when the

sampling frequency is selected at 1000 Hz, are calculated

according to (9) and are listed as follows:

Fig. 10. ΔΣ-CSP high-level diagram

p0=2.684354560000000x10^-3

instructions, coefficients, and initial data are stored in program p1=5.244977151999999x10^0

and data RAMs (SRAMs) respectively, allowing reprogramming p2=4.096655359999999x10^0

of the controller with different control laws. The memory blocks p3=1.280512000000000x10^0

5

p4=1.000000000000000x10^0 bit digital signal, and fed into FPGA. The output of the FPGA 1-

q0=0 bit PDM signal and directly fed into dc motor. PDM is produced

q 1=2.097152000000000x10^1 by use of ΔΣ-modulator. The output of dc motor is analog signal

q 2=1.802240000000000x10^1 with the help of position transducer.

q 3=1.408000000000000x10^1

K=128 (12)

VI. TEMPERATURE CONTROL APPLICATION

B. Simulation Results

Simulations have been carried out in MATLAB/Simulink using This section describes another application of a microprocessor

the ΔΣ controller interfacing, with a continuous time based controller for temperature control in an air-flow system.

representation of the physical system. The step response of the Fig. 13 gives hardware description of the temperature control

overall control system simulation is as shown in Fig. 11. system. Let us examine briefly the function of each block. The

The coefficients are represented in a 24-bit fixed-point word block labeled keyboard interfaced to the microcomputer through a

format. A small portion of the simulation results is the peak programmable keyboard display interface chip. The LED display

response at 1 to 1.5ns in x-axis. The only identifiable difference is unit provides display of the actual temperature of the heating

that the motor oscillates a bit more heavily in simulation. This is chamber. The temperature range for the system under

due to the effect of Pulse Density Modulation (PDM) and will not consideration is 20 to 60oC. When a thermistor is used as

affect the whole system performance. After 2ns in x axis, the temperature transducer, it is necessary to convert the change in its

motor response becomes steady; there is a maximum error within resistance to an equivalent analog voltage. This is accomplished

2.5% due to the effect of fixed point word format, which is with Wheatstone bridge; the thermistor exposed to the process air

acceptable for the particular control system. forms one arm of the bridge. Millivolt range of the bridge error

voltage is amplified to the range required by ΔΣ converter. The

output of the ΔΣ converter is one bit digital measurement of the

actual temperature of the process air. This data is fed to the

microcomputer through an input port.

Key board

Micro- 1-bit Triacs &

ΔΣ Firing Heater

computer

LED Circuit

n-bit Triac Control

ΔΣ

Analog Signal Heating

Amplifier Chamber

Fig. 11. Step responses of simulink result Transduce

r

Hardware simulation verifies the feasibility of the Direct

implementation ΔΣ control system. Here, ΔΣ control system was Fig. 13. Block diagram of temperature control system.

implemented in an FPGA technology. The FPGA device chosen

The microcomputer compares temperature and generates an

was the Xilinx virtex2pro XC2VP4-6FG256, speed grade -6.

error signal. The error signal is then processed as per control

Synthesis was carried on the Xilinx synthesis technology (XST),

algorithm, resulting in a control signal in 1-bit PWM (similarly

part of the ISE design environment. It is fourth-order controller

PDM). The power input to the plant may be controlled with the

for demonstration. Fig. 12 shows hardware simulation scheme.

help of triacs and firing circuit interface. If the triac closes the

circuit for tp sec. out of T sec. the average power applied to the

1-bit plant over the sampling period T is

Xilinx Virtex2pro 1-bit

ADS1201 tp= (u*R/V2) T (13)

Controller ΔΣ PDM

Analog Signal Where, V-rms value of the applied voltage and R- resistance of

the heater. Depending on the control signal u, tp is calculated in

microcomputer. The function of the triacs and firing circuit

Transduce DC MOTOR interface is to process the PWM output of the microcomputer

r such that the heater is ON when the PWM output is logic 1, and

Fig. 12. Hardware simulation scheme. OFF when it is logic 0. Since the heater is operated off 230 V ac

at 50 Hz, the firing circuit should also provide adequate isolation

Here, the hardware simulation result is same as the simulink between the high voltage ac signals and the low voltage digital

result. The ADS1201 [15] is used to convert analog signal into 1- signals.

6

VII. CONCLUSION [14] S. Jones, R. Goodall, and M. Gooch, ―Targeted processor

architectures for high-performance controller

The ΔΣ-CSP is an extremely small and fast application-specific implementation,‖ Control Eng. Practice, vol. 6, pp. 867–878,

processor. Despite its simplicity, the ΔΣ-CSP is a very potent 1998.

platform for the execution of complex control laws. With the [15] Burr–Brown Corporation, Tucson, AZ, ―High dynamic

exception of the direct VLSI implementation of the control law, range delta-sigma modulator,‖ 1997 [Online]. Available:

the ΔΣ-CSP provides substantial performance improvement, in http://www.burrbrown.com

terms of the absolute sampling rate and very low power budget,

particularly compared to the VLIW architectures. At the same

time, it maintains a fully programmable programmer’s model that

can easily be retargeted to different control applications whereas

the direct implementation would need to be redesigned from

scratch.

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