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MEDIA AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

Media: conductivity , permittivity , permeability


Media are the only tools we have to create or sense EM fields

Conductivity ():
J (current density, A/m2) = nq v = E n = #qs/m3, q = charge (Coulombs), v = average velocity (m/s)

Semiconductors:

Superconductor Metal

+
Metals:

P{escape} e-W/kT E

+- + + -+ +

Semiconductor 0 300K Temperature T

J v = at =

f t = qE t , q t ; m m m

t = f(Temp )
L2-1

(t = time before collisions reset v 0)

DIELECTRICS
Vacuum:

D = oE

f = free charge density


Dielectric Materials:

da = V f dv SD n
E

electron cloud

nucleus

+q Atom
E

+ polarized - + - + atoms - + - + - + - + - + - +
medium + + + + +

Metal plates

E
P - v = 0 p
L2-2

D = E = o E + P

= (f +p ) dv S o E nda V

= pdv S P nda V
p is polarization (surface) charge density

+ + + + +

P = Polarization Vector

MAGNETIC MATERIALS
Basic Equations: da = 0 S B n

e + + e
B

B = o H in vacuum B = H = o (H + M ) M = Magnetization Vector = permeability atoms

e +

magnetic domain

H = 0

magnetic domains

domain wall

L2-3

SATURATION AND HYSTERISIS


H = 0 magnetic domains H > 0

M
1 B H = W [J/m3 ] Magnetic energy density m 2

B slope o slope 0

Residual flux B density Br

-Hc magnetic 0 H coercive force saturation

H Area = hysterisis loss [J/m3]


L2-4

MEDIA PARAMETERS
Conductivity [Siemens/m] Paraffin ~10-15 Glass 10-12 Dry earth 10-4-10-5 Distilled water 2x10-4 Sea water 3-5 Iron 107 Copper 5.8x107 Silver 6.1x107 Dielectric constant (/o) Vacuum 1.0 Wood (fir) 1.8-2.0 Teflon, petroleum 2.1 Vaseline 2.2 Paper 2-3 Polystyrene 2.6 Sandy soil 2.6 Fused quartz 3.8 Ice 4.15 Pyrex glass 5.1 Aluminum oxide 8.8 Ethyl alcohol 24.5 Water 81 Titanium dioxide 100 Relative permeabilities /o Bismuth Silver Copper Water Vacuum Air Aluminum Cobalt Nickel Mild steel Iron Mu metal Supermalloy 0.99983 0.99998 0.999991 0.999991 1.000000 1.0000004 1.00002 250 600 2000 5000 100,000 1,000,000

L2-5

INTEGRAL MAXWELLS EQUATIONS


Graphical Equations:
da = V dv S D n da = 0 S B n da E ds = t A B n
c

Gauss Gauss

D 0 B

Faraday
H

E B

da + A D n da Ampere H ds = A J n t
c

J
D = E, B = H

Constitutive relations
L2-6

FIELDS PERPENDICULAR TO BOUNDARIES


da = v dv ) : Using Gausss Law: ( S D n
(D1 D2 ) A = s A S D nda
(Lim A 0, 2

D1

n
<<A)

surface charge density s

D2
surface S

Therefore:
D1 D2 = s yields: = (B1 B2 ) A = 0 yields: A B nda

n (D1 D2 ) = s
(B1 B2 ) = 0 n

L2-7

FIELDS PARALLEL TO BOUNDARIES


Using Faradays Law: c E ds = - A B nda t
C

d Bida 0 Eids (E1// E2 // ) L = dt A E1// =E2//

(Lim 0)

E1// n E1 a da,n

Therefore:

(E1 E2 ) = 0 n

ds A -E2//

Using Amperes Law:

E2

c H ds = A (J + D/t) da H i ds H H L = J i da Dida ( ) c 1// 2 // A t A 0 ( Js n a )L (H1 H2 ) = Js Therefore: n


L2-8

PERFECT CONDUCTORS
Electric Fields:
{if andE 0} { J = E } { H since

c Hids = A (J + D/t)ida } {Wm = H2/2 [J/m3] , and wm }


Therefore: E = 0 inside perfect conductors da = 0 (since dv = Ein

Magnetic Fields:
{If E = 0 and Therefore:

Bin da = c Eids} { B t = 0} t A ) H = 0 inside perfect conductors (if = , and H(t=0) = 0)

Superconductors (Cooper pairs dont impact lattice):


B 0 inside because = Cooper pairs of electrons disassociate and superconductivity fails when the external B(T) is above a critical threshold
L2-9

SUMMARY: BOUNDARY CONDITIONS


General Boundary Conditions:
(D1 D2 ) = s n (B1 B2 ) = 0 n E1,D1 H1,B1 Js s s

(E1 E2 ) = 0 n

(H1 H2 ) = Js n

H2 ,B2

E2 ,D2

Inside Perfect Conductors: D2 = B2 = E2 = 0


D1 = s n B1 = 0 n E1 = 0 n H1 = Js n
L2-10

B is parallel to perfect conductors E is perpendicular to perfect conductors

MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu

6.013 Electromagnetics and Applications


Spring 2009

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