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BER CLOSED FORM FOR GENERALIZED MC-DS-CDMA USING NEW Q-FUNCTION


APPROXIMATION

M.Habashy, Quicktel, mhabashiquicktel.net; S.Elnoubi, Alexandria University, saidelnoubiyahoo.com;
Kh.Elshennawy, Arab Academy Ior Science & Technology & Maritime Transport, khamiesaast.edu


Abstract- This paper introduces a closed Iorm expression Ior the bit error rate (BER) oI Generalized
Multicarrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) system based on a new modiIied exponential
approximation. The closed Iorm oI the BER will be derived using the proposed new approximation as well as
the exponential approximation proposed previously in |6|. The results using both approximations are compared
to the results that are previously published. The BER can be now easily computed using simple substitution
without either the need to use computer simulation or to perIorm a numerical integration.


I. INTRODUCTION

Recently, Multicarrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) systems have drawn a lot oI attention.
These systems are capable oI supporting high data rate services over hostile radio channels. The modulated
signal can be generated with the aid oI the Iast Fourier transIorm (FFT) at the cost oI low receiver complexity
|1|, |2|, |5|. These systems are used to mitigate the diIIerent problems encountered in diIIerent communication
media such as Inter Symbol InterIerence (ISI), Inter Chip InterIerence (ICI) and Irequency selective Iading |2|.
It is thereIore advantageous to design and analyze these signals in a Ilexible way.
For analysis Ilexibility, it is desirable to Iind, Ior these systems, a simple closed Iorm expression oI the BER that
can be computed simply without the need Ior computer simulations. The Nakagami-m distribution, which is
assumed as the channel model used in |5|, spans via the parameter m a wide range oI Iading conditions. For
instance, it includes the one-sided Gaussian distribution (m 1/2) and the Rayleigh distribution (m 1) as
special cases. In the limit, as m tends to inIinity, the Nakagami-m Iading channel converges to a non-Iading
channel. In addition, the Nakagami-m distribution oIten gives the best Iit to land-mobile, indoor-mobile
multipath propagation, as well as scintillating ionospheric radio links |3|. The one-dimensional Gaussian Q-
Iunction (oIten reIerred to as the Gaussian probability integral), Q(x), is deIined as the complement (with respect
to unity) oI the cumulative distribution Iunction (CDF) corresponding to the normalized (zero mean, unit
variance) Gaussian random variable x. This Gaussian Q-Iunction plays a key role in the perIormance analysis oI
digital communication systems with coherent and non-coherent detection |4|. For example, when characterizing
the perIormance oI coherent digital communications, the generic Iorm oI the expression Ior the error probability
involves the Gaussian Q-Iunction (and occasionally, the square oI the Gaussian Q-Iunction) with an argument
proportional to the square root oI the instantaneous SNR oI the received signal. To evaluate the average error
probability in the presence oI Iading, one must average the Q-Iunction over the Iading amplitude distributions. It
was the primary motivation Ior seeking alternative representations that appear in the Iorm oI the elementary
Iunctions (e.g., an exponential Iunction). One oI these alternative representations is the exponential
approximation or upper bound Ior the Q-Iunction that was proposed in |6|.
This paper introduces another closed Iorm expression Ior the BER oI Generalized Multicarrier Code Division
Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) system based on another new alternative representation, which is a modiIied
exponential approximation, Ior the Q-Iunction. The closed Iorm oI the BER will be derived using the proposed
new approximation as well as the exponential approximation proposed previously in |6|. The results using both
approximations are compared to the results that are previously published. The BER can be now easily computed
using simple substitution without either the need to use computer simulations or to perIorm a numerical
integration.

This paper is organized as Iollows: Section II introduces the new exponential approximation Ior the Gaussian Q-
Iunction. Section III presents the system model used to examine the new exponential approximation. The
numerical results are given in section IV. Section V is devoted to the conclusion.










2
II. Q-FUNCTION MODIFIED EXPONENTIAL APPROXIMATION

The tail probability oI a unit variance zero mean Gaussian random variable is the Q-function which is related to
the error complementary Iunction erfc(x) by
( )
2
x
erfc
1
x Q
|
|

\
|
=
2
(1)
The erfc(x) can be expressed in an integral oI exponential Iorm as |6|
( ) 0 x , d
) ( sin
x
exp
2
x erfc
0

|
|

\
|
=

2
2
2


(2)
Also the erfc(x) can be expressed in the Iorm oI the sum oI exponential terms |6|
( )


=
|
|

\
|

N
1 i
2
2
1 - i

sin
exp
2

i
d
x
x erfc
i



( )
2
x b - exp a
i
N
1 i
i
=
= (3)
Ior 0
0

1
.
N
/2 where

) (
a
i i
i
1
2

= (4)
) ( sin
b
i
i

2
1
= (5)
The right hand side oI (3) is numerical integration using rectangular rule. The values oI N and number oI
i
can
be increased to decrease the error between the exact Iorm and the approximated Iorm to any arbitrary value. In
|6|, another simple approximation is derived starting Irom (2) by applying the numerical integration using the
trapezoidal rule in the case oI N=2 Ior an arbitrary point . This resulted in the exponential approximation Ior
the Q-Iunction as
(

+ ) x exp( )
x
exp( ) x ( Q
2
2
3
2
2 3
1
4
1
(6)
However, Ior more accuracy, we repeat the numerical integration but increase the number oI terms to be N=3
Ior arbitrary points
1
,
2
to get
( )
|
|

\
|
+ |

\
|

1
2
2
2 2 2
2
1

sin
x
exp ) x exp( x erfc
) , , x ( g
sin
x
exp
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
1

=
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
+ (7)
Now
1
and
2
can be chosen to minimize the integral oI the relative error in the range oI values oI interest
{ }
( ) ( )
( )
dx .
x erfc
x erfc , x, g
R
min arg
R
opt


=
0
2 1 1

(8)
We got
opt1
= 0.2 and
opt2
= 0.35 Ior R 6. Substituting Ior
1
and
2
with their optimum values
opt1
and

opt2
in (7), we get
( )
2
2 2
15 0 3 0 35 0
79 0 35 0
x
.
x
.
x
e . e . e . x erfc


+ + = (9)

Thus substituting in (1), we get






3
(
(

+ + =

2
x
58 1
x
7 0
x
2 2 2
e 15 0 e 3 0 e 35 0
2
1
x Q . . . ) (
. .
(10)


III. CLOSED FORM OF BER FOR GENERALIZED MC-CDMA SYSTEMS

Recently, in |5|, a generalized model Ior MC-CDMA had been proposed. The generalization in this model is
presented in terms oI the normalized Irequency spacing, , between two adjacent subcarriers. Based on this
model, the MC-DS-CDMA scheme belongs to the Iamily oI multitone DS-CDMA arrangements, iI 1, while
to the class oI orthogonal MC-DS-CDMA systems, iI N
p
, where N
p
T
s
/ T
c
is the spreading gain oI the DS-
spread subcarrier signals. Furthermore, there exists no overlap between the main lobes oI the modulated
subcarrier signals aIter DS spreading, when 2N
p
. The generalized model in terms oI is, thereIore, playing
its role in deIining the subcarrier Irequencies which are given by
f
u
f
0

s
T
) u U (
2
1
, u0, 2, 4,...2(U-1) (11)
A- Transmitter Model:
The transmitted signal Ior the k
th
user is S
k
(t) is given by

=
+ =
U
u
ku u k ku k
) t f cos( ) t ( c ) t ( b P ) t ( S
1
2 2
(12)
where P is transmitted power per sub carrier, U is the number oI subcarriers b
ku
(t),c
k
(t) and
ku


are the data
stream, the direct sequence spreading code waveIorm and the phase angle oI the carrier modulation process.

B- Channel Model:
It is assumed that the channel between the K
th
user transmitter and receiver is a multipath Nakagami-m Iading
channel with the channel complex low pass representation oI the impulse response experienced by the subcarrier
u oI the user k is given by

=
=
1
0
Lp
lp
) k (
l , u
l , k
) k (
l , u
ku
) j exp( ) t ( ) t ( h
p
p
p

(13)
It is assumed that the phases are identically independently distributed (i.i.d) random variables, uniIormly
distributed over the interval |0,2). Also the attenuation Iactors are independent Nakagami-m random variables.
The multipath intensity proIile (MIP) distribution is assumed to be a negative exponentially decaying
distribution.

C- Receiver Model:
The Iirst user is assumed to be the user oI interest. A correlator-based Rake receiver in conjunction with MRC is
used. The receiver is assumed to have perIect time domain synchronization with each path oI the reIerence
signal, also, the attenuations and phases are assumed to be perIect estimates oI the channel parameter. The
received signal is expressed by
) t ( b P ) t ( n ) t ( r
p p
p
p
kl ku
) k (
ul
K
k
U
u
L
l
+ =

= =

= 1 1
1
0
2 ) 2 cos( . ) ( .
) (k
ul u kl k
p p
t f t c + (14)
where
p p p
l , k u
) k (
l , u ku
) k (
l , u
t f 2 = is assumed to be an i.i.d. random variable having a uniIorm
distribution in |0,2), while n(t) represents the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) with zero mean and one-
sided power spectral density oI N
o
.








4
D- Average Bit Error Probability:
It was shown in |5| that the BER using BPSK modulation conditioned on a set oI attenuations
p
l ,
is given by
|
|
|

\
|
=
|
|

\
|
=

=
1
1
2
2
p
p
L
l
p
l b
Q
] Zv [ Var
]) Zv [ E (
Q ) ( P (15)
where
o
l ,
c l
p
p
.



2
=
,
p
l ,
is the attenuation Iactor oI the subcarrier u in the path l
p
,
o
is the average
signal strength,
( ) ( )
( )
1
1
1
3
1
1 2

(
(

|
|

\
|
+

+
|
|

\
|
=
M
p p
p p
o
b o
c
I U
N
.
L
, L q KL
N
E .

(16)
where,
b
E is the energy per bit,
o
N is the AWGN component, and the average SNR per bit
b
is given by
( )
|
|

\
|
=
o
b o
p b
N
E .
, L q

(17)
where is the rate oI average power decay, and ( ) , L q
p
is given by
( )
) exp(
) L exp(
, L q
p
p



=
1
1
(18)
N
p
is the spreading gain oI the subcarrier signals, and

M
I are given by
( )
( )
| | ( )
| | ( )

(
(
(
(
(

|
|

\
|

|
|

\
|

=
U
u
u
p
p
p M
N
u
N
u
u
N
U U
I
1 1
2 2 2
2
2
sin
1 .
2
.
1
1




(19)

In order to obtain the average BER, P
b
, we must average the conditional BER given by (15) over the joint pdI oI
the instantaneous SNR sequence
1
0

=
p
p p
L
l l
} { , thus we have
( )
1 1 0 1 1 0 ,.., ,
0
1
0
0
... ,..., , . 2 ......
1 1 0

|
|

\
|
=
p p
p
L
p
p
p
L L
L
l
l c b
d d d p S Q P

(20)
Where
p
l
S , l
p
= 0, 1,, L
p
1, the normalized square oI the Nakagami distributed multipath attenuations, is
expressed by
o
l , q
l
p
p
S

2
= (21)
Since the random variables
1
0

=
p
p p
L
l l
} { are assumed to be statistically independent, we have
( ) ( )

1
0
1 1 0
1 1 0
p
p
p
p
l p
p
L
L
l
l L ,.., ,
p ,.., , p

(22)






5
Substituting (21) and (22) into (20), we get
( ) ( )
p
p
p
p
p
l p
l
L
l
l l b
d p . Q P

=
1
0
0
2 (23)

Now substituting in (10), the modiIied exponential approximation, we get
( )
( )
( )
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

\
|
(

+
(
(

+
(
(

=

p
p
p
p
p
l
p
l
p
p
p
p
p
l
p
l
p
p
p
p
p
l
p
l
l
L
l
l
l
L
l
l
.
l
L
l
l
.
b
d p . e .
d p . e .
d p . e .
P


1
0
0
1
0
0
79 0
1
0
0
35 0
15 0
3 0
35 0
(24)
Since
o
l ,
c l
p
p
.



2
= and
p
l ,
obeys the Nakagami-m distribution,
o
l , q
l
p
p
S

2
= is a Gamma distributed
random variable having a pdI given by

( )
|
|

\
|
=

p p
p l
l
m
m
l
m
l
m
exp
) m (
m
p
1
(25)
Substituting (25) into (24) will result in the Iorm oI Laplace transIorm. Thus (24) can be expressed as

\
|
|
|
|

\
|
+
+
|
|
|

\
|
+
=


=

=
1
0
1
0
35 0
35 0
35 0 15 0
p
p
p
p
L
l
p
L
l
p
b
m
m .
l
m .
.
m
m
l
m
. P

|
|
|
|

|
|
|
|

\
|
+
+

=
1
0
79 . 0
79 . 0
3 . 0
p
p
L
l
p
m
m
l
m

(26)

It was shown that the exact bit error probability P
b
, using MGF based approach, is given by |5, Eq. 47|

d
) ( sin . m
) ( sin . m
P
p
p
L
l
m
p
l
b

=
|
|

\
|
+
=
2
0
1
0
2
2
1
(27)
This can be evaluated using numerical integration. It was shown also that the approximate bit error probability
P
b
, using the Q-Iunction exponential approximation based approach, is given by |7, Eq. 30|
|
|
|

\
|
|
|

\
|
+
+
|
|

\
|
+
=


=

=
1
0
1
0
3
1
75 0
75 0
4
1
p
p
p
p
L
l p
l
L
l p
l
b
m
m
m
m
m .
m .
P

(28)
These three results will be compared together. The comparison will be illustrated in the sense oI percentage
error Ior each approximation.









6
IV. NUMERICAL RESULTS

In this section, the bit error probability, derived in the previous section will be compared to those previously
published. The percentage error Ior both approximations will be also investigated.
The BER results versus the average SNR per bit were obtained Ior the multi tone case considering L
1
32,
N
1
128, 0.2 and U32. Fig.1 and Fig.3 describe the behavior oI the system, assuming L
c
5, with the
variation oI m Ior (m1, 2, 1000), with the later simulates the case Ior which m tends to inIinity, Ior a single user
and Ior K10 respectively. Fig.2 and Fig.4 illustrate the percentage oI approximation error Ior each case. Fig.5
describes the behavior oI the system with the variation oI L
c
Ior (L
c
1, 3, 7) Ior m1 and K10. Fig.6 illustrates
the percentage oI approximation error Ior each case. The case oI L
c
5 can be illustrated in other Iigures. Fig.7
gives illustration to the eIIect oI number oI users K on the BER Ior (K1, 10, 50) assuming L
c
5 and m1.
Fig.8 illustrates the percentage oI approximation error Ior each case. Fig.9 is an extra illustration Ior the eIIect oI
number oI users K on the BER Ior (K1 to 100) assuming L
c
5, m1 and dB
b
15 = .
From the numerical results, it is obvious that the results obtained using new modiIied approximation are very
precise and are nearly coincident with the previously published exact results.


V. CONCOLUSION

Numerical results had been presented and compared to the previously published results. From the comparison, it
is concluded that the derived approximation can be used with good accuracy, with no need to perIorm any
numerical integrations or computer simulations. The new approximation also has an advantage oI being in the
Iorm oI simple exponential terms. This Iorm gives an ability to be included in many calculations or
mathematical manipulations easily.


REFERENCES

|1| R. Prasad and S. Hara, Overview oI multicarrier CDMA, IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 126133, Dec. 1997.
|2| E. A. Sourour and M. Nakagawa, PerIormance oI orthogonal multicarrier CDMA in a multipath Iading
channel, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol 44, pp. 356367, Mar. 1996.
|3| M.-S. Alouini and M. K. Simon, PerIormance oI coherent receivers with hybrid SC/MRC over Nakagami-
m Iading channels, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 48, pp. 11551164, July 1999.
|4| M. K. Simon and M.-S. Alouini, Digital communications over generalized Iading channels: A uniIied
approach to perIormance analysis. New York: Wiley, 2000.
|5| Lie Liang yang and Lajos Hanzo, "PerIormance oI generalized multicarrier DS-CDMA over Nakagami-m
Iading channels", IEEE transactions on communications, vol. 50, June 2002, pp.956-966.
|6| Marco Chiani ,David Dardari and Marvin K. Simon, new exponential bounds and approximations Ior the
computation oI error probability in Iading channel, IEEE transactions on wireless communications vol. 2,
pp.840-845, July 2003.
|7| Said M. Elnoubi, and A. Mabrouk Elshinnawy "New Closed Form Solution For The Bit Error Rate (BER)
oI MC-CDMA systems in Generalized Nakagamim Fading Channels", National Radio ConIerence, Cairo,
Egypt, March, 2004.

















7
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
10
-7
10
-6
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
Average SNR per bit (dB)
B
E
R
m = 1
m = 2
m = 1000
BER vs. SNR for different m, K=1
Exponential Approximation
Modified Approximation & MGF
MGF
Exp Appr.
Mod Appr.
MGF
Exp Appr.
Mod Appr.
MGF
Exp Appr.
Mod Appr.

Fig. 1 Error Probability vs. average
SNR per bit for different m, K=1
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
10
-6
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
Average SNR per bit (dB)
B
E
R
m = 1
m = 2
m = 1000
BER vs. SNR for different m, K=10, Lc=5
Exponential Approximation
Modified Approximation & MGF
MGF
Exp Appr.
Mod Appr.
MGF
Exp Appr.
Mod Appr.
MGF
Exp Appr.
Mod Appr.

Fig. 3 Error Probability vs. average
SNR per bit for different m, K=10
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
Average SNR per bit(dB)
B
E
R
BER vs SNR for different no. of combined paths Lc, m=1, K=10
Lc = 1
Lc=3
Lc=7
Exponential Approximation
Modified Approximation
& MGF
MGF
Exp Appr.
Mod Appr.
MGF
Exp Appr.
Mod Appr.
MGF
Exp Appr.
Mod Appr.

Fig. 5 Error Probability vs. average
SNR per bit for different L
c

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Average SNR per bit(dB)
E
r
r
o
r

P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

(
%
)
Error percentage in BER vs SNR for different m
Exponential Approximation
Modified Approximation
m = 1, Exp Appr.
m = 1, Mod Appr.
m = 2, Exp Appr.
m =2 , Mod Appr.
m = 1000, Exp Appr.
m = 1000, Mod Appr.

Fig. 2 Error Percentage vs. average
SNR per bit for different m, K1
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Average SNR per bit (dB)
E
r
r
o
r

P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

(
%
)
Error percentage in BER vs SNR for different m
Exponential Approximation
Modified Approximation
m = 1, Exp Appr.
m = 1, Mod Appr.
m = 2, Exp Appr.
m =2 , Mod Appr.
m = 1000, Exp Appr.
m = 1000, Mod Appr.

Fig. 4 Error Percentage vs. average
SNR per bit for different m, K10
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0
5
10
15
20
25
Average SNR per bit(dB)
E
r
r
o
r

P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

(
%
)
Error percentage in BER vs SNR for different Lc
Exponential Approximation
Modified Approximation
Lc = 1, Exp Appr.
Lc = 1, Mod Appr.
Lc = 3, Exp Appr.
Lc =3 , Mod Appr.
Lc = 7, Exp Appr.
Lc = 7, Mod Appr.

Fig. 6 Error Percentage vs. average
SNR per bit for different L
c






8
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
10
-6
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
Average SNR per bit (dB)
B
E
R
BER vs SNR for different K, m=1, Lc=5
K = 50
K=10
K=1
Exponential Approximation
Modified Approximation & MGF
MGF
Exp Appr.
Mod Appr.
MGF
Exp Appr.
Mod Appr.
MGF
Exp Appr.
Mod Appr.

Fig. 7 Error Probability vs. average
SNR per bit for different K

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0
5
10
15
20
25
Average SNR per bit(dB)
E
r
r
o
r

P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

(
%
)
Error percentage in BER vs SNR for different K
Exponential Approximation
Modified Approximation
K = 1, Exp Appr.
K = 1, Mod Appr.
K = 10, Exp Appr.
K =10 , Mod Appr.
K = 50, Exp Appr.
K = 50, Mod Appr.

Fig. 8 Error Percentage vs. average
SNR per bit for different K



0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
BER vs SNR for different K, m=1, Lc=5
Number of users, K
B
E
R
MGF
Exponential.Approximation
Modified Approximation

Fig. 9 Error Probability vs. number of active users K



















9



This paper introduces a closed Iorm expression Ior the bit error rate (BER) oI Generalized Multicarrier Code
Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) system based on a new modiIied exponential approximation. The
closed Iorm oI the BER will be derived using the proposed new approximation as well as the exponential
approximation proposed previously in |6|. The results using both approximations are compared to the results
that are previously published. The BER can be now easily computed using simple substitution without either the
need to use computer simulation or to perIorm a numerical integration.







10


'=-- '==- --- --- -~ " ,-~- ;-~---'- --;~;- --- '- ---- --'=- '=;-- "
-;~- ,--- '--V --- --= -~ -=-'- " '= "

. '-- --= --=- . . ,-' --=- -,- . . '--' ,-=


,-' ,-' '--=` ' --- - " '= " , '' .-' ,-= ,-' `'--` = -,-,- ,- '---= - ,-
'-' -- _'= -=` -- '==' --' ) =' - _'= ,- - '+,- '',= ( _' '` ---' ,-' -=' _'= ----
'`' ,=='' '-,-' '-----' .

--= '-- ,- ,--- ,- ''-' -- --- , -' - ,''= = , -,-' ,-' '--=` '-' " '= ." ,-' -- -=-- -
.- `'--` = - '=-' '==' --' -'- ,- '=` =' - -' -' ,-=' '- `= " -'='' - ." '=,-' '= , '=-'
--' ,---'' ,',-,' --- '' ---' '-'=' .

--' ,-' '- ---= -- '- --=' '--' ,-` ,---' ,-' -=--' =' '=-'' '==' --' -'- ,- '-- - ` ,- ,-
`-'- =' '+,'= .-= _- '- '-' _-'--' _- ,-----' ,-,-' - `' _-'--' '-- - .- - '+---- '-' -= .
--'='' ''=-' -=--` ='=' - ----' ,-' _ =,--' ,-' -=--' ',+- '==' -- '-= ` - .-'-' =
-' .