Anda di halaman 1dari 13

Amit

ADBMS ORAL QUESTIONS

TOPIC - CLIENT SERVER ARCHITECTURE (UNIT III).

1. WHAT DO U MEAN BY CLIENT SERVER ARCHITECTURE ?

ANS: CLIENT / SERVER ARCHITECTURE DESCRIBES THE RELATIONSHIP


BETWEEN THE TWO COMPUTER PROGRAMS WHERE ONE PROGRAM THE
CLIENT MAKES THE REQUEST FROM ANOTHER PROGRAM THE SERVER
WHICH FULFILLS THE REQUEST.

2. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CLIENT SERVER


ARCHITECTURES?

ANS: 1. MAINFRAME ARCHITECTURE

2. FILE SHARING ARCHITECTURE

3. SINGLE TIER ARCHITECTURE

4. TWO TIER ARCHITECTURE

5. THREE TIER ARCHITECTURE.

3. WHAT IS MAINFRAME ARCHITECTURE?

ANS: WITH MAINFRAME SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE, ALL INTELLIGENGE IS


WITHIN CENTRAL HOST COMPUTER. USERS INTERACT WITH HOST
THROUGH A TERMINAL THAT CAPTURE KEYSTROKES AND SENDS
INFORMATION TO THE HOST.

4. WHAT IS LIMITATION OF MAINFRAME ARCHITECTURE?


ANS: LIMITATION OF MAINFRAME ARCH. IS THAT THEY DO NOT EASILY
SUPPORT GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES (GUI) OR ACCESS MULTIPLE
DATABASES.

5. WHAT IS ADVANTAGE OF MAINFRAME ARCHITECTURE?


Amit

ANS: ADVANTAGE OF MAINFRAME IS THAT IT IS NOT TIED TO THE


HARDWARE PLATFORM. USER CAN INTERACT THROUGH PCs AND UNIX
WORKSTATIONS.

6) What are advantage and disadvantage of Client Server architechcture?

Ans : Advantage

1. Processing of entire database system is spread over client server


architechcture.

2. It is possible to keep control over all clients through single system in


DBMS it is require for transaction control and management.

Disadvantage :

1. Implementation is more complex because it includes network


management.

2. Additional burden on DBMS server to handle concurrency.

7) What are basic components of Database system architechcture? What is


1-tier architechcture?

Ans: There are 3 basic components of Database system architechcture.

1. Presentation Logic: User Interface, displaying data to the user,


accepting input from user.

2. Business Logic: Data validation, ensuring the data is 100% correct


before adding it to database.

3. Data Access Logic: Database communication, accessing tables and


indices, packing and unpacking data.

1-tier architechcture: In this architechcture all three components of


the application are handled in single layer.

8) What is 2-tier architechcture?

Ans: 2-tier architechcture: In this architechcture all three components of


the application are distributed in two layers.
Amit

1st Layer/ Primary Layer: consists of Presentation logic AND Business


logic.

2nd Layer/Secondary Layer: consists of Data Access logic.

This consists of primary tier which incorporates all presentation and


business logic, and a secondary tier which contains all data access logic.

9) What are its limitations of 2-tier architechcture?

Ans: Limitations:

1. Implementing business logic in stored procedure can limit the


scalability.

2. This architechcture is not effective in batch processing.

3. It limits interoperability by using stored procedure to implement


complex processing logic because stored procedures are
implemented by DBMS’s proprietary language.

4. This architecture is difficult to administer and maintain because when


application reside on client every upgrade must be delivered and
tested on server.

10) Identify which client server (tier) architechcture is shown below, and
explain its components?

Ans: 3-tier architechcture.

Topic: Web Fundamentals

11. What is the web based systems?

Ans: To access data from databases some application programs are


required. Now a day’s internet is most popular so web tools are most
Amit

widely used for user interface. Web based systems are the systems used
on internet for purpose of information exchange using user interface. Web
based systems are the heart of E-commerce.

12. What is need of web interface to database?

Ans: With growth of info services and E-commerce on web, databases


used for information services, DSS, and transaction processing must be
linked with web. For such connection it requires some bridge to link your
application to database which is the web interface.

13. Which are the web fundamental components?

Ans: URL, HTML, Client side scripting, Applet, Servlets, server side
scripting.

14. What is Servlet?

Ans: In 2-tier client server architechcture the application runs as part of


web server. So in order to complete the user request architechcture has
to load the java program with web server, that function is provided by
Servlet.

Servlets are mainly present on server side which defines the


communication between the web server and application program.

15. What is web server?

Ans: Web server is the program running on server side which accepts the
requests from the web browser and sends back result in the form of HML
document.

16. What is web Applet?

Ans: Java code can be compiled into byte code which is platform
independent and can be executed on any browser. Java applets are used
for better GUI purpose which is downloaded as part of web page.

17. What is HTML?

Ans: HTML is hypertext markup language allows formatting on text. HTML


is used for designing web pages. HTML allows to display tables, forms,
style sheet as well as other display attributes.
Amit

18. What is URL?

Ans: URL is uniform resource locator. URL field in web browser allows
user to enter the web address or web site name after that it connects to
that system using some protocols.

Parts of URL are,

HTTP:is hypertext transfer protocol.

Web address: name/ip address of machine that has web server.

Topic: XML Domain Specific DTDs

19. What is XML?


Ans : XML (eXtensible Markup Language) mainly intended for Document
Management. It is derived from SGML (Standard Generalized Markup
Language) .XML can represent Data ,as well as many other kinds of
structured data used in applications.

20. What is Standard Query Language for XML Called?


Ans: W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) standard query language for XML
is called XQUERY.

21. What is XPATH ?


Ans : It is a language for path expression. It is a sequence of locations
steps separated by “/”.Using XPATH we can select data from XML document.

22. What is XSLT?


Ans : It is a transformation language can generate XML output.

23. Which is current approved version of XML?


Ans: XML version = “1.0”

24. What is a reference?


Amit

Ans: A references allows you to additional text or mark-up in an XML


document. References always begin with “ & ” and end with “ ; ” .

25. What is an entity reference?


Ans : An entity Reference ,like “ &amp ;” contains a name (eg amp)
between the start and end delimiter. The name refers to predefined text or
markup like a macro in C/C++ prog. Languages.

26. What is Character reference?


Ans : A character references ,like “ & ” contains a hash mark followed
by the number. The number always refers to the Unicode code for a single
character such as 65 for A.

27. What is FLOWR expression?


Ans: A FLOWR expression is a query construct composed of
FOR,LET,WHERE,Order by AND RETURN clauses .

28. What is MATHML?


Ans: MATHML is intended to facilitate the use and reuse of mathematical
and scientific content on the web and for other applications such as
computer algebra systems ,print typesetting and voice synthesis.

SOAP

29. What is SOAP?

Ans-It is Simple Object Access Protocol.It is a Protocol Specification for


exchanging Structured information in the implementation of web services in
computer Networks.It is a XML based messaging Protocol.

30. SOAP relies on which language as its message format?

Ans-XML
Amit

31. What are common protocols SOAP relies on?

Ans-It relies on Application layer Protocols(SMTP,HTTP,HTTPS,RPC,etc.).But


the most commonly used protocols are RPC and HTTP.

32. Why XML was chosen as the standard message format for SOAP?

Ans-Because of its widespread use by major corporations and open source


development efforts.

Hardware appliances are available to accelerate processing of XML


messages.

33. Advantages of SOAP?

Ans-

i)Using SOAP over HTTP allows for easier communication through proxies
and firewalls than previous remote execution technology.

ii)Versatile enough to allow for the use of different transport protocols.

iii)platform independent

iv)language independent

34. Disadvantages of SOAP?

Ans-

i)Because of verbase XML format, SOAP can be considerably slower.This may


not be an issue when only small messages are sent.

ii)Although SOAP is an open standard, not all languages offer appropriate


support. Java,Delphi, .NET and Flex offer excellent SOAP integration and/or
IDE support.Python and PHP support is much weaker.

35. State one competing middleware technology with SOAP.


Amit

Ans-CORBA(Common Object Request Broker Architecture).

36. What does SOAP specification contains?

Ans-Soap is a specification for using XML documents as messages.The SOAP


specification contains-

i)A syntax for defining messages as XML documents(SOAP messages).

ii)A modelfor exchanging SOAP messages.

iii)Set of rules for representing data within SOAP messages(SOAP encoding).

iv)A guideline for transporting SOAP message over HTTP.

v)A convention for performing RPC using SOAP messages.

37. Where will you place SOAP in 2-tier and 3-tier Architectures.

Ans-

2-tier -> The Presentation layer and business logic are in a single layer.

3-tier -> At middle layer.

38. What is Active Server Pages?

Active Server Pages (ASPs) are Web pages that contain server-side scripts in
addition to the usual mixture of text and HTML tags.

Server-side scripts are special commands you put in Web pages that are
processed before the pages are sent from the server to the

web-browser of someone who's visiting your website.

39. what are the Requirements to run ASP?


Amit

Since the server must do additional processing on the ASP scripts, it must
have the ability to do so.

The only servers which support this facility are Microsoft Internet
Information Services & Microsoft Personal Web Server.

Let us look at both in detail, so that you can decide which one is most
suitable for you.

40. what are the few basic rules for XML document elements.?

1:Element names can contain letters, numbers, hyphens, underscores,


periods, and colons when namespaces are used (more on namespaces
later).

2:Element names cannot contain spaces; underscores are usually used to


replace spaces.

3: Element names can start with a letter, underscore, or colon, but cannot
start with other non-alphabetic characters or a number, or the letters xml.

41. what are formats to represent the XML Elements?

Elements look like this and always have an opening and closing tag:

<element></element>

42. what are the Internet Information Services?

This is Microsoft’s web server designed for the Windows NT platform.

It can only run on Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000 Professional, &
Windows 2000 Server.

The current version is 5.0, and it ships as a part of the Windows 2000
operating system.
Amit

43. what is DTD?

Document Type Definition (DTD) is the original way to validate XML


document

structure and enforce specific formatting of select text, and probably still the
most

prevalent. Although the posting of the XML declaration at the top of the DTD
would lead one to believe that this is an XML document,

DTDs are in fact non-well-formed XML documents. This is because they


follow DTD syntax rules rather than XML document syntax.

In following line the reference is to the DTD located in the first element
under the XML document declaration:

44. what are XML Attributes?

Attributes contain values that are associated with an element and are always
part

of an element’s opening tag:

<element attribute=”value”></element>.

The attribute name must follow an element name, then an equals sign
(=),then the attribute value, in single or double quotes.

The attribute value can contain quotes, and if it does, one type of quote
must be used in the value, and another around the value.

45. State True or False . Is it necessary to close a tag in XML?

Ans : True.(Explanation : Each tag is delimited by angle bracket)

46 . What is difference between HTML and ASP?


Amit

Ans :

In HTML we cant make changes dynamically in web pages. But in ASP we can
make changes dynamically.

47. Define the following : i) Thin client ii) Thick client

Ans :

Thin client : The architecture in which the client implement GUI, and the server
implements both business logic and data management ,such clients are called as
thin client.

Thick client: Clients that implement user interface and a part of business logic,
with remaining part being implemented at the server level, such clients are
called as Thick client.

48. Identify the following Diagram .


Amit

Ans : Thick Client.

49. Explain the following Diagram.

50. Explain – entity references.


Amit

Ans :

It’s a standard XML document – the root element is the Envelope, which has a
namespace called ‘s’. The envelope contains header, which indicates of transaction
and the ID, and a Body, which indicates requested service.