Anda di halaman 1dari 11

ANALISIS DAN PENGEMBANGAN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PADA DIVISI TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT PT.

ARCHIPELAGO INTERNATIONAL INDONESIA Anindya Pratama Putra Binus University, Jakarta, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia Abstrak Masalah yang dihadapi perusahaan saat ini adalah menyangkut pengelolaan individual knowledge yang seharusnya dapat ditransformasikan menjadi corporate knowledge yang saling terintegrasi. Hal ini disebabkan antara lain karena belum adanya media pengelolaan pengetahuan dalam perusahaan, yang berakibat sering terjadi hilangnya knowledge akibat dari turn over karyawan serta faktor penyebaran unit geografis antar unit hotel yang menyulitkan terjadinya pertukaran pengetahuan antar karyawan. Berdasarkan permasalahan tersebut, penulis merasa perlu mengusulkan strategi dalam pengelolaan pengetahuan, yaitu dengan merancang sebuah media yang digunakan dalam pendokumentasian, pendistribusian, serta pengkonversian knowledge yang dapat digunakan dalam proses pembelajaran seluruh karyawan pada divisi Training & Development HR. Adapun metode yang digunakan sebagai tools pendukung pengambilan keputusan yaitu pertamatama melakukan pengumpulan data melalui wawancara dan observasi langsung, yang kemudian dilakukan analisis internal Human Resources, Analisis pengembangan KM pada perusahaan, analisis perbandingan biaya, analisis knowledge goal, dan terakhir mengidentifikasi knowledge yang dimiliki perusahaan. Hasil dari analisis strategi tersebut adalah dirancangnya knowledge management system sebagai sebuah strategi yang menjadi fokus utama perusahaan. Perancangan knowledge management system dimulai dari analisis pemetaaan fitur-fitur yang dibutuhkan perusahaan yang mengacu pada konsep dasar knowledge management. Langkah selanjutnya adalah merancang UML model untk pemetaan proses bisnis, database beserta hubungan diantaranya, serta penyesuaian user interface dengan teori delapan aturan emas IMK, untuk memastikan bahwa tampilan system telah sesuai. Dari perancangan diatas dapat disimpulkan sebuah solusi dalam menyelesaian permasalahan perusahaan mengenai pengelolaan pengetahuan, yaitu dibangunannya knowledge management system untuk divisi TI perusahaan agar potensial knowledge dapat dikelola dengan baik dan meminimalisir kehilangan knowledge asset Kata kunci: Knowledge, Knowledge Management, Knowledge Managemen System, Knowledge Goal

1.

Pendahuluan Persaingan antar perusahaan yang semakin ketat dan kompetitif dewasa ini memaksa perusahaan untuk terus berinovasi dan memberikan pelayanan yang terbaik bagi para pelanggan mereka. Proses bisnis sehari-hari dari sebuah perusahaan tidak akan berjalan dengan lancar apabila tidak didukung oleh Sumber Daya Manusia (SDM) yang optimal. Pengembangan karyawan melalui kegiatan pelatihan menjadi salah satu cara dalam rangka upaya peningkatan kualitas SDM yang diharapkan dapat memenuhi kebutuhan perusahaan. Semakin banyaknya perusahaan yang menyadari pentingnya peningkatan kemampuan karyawan, diserti pula dengan meningkatnya kesadaran akan pemanfaatan SDM, khususnya pikiran manusia (knowledge content) sebagai bagian penting dari keunggulan kompetitif. Hal ini mendorong kebijakan perusahaan pada pembentukan Knowledge Management (KM) sebagai salah satu teknik dalam mengelola asset pengetahuan dalam perusahaan. Pengembangan dan pemanfaatan knowledge content dari SDM dalam perusahaan didukung oleh pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi (TI). TI membantu dalam proses menangkap knowledge, menyimpan, dan menyebarkan knowledge yang ada ke seluruh area perusahaan yang membutuhkan knowledge tersebut. Diharapkan dengan dukungan TI ini, mutu dan kualitas dari knowledgecontent perusahaan dapat ditingkatkan lebih baik dari sebelumnya.Dukungan TI dalam KM bukan hanya mendorong pengembangan budaya sharing knowledge saja, namun dapat menjadi tools dalam mengintegrasikan seluruh sumber daya informasi yang ada pada perusahaan untuk dijadikan sebagai knowledge assets yang meningkatkan kemampuan kompetitif perusahaan saat ini dan di masa yang akan datang. Dalam industri perhotelan, dimana sebuah Hotel Group terdiri dari beberapa unit hotel yang tersebar secara geografis di beberapa lokasi, menyadari pentingnya sebuah KM dan manfaat yang akan diterima untuk menyebarkan knowledge serta memenuhi kualitas standard dalam rantai unit hotel mereka.Di sisi lain, ide inovasi dan best practices dalam perusahaan perhotelan bermula dan berakhir dari individu karyawan. Dimana ketika seorang manajer yang mempunyai ide kreatif untuk diimplementasikan keluar dari pekerjaan mereka, banyak dari praktek yang telah mereka inisiasikan tidak dilanjutkan. Dua faktor utama yang menyebabkan rendahnya inisiatif inovatif yang permanen antara lain : pertama, tingginya tingkat mobilitas manajer dalam industriperhotelan; kedua, terdapat merger dan akuisisi dalam tingkat laju yang tinggi di dalam industry perhotelan. Menghadapi beberapa persoalan utama dalam menjaga serta menyebarkan knowledge dalam sebuah perusahaan, khususnya industry perhotelan, memerlukan pengembangan khusus KM sebagai sebuah wadah dan portal informasiyang mengakomodasi kebutuhan perusahaan dalam mengidentifikasi, mengumpulkan, membuat, dan mengimplementasikan knowledge dalam meningkatkan kemampuan kompetitif perusahaan dibandingkan pesaing melalui peningkatan efektifitas operasional bisnis.Dengan adanya KM, memungkinkan karyawan untuk saling bertukar informasi, pengetahuan, dan pengalaman mengenai perusahaan. Sharing knowledge antar karyawan pun mendorong terciptanya interaksi antar karyawan untuk menciptakan solusi dalam menghadapi permasalahan dalam perusahaan.Portal KM yang ideal diharapkan mampu untuk menyediakan informasi secara akurat, realtime, update, serta mampu untuk membangun komunikasi antar karyawan dalam perusahaan. Lebih jauh lagi, KM tersebut harus mampu untuk menciptakan knowledge creation di dalamnya, sehingga penggunaan asset perusahaan dapat ditingkatkan lebih optimal.

2.

Metodologi Ruang lingkup penelitian mencakup Analisis dan pengembangan Knowledge Management pada divisi Training & Development PT. Archipelago International Indonesia. Pembahasan penulisan meliputi analisis dan perancangan. Analisis Metodologi analisis sistem pada penulisan skripsi ini menggunakan : 1. Menggunakan metodologi analisis internal Human Resources Langkah untuk menentukan kekuatan dan kelemahan internal human resources secara keseluruhan yang dapat memberikan informasi bagi perusahaan dalam pengambilan keputusan strategis terkait kebijakan perusahaan dalam area human resources

2.1.

2. Menggunakan analisis pengembangan knowledge management perusahaan Berfokus pada area pengelolaan knowledge, potensi SDM, budaya organisasi, serta infrastruktur terkait seperti TI, mencakup di dalamnya database dan network perusahaan. 3. Menggunakan analisis perbandingan biaya dengan dan tanpa knowledge management Perhitungan biaya untuk melihat besarnya kemungkinan penghematan yang dapat dilakukan perusahaan dengan menghitung biaya terkait pelatihan yang dilakukan secara manual dibandingakan dengan biaya pengembangan knowledge management web portal yang akan dibangun perusahaan 4. Merumuskan knowledge goal berdasarkan strategi internal Analisis knowledge goal yang tediri dari normative, strategic, dan operational perusahaan. 5. Melakukan identifikasi knowledge Pengidentifikasian knowledge perusahaan yang dibagi berdasarkan structural, functional, dan behavioral. 2.2. Perancangan Metode yang digunakan adalah analisis dan perancangan sistem berorientasi objek berdasarkan pendekatan Satzinger : 1. Activity Diagram 2. Class Diagram Model 3. Use Case Diagram 4. Sequence Diagram 5. User Interface 6. Navigation Diagram Kesimpulan Kesimpulan dari hasil penelitian ini adalah: Berdasarkan pada hasil analisis yang dilakukan terhadap PT. Archipelago International Indonesia, maka dapat disimpulkan sebagai berikut : Terdapat banyaknya knowledge dalam perusahaan khususnya divisi training and management yang masih tersebar dan belum terdokumentasikan, Kurangnya budaya knowledge sharing antar personil training and development HR, belum adanya media pengelolaan pengetahuan yang dapat dijadikan media pembelajaran bagi para karyawan 2. Memiliki karyawan yang berkualitas, ditambah dengan minat karyawan untuk meningkatkan knowledge tinggi, serta modul-modul pelatihan yang ada cukup beragam untuk dijadikan sebuah knowledge database. 3. KM web portal dirancang untuk mengatasi kelemahan-kelemahan yang tedapat di dalam divisi training & development, antara lain meningkatkan budaya sharing knowledge melalui fitur forum, pendokumentasioan knowledge dengan adanya training history serta penyebaran knowledge secara cepat dan merata melalui fitur document dan modul pelatihan. 4. Knowledge management web portal diharapkan dapat meningkatkan efektifitas penggunanan IT perusahaan, efisiensi biaya pengembangan KM, efektifitas interaksi antar karyawan, efektifitas evaluasi training, efektifitas employee maintenance, efektifitas training hours, efisiensi waktu penyusunan anggaran pelatihan, efektifitas pencarian karyawan bertalenta, efektifitas pengendalian keamanan data, efektifitas evaluasi report, efisiensi aktifitas pengiriman modul, efektifitas distribusi konten, dan efektifitas komunikasi karyawan. 1.

3.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA Andriarto.,Rakhmat, Akhram., Phirsen, Raynaldo.,Widjaja,Yunus., Kumaradjaja, Richard.(2008). Perancangan Sistem Knowledge Management Divisi HR & Services International Oil Company. JurnalPiranti Warta, vol.11 (1), pp1-14.

Armstrong, Michael (2012). Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. Graphicraft Ltd. Bentley ,Lonnie D. and Whitten,Jeffrey L.(2007).Systems analysis and design methods. (7th Edition). McGraw-Hill. Bergeron, Bryan. (2003). Essentials of Knowledge Management. John Wiley & Sons, inc Bernard, Alan., Tichkiewitch,Serge. (2008). Methods and Tools for Effective Knowledge Life Cycle-Management. Berlin: Springer. Coper, C. (2006). Knowledge management &tourism. Annual of Tourism Research, 33(1), 47-64. Dalkir, Kimiz .(2005). Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice. Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann Debowski, Shelda. (2006). Knowledge Management. Melbourne and Sydney: John Wiley andSon Australia, Ltd. Gjelsvik, M. (2002). Hotels as learning arenas. Scandinavian Journalof Hospitality and Tourism, 2 , 31-48. Gottschalk, Peter. (2005). Strategic Knowledge Management Technology.Norway: Idea GroupPublishing. Halliin, C.A., &Marnburg, E. Knowledge management in the hospitality industry : A review of empirical research. Tourism Management (2007). Hariandja, Marihot T.E. (2007). ManajemenSumberDayaManusia. Grasindo. Jakarta Kahle, E. (2002). Implication of new economy traits for the tourism industry. Journal of quality assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 2(2/4), 5-23 Kuswadi.,Mutiara, Erna. (2004). Delapan Langkah dan Tujuh Alat Statistik untuk PeningkatanMutuBerbasisKomputer. Elex Media Komputindo. Jakarta. Mathiasen, Lars, Andreas Munk Madsen, Peter Axel Nielsen, Jan Stage. (2000). ObjectOriented Analysis and Design.Aalberg Denmark: Marko Publishing ApS. Mathis, Robert L., Jackson, John H. (2006). ManajemenSumberDayaManusia. SalembaEmpat. Jakarta. Nonaka, Ikujiro. Ichijo, Kazuo (2007). Knowledge Creation and Management : New Challbenges for Managers. New York: Oxford University Press. O'Brien, James A. George M. Marakas (12 Edition). McGraw-Hill. Probst, Gilbert., Steffen Raub, Kai Romhardt. (2004). Managing knowledge : Buildings ForSuccess. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.
th

(2008). Introduction to Information Systems.

Sarwono, Jonathan (2006). Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif & Kualitatif. Graha Ilmu, Yogyakarta. Satzinger, John., Jackson, Robert., Burd, Stephen. (2009). Systems Analysis and Design: In a Changing World. (5th edition). Boston: Course Technology. Schoomaker, Peter J. (2005). Army Knowledge Management and Information

Technology.Department of the Army Washington, DC. Washington DC. Shneiderman, Ben, Catherine Plaisant. ( 2010
th

).

Designing

the

User

Interface

StrategiesforEffective Human-Computer Interaction. (5 edition). University of Maryland. Snell, Scoot.,Bohlander, George W. (2012). Managing Human Resources. South-Western Publishing Co. Strair, R., Reynolds, G. (2010). Principles of Information Systens: A Managerial Approach (9th edition). Boston: Course Technology. Tobing, Paul L. (2007). Knowledge Management: Konsep, Arsitektur, dan Implementasi. Graha Ilmu. Yogyakarta. Turban, Efraim., Volonino, Linda. (2010). Information
th

Technology

for

Management:Transforming Organizations in the Digital Economy (7 Edition). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Umar, Husein. (2005). RisetSumberDayaManusiaDalamOrganisasi. GramediaPustakaUtama. Jakarta Widayana, Lendy. (2005). Knowledge Management MeningkatkanDayaSaingBisnis. Malang: Bayumedia Publishing. [Http 1] Monika Suharko. (2012). MengukurBiayaPembuatan Website. 16 Juli 2012. http://juniorindonesia.wordpress.com/2012/07/16/mengukur-biaya-pembuatan-website/

ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN TRAINING & DEVELOPTMENT DIVISION AT PT. ARCHIPELAGO INTERNATIONAL INDOENESIA Anindya Pratama Putra Binus University, Jakarta, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia Abstrak Issues facing companies today is regarding individual knowledge management should be transformed into an integrated corporate knowledge. This is due partly because of the lack of knowledge management in the corporate media, which often result in the loss of knowledge due to employee turnover and the spread factor of geographic units that complicate inter-hotel units for the exchange of knowledge among employees. Based on these problems, the author felt the need to propose a strategy in the management of knowledge, ie by designing a media used in documentation, distribution, and conversion of knowledge that can be used in the learning process of all employees in the division HR Training & Development. The method used for decision support tool that is first of all the data were collected through interviews and direct observation, which then conducted an internal analysis of Human Resources, Analysis KM on corporate development, cost comparison analysis, goal analysis knowledge, and finally identifying the knowledge possessed company. Results of the analysis of these strategies is the knowledge management system that designed as a strategy to be the main focus of the company. Knowledge management system design starts from the analysis of the mapping of the features needed by the company that refers to the basic concepts of knowledge management. The next step is to design UML models of business process, the database and the relationship between them, as well as adjustments to the user interface with eight golden rules IMK theory, to ensure that the display system is appropriate. From the explanation above it can be concluded designing a solution in resolving issues regarding the management of enterprise knowledge, ie developing knowledge management system for the company's Training & Development department to make sure knowledge that potentially can be managed properly and minimizes loss of knowledge assets Kata kunci: Knowledge, Knowledge Management, Knowledge Managemen System, Knowledge Goal

1.

Introduction Competition between companies is getting tougher and competition force companies to continue to innovate and provide the best service for their customers. Day-to-day business processes of a company will not run smoothly if not supported optimal by Human Resources (HR) . Employees development through training is one way in an effort to improve the quality of human resources that expected to meet the needs of the company. More and more companies are realizing the importance of improving the ability of employees, including well as increased awareness of the use of human resources, especially the human mind (knowledge content) as an essential part of the competitive advantage. This prompted the formation of the company's policy on Knowledge Management (KM) as a technique in managing knowledge assets within the company. Knowledge development and utilization of human resources in the company's content is supported by the use of Information Technology (IT). IT helps in the process of knowledge capture, store, and disseminate existing knowledge to all areas of the company that requires knowledge. IT is expected to support this, the quality of the company can be improved knowledge content better than sebelumnya.IT support in KM not only promote the development of knowledge sharing culture alone, but also can be a tool to integrate all available information resources on the company to serve as a knowledge assets that increase the competitive ability of the company now and in the future. In the hospitality industry, where a Hotel Group hotel consists of several units geographically dispersed in multiple locations, realized the importance of a KM and benefits to be received for the spread of knowledge and meet the quality standards of their chain unit .in the other hand, the idea of innovation and best practices in corporate hospitality begins or ends of individual employees. Wherein when a manager who has creative ideas to be implemented out of their jobs, their practice has been also discontinued. The two main factors that cause low permanent innovative initiatives include: first, the high level of mobility managers in hotel industry, secondly, there are mergers and acquisitions in the high flow rate in the hospitality industry. Facing some major problems in maintaining and spreading knowledge within a company, the hospitality industry in particular, require special development of KM as a container and portal information that accommodate the needs of companies in identifying, collecting, create, and implement the knowledge in improving the competitive ability of the company from competitors by increasing the effectiveness KM business.With operational presence, allowing employees to exchange information, knowledge, and experience of the company. Knowledge sharing among employees also encourage interaction between employees to create solutions in dealing with problems in company.Portal ideal KM should be able to provide accurate information, realtime, updates, and be able to establish communication between the employees within the company. Furthermore, the KM should be able to create knowledge creation in it, so the use of company assets can be increased more optimal.

2.

Methodology The scope of research includes the analysis and design of Knowledge Management in Training & Development division at PT. Archipelago International Indonesia. The discussion includes the analysis and design writing Analysis Systems analysis methodology used in writing this thesis: 6. Internal Human Resources Analysis Steps to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the overall internal human resources that can provide information for companies in strategic decision-making in the area of corporate policies related to human resources 7. Knowledge Management development analysis Focusing on the area of knowledge management, human potential, cultural organizations, as well as related infrastructure such as IT, database and includes the company's network. 8. Cost Analysis with or without knowledge management

1.1.

Calculation of cost savings to see the huge possibilities that can be done by calculating the cost of company-related training is done manually than cost web development knowledge management portal that will be built the company 9. Formulate a kowledge goal based on internal strategy Knowledge goals analysis based on normative, strategic, and operational in company. 10. Knowledge identification Identifying knowledge companies that shared based on structural, functional, and behavioral. 2.1. Design The method that used in analysis and design of object-oriented systems based approach Satzinger : 7. Activity Diagram 8. Class Diagram Model 9. Use Case Diagram 10. Sequence Diagram 11. User Interface 12. Navigation Diagram Conclusion Conclusion of the study were: Base on result analysis done at PT. Archipelago International Indonesia, it can be concluded as follows: 5. There is much knowledge in company especially at training division is still spreading and has not been documented, lack of cultural knowledge sharing among HR personnel training and development, the lack of media knowledge management which can be used as a medium of learning for employees Have qualified employees, coupled with the high interest of employees to increase knowledge, as well as training modules that there is enough variety to be used as a knowledge database. KM web portal is designed to overcome the weaknesses in the training & development division, among others, fostering a culture of knowledge sharing through forums features, documentation knowledge history with the training and deployment of knowledge quickly and evenly through the features and modules of training document Knowledge management web portal is expected to increase the effectiveness of uses of IT , KM development cost efficiency, effectiveness, interactions between employees, evaluating the effectiveness of training, maintenance employee effectiveness, effectiveness of training hours, training budgeting time efficiency, the effectiveness of employee talent search, data security control effectiveness, effectiveness evaluation report, the efficiency of the module delivery activities, the effectiveness of content distribution, and effectiveness of employee communications

3.

6.

7.

8.

Bibliography
Andriarto.,Rakhmat, Akhram., Phirsen, Raynaldo.,Widjaja,Yunus., Kumaradjaja, Richard.(2008). Perancangan Sistem Knowledge Management Divisi HR & Services International Oil Company. JurnalPiranti Warta, vol.11 (1), pp1-14. Armstrong, Michael (2012). Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. Graphicraft Ltd. Bentley ,Lonnie D. and Whitten,Jeffrey L.(2007).Systems analysis and design methods. (7th Edition). McGraw-Hill. Bergeron, Bryan. (2003). Essentials of Knowledge Management. John Wiley & Sons, inc Bernard, Alan., Tichkiewitch,Serge. (2008). Methods and Tools for Effective Knowledge Life Cycle-Management. Berlin: Springer. Coper, C. (2006). Knowledge management &tourism. Annual of Tourism Research, 33(1), 47-64. Dalkir, Kimiz .(2005). Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice. Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann Debowski, Shelda. (2006). Knowledge Management. Melbourne and Sydney: John Wiley andSon Australia, Ltd. Gjelsvik, M. (2002). Hotels as learning arenas. Scandinavian Journalof Hospitality and Tourism, 2 , 31-48. Gottschalk, Peter. (2005). Strategic Knowledge Management Technology.Norway: Idea GroupPublishing. Halliin, C.A., &Marnburg, E. Knowledge management in the hospitality industry : A review of empirical research. Tourism Management (2007). Hariandja, Marihot T.E. (2007). ManajemenSumberDayaManusia. Grasindo. Jakarta Kahle, E. (2002). Implication of new economy traits for the tourism industry. Journal of quality assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 2(2/4), 5-23 Kuswadi.,Mutiara, Erna. (2004). Delapan Langkah dan Tujuh Alat Statistik untuk PeningkatanMutuBerbasisKomputer. Elex Media Komputindo. Jakarta. Mathiasen, Lars, Andreas Munk Madsen, Peter Axel Nielsen, Jan Stage. (2000). ObjectOriented Analysis and Design.Aalberg Denmark: Marko Publishing ApS. Mathis, Robert L., Jackson, John H. (2006). ManajemenSumberDayaManusia. SalembaEmpat. Jakarta. Nonaka, Ikujiro. Ichijo, Kazuo (2007). Knowledge Creation and Management : New Challbenges for Managers. New York: Oxford University Press. O'Brien, James A. George M. Marakas (12 Edition). McGraw-Hill. Probst, Gilbert., Steffen Raub, Kai Romhardt. (2004). Managing knowledge : Buildings ForSuccess. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.
th

(2008). Introduction to Information Systems.

Sarwono, Jonathan (2006). Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif & Kualitatif. Graha Ilmu, Yogyakarta. Satzinger, John., Jackson, Robert., Burd, Stephen. (2009). Systems Analysis and Design: In a Changing World. (5th edition). Boston: Course Technology. Schoomaker, Peter J. (2005). Army Knowledge Management and Information

Technology.Department of the Army Washington, DC. Washington DC. Shneiderman, Ben, Catherine Plaisant. ( 2010
th

).

Designing

the

User

Interface

StrategiesforEffective Human-Computer Interaction. (5 edition). University of Maryland. Snell, Scoot.,Bohlander, George W. (2012). Managing Human Resources. South-Western Publishing Co. Strair, R., Reynolds, G. (2010). Principles of Information Systens: A Managerial Approach (9th edition). Boston: Course Technology. Tobing, Paul L. (2007). Knowledge Management: Konsep, Arsitektur, dan Implementasi. Graha Ilmu. Yogyakarta. Turban, Efraim., Volonino, Linda. (2010). Information
th

Technology

for

Management:Transforming Organizations in the Digital Economy (7 Edition). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Umar, Husein. (2005). RisetSumberDayaManusiaDalamOrganisasi. GramediaPustakaUtama. Jakarta Widayana, Lendy. (2005). Knowledge Management MeningkatkanDayaSaingBisnis. Malang: Bayumedia Publishing. [Http 1] Monika Suharko. (2012). MengukurBiayaPembuatan Website. 16 Juli 2012. http://juniorindonesia.wordpress.com/2012/07/16/mengukur-biaya-pembuatan-website/