Anda di halaman 1dari 23

JARINGAN DASAR HEWAN DAN MANUSIA Tujuan : Mengenal tipe-tipe jaringan dasar yang ditemukan pada hewan.

PENDAHULUAN Tubuh hewan terdiri atas jaringan-jaringan atau sekelompok sel yang mempunyai struktur dan fungsi yang sama. Jaringan dengan struktur yang khusus memungkinkan mereka mempunyai fungsi yang spesifik. Sebagai contoh, otot-otot jantung yang bercabang menghubungkan sel-jantung yang lainnya. Percabangan tersebut membantu kontraksi sel-sel dalam satu koordinasi !ampbell et al. "###$. %lmu yang mempelajari jaringan disebut histologi. Jaringan didalam tubuh hewan mempunyai sifat yang khusus dalam melakukan fungsinya, seperti peka dan pengendali jaringan saraf$, gerakan jaringan otot$, penunjang dan pengisi tubuh jaringan ikat$, absorbsi dan sekresi jaringan epitel$, bersifat cair darah$ dan lainnya. Masing-masing jaringan dasar dibedakan lagi menjadi beberapa tipe khusus sesuai dengan fungsinya. Pada saat perkembangan embrio, lapisan luar kulit germ layers$ berdiferensiasi dengan proses yang disebut histogenesis$ menjadi empat macam jaringan utama, yaitu jaringan epitel, jaringan pengikat, jaringan otot, dan jaringan saraf. 1. Jaringan Epithelium Jaringan epitel terdiri atas satu atau banyak lapis sel, yang menutupi permukaan dalam dan luar suatu organ. Secara embriologi, jaringan ini berasal dari lapisan ektoderm, mesoderm atau endoderm. &i bagian tubuh luar, epitel ini membentuk lapisan pelindung, sedangkan pada bagian dalam tubuh, jaringan epitel terdapat disepanjang sisi organ. Jaringan epitel dibedakan berdasarkan bentuk dan jumlah lapisan sel penyusunnya, yaitu "$ epithelium satu lapis simple epithelium$. 'pithel ini terdiri atas sel-sel berbentuk pipih, kubus, dan silindris batang$. 'pithelium pipih selapis ditemukan antara lain pada lapisan endotel pembuluh darah. 'pithelium bentuk kubus ditemukan pada kelenjar tyroid dan pembuluh darah. 'pithel berbentuk silindris batang$ ditemukan pada lambung dan usus. ($ 'pithelium berlapis banyak stratified epithelium$ yang dibentuk oleh beberapa lapis sel yang berbentuk pipih, kuboid, atau silindris. 'pithelium ini dapat ditemukan pada kulit, kelenjar keringat, dan uretra. )eberapa lapisan pada epithelium ini dapat berubah menjadi sel-sel yang memanjang dan disebut epithelium transisional. 'pitel transisional ditemukan pada kandung 1

kemih vesica urinaria$. &isamping itu, terdapat epithelium berlapis banyak semu pseudostratified epithelium$ yang ditemukan pada trakea. 'pitel pipih berlapis, seperti yang terdapat di permukaan kulit kita, mampu melakukan mitosis dengan cepat. Sel-sel baru hasil mitosis menggantikan sel-sel permukaan yang mati. 'pitel ini juga sebagai pelindung organ terhadap abrasi oleh makanan yang kasar, seperti yang ditemukan pada esofagus. Sebaliknya, epitelium pipih selapis berukuran tipis dan lemah, yang cocok untuk pertukaran material dengan cara difusi. 'pitel ini ditemukan pada dinding kapiler darah dan al*eoli paru-paru !ampbell et al. "###$.

2. Jaringan Ikat Jaringan ikat berfungsi untuk menunjang tubuh, dibentuk oleh sel-sel dalam jumlah sedikit. Jaringan ikat terdiri atas populasi sel yang tersebar di dalam matrik ekstraseluler. Secara embriologi, jaringan ikat berasal dari lapisan mesoderm. Sel-sel tersebut mensistesis matriks, dengan anyaman serat yang tertanam di dalamnya !ampbell et al. "###$. Jaringan ikat ini dapat dibedakan menjadi "$ jaringan ikat longgar dan ($ jaringan ikat padat, +$ jaringan lemak, ,$ jaringan darah, -$ kartilago, dan .$ tulang. &iantara enam tipe jaringan ikat, jaringan ikat longgar paling banyak ditemukan di dalam tubuh kita. &i dalam matriks jaringan ikat longgar ini hanya sedikit ditemukan serabut. Serabut penyusun jaringan ikat ini berupa kolagen. /ungsi utama jaringan ikat longgar adalah pengikat dan pengepak material, dan sebagai tumbuh bagi jaringan dan organ lainnya. Jaringan ikat longgar di kulit membatasi dengan otot !ampbell et al. "###$. Jaringan ikat padat0fibrous mempunyai matriks yang banyak mengandung serabut kolagen. Jaringan ini membentuk tendon sebagai tempat perlekatan otot dengan tulang, dan ligamen sebagai tempat persendian tulang dengan tulang !ampbell et al. "###$. Jaringan lemak mengandung sel-sel lemak. Jaringan ini digunakan sebagai bantalan, dan melindungi tubuh, serta sebagai penyimpan energi. Setiap sel lemak, mengandung tetes lemak yang besar. &idalam jaringan lemak, matriks relatif sedikit !ampbell et al. "###$.

&arah adalah jaringan ikat yang tersusun sebagian besar cairan. Matriks darah disebut plasma, yang tersusun oleh air, garam mineral, dan protein terlarut. Sel darah merah dan putih tersuspensi di dalam plasma. &arah ini berfungsi utama dalam transpor substansi dari satu bagian tubuh ke bagian lain. &isamping itu, darah juga berperan dalam sistem kekebalan !ampbell et al. "###$. 1artilago adalah jaringan ikat yang membentuk material rangka yang fleksibel dan kuat, terdiri atas serabut kolgen yang tertanam di dalam matriks. 1artilago banyak ditemukan pada bagian ujung tulang keras, hidung, telinga, dan *ertebrae ruas-ruas tulang belakang$ !ampbell et al. "###$. Tulang keras bone$ merupakan jaringan ikat yang kaku, keras, dengan serabut kolagen yang tertanam di dalam matriks !ampbell et al. "###$. &idalam matriks sel tulang terdapat kalsium yang dapat bergerak dan diserap oleh darah. 2al ini merupakan peran penting tulang dalam proses homeostasis kadar kalsium dalam darah. Sel tulang osteosit$ terdapat di dalam ruang yang disebut lakuna. 3akuna ini mengandung satu atau beberapa osteosit. Penjuluran yang keluar dari osteosit disebut kanalikuli. 1analikuli dari satu sel berhubungan dengan sel lainnya, sebagai bentuk komunikasi sel. Satu osteon terdiri dari sejumlah lamela konsentris yang mengelilingi kanal sentral kanalis 2a*ersi$. Pada indi*idu yang masih hidup, kanal sentral ini berisi pembuluh darah.

3. Jaringan

t!t

Secara embriologi, jaringan otot berasal dari lapisan mesoderm. Jaringan ini terdiri atas sel-sel yang memanjang atau berbentuk serabut yang dapat berkontraksi karena adanya molekul miofibril. Pada *ertebrata, secara tipikal mempunyai tiga jenis otot, yaitu otot skelet rangka$, otot jantung cardiac$, dan otot polos !ampbell et al. "###$. 4tot skelet berstruktur bergaris melintang, berfungsi untuk menggerakkan rangka. 4tot ini bersifat sadar *oluntary$, karena mampu diatur oleh kemauan kita. Serabut ototnya mempunyai banyak nukleus yang terletak ditepi. 4tot rangka mempunyai garis melintang yang gelap pita anisotrop) dan garis terang pita isotrop$.

4tot jantung merupakan otot bergaris melintang dan bercabang. Sifat otot ini tidak sadar in*oluntary$, karena kontraksinya tidak bisa diatur oleh kemauan kita. 5ukleus terletak ditengah sel. Pada bagian ujung sel, terdapat sambungan rapat, yang membentuk struktur pembawa sinyal untuk kontraksi dari satu sel ke sel lainnya selama denyut jantung !ampbell et al. "###$. 4tot polos berbentuk seperti spindle. 1ontraksi otot polos lebih lambat dinbbandingkan otot skelet, namun mereka mampu kontraksi dalam waktu lebih lama. 4tot polos bersifat tidak sadar involuntary), seperti otot jantung. 4tot polos ditemukan pada banyak organ tubuh, diantaranya terdapat pada dinding pembuluh darah dan melapisi organ dalam seperti usus dan uterus. Membran plasmanya disebut sarkolema dan sitoplasmanya sering disebut sarkoplasma. Sitoplasma yang mengandung miofibril dengan ketebalan mencapai " mikron. ". Jaringan #ara$ Jaringan saraf berperan dalam penerimaan rangsang dan penyampaian rangsang. Secara embriologi, jaringan ini berasal dari lapisan ektoderm. Jaringan ini terdapat pada sistem saraf pusat otak dan sumsum tulang belakang$ dan pada sistim saraf tepi. 6da dua macam sel, yaitu sel saraf neuron$ dan sel pendukung sel glia$. 5euron mengandung badan sel, nukleus, dan penjuluran atau serabut. Satu tipe penjuluran tersebut adalah dendrit, yang berperan dalam menerima sinyal dari sel lain dan meneruskannya ke badan sel. Tipe penjuluran sel saraf yang lain, disebut akson neurit$, yang berperan dalam meneruskan sinyal dari badan sel ke neuron lainnya. )eberapa akson berukuran sangat panjang, yaitu memanjang dari otak sampai ke bagian bawah abdomen panjang "0( meter atau lebih$. Transmisi sinyal dari neuron ke neuron lainnya umumnya dilakukan secara kimia. Selain neuron, ditemukan juga sel pendukung, seperti sel glia. Sel glia merupakan sel yang menunjang dan melindungi neuron. Sel-sel pendukung umumnya berperan dalam melindungi dan membungkus akson dan dendrit, sehingga membantu mempercepat transmisi sinyal !ampbell et al. "###$.

ALAT DAN %AHAN Alat dan Bahan : 1. Mikroskop cahaya 2. Preparat awetan epitelium pipih, kubus, dan kolumner selapis. 3. Preparat awetan jaringan ikat. 4. Preparat awetan otot polos, skelet, dan jantung. 5. Preparat awetan jaringan sara .

CARA KERJA Preparat Epitelium 1. Mintalah preparat epitelium pipih, kubus, dan kolumner selapis pada asisten anda dan dengan menggunakan mikroskop, amati preparat dengan perbesaran lemah !1"#1"$, kemudian dengan perbesaran kuat !1"#4"$. 2. %ambar hasil pengamatan anda baik dengan perbesaran lemah dan perbesaran kuat. &engan perbesaran kuat, amati setiap tipe epitelium ' bentuk sel, jumlah inti, letak inti, dan ciri mor ologi lainnya. (engkapi gambar anda dengan keterangan. Preparat !ulan" Padat. 1. Mintalah preparat tulang padat pada asisten anda dan dengan menggunakan mikroskop, amati preparat dengan perbesaran lemah !1"#1"$, kemudian dengan perbesaran kuat !1"#4"$. 2. %ambar hasil pengamatan anda baik dengan perbesaran lemah dan perbesaran kuat. &engan perbesaran kuat, amati satu buah sistem osteon, yang terdiri atas lakuna, kanal sentral, lamela tulang, kanalikuli, dan kanalis )a*ersi. (engkapi gambar anda dengan keterangan. Preparat #t$t P$l$%

1. Mintalah preparat otot polos pada asisten anda dan dengan menggunakan mikroskop, amati preparat dengan perbesaran lemah !1"#1"$, kemudian dengan perbesaran kuat !1"#4"$. 2. %ambar hasil pengamatan anda dan beri keterangan selengkapnya. Preparat #t$t S&elet 1. Mintalah preparat otot skelet pada asisten anda dan dengan menggunakan mikroskop, amati preparat dengan perbesaran lemah !1"#1" $, kemudian dengan perbesaran kuat !1"#4"$. 2. +mati preparat otot serat melintang irisan membujur dan irisan melintang, dengan menggunakan perbesaran kuat tentang bentuk sel yang berupa serabut dan adanya inti, garis gelap !anisotrop$ dan garis terang !isotrop$. &imanakah letak intinya, 3. %ambar preparat anda dan beri keterangan selengkapnya. Preparat #t$t Jantun" 1. Mintalah preparat otot jantung pada asisten anda dan dengan menggunakan mikroskop, amati preparat dengan perbesaran lemah !1"#1" $, kemudian dengan perbesaran kuat !1"#4"$. 2. +mati preparat anda dengan menggunakan perbesaran lemah dan kuat dan bandingkan dengan preparat otot rangka. 3. %ambar preparat anda dan beri keterangan selengkapnya. Preparat Jarin"an Sara' 1. Mintalah jaringan sara pada asisten anda dan dengan menggunakan mikroskop, amati preparat dengan perbesaran lemah !1"#1"$, kemudian dengan perbesaran kuat !1"#4"$. 2. %ambar hasil pengamatan anda baik dengan perbesaran lemah dan perbesaran kuat. &engan perbesaran kuat, amati satu neuron ' badan sel, inti, akson, dan dendrit. (engkapi gambar anda dengan keterangan.

'P%T2'3%7M S6T7 36P%S

/+012%+2 13+4

/6217 8484

76( 7+0+9

Epithelial Ti&&ue&
Structure8 S9aumous 'pithelium8 !ubiodal 'pithelium8 !olumnar 'pithelium8 Stratified 'pithelium8 /unctions of 'pithelium8

#tru'ture 'pithelial tissue co*ers the (h!le &ur$a'e !$ the )!*+. %t is made up of 'ell& 'l!&el+ pa'ke* and ranged in !ne !r m!re la+er&. This tissue is specialised to form the co*ering or lining of all internal an* e,ternal )!*+ &ur$a'e&. 'pithelial tissue that occurs on surfaces on the interior of the body is known as en*!thelium. 'pithelial cells are packed tightly together, with almost n! inter'ellular &pa'e& and only a &mall am!unt !$ inter'ellular &u)&tan'e. 'pithelial tissue, regardless of the type, is usually separated from the underlying tissue by a thin sheet of connecti*e tissue: )a&ement mem)rane. The basement membrane pr!-i*e& &tru'tural &upp!rt for the epithelium and also )in*& it t! neigh)!uring &tru'ture&. T+pe& !$ Epithelial Ti&&ue 'pithelial tissue can be di*ided into t(! groups depending on the number of layers of which it is composes. 'pithelial tissue which is only !ne 'ell thi'k is known as &imple epithelium. %f it is t(! !r m!re 'ell& thi'k such as the skin, it is known as &trati$ie* epithelium. Simple epithelium Simple epithelium can be subdi*ided according to the &hape an* $un'ti!n of its cells. S(uam$u% )pa*ement+ epithelium S9uamous cells ha*e the appearance of thin. $lat plate&. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the 'ell $!rm and help to identify the t+pe !$ epithelium. S9uamous cells, for e;ample, tend to ha*e h!ri/!ntall $lattene*. ellipti'al nu'lei because of the thin flattened form of the cell. They form the lining of ca*ities such as the m!uth. )l!!* -e&&el&. heart and lung& and make up the outer layers of the skin.

Simple s9aumous epithelium Simple Cu,$idal Epithelium

1"

6s their name implies, cuboidal cells are roughly &0uare or 'u)!i*al in shape. 'ach cell has a &pheri'al nu'leu& in the centre. !uboidal epithelium is found in glan*& and in the lining of the ki*ne+ tu)ule& as well as in the *u't& !$ the glan*&. They also constitute the germinal epithelium which produces the egg 'ell& in the $emale !-ar+ and the &perm 'ell& in the male te&te&.

Simple cuboidal epithelium Simple C$lumnar Epithelium !olumnar epithelial cells occur in !ne !r m!re la+er&. The cells are el!ngate* and '!lumn1&hape*. The nu'lei are el!ngate* and are usually located near the base of the cells. !olumnar epithelium forms the lining !$ the &t!ma'h an* inte&tine& . Some columnar cells are &pe'iali&e* $!r &en&!r+ re'epti!n such as in the n!&e. ear& an* the ta&te )u*& !$ the t!ngue. 2!)let 'ell& unicellular glands$ are found between the '!lumnar epithelial 'ell& !$ the *u!*enum . They &e'rete mu'u& !r &lime, a lubricating substance which keeps the surface smooth.

Simple columnar epithelium Ciliated C$lumnar Epithelium These are &imple '!lumnar epithelial 'ell&, but in addition, they posses $ine hair1like !utgr!(th&. 'ilia on their free surfaces. These cilia are capable of rapi*. rh+thmi'. (a-elike )eating& in a certain direction. This mo*ement of the cilia in a certain direction causes the mucus, which is secreted by the goblet cells, to mo*e flow or stream$ in that direction. !iliated epithelium is usually found in the air

11

pa&&age& like the n!&e. %t is also found in the uteru& an* 3all!pian tu)e& of females. The mo*ement of the cilia propel the o*um to the uterus.

!iliated columnar epithelium Glandular Epithelium !olumnar epithelium (ith g!)let 'ell& i& 'alle* glan*ular epithelium. Some parts of the glandular epithelium consist of such a large num)er !$ g!)let 'ell& that there are only a few normal epithelial cells left. !olumnar and cuboidal epithelial cells often become &pe'iali&e* a& glan* 'ell& which are capable of &+nthe&i&ing an* &e'reting certain substances such as en/+me&. h!rm!ne&. milk. mu'u&. &(eat. (a, an* &ali-a . Uni'ellular glan*& consist of single, isolated glandular cells such as the goblet cells. Sometimes a portion of the epithelial tissue becomes in*aginated and a multi'ellular glan* is formed. Multicellular glands are '!mp!&e* !$ 'lu&ter& !$ 'ell&. 4!&t glan*& are multicellular including the the sali*ary glands.

%landular epithelium

Strati'ied Epithelium <here body linings ha*e to withstand wear and tear, the epithelia are '!mp!&e* !$ &e-eral la+er& !$ 'ell& an* are then 'alle* '!mp!un* !r &trati$ie* epithelium. The t!p 'ell& are $lat an* &'al+ and it may or may not be keratini&e* i.e. containing a tough, resistant protein called keratin$. The mammalian &kin is an e;ample of *r+. keratini&e*. &trati$ie* epithelium. The lining of the m!uth 'a-it+ is an e;ample of an unkeratini&ie*. &trati$ie* epithelium.

12

Stratified epithelium 3un'ti!n& !$ Epithelial Ti&&ue

Pr$te-ti$n 'pithelial cells from the skin protect underlying tissue from mechanical injury, harmful chemicals, invading bacteria and from excessive loss of water.

Sen%ati$n Sensory stimuli penetrate specialised epithelial cells. Specialised epithelial tissue containing sensory ner*e endings is found in the skin, eyes, ears, nose and on the tongue.

Se-reti$n %n glands, epithelial tissue is specialised to secrete specific chemical substances such as en=ymes, hormones and lubricating fluids.

A,%$rpti$n !ertain epithelial cells lining the small intestine absorb nutrients from the digestion of food.

E.-reti$n 'pithelial tissues in the kidney excrete waste products from the body and reabsorb needed materials from the urine . Sweat is also e;creted from the body by epithelial cells in the sweat glands.

Di''u%i$n

13

Simple epithelium promotes the diffusion of gases, liquids and nutrients. )ecause they form such a thin lining, they are ideal for the diffusion of gases eg. walls of capillaries and lungs$.

Cleanin" !iliated epithelium assists in removing dust particles and foreign bodies which ha*e entered the air passages.

Redu-e% /ri-ti$n The smooth, tightly-interlocking, epithelial cells that line the entire circulatory system reduce friction between the blood and the walls of the blood vessels. 8 epithelial tissue 8 connecti*e tissue 8 muscle tissue 8 ner*ous tissue 8

5!nne'ti-e ti&&ue
#tru'ture !onnecti*e tissues function primarily to support the body and to )in* or '!nne't together all types of tissue. This tissue also pro*ide a me'hani'al $rame(!rk 6the &kelet!n7 which plays an important role in l!'!m!ti!n. 7nlike epithelial tissue, connecti*e tissue is characterised by the large am!unt& !$ inter'ellular &u)&tan'e also called gr!un* &u)&tan'e or the matri,$ that it contains. !onnecti*e tissue are relati-el+ $e( 'ell& which are widely &eperate* from each other. These li-ing 'ell& are responsible for &e'reting the large amounts of inter'ellular gr!un* &u)&tan'e 6matri,7. The matri; is a n!n1 li-ing material which may be li0ui* 6eg. )l!!*7. &emi1&!li* 6eg. '!nne'ti-e ti&&ue7 or &!li* 6eg. )!ne7. 'mbedded in the matri; are a *ariety of '!nne'ting an* &upp!rting $i)re&, eg. collagen fibres and elastic fibres. 5la&&i$i'ati!n of the basic connecti*e tissue depends on the pre*!minant $i)re t+pe present in each. !onnecti*e tissue can be di*ided into four main types.

4u&'le ti&&ue&
8 Structure 8 Smooth Muscle Tissue 8 Skeletal Muscle Tissue 8 !ardiac 2eart$ Muscle Tissue 8

#tru'ture <e know that li*ing organisms can mo*e on their own or can perform other types of mo*ement. Muscle tissue has a a)ilit+ t! rela, and '!ntra&t and so 14

bring about m!-ement an* me'hani'al (!rk in *arious parts of the body. There are other mo*ements in the body too which are necessary for the sur*i*al of the organism such as the heart )eat and the m!-ement& !$ the alimentar+ 'anal. Muscles can be di*ided into three main groups according to their structure, e.g.> Sm$$th mu%-le ti%%ue S&eletal mu%-le ti%%ue Cardia- )heart+ mu%-le ti%%ue

6 whole muscle with many fasciculi

T+pe& !$ 4u&'le Ti&&ue

Sm$$th Mu%-le !i%%ue Smooth muscle tissue is made up of thin1el!ngate* mu&'le 'ell&, $i)re&. These fibres are pointed at their ends and each has a &ingle. large. !-al nu'leu&. 'ach cell is filled with a &pe'iali&e* '+t!pla&m. the &ar'!pla&m and is surrounded by a thin cell membrane, the &ar'!lemma. 'ach cell has many m+!$i)ril& which lie parallel to one another in the direction of the long a;is of the cell. They are n!t arrange* in a *e$inite &tripe* 6&triate*7 pattern , as in skeletal muscles - hen'e the name &m!!th mu&'le . Smooth muscle fibres interlace to form &heet& !r la+er& of muscle tissue rather than )un*le&. Smooth muscle is in-!luntar+ ti&&ue, i.e. it is not controlled by the brain. Smooth muscle forms the muscle layers in the walls of h!ll!( !rgan& such as the *ige&ti-e tra't 6l!(er part !$ the !e&!phagu&. &t!ma'h an* inte&tine&7, the walls of the )la**er, the uteru&, *arious *u't& !$ glan*& and the walls of )l!!* -e&&el& . /un-ti$n% $' Sm$$th Mu%-le !i%%ue

15

7mooth muscle controls slow, involuntary movements such as the contraction o the smooth muscle tissue in the walls o the stomach and intestines. 4he muscle o the arteries contracts and relaxes to regulate the blood pressure and the flow of blood.

Smooth Muscle Tissue

S&eletal Mu%-le !i%%ue Skeletal muscle is the m!&t a)un*ant ti&&ue in the *ertebrate body. These muscles are attached to and bring about the m!-ement of the -ari!u& )!ne& !$ the &kelet!n, hence the name &keletal mu&'le&. The whole muscle, such as the biceps, is enclosed in a sheath of connecti*e tissue, the epim+&ium. This sheath folds inwards into the substance of the muscle to surround a large number of smaller bundles, the $a&'i'uli. These fasciculi consist of still smaller bundles of elongated, cylindrical muscle cells, the $i)re&. 'ach fibre is a &+n'+tium, i.e. a cell that ha*e many nuclei. The nu'lei are o*al in shaped and are found at the periphery of the cell, just beneath the thin. ela&ti' mem)rane 6&ar'!lemma7. The &ar'!pla&m also has many alternating light an* *ark )an*&, gi*ing the fibre a &tripe* !r &triate* appearan'e hence the name &triate* mu&'le7. <ith the aid of an electron microscope it can be seen that each muscle fibre is made up of many smaller units, the m+!$i)ril&. 'ach myofibril consists of small protein filaments, known as a'tin an* m+!&in $ilament&. The m+!&in $ilament& are slightly thi'ker and make up the *ark )an* 6!r A1 )an*7. The a'tin $ilament& make up the light )an*& 6I1)an*&7 which are situated on either side of the dark band. The actin filaments are attached to the 81line. This arrangement of actin and myosin filaments is known as a &a'r!mere.

1-

6 myofibril with actin and myosin filaments

&uring the contraction of skeletal muscle tissue, the actin filaments slide in(ar*& between the myosin filaments. 4it!'h!n*ria pro*ide the energy for this to take place. This action causes a &h!rtening !$ the &a'r!mere& 681line& m!-e 'l!&er t!gether7, which in turn causes the whole muscle fibre to '!ntra't. This can bring about a &h!rtening !$ the entire mu&'le such as the biceps, depending on the number of muscles fibres that were stimulated. The contraction of skeletal muscle tissue is *ery 0ui'k an* $!r'e$ul. /un-ti$n% $' S&eletal Mu%-le !i%%ue
o o

7keletal muscles unction in pairs to bring about the co-ordinated movements of the limbs, trunk, jaws, eyeballs, etc. 7keletal muscles are directly in*ol*ed in the breathing process.

1.

Skeletal Muscle Tissue

Cardia- )Heart+ Mu%-le !i%%ue This is a uni9ue tissue found !nl+ in the (all& !$ the heart. !ardiac 2eart$ Muscle Tissue shows some of the 'hara'teri&ti'& !$ &m!!th mu&'le and some of &keletal mu&'le ti&&ue. %ts $i)re& , like those of skeletal muscle, ha*e 'r!&&1&triati!n& an* '!ntain numer!u& nu'lei. 2owe*er, like smooth muscle tissue, it is in-!luntar+. !ardiac muscle *i$$er $r!m &triate* mu&'le in the following aspects> they are &h!rter, the &triati!n& are not so ob*ious, the &ar'!lemma is thinner and not clearly discernible, there is !nl+ !ne nu'leu& pre&ent in the centre of each cardiac fibre and a*ja'ent $i)re& branch but are linked to each other by so-called muscle bridges. The spaces between different fibres are filled with are!lar '!nne'ti-e tissue which contains blood capillaries to supply the tissue with the o;ygen and nutrients. /un-ti$n% $' Cardia- )Heart+ Mu%-le !i%%ue
o o

;ardiac muscle tissue plays the most important role in the contraction of the atria and ventricles of the heart. 1t causes the rhythmical beating of the heart, circulating the blood and its contents throughout the body as a conse<uence.

15

!ardiac Muscle Tissue

8 epithelial tissue 8 connecti*e tissue 8 muscle tissue 8 ner*ous tissue 8

". Ner-!u& ti&&ue&


8 ?eneral 8 Structure of a Motor 5euron 8 !lassification of 5eurons 8 /untions of 5er*e Tissue 8

2eneral 6ll li*ing cells ha*e the ability to react to stimuli. Ner-!u& ti&&ue is &pe'iali&e* to rea't t! &timuli and to '!n*u't impul&e& to *arious organs in the body which bring about a re&p!n&e t! the &timulu&. Ner-e ti&&ue as in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral ner*es that branch throughout the body$ are all made up of specialised ner*e cells called neur!n&. 5eurons are ea&il+ &timulate* and tran&mit impul&e& -er+ rapi*l+. 6 ner*e is made up of many ner*e cell fibres neurons$ bound together by connecti*e tissue. 6 sheath of dense connecti*e tissue, the epineurium surrounds the ner*e. This sheath penetrates the ner*e to form the perineurium which surrounds bundles of ner*e fibres. blood *essels of *arious si=es can be seen in the

1:

epineurium. The en*!neurium, which consists of a thin layer of loose connecti*e tissue, surrounds the indi*idual ner*e fibres. 6lthough the system forms a unit it can be di*ided into the following parts> the 'entral ner-!u& &+&tem 65N#7 which consists of the brain and spinal cord, the ner-!u& &+&tem consists of the ner*es outside the !5S which connect the brain and spinal cord to the organs and muscles of the body and the aut!mati' !r in-!luntar+ ner-!u& &+&tem consists of ner*e centres and fibres inside as well as outside the central ner*ous system. There are three main t+pe& !$ neur!n&, which are classified according their function> Those that conduct impulses from the sensory organs to the central ner*ous system brain and spinal cord$ are called &en&!r+ 6!r a$$erent7 neur!n&: those that conduct impulses from the central ner*ous system to the effector organs such as muscles and glands$ are called m!t!r 6!r e$$erent7 neur!n&. Interneur!n& 6al&! kn!(n a& '!nne't!r neur!n& !r a&&!'iati!n neur!n&7 are those that connect sensory neurons to motor neurons. #tru'ture !$ a 4!t!r Neur!n 6 motor neuron has many processes '+t!pla&mi' e,ten&i!n&$, called *en*trite&, which enter a large, grey cell body at one end. 6 single process, the a,!n, lea*es at the other end, e;tending towards the dendrites of the ne;t neuron or to form a m!t!r en*plate in a muscle. &endrites are usually &h!rt an* *i-i*e* while the a;ons are -er+ l!ng an* *!e& n!t )ran'he* $reel+. The impulses are transmitted through the motor neuron in one direction, i.e. int! the 'ell )!*+ )+ the *en*rite& an* a(a+ $r!m the 'ell )!*+ )+ the a,!n . The 'ell )!*+ is enclosed by a 'ell 6pla&ma7 mem)rane and has a 'entral nu'leu&. 2ranule&. 'alle* Ni&&l. )!*ie& are found in the cytoplasm of the cell body. <ithin the cell body, e;tremely fine neur!$i)ril& e;tend from the dendrites into the a;on. The a;on is surrounded by the m+elin &heath, which forms a whitish, non-cellular, fatty layer around the a;on. 4utside the myelin sheath is a cellular layer called the neurilemma !r &heath !$ #'h(ann 'ell&. The myelin sheath together with the neurilemma is also known as the me*ullar+ &heath. This medullary sheath is interrupted at inter*als by the n!*e& !$ 9an-ier.

2"

6 motor neuron

5er*e cells are functionally connected to each other at a junction known as a &+nap&e, where the terminal branches of an a;on and the dendrites of another neuron lie in close pro;imity to each other but ne*er make direct contact.

21

6 Synapse

5la&&i$i'ati!n !$ Neur!n&
4n the basis of their structure, neurons can also be classified into three main types> Unip$lar Neur$n% #en&!r+ neur!n& ha*e only a &ingle pr!'e&& !r $i)re which di*ides close to the cell body into t(! main )ran'he& 6a,!n an* *en*rite7. )ecause of their structure they are often referred to as unip!lar neur!n&.

Multip$lar Neur$n% 4!t!r neur!n&, which ha*e numer!u& 'ell pr!'e&&e& 6an a,!n an* man+ *en*rite&7 are often referred to as multip!lar neur!n&. %nterneurons are also multipolar.

Bip$lar Neur$n% %ip!lar neur!n& are spindle-shaped, with a *en*rite at !ne en* an* an a,!n at the !ther . 6n e;ample can be found in the light-sensiti*e retina of the eye.

22

6 diagram showing the different neurons

3un'ti!n& !$ Ner-e Ti&&ue


2er*ous tissue allows an organism to sense stimuli in both the internal and external environment. 4he stimuli are analysed and integrated to provide appropriate, co-ordinated responses in various organs. 4he a erent or sensory neurons conduct nerve impulses from the sense organs and receptors to the central nervous system. 1nternuncial or connector neurons supply the connection between the a erent and e erent neurons as well as di erent parts o the central ner*ous system. 6 erent or somatic motor neurons transmit the impulse from the central nervous system to a muscle (the effector organ) which then react to the initial stimulus. +utonomic motor or e erent neurons transmit impulses to the involuntary muscles and glands. 8 epithelial tissue 8 connecti*e tissue 8 muscle tissue 8 ner*ous tissue 8

23