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# PHYSICS CONCEPT

TERMINOLOGY Wave DEFINITION Is the disturbance or oscillation that travels through space-time Waves in which the direction of vibration of the particle of the medium is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation Waves in which the direction of vibration of the particle of the medium is parallel to the direction of wave propagation The locus of points which vibrates in phase. - The distance between two successive crest or through - The distance between two successive compression or rarefaction in a sound wave Wavespeed depends on the medium the waves are travelling through The point on a wave with the maximum positive displacement The point on a wave with the maximum negative displacement Region along a longitudinal wave where the pressure and density of particles are higher than atmospheric pressure Region along a longitudinal wave where the power and density of particles are lower than atmospheric pressure Is a periodic motion performs a repeated to-and-fro motion about an equilibrium position The movement from one extreme position to the other and back to the same position The maximum displacement of the object from its equilibrium position. S.I. metre, m

Transverse wave

Longitudinal wave

Wavespeed, v

Rarefaction

Oscillation

## One complete oscillation

Amplitude, a

Time taken for one complete oscillation Period, T T= The number of complete oscillation per second Frequency, f f = Damping or f=

Is the decrease in amplitude of an oscillating system when energy is drained out as heat energy (air friction) Loss of energy to overcome frictional force/air friction Loss of energy due to the extension and compression of molecules in the system Occurs when a system is made to oscillate at a frequency equivalent to its natural frequency by an external force Is the frequency of a system which oscillate freely without the action of an external force Occurs when an incident wave strikes a reflector and undergoes a change in direction of propagation The change in direction of wave when its speed changes as it moves from one medium to another, which has different optical densities or different depth The spreading out of waves as they pass through an aperture or obstacle Is produced by the superposition of two waves from two coherent sources States that when two or more waves combine at a point, the resultant amplitude is the sum of the amplitude of the individual waves Occurs when the crest or trough of both waves (same phase) coincide to produce a wave with a maximum amplitude

External damping

Internal damping

Resonance

Natural frequency

Reflection of waves

Refraction of waves

Diffraction of waves

Interference of waves

Principle of superposition

## Destructive interference (Node)

Occurs when the crest of one wave coincide with the trough of the other waves to produce a wave with zero amplitude Are transverse wave consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields which are perpendicular to each other The product of the number of electrons and the charge of one electron Q = ne The rate of charge flow

Electromagnetic waves

Electric charge, Q