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Early Roman Christian Art

Medieval Period 550-1400 Middle Ages between Classical and Renaissance periods; name is not appropriate anymore because of Baroque, Classical, Romantic, etc Dark Ages writers felt destruction here after the classical period because art and achievements were lost. Probably inappropriate because of its other achievements like music Age of Faith strong institution of faith ; most art are religious and Christian art Western history and art Christianity one of the mysterious cults that promised a better life beyond the grave eventually was the only one to survive Early converts were mainly from dispossessed and downtrodden masses, some from patrician and educated classes Chi-rho heavenly divine symbol XP first 2 capital letters of the Greek word of Christ symbolizes Jesus statues as Christ Constantines dream write this on the shields of his soldiers. On that day he fought and won the battle against Maxentius outside Rome, thus conquering the land Christianity became very abstract and symbolic, conceptual Cross something negative, associated with the lowliest, criminals But later on became a talisman against the demon Latin cross World of symbols Immortality frequently represented by the image of a serpent biting its tail living creature whose end was joined to its beginning Monogram that was very popular sign of identity usually formed of the combined initials of a name Alpha and Omega (Greek: and ) is an appellation of God in the Book of Revelation (verses 1:8, 21:6, and 22:13). Its meaning is found in the fact that Alpha () and Omega () are respectively the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. Twice when the phrase appears, it is clarified with the additional title "the beginning and the end" (21:6, 22:13). Some thus see the term "Alpha and Omega" as a paraphrase of Isaiah 44:6: "I am the first and I am the last; apart from me there is no God." While the context in the Book of Revelation is clearly related to this, Jewish scholarship shows that the Alpha and Omega is also a Hellenized form of the rabbinical dictum: "The seal of God is Emet (Truth)," the word Emet ( )being derived the first, middle, and last letters of the Hebrew alphabet. In the early church, the Alpha-and-Omega symbol became Christ's monogram and is still used in Christian art, often in combination with the Greek letters Chi and Rho, the first two letters of the word for Christ in Greek. Traditionally, the phrase is used in Christianity as evidence for Jesus' divinity and unity with God the Father. An alternative interpretation is that Christ, as the "last Adam" (1 Corinthians

15:45), represents the fulfillment of God's ideal relationship with humanity, rather than being God Himself. (Ichthys) is an acronym for " , , ", (Isous Christos, Theou Yios, Str), which translates into English as "Jesus Christ, God's Son, Savior". Iota (i) is the first letter of Isous (), Greek for "Jesus". Chi (ch) is the first letter of Christos (), Greek for "anointed". Theta (th) is the first letter of Theou (), Greek for "God's", the genitive case of , Theos, Greek for "God". Ypsilon (y) is the first letter of (h)yios*4+ (), Greek for "Son". Sigma (s) is the first letter of str (), Greek for "Savior". In Christian iconography, the vine also frequently appears. It is mentioned several times in the New Testament. We have the parable of the kingdom of heaven likened to the father starting to engage laborers for his vineyard. The vine is used as symbol of Jesus Christ based on his own statement, I am the vine. In that sense, a vine is placed as sole symbol on the tomb of Constantia, the sister of Constantine the Great, and elsewhere. In Byzantine art, the vine and grapes figure in early mosaics, and on the throne of Maximianus of Ravenna it is used as a decoration. Vineyard, wine, blood Flesh of peafowl/peacock did not decay symbol of immortality Ancient people believed that the flesh of a peafowl did not decay after death, and it so became a symbol of immortality. This symbolism was adopted by early Christianity, and thus many early Christian paintings and mosaics show the peacock. The peacock is still used in the Easter season especially in the east.[21] Sarcophagus for burial purposes designed with symbols after christianity became legal Earlier symbols were semantic rather than representational giving meaning rather than representing Sarcophagus of Archbishop Theodore Chrimson symbols with last letters of greek alphabet End of earthly life and begnning of the heavenly one 2 peacocks paradise Vine and birds feeding on grapes communion Earliest christian symbols were in the CATACOMBS, for burials only. Christians have to bury dead, not cremate Objection to cremation because of the belief in resurrection Free sketchy manner, drastically simplified following the roman/pagan architectural scheme Link between pagan Roman and early Christian art Chrimson symbol rather than the cross Lamb of god jesus I am the shepherd -ancient sacrificial animal, Jesus sacrifice on the cross as the lamb of god, its pouring blood redeeming the sins of the world

Shepherd carrying sheep 4 AD Deer faithful, the church APPEAL IS THE IDEA EMBEDDED IN THE FORMS Throne or chair repository of power Maximians Cathedra Ex cathedra from the chair Coming from the idea when jewish and rabbis and greek philosophers and teachers taught from a seated position; as a symbol of teaching throne and governing authority The Throne of Maximian (or Maximianus) is a throne that was made for Archbishop Maximianus of Ravenna and is now on display at the Archiepiscopal Museum, Ravenna. It is generally agreed that the throne was carved in the Greek East of the Byzantine Empire and shipped to Ravenna, but there has long been scholarly debate over whether it was made in Constantinople or Alexandria.[1][2][3] The style of the throne is a mixture of Early Christian art and that of the First Golden Age of Byzantine art. It is made of carved ivory panels, with frames of winding vines and grapevines, on a wooden frame.[4] The throne itself is large with a high semi-circular back and may have held a jewelled cross or Gospel book for some of the time.[5] The ivory carvings are done in relief and the panels depict important biblical figures. The back of the throne shows scenes of the Life of Christ, the sides include scenes of the Story of Joseph from the Book of Genesis, and on the front of the throne are the Four evangelists around John the Baptist, who is holding a medallion with the Lamb of God and Maximians name above him.[6] 303 final suppression under Diocletian 306 Constantine became the emperor 313 edict of milan was issued making Christianity as one of the official state religions making Christians worship openly, create extensive building program 325 council of nicaea basic tenets of christian faith were debated and coordinated Building of edifices and large churches to accommodate growing religion; To impress on people the strong and might of religion

Ravenna most impt. City in Italy from 402 to mid 8th cent. Seat of the last Roman emperor in the west Became the capital of the barbarian Ostrogothic kingdom Became Western center of the East Roman empire St. Peter prototype, largest of its time Giving names to various parts architectures identifying of parts Basilica old churches called Type of building derived from the Roman times not used for religion but for civic Parthenon rituals done outside temple this architecture wont be useful for Christians for their purposes Christian basilica turned Greek temple outside in 1. Gate 2. Atrium open courtyard 3. Narthex main entrance or frontispiece to church proper 4. Aisle sides

5. Nave where you march 6. Transept arms bisectinglooks like a cross 7. Apse semi-circular that encapsulates the altar Rectangular Plan Example Interior is more important; exterior is humble-looking Low, flat ceiling Keeping with the sheltered and inward orientation of early basilicas, no windows gave view to the outside world Sabina in Rome oldest extant Roman basilica preserving the colonnaded rectangular and architectural style 422-432 AD RAVENNA Honorius court from Rome to Ravenna due to barbarians Ravenna as capital of Western Roman Empire until 476 Ravenna capital of barbarian ruler Capital of Ostrogothic king until 540 Port of entry for Eastern Byzantine Empire In ad 402 the danger of barbarian invasions compelled the Western Roman emperor Honorius to move his court from Rome to Ravenna. Ravenna was henceforth the capital of the Western Roman Empire until its dissolution in 476. As such, Ravenna was embellished with magnificent monuments. The city was also raised to the status of an archbishopric in 438. With the fall of the Western Empire in 476, it became the capital of the first barbarian ruler of Italy, Odoacer (reigned 476493), who in turn surrendered it to the Ostrogothic king Theuderic (reigned 493526) in 493. Theuderic made Ravenna the capital of the Ostrogothic kingdom, but in 540 Ravenna was occupied by the great Byzantine general Belisarius and was subsequently made an imperial exarchate. As the capital city of the Western Roman Empire for 250 years and a major port of entry for the Eastern (Byzantine) Empire, Ravenna reflects in its art and architecture a fusion of Roman architectural forms with Byzantine mosaics and other decoration. MOSAICS Texture not flat, much more durable Disadvantages Hard to become detailed Very abrupt pixelations, hard to create emotions and gestures No shading, 3D, hard to achieve the illusion of depth Mosaic Floor by Arturo Luz Rivers of Life The Parish of the Holy Sacrifice is the landmark Catholic chapel in the University of the Philippines, Diliman. Known for its architectural design, the church is recognized as a National Historical Landmark and a Cultural Treasure by the National Historical Institute and the National Museum respectively.

The structure was designed by the late National Artist for Architecture, Leandro Locsin, which was only one of the five national artists who collaborated on the project. Alfredo Juinio served as the structural engineer for the project. The Church of Holy Sacrifice is the first round chapel in the Philippines with the altar in the middle, and the first to have a thin shell concrete dome. The floor of the church was designed by Arturo Luz, the Stations of the Cross by Vicente Manansala and Ang Kiukok, and the double-sided crucifix and altar base by Napoleon Abueva, all of whom are now National Artists. Architecture The dome of the church is supported by pillars located at the sides of the church, so that there are no supports to block the space inside. The unique design of the dome allows natural lighting and ventilation. At the middle of the dome is a circular skylight, which supports the triangular bell tower. The bell tower, then extends to the interior, supporting the crucifix. The arrangement of the interior of the church is concentric, with the altar in the middle. *Central Type churches San Vitale in Ravenna

Byzantine Early Christian Art before becoming legal, early christians met in catacombs for secret communal meals and early celebrations of mass Some slave converts had certain skills, were allowed to paint the walls with Christian symbols and visual versions of the Old and New Testament stories for those who could not read The Good Shepherd 4th cent AD Painted ceiling, catacomb of Saints Pietro and Marcellino in Rome Main concern in early roman christian burial rite and safeguarding of tomb; faith rested in hope and eternity in paradise The great circle suggesting the dome of heaven Larger circle inscribed with a cross basic symbol of faith Sketchy style Themes of redemption through suffering and deliverance by the power of faith: Vineyard scenes referring to the communion wine Isaac being sacrificed by Abraham Tale of Jonah being thrown overboard, spending 3 days in the belly of the great fish Daniels rescue from the lions den Because of diverse historical traditions as well as wide geographical distances separated Rome in the West, Byzantium in the east and the nomadic Ostrogoths in the north After making Christianity as the state religion, emperor Constantine moved his court to Byzantium, christening the city the new Rome

Later, this second capital was called Constantinople in his honor and soon the East and the West Roman empires were going their separate courses North territory of the barbarians under Theodoric West Pope East Justinian (after Constantine) Constantinople usual place of residence of emperor; center of artistic patronage Capital city of Eastern Byzantine Empire Founded in 330 AD At ancient Byzantium as the new capital empire by Constantine the Great One of the greatest civilizations of world history One of the greatest cities

Constantines Colossus (giant, hulk, titan) 12 meters; head is 2 meters long; each foot is 2 meters originally found in Rome Large bust elicits power, to be more noticed inscription below stating that he rescued the city, freed it from the tyrants yoke, restored the senate and the people of Rome to t heir ancient renown and splendor Column of Constantine to commemorate the declaration of Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire 330 AD O-shaped churches Symbolism immortality, origin from ancient circular tombs Usual features of basilica: narthex entrance, circular nave, surrounding side aisles Difference from the basilica direction of the axis Basilica eyes are led toward the apse horizontal line Central-type church eye is led upward from the central floor space to the dome vertical axis The structural and psychological effects of the dome in central-type churches is to bring the separate parts into a unified whole *2 main systems of how to create a dome or a circular shaped ceiling: Pendentives placing a circular dome on a rectangular room; triangular segments of a sphere taper/narrow to points at the bottom and spread to the top Hagia Sophia, Instanbul Squinch construction filling the upper angles of a square room to form a base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome

Odzun basilica in Armenia, early 8th century Notes comparison of singing styles between the western and roman empires Eastern more contemplative, Singing without voice, mind resounding inwardly, for we sing not to men but to God Western active If you praise the Lord and do not sing, you do not utter a hymn. A hymn has 3 things: song, praise, the Lord Santa Hagia Sophia Counterpart of St. Peter in the Eastern empire Big enormous nave, grandeur of Christianity commands attention When the Turks ruled over Constantinople in the 1400s, this Church was turned into a Mosque the mixture of various artwork Muslim Art more windows, frown upon figurative images, more of abstract Now a museum, not any kind of church Nave 100ft wide and 200 ft long Theodoric (429) commissioned mosaics in Sant Apolinare Nuovo and are of Early Roman Christian craftsmanship private chapel of Theodorics palace Mostly portraits of theodoric Ostrogothic king After Justinians conquest, this church was rededicated and all of Theodorics reign were removed; half a century later, the nave arcade was replaced by mosaics in Byzantine style Covering the walls of the nave, divided into 3 Panels depict life of Christ Art of mosaic must take into account both the natural source of light from windows and artificial sources from lamps and candles Sant Apollinare Nuovo - interior 1st row small mosaics depicting Jesus miracles and parables; other side depicting passion and resurrection; with canopy-like niches over the figures standing below early Roman Christian art craftsmanship 2nd row scheme of halooed saints that apparently may have had inscriptions over their heads also executed during the time of Theodoric - removal of these names suggest that they may have been prophets and saints revered by the Arian Christians 3rd row large mosaics in Byzantine style, lacking individuality, having all identical expressions

- left: procession of virgin martyrs, with Saint Agnes different by having a lamb as her symbol below - followed by magis - towards the group of madonna and the Child with the angels On the opposite side Ravenna with Theodorics palace, and there was once a portrait of Theodoric on horseback - under the arches you would find traces of heads and hands that might be the members of his court - replaced by simulated Byzantine textile curtains

On the opposite side Ravenna with Theodorics palace, and there was once a portrait of Theodoric on horseback - under the arches you would find traces of heads and hands that might be the members of his court - replaced by simulated Byzantine textile curtains Artworks in Justinians time after Theodoric Reign - 527 Emperor Justinian and the Courtiers finest existing portrait of an emperor must be a mosaic rather then a sculpture Justinian as the symbol of unity between the spiritual force of the church and then temporal power of the state church and state Carrying the semi-divine status of early roman empire Married to Theodora who reigned after her husband died Appears more royal than the king; Motif on her robe 3 wise men, like Justinian, came from the East Symbolism that the source of wisdom and power lay in that direction All heads appear in one plane Both justinian and theodora are with halos to carry awesome power but also as a carry-over of the semi-divine status of early Roman emperors AD 330 - constantinople founded 1100 - city as the wealthiest and largest 1453 - fall of constantinople to the muslims (ottoman turks) Iconoclasm image-breaking theological dbate involving the Byzantine church and state - Adopting Islamic traditions

In the Western churches, icons were very much supported Imperial legislation barred the use and production of figural images Cross became accepted as the the widely used symbol in church 2 iconoclasms: 726-787 and 814-842 Reintroduction of icons in 843

Boethius Music of the universe harmonious motion of the planets is music Human music the attunement of the mind and the body, the organs of the body being so orderly, in the manner of a Greek harmony of opposites Syllabic, melismatic Gregorian chant Western 9th and 10th centuries zeitgeist Embodiment of Mysticism Removed from its primary religious association and seen in a more detached aesthetic light, the liturgy as a work of art embodies a profound and dramatic insight into the deepest longings and highest aspirations of the human spirit Contemplative singing in the east; the more active worship in the west; The thought, action, sequence of rites of Constantinople, Ravenna, Roma and other centers determined the architectural plans of churches, the symbolism of the mosaics the forms of sculpture and music Ecclesiastical Architecture dome-shaped churches Use of deep niches to conceal or mask the structure Manifold symbol of the cosmos, heaven, death resurrection Provided capitals of columns new and carved

Romanesque (1000-1150) Gothic (1150-1400)


*Why romanesque? In the Roman manner appearance of 11th-12th cent churches

Roman Colliseum with shear number of portals, having many arches, capacity of 50,000 ancient Roman structural devices, utilizing arches, barrel vaults, and groin vaults in their massive, solid stone edifices massive quality, thick walls, round arches, sturdy piers, groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading. Each building has clearly defined forms and they are frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan so that the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared The Romanesque period is marked by: - Immense relief the world hadnt ended at the turn of the millenium - The resurgence of cities and trade - The emergence of Europe as we know it - Strengthened Papal authority - The emergence of a middle class and merchant class - Evolution of the Romance languages - The peak in feudalism as a political system *From Greek to Roman Style Pantheon of the gods (post and lintel) to the DOME Heavy stone hedges Problem of the Post and Lintel - If you add posts, you would be using up too much space Thrust weight is on the posts down; with arches, your thrust/weight are on the arches Now this problem was solved by the romans *What Vault? ROMANESQUE Force pushes out from the arch, weakening the outside walls To strengthen the walls: you put in the buttresses However, because of these thick walls, you cant put windows down there Windows will only be seen on top Looks like a fortress Tuscan Style Piazza dei Miracoli/Field of Miracles Pisa Cathedral dome, rounded arches Taller than early christian churches because of arches Exteriors change eye-catching and extravagant unlike early christian churches relatively humble, simpler exterior Leaning Tower of Pisa no firm foundation, with round arches - took over 800 years to finish completed in 1350, but since had modifications and adjustments; the decision of where to build the tower resulted to the slight tilt - 55 meters, lowest tower to achieve such high recognition - 294 steps, tower almost torn down by wars

*Important Events Continual movement of people, rulers, nobles, bishops, craftsmen, peasants creating homogeneity Romanesque is more scattered in Europe, not centralized to a single source Mediterranean trade led to the rise of an increasingly urban society

Monasticism carried over to the romanesque period pilgrimage and crusades upsurge in religious fervor Pilgrimage binding force of medieval life; Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church (Patriarch of Constantinople) Feudalism peasant uprising; based on the possession of land; everyone was a vassal or a lesser nobleman of a lord Chivalry St. Sernin in Toulouse, France Largest Romanesque church in Europe, known for its imposing architecture, important medieval structures and frescoes A great barrel vault runs the length of the nave and round Roman arches and simple columns articulate the side aisles. The interior appears rather dark and forbidding. Clerestory windows for illumination were not included because the thrust of the barrel vault had to be contained by the counter-thrusts of small vaulted spaces on the upper level of the elevation. If windows had been opened up on the second story, the vaulting system would have collapsed.

*Norman architects (French) The more splendid the architecture, the more the church believed it was praising God St. Etienne, France Has most advanced style of the period Well-proportioned west faade Windows are just mere openings Ribbed-groin vaulting, band of clerestory windows along upper part this diagonal part help In concealing erratic intersections of the courses intersection of 2 right angles at 2 barrel vaults Display composite column design Towers are square and in 3 designs *Italy San Ambrogio Sant Ambrogio Mostly in brickwork, with stone and white plastering Current Romanesque church was begun in 1080 Consecrated in 379, completed in 1099 Conservative exteriors, but with groin-vaulted but dark interiors Greater illumination could be found in this system *Bayeux Tapestry - Britain Embroidery medium - Created by William for his half-brother, Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in Normandy - Events of the Norman conquest of England in 1066 Battle of William the Conqueror vs. Harold rare example of secular work - Major political document celebrating Williams victory, validating his claim to the English throne - Presents life and attitudes of this period Very long, 231 ft long, 70 episodes, very long narrative sequential art Became indirectly a historical document culminating into the Battle of Hastings

*Romanesque vs Gothic Gothic Arhitecture - You still have the buttresses there but youre going to move them out Walls weak again Arches are inserted to connect FLYING BUTTRESSES Force is pushed downwards, not sideways Sun! Roman Arch to Gothic Arch Flying buttresses, Pointed Arch, Large windows with stained glass art, Ribbed Groin Vault In effect: much taller nave *Gothic -falsely associated with barbarians - emphasis on height more than width Not proportional 1150-1400 overlapping with Romanesque style at the beginning and the Renaissance style at the end modern art or French style Disparaging term barbarious Goths, Germanic peoples who had destroyed the classical civilization Vasari *The Pointed Arch - Chartres Cathedral Chartres Cathedral at Notre Dame Constructed in several stagesbeginning in mid 12th cent mid 13th cent both the early and mature Gothic style Built by masons Typical Gothic structural device: pointed arches and ribbed groin vaulting rising from compound piers over rectangular bays, supported by flying buttresses, permitting masons to introduce huge windows into upper walls 2 contrasting spires one from 12th cent pyramid-like and one from 16th cent More efficient distribution of weight Create an illusion of height and verticality Elaborate but pointed, details, figures on columns *Tympanum 3 doors the Royal Portal show Christ enthroned in majesty on the central tympanum supported by his Old Testament precursors (PHOTO) Tympanum semi-circular decorative wall on the entrance of a church *Flying Buttresses Heavy buttresses that allowed to increase the window size *Ribbed Groin vaults Most important structural device made designs more stable; increased structural integrity Bone round arches For aesthetically unified interior spaces

*Stained Glass Possibility of having glass windows in the church because of the verticality of structures Lancets arched windows - unique: At Chartres, the stained-glass windows have survived - This cathedral was famous for its glassmaking workshops which by 1260 had installed about 22,000 square feet of stained glass Replaced the mosaic and mural paintings of the early christian and romanesque churches Gave form and meaning to light Architect and icononographer gained complete control over interior lighting More light The Bible in glass and stone Use of optical mixing New interior, did away with the walls Donors of the windows can be seen on the lowest part of the windows change in social conditions Large rose window royal purse; Lancet windows of nave members of aristocracy and church hierarchy Lancets of the apse guilds of craftsmen and merchants High Altar - bakers Glorifies the Virgin Mary Rose Windows *The English Cathedral Late 13th century, France began to suffer from overpopulation and economic decline, plague followed in 14th cent Conflict with England known as the Hundred Years War In England, builders were less concerned with height than were their French counterparts Focused their decorative efforts on the cathedral walls which retained a Romanesque solidity Typically English parklike setting and attached cloister and chapter house for the cathedral clergy The Salisbury Cathedral 1220 *French Cathedral Notre Dame East End 528 but was demolished in 1160 after being the parish of the kings, it was deemed by Bishop Maurice de Sully unworthy of its lofty role Construction of this current cathedral began in 1163 Cathedral fell victim to the French Revolution 1991 major restoration program Notre Dame of Paris Height of 115 ft which was surpassed by the cathedrals in Chartres (120ft) and Reims (125ft) all dedicated to Our Lady the Virgin Mary Barely survived French Revolution, it was turned into a Temple of Reason, but soon returned to Christian use

Napoleon crowned himself emperor here in 1804; liberation of France from the Nazis was held here in August 1944 More than a house of worship and a work of art; it is a symbol of Paris and part of the shared culture of humankind *The Art of Minstrelsy Troubadour lyric poet of noble rank Jongleur street musician, chants verses of poetry, a popular art, accompanied by a viol or lyre; told tales and fables, performed dances, delighted audience with juggling and hand tricks Met together during Lent when Church forbade their public performances Used simple repetitive melodies; melodies werent written down Chanson de geste song of deeds of narrative heroes, epic narrative

Carolingian Period
Emperor Charlemagne (742-814) Consequences of Charlemagnes coronation Theoretical power of Byzantine emperor over the west was finally ended Western rulers could now claim their right to rule involved a descent of sovereignty from the emperor Augustus Caesar The popes could act independently of the eastern emperor Quest for knowledge and love for education, court of scholars Was king of the franks, lombards, considered generally as the first holy roman emperor Carolingian Dynasty as the origin of France and Germany Early kingdom of France or Holy Roman Empire Revival of the Roman Empire to recreate power, prestige and culture of the Western Roman Empire - established his capital at Aachen - constructed a palace much on the model of the Roman palaces - built his palace church, the chapel on the model of the Church of St. Vitale in Ravenna, the imperial church when the Roman capital was located in that city, even imported Roman columns and marbles Wasnt able to master writing and reading could read but could not write well Restoration of Latin Copying of many old manuscripts from the late empire Quest for knowledge and love for education, court of scholars He accordingly issued instructions to the bishops and abbots of his empire that they improve and expand their schools and libraries, and that they keep these schools not entirely to themselves but open them to the sons of the laity who had no intention of becoming monks. And "let them learn psalms, notes, signing, computus, grammar, and let the religious books that are given them be free of faults because often some desire to pray to God properly, but they pray badly because of faulty books." *Carolingian Miniscule

Based from the roman script So latin will be understood and recognized by the literate. Used from 800-1200 in texts, codices, and educational material *Manuscript By monks Simple to fanciful Religious-related and colors are extremely brilliant Abstract works, images embedded within Christian imagery used wider strokes, had a more fragile material Monks were known for their beauty of lettering and accuracy of texts Miniator painter of small illuminated scenes Rubricator one who did initial letters These became models for the large murals on walls and sculptures Scriptorium- large communal room where parchment pages of books and monumental murals in the apses were made Copy, binding, illustration of books *Monastery in Cluny Grandest and largest of all Communities of monks, city life is not condusive to a religious life, a cloistered place Monk life of poverty, chastity and obedience St. Benedict founder of Western European monasticism Benedictine Rule a monk should have absolutely not anything; neither a book, nor tablets, nor a pen nothing at all.. It is not allowed to the monks to have their own bodies or wills in their power Rich in relics, many pilgrims during feastdays of saints Abbey church constant devotional activities are held Cloister for contemplation, typically found at the center of the abbey and south of the nave of the church; usually an open quadrangle garden plot enclosed by a covered arcade on all four sides Refectory, kitchens, bakeries, storage space Chapter hall for communal business Hospice guesthouse Highly complex and logical plan for a complete community Neumes and melismas Pop song na melismatic Odo of Cluny actively fostered choral music having more than a hundred psalms being sung at Cluny daily at his time Development of notation Guido of Arezzo invented the basics for modern musical notation Solmization ut re mi fa sol la si derived from a hymn to St. John St John Sacnte Ibannes Kodaly activity *Palatine Chapel (inside alace of Aachen)

Central interior, only great Carolingian building Palace of Aachen center of power for the Carolingian empire Charlemagne asked permission from Pope Leo to use columns of a church Architecture Symmetrically balanced 2 towers, more incorporated in the main building Became the international symbol of the church especially in the west Combines elements of Classical, Byzantine and pre-Romanesque styles

*Genealogy of the Ottonians (936) Ottonian art and architecture Dynasty of German Kings Germany as major royal power Unifying German tribes into a single kingdom 961 conquered the kingdom of Italy *Westwork of St. Pantaleon, Cologne, Germany Former monastery in 10th century Westworks are monumental, west-facing entrance section of a Carolingian, Ottonian, or Romanesque church. A very symmetrical building, and along the walls would be scenes, and there is new boldness to it even if it was influenced by Carolingian styles *Gospel Book of Otto produced in Reichnau Abbey Contains four gospels in Latin and canon tables Illuminated gospel book *Gero Crucifix c. 970 Not only the first monumental sculpture dating from this period still in existence, it is also the earliest monumental representation of crucified Christ on the cross Influence of Roman art and the art from Charlemagnes court