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Dr. Kağan YEMEZ Ders 4 Döşeme sistemleri.
–Betonarme – Çelik – Kompozit
–Tasarım kriterleri

İç kolonların yerleri iç kolonların yerleri

3 4

Ana kiriş

Tali kiriş

6 - 22 m

Structural Steelwork Eurocodes

5 6

Steel and concrete

These two materials complete one
Introduction to composite  Concrete is efficient in compression and steel in
construction of buildings  Concrete encasement restrain steel against

 Protection against corrosion and fire

 Steel bring ductility into the structure

Aspects for using composite
General structures
7 8

Aspects for using composite Architectural:

 Longer spans
 Thinner slabs
 More slender column
 More generous opportunities for
 Service and Flexibility design


Aspects for using composite Aspects for using composite

structures 9
structures 10

 Reduction of height reduces the total of Functionality:
the building --
-->> saving area of cladding
 Fire protection by using principles of reinforced
 Longer spans with the same height concrete in which the concrete protects the steel
-- > column free rooms
 Additional storeys with the same
total height of building
 Quicker time of erection:
 Saving costs, earlier completion of the building
 Lower financing costs
 Ready for use earlier thus increasing
rental income

Aspects for using composite Aspects for using composite

structures 11
structures 12

Service and building flexibility:  Working platforms of steel decking
 Adaptable structures  Permanent shuttering
 Modification during the life of the building
 Reinforcement of profiled steel sheetings
 Modify services without violating the privacy of
 Speed and simplicity of construction
other occupants
 Quality controlled products ensure greater accuracy
 Accommodation of service facilities
in the ceiling
within a false floor
in a coffer box running along the walls
Construction methods Construction methods
13 14

Traditionally two counteracting methods of

construction could be observed both connected with  Composite Construction
special advantages but also disadvantages worth
comparing these two methods a combination of both
presents the most economic way
 Conventional concrete  Construction in steel
construction method
+ higher bearing capacity
+ freedom of form and + high ratio between bearing
capacity and weight + higher stiffness
+ easy to handle + prefabrication + plastic redistribution
+ thermal resistance + high accuracy

- time
time--consuming shuttering - low fire resistance

- sensitive on tensile forces - need of higher educated


Construction elements Construction elements

15 16

Composite slabs

 Reinforced concrete slab

in-situ concrete on shuttering partially prefabricated slabs fully prefabricated slabs

composite slab

composite beam
composite column floor = beam + slab

Construction elements Construction elements

17 18

Slabs Slabs
 Profile steel sheeting
Pre--stressed concrete slabs
Interlock between steel and concrete


end anchorage
Composite slabs comprise of Profiled decking types
19 20

• steel decking Numerous types with different:

in-situ concrete slab • shapes
• reinforcement • depth and distance between ribs
Support beam

• cast in situ concrete • width, lateral covering,

reinforcement • plane stiffeners
After concrete has • mechanical connections
Support beam
hardened: Thickness : 0,75mm  1,5mm
After construction: Depth : 40mm  80mm
behaves as a composite
steel-concrete structural • profiled steel sheet Galvanized on both faces
element Cold formed
• upper concrete topping Cold forming causes strain
Profiled steel designed to interconnected so that horizontal (pekleşme) hardening and
act as both permanent shear forces can be transferred increase in yield
formwork during concreting at the steel-concrete interface. S235  300 N/mm2
and tension reinforcement

Steel to concrete connection Construction elements

21 22

• Adhesion not sufficient to bo bo Beams

create composite action in hc hc
h  Conventional and innovative

the slab hp hp


re-entrant trough profile


Open trough profile

composite beams
Efficient connection made by:
• Mechanical anchorage from
local deformations
• Decking shape - re-entrant
( a ) mechanical anchorage ( c ) end anchorage
trough profile
• End anchorage provided by
welded studs
• End anchorage by ( b ) frictional interlock ( d ) end anchorage by deformation

deformation of the ribs at

the end of the sheeting.

Construction elements Composite action

23 24

 Types of shear connectors
Döşemeler : yerinde dökme
betonarme Döşemeler
25 26

Başlıklı kamaların

27 28

Ters Sehim


Progress factor: steel grades Construction elements

Advantages of mixed construction and high steel grades
29 30

Type of
non-mixed mixed mixed mixed
Steel grade S 235 S 235 S 355 S 460  Examples of composite columns


Beam Size HE 650 A HE 550 A IPE 550 IPE 500

Reduction in
- 13 % 44 % 52 %
weight of steel
Construction elements Examples
31 32

Joints Millennium Tower (Vienna - Austria)

 Example of vertical shear transfer
between beam and column  55 storeys
bracket for the lower flange
removed after concreting
 Total height 202 m

 Total ground floor 38000 m2

 Capital expenditure about 145 million Euro
 Time of erection: 8 months
weld seam contact piece
bracket with shear connectors

shot-fired nails

Examples Examples
33 34

Millennium Tower (Vienna - Austria) Millennium Tower (Vienna - Austria)

m m

Concrete slab
Concrete core

Composite Slim floor beams

Composite frame
Total time of erection: 8 month
Composite columns
max. speed 2 to 2.5 storeys per week!

Examples Examples
35 36

Citibank Duisburg (Duisburg - Germany) Parking deck “DEZ” (Innsbruck - Austria)

 4 storeys
 Ground dimensions 60 x 30 m
 Max. span length 10.58 m with
 15 storeys 26 cm slim floor slab (= l/40)
 Total height 72 m
 Total ground floor 14500 m2
Examples Examples
37 38

Parking deck “DEZ” (Innsbruck - Austria) Parking deck “DEZ” (Innsbruck - Austria)

Cross section of the slim-
slim-floor beam and slab
-200 mm concrete slab
-60 mm prefabricated concrete elements
Erection of composite columns over 2 storeys -steel beam: web 165/20 mm
Assembly of prefabricated concrete slabs flange 245/40 mm
-headed studs: 22 mm


39 40

Composite construction is popular

for buildings because of following
Dr. Kağan YEMEZ
 Service and building flexibility
 Assembly Next … Introduction to EC 4

Structural Steelwork Eurocodes Eurocode 4 Part 1.1

41 42

 Sections follow a typical design sequence:

– Material properties (Malzeme özellikleri)
– Safety factors (Emniyet katsayıları)
– Methods of analysis
– Element design, ultimate and serviceability
 Some sections deal with specific topics:-
Introduction to EC4 – Durability
– Composite joints in frames for buildings
– Composite slabs with profiled steel sheeting
Terminology Terminology
43 44

 A number of terms are clearly defined:

– ‘COMPOSITE MEMBER’ - one with concrete and steel  ‘COMPOSITE FRAME’ - includes some composite
interconnected components
• ‘BEAM’ - subject mainly to bending (eğilme)
 ‘COMPOSITE JOINT’ - reinforcement contributes to
• ‘COLUMN’ - subject mainly to compression resistance (dayanım) and stiffness (rijitlik).
• ‘SLAB’ - profiled steel sheets as permanent MEMBER’ - weight of wet concrete carried
shuttering (kalıcı kalıp) and tensile reinforcement independently, or steel supported until concrete able
(çekme donatısı) to resist stress
– ‘SHEAR CONNECTION’ (kayma donatısı) - the connection
between steel and concrete components  ‘UNPROPPED (ALTTAN DESTEKSİZ) STRUCTURE
OR MEMBER’ - weight of wet concrete is applied to
the steel elements unsupported in the span.

Material Properties Material Properties

45 46

 Structural steel
– As EC3
– Steel grades with a characteristic strength greater than
– Normal and lightweight concrete as EC2 460N/mm2 not covered
– Concrete grades less than C20/25 or greater than C60/75
excluded  Profiled steel sheeting for composite slabs
– As EC3
 Reinforcing steel – Types of steel restricted
– As EC2
– Recommended minimum thickness is 0.7mm
– Reinforcement grades with a characteristic strength greater
than 550N/mm2 not covered  Shear connectors
– Reference to ENs for material specification

Structural Analysis Elastic Analysis

47 48

 Stages of construction may need to be considered

 Ultimate Limit State (Taşıma Gücü)  The stiffness of the concrete may be based on the
– Elastic or plastic global analysis allowed uncracked condition for braced structure
– Certain conditions apply to the use of plastic analysis  In other cases, some account may need to be taken
 Serviceability Limit State (Servis of concrete cracking by using a reduced stiffness over
a designated length of beam
Yüklemesi)  Creep is accounted for by using appropriate values
– Elastic analysis must be used
for the modular ratio
– The effective width is as defined for the ultimate limit state,
and appropriate allowances may be made for concrete  Shrinkage and temperature effects may be ignored
cracking, creep and shrinkage  Some redistribution of elastic bending moments is
Ultimate Limit State Beams
(Taşıma Gücü)
49 50

 Concerned with the resistance of the  Bending resistance

structure to collapse – Applicability of plastic, non-linear and elastic
 Based on the strength of individual
– Full or partial interaction defined
 Vertical shear resistance
 Overall stability of the structure must be
– Effects of shear buckling
checked – Combined bending and shear
 Factored load conditions

Lateral-Torsional Buckling
Lateral- Longitudinal Shear Connection
(Yanal Burulması Burkulma )
51 52

 Top flange is laterally restrained by the  Related to:

concrete slab – strength of slab and transverse reinforcement
 In hogging bending the compression flange is – connector types
not restrained
– Lateral-torsional buckling must be checked
– Under certain conditions such checks are unnecessary

Serviceability Limit State Deflections

(Servis Yüklemesi) (Sehim)
53 54

 Deflections  Calculateddeflection is seldom

 Concrete cracking meaningful because:
– actual load unlike design load;
 Control of vibrations and limiting
– idealised support conditions seldom realised
stresses are not included
 But calculated deflection can provide an
index of stiffness
Deflections Deflection Limits
55 56

 Six categories:
– roofs generally
 Guidance is given on calculating – roofs frequently carrying personnel other than for maintenance
deflections for composite beams – floors generally
– including allowances for partial interaction – floors and roofs supporting plaster or other brittle finish or non-
flexible partitions
– concrete cracking
– floors supporting columns (unless deflection included in global
 Calculated deflections should be analysis for ultimate limit state)
– situations in which the deflection can impair the appearance of
compared with limits in Eurocode 3 or in the building
given standards.

Calculating Deflections Concrete Cracking

57 58

 Steel member alone

– Construction stage for for unpropped conditions  Concrete may crack due to:
– Procedures of EC3 – Direct loading
– Bare steel section properties – Shrinkage
 Composite cross-section  Excessive cracking of the concrete can:
– Elastic analysis – affect durability
– Suitable transformed section – compromise appearance
– Allow for incomplete interaction and cracking of – impair the proper functioning of the building
concrete where appropriate

Concrete Cracking Composite Slabs

59 60

 May not be critical issues  Ultimateand serviceability limit states

 Simplified approaches based on:  Construction stage
– minimum reinforcement ratios – steel sheeting acts as permanent shuttering
– maximum bar spacing – must support wet concrete loads (unpropped)
– diameters – reference to EC3 Part 1.3
 Guidance on calculating crack widths
 Limiting crack widths related to exposure
Composite Slabs Concluding Summary
61 62

A number of terms in EC4 have a very precise

 Calculation procedures for
 The principal components for composite
– flexure
– longitudinal shear construction are concrete, reinforcing steel,
– vertical shear
structural steel, profiled steel sheet, and shear
– stiffness
– span:depth ratios  Material properties for each component are

– limiting defined in other Eurocodes

 Guidance is given on what methods of analysis,
both global and cross-sectional, are appropriate

Concluding Summary Structural Steelwork Eurocodes

63 64

 EC4 is based on limit state design principles

 The Ultimate Limit State is concerned with
collapse (Taşıma gücü göçme ile ilgili)
 The Serviceability Limit State is concerned with
operational conditions. (Servis Yüklemesi
kullanım koşullarında)These relate specifically
Structural Modelling and Design
to deflections and crack control, and EC4
provides guidance for controlling both
 EC4 is structured on the basis of element type;
detailed procedures for the design of beams,
columns and slabs are given in separate

Scope of the lecture Structural modelling

65 66

In order to overcome this difficulty:

– The slab is assumed to span in a principal direction and is designed
 Structural modelling accordingly.
– The three-dimensional framework is then reduced to plane frames
which are studied independently each from the other.
– In order to enable such a “dissociation” into plane frames, the concept
 The design process of effective width for the composite slabs is introduced.

Sonuç olarak, kompozit kiriş çelik profil ve etkili

 Generalities about design requirements döşeme tablasından oluşur ve birbirine kayma
for main structural elements birleşim elemanları ile bağlanır.
Structural modelling Structural modelling
67 68

Effective width of slab Simple and safe recommendations in Eurocode 4:

« Shear lag » effects induce non uniform stress beff = be1 + be2
distribution in the slab
with bei = min ( Lo/8; bi )
⇒ concept of “effective width” beff where Lo is the distance measured between consecutive
points of contraflexure in the bending moment diagram
b e1 b e2 L0 = 0,25(L 1+ L2 ) 0,25(L 2 + L 3 ) 1,5L4 but < L4+0,5L3 )

b1 b1 b2 L0 = 0,8L1 0,7L2 0,8L 3 - 0,3L4

but > 0,7L3
(continued) L1 L2 L3 L4

Structural modelling Structural modelling

69 70

Equivalent modular ratio n The transformed section

Actual composite beam cross-section replaced by an
equivalent steel section for elastic calculations.

Use of an « equivalent modular ratio n »

n= a
Ea is the elastic modulus for steel
E’c is an elastic « effective »modulus for concrete


Structural modelling Structural modelling

71 72

Elastic strains and stresses in the composite section The E’c value is influenced by:
– the concrete grade
– the concrete age,
– the short-term or long-term character of the loading

⇒Effects of creep, shrinkage, …

Values of E’c ond of the modular ratio n are

given in the next slide.

(continued) (continued)
Analysis for ultimate limit states Design requirements
73 74

 Rough values of E’c for evaluation of n  Design requirements at SLS

– E’c = Ecm for short-term effects
– Control of:
– E’c = Ecm / 3 for long-term effects
 the transverse displacements of the composite
Strength class 20/25 25/30 30/37 35/45 40/50 45/55 50/60  the cracking of the concrete
of concrete
 the beam vibrations, especially for large span
Ecm (kN/mm2) 29 30,5 32 33,5 35 36 37


Design requirements Design requirements

75 76

– Specific design checks for composite beams

 Resistance of critical sections defined as the points of :
 Design requirements at ULS
 maximum bending moment (section I-I)

 maximum shear (section II-II at external supports)

– Verification of the joint resistance  high combined bending moment and shear (sections III-III)

– Verification of the slab resistance  sudden change of section and/or mechanical properties

– Verification of the column stability and resistance

– Verification of the composite beams
(specific design checks listed on next slides) II I III III

II I III III (continued)

Design requirements Structural Steelwork Eurocodes

77 78

– Specific design checks for composite beams

 The strength of the longitudinal shear connection (line IV-IV)

 The longitudinal shear strength of the transversally reinforced
Composite Slabs
concrete slab (line V-V and VI-VI)
 The resistance to lateral-torsional buckling under negative bending
moments, with lateral displacement of the bottom flange of the
steel section (buckledP position VII)
Profiled Steel Sheeting


splice VII
Composite slabs Advantages of composite slabs
79 80

• One way spanning

• hızlı ve basit inşaat
• aşağı katta çalışan işçileri koruyan güvenli
• Typical span 3.5 m
çalışma platformu
• Span onto composite secondary • betonarme döşemeden daha hafif
• Genellikle hafif beton ile kullanılır
• Secondary beams span onto primary
- Zati ağırlığı azaltmak için
• fabrikada prefabrik hazırlanabilen döşeme
• Rectangular grids
saçları ve kirişleri
• Slab unsupported during construction - küçük toleranslarla bile çalışılabilir.

Composite slabs comprise of Profiled decking types

81 82

• steel decking Numerous types with different:

in-situ concrete slab • shapes
• reinforcement • depth and distance between ribs
Support beam

• cast in situ concrete • width, lateral covering,

reinforcement • plane stiffeners
After concrete has • mechanical connections
Support beam
hardened: Thickness : 0,75mm  1,5mm
After construction: Depth : 40mm  80mm
behaves as a composite
steel-concrete structural • profiled steel sheet Galvanized on both faces
element Cold formed
• upper concrete topping Cold forming causes strain
Profiled steel designed to interconnected so that horizontal (pekleşme) hardening and
act as both permanent shear forces can be transferred increase in yield
formwork during concreting at the steel-concrete interface. S235  300 N/mm2
and tension reinforcement

Reinforcement in the slab

Steel to concrete connection
83 84

• Adhesion not sufficient to bo

create composite action in

Provided for:
hc hc

the slab hp
• Load distribution of line or
point loads
re-entrant trough profile Open trough profile

Efficient connection made by: • Local reinforcement of slab

• Mechanical anchorage from openings
local deformations • Fire resistance
• Decking shape - re-entrant • Upper reinforcement in
( a ) mechanical anchorage ( c ) end anchorage
trough profile hogging moment area
• End anchorage provided by • Control cracking due to Mesh reinforcement
welded studs shrinkage placed at the top of the
• End anchorage by ( b ) frictional interlock ( d ) end anchorage by deformation
profiled decking ribs.
deformation of the ribs at
the end of the sheeting.
Design requirements
Composite slab behaviour
85 86

Overall depth h, > 80 mm. • The nominal size of Perfect connection P P


Thickness hc of concrete aggregate should not between the concrete


over decking > 40mm exceed the least of: and steel sheet -

0,40 hc or bo/3 or 31,5 mm complete interaction. ht

If the slab acts compositely • Composite slabs require a Ls =

4 Ls =

with a beam, or is used as minimum bearing of Relative longitudinal


a diaphragm 75mm for steel or displacement between load P P P

total depth h > 90mm concrete and 100mm for steel sheet and adjacent δ

concrete thickness hc > other materials. concrete- incomplete

u P u : complete interaction

P u : partial interaction

50mm bo bo interaction.
P u : no interaction
hc hc P
h h First crack load
hp hp
deflection δ
b b
b b

re-entrant trough profile Open trough profile

Composite slab stiffness Three types of behaviour

87 88

After first cracking,

load P P P
Complete interaction: load P P P

δ δ
frictional and mechanical P
u P u : complete interaction P
u P u : complete interaction

interaction begin to P u : partial interaction • No global slip at the P u : partial interaction

develop as the first steel-concrete interface

P u : no interaction P u : no interaction

micro-slips occur. P
exists P
First crack load First crack load

deflection δ
• Failure can be brittle or 0
deflection δ

Partial interaction:
From 0 to Pf , the physical-
chemical phenomena Zero interaction:
• Global slip not zero but limited
account for most of the Stiffness depends on the • Shear force transfer partial and
initial interaction between effectiveness of the • Global slip at the steel-
concrete interface is not the ultimate lies between the
the steel and concrete. connection type. ultimate loads of the previous
limited and there is almost
no transfer of shear force. cases.
• Failure can be brittle or ductile.

Composite slab stiffness Composite slab collapse modes

89 90

Failure type I
• Represented by the first part of the P-δ curve
• Stiffness highest for complete interaction applied moment exceeds Mpl.Rd
• Three types of link between steel and concrete:
1. Physical-chemical link: generally the critical mode for moderate to high
always low but exists for all profiles spans with a high degree of interaction
2. Friction link: between the steel and concrete.
develops as soon as micro slips appear
3. Mechanical anchorage link: II
acts after the first slip
depends on the steel-concrete interface shape.
Shear span Ls
Composite slab collapse modes Composite slab collapse modes
91 92

Failure type II Failure type III

ultimate load resistance is governed applied vertical shear exceeds shear

by the steel concrete interface. resistance.
happens in section II along the shear span Ls. This is only likely to be critical for deep slabs
over short spans and subject to heavy loads



Shear span Ls Shear span Ls

Brittle or ductile failure? Design conditions

93 94

• Depends on
characteristics of the steel- Two design conditions should to be
concrete interface. Load P
Ductile behaviour
During construction In service
• Slabs with open trough
steel sheet acts as concrete and steel combine to
profiles experience a more shuttering
Brittle behaviour form a single composite unit
brittle behaviour
deflection δ
• Slabs with re-entrant
trough profiles tend to
Shear connectors
exhibit more ductile between beam and
Decking producers ameliorate slab influence the
brittle behaviour with various failure mode.
mechanical means – embossments,
indentations, dovetails

Construction condition Design (construction) at the ULS

95 96

• Steel deck must resist weight of wet concrete • Weight of concrete and steel deck
• Construction loads
and the construction loads - weight of the operatives and concreting plant
• Deck may be propped temporarily during • ‘Ponding' effect
- increased depth of concrete due to deflection
• Storage load (if any)
• Preferable if no propping is used
! Minimum values are
• Verification at ULS and SLS should be in (b) (a) (c) (b) (b) (a) (c) (b)
not necessarily
accordance with part 1.3 of Eurocode 3 sufficient for excessive
• Effects of embossments or indentations on 3000 3000 impact or heaping
Moment in mid-span moment over support concrete, or pipeline or
the design resistances should be considered (a) Concentration of construction loads 1,5 kN / m²
pumping loads
(b) Distributed construction load 0,75 kN / m²
(c) Self weight
Deflection Composite slab design checks
97 98

Under self weight + the weight of wet concrete, Loads to be considered are the following :
but excluding construction loads 1. Self-weight of the slab (profiled sheeting and
δ < L/180
2. Other permanent self-weight loads (not load
If δ < 1/10 of the slab depth carrying elements)
- ponding effect may be ignored 3. Reactions due to the removal of the possible
Allow for ponding by assuming in design
4. Live loads
- nominal thickness of the concrete is 5. Creeping, shrinkage and settlement
increased over the whole span by 0,7δ. 6. Climatic actions (temperature, wind...).
For typical buildings, temperature variations are
generally not considered.

Serviceability limit state Deflections

99 100

Recommended limiting values

• L/250 permanent + variable long duration loads
1. Deflections
2. Slip between the concrete slab and the • L/300 variable long duration loads
decking at the end of the slab called end slip • L/350 if composite slab supports brittle elements
3. Concrete cracking Deflection of the sheeting due to its own weight and
the wet concrete need not be included

Summary Summary
101 102

• Composite slabs are widely used in steel framed

buildings • Performance of a composite slab is
• Steel deck acts as dependent on the effectiveness of the shear
- shuttering during construction connection between the concrete and steel
- steel reinforcement for the concrete slab. sheeting.
• Design of composite slabs requires
• Longitudinal shear resistance may be
consideration of two conditions
assessed by:
1. steel deck as a relatively thin bare steel
1. A semi-empirical design method (m-k)
section supporting wet concrete and
construction operatives 2. Partial interaction theory
2. as a composite structural element in service


Dr. Kağan YEMEZ

Next…Shear Connectors and Structural Analysis