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Introduction 1.1 Learning of Attitudes

How do people, especially young students like you, form your By formation of attitude, we mean a situation, where there is a
initial general attitudes toward “things”? Consider your attitude shift from having no attitude towards a given object to having
toward clothing you wear such as casual wear, and formal wear. some attitude toward it. This shift from no attitude to an
On a more specific level, how do you form attitudes toward attitude or the formation of attitude is a result of learning.
Woodlands, or Will life style, or Lee casual wear, or Allen Solly Attitudes are generally formed through:
formal clothing? Also, what about where such clothing is
• Repeated exposure to novel social objects,
purchased? Would you buy your casual wear, and formal
clothing at Shopper’s Stop, Lifestyle, or The Metropolitan? How • Classical conditioning,
do family members and friends, celebrities admired by you, • Operant conditioning and
advertisements, influence the formation of you attitudes • Exposure to live and symbolic models.
concerning consuming or not consuming each of these types of
Consumers generally purchase new products that are associated
apparel items? Why do some attitudes seem to persist indefi-
with a favorably viewed brand name. Their favorable attitude
nitely, while others change very often? The answer to all these
toward the brand name is frequently the result of repeated
questions are of great importance to marketers, since without
satisfaction with other products produced by the same com-
knowing how attitudes are formed, they are unable to under-
pany. In terms of classical conditioning, an established brand
stand or to influence consumer attitudes or behaviour.
name is an unconditioned stimulus that has resulted in a favorable
The above is also true of attitude change, i.e., attitude changes brand attitude through past positive reinforcement. A new
are learned; they are influenced by personal experience and other product, which is yet to be linked to the established brand,
sources of information, and personality affects both the would be the conditioned impulse. For example, by giving a new
receptivity and the speed with which attitudes are likely to be anti-wrinkle lotion the benefit of its well-known and respected
altered. family name, Johnson & Johnson may be counting on an
Objectives extension of the favorable attitude already associated with the
After completing this lesson you should be able to: brand name to the new product. They are counting on stimulus
generalization from the brand name to the new product. It has
• Understand the concept of formation of attitudes
been shown by research that the “fit” between a parent brand
• Identify the circumstances and reasons for attitude changes like in the case of J&J and a brand extension, for instance, J&J’s
• Formulate strategies for changing attitudes anti-wrinkle, is a function of two factors: (1) the similarity
1. How are attitudes formed? between the pre-existing product categories already associated
We examine attitude formation by dividing into three areas: with the parent brand and the new extension, and (2) the “fit”
how attitudes are learned, the sources of influence on attitude or match between the images of the parent brand and the new
formation, and the impact of personality on attitude forma- extension.
tion. At times, attitudes follow the purchase and consumption of a
1. How attitudes are learned: product. For example, a consumer may purchase a brand-name
product without having a prior attitude towards it, because it is
1) The shift from having no attitude toward a given the only product available like the last bottle of shampoo in a
object to having an attitude is learned. The learning hotel store). Consumers sometimes make trial purchases of
may come from information exposure, consumers’ new brands from product categories in which they have little
own cognition (knowledge or belief), or experience. personal involvement. If they find the purchased brand to be
2) Consumers may form an attitude before or after a satisfactory, then they are likely to develop a favorable attitude
purchase. toward it.
2. Sources of influence on attitude formation: personal Life is too complicated to predict what attitudes will persist and
experience, friends and family, direct marketing, or mass which will change but early socialization experiences do shape
media. attitudes.
3. Personality factors: such as high/low need for cognition
(information seeking), and social status consciousness 1.2 Sources of Influence on Attitude Formation
The formation of consumer attitudes is strongly influenced by
personal experience, the influence of family and friends,
direct marketing, and mass media. Attitudes towards goods
and services are primarily formed through the consumer’s direct

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Activity 1 2. Has your initial attitude changed since the course started?

1. What sources influenced you attitude about this course If so, how?
before classes started?

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1.3 Personality Factors 2. Attitude Change and Persuasion

We know that the personality of each individual is different and
it plays a very crucial role in formation of attitude. Say for Activity 3
example, if you have a high need for cognition, i.e., you crave A. Using the Internet, find two advertisements that are trying
for information and enjoy thinking. Then you are likely to form to persuade you. Try to find an advertisement that is trying
a positive attitude in response to ads or direct mail that are rich to persuade you to buy something and one that is trying to
in product related information. On the other hand, your friend persuade you to do something (e.g., vote for someone,
Ravi, who is relatively low in need for cognition, is more likely donate money to something).
to form positive attitudes in response to ads that feature an
attractive model or well-known celebrity.
Activity 2
Describe a situation in which you acquired an attitude toward a
new product through exposure to an advertisement for that
product. Describe a situation where you formed an attitude
toward a product or brand on the basis of personal influence.

B. Determine what processing route the ads are trying to use

and how effective it might be. Also try to generate some
ideas about how a consumer could resist the
advertisement’s persuasive tactics.

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C. You will be asked to share your ads, your analysis of the 3. Strategies of Attitude Change

processing route the ad is trying to use, and your ideas Bringing about a change in the consumer attitudes is a very
about how a consumer could resist the ad’s persuasive important strategic consideration for us marketing people.
tactics with the rest of the class. When the product or brand is the market leader, the marketers
will work at ensuring that their customers continue to patronize
their product with the existing positive attitude. Such firms also
have to ensure that their existing loyal customers do not
succumb to their competitor’s attitude change ploys.
But it is the firm whose is not the brand leader, which tries to
adopt marketing strategies so as to change the attitudes of the
market leaders, customers and win them over. Among the
attitude change strategies that are available to them are:
1. Changing the consumer’s basic motivational function
2. Associating the product with an admired group or event
3. Resolving two conflicting attitudes
4. Altering components of the Multiattribute model, and
5. Changing consumer beliefs about competitor’s brands.
Now let us look at each of these strategies in greater details.

1. Changing the basic motivational function:

This strategy calls for changing consumer attitudes towards a
product or brand by making a new need prominent. One such
method changing motivation is called the functional approach. As
per this approach, attitudes can be classified in terms of four
functions, viz:
1. The utilitarian function
2. The ego defensive function
3. The value - expressive function
4. The Knowledge function.
The utilitarian function: A consumer develops a brand
attitude because of its utility. In other words; we develop a
favorable altitude towards a product because of its utility
So marketers try to change consumer attitudes in favor of their
products or brand by highlighting its utilitarian purpose, which
they (the competitors consumers;) may not have considered.
For example, Jyothi Laboratories have positioned’ Ujala’ as “Neel
jo Neela nahi’” (Neel which is not blue) and also the cost
benefit (only Rs 7) is given as the utilitarian benefit;
Ego defensive function: Most individuals want to protect
their self-image. They want re-assurance about their self-image
from inner feelings or doubts. Firms marketing personal care
and cosmetics try to appeal to this need and develop a favorable
attitude change towards their products or brands by communi-
cating a re-assurance to the consumers self concept. Say For
instance, ‘Dove soap speaks about the skin’s dryness which is
taken care by the moisturizing content in the Dove Soap or Life
buoy Gold soap talks of the teenager’s concern about pimples, and
the mother states that “there is nothing you can .do about it”
and reassures by stating ‘you can take care by using Life buoy
Gold soap”. Such advertisements show understanding and
reassurance to the potential customers.
The value expressive function: A. consumer develops an
attitude based on his general value, life style and outlook. If

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the target consumers hold a positive attitude towards being referring to Saffola’s product benefit-”There are many things in

fashionable, then they will have a positive attitude towards high your husband’s life that you cannot control. Saffola: it’s your life
fashion clothes e.g. Van Hussen, Louis Phillip etc., insurance”- struck up an immediate association with safety and
The advertisement for Yamaha RXG motorcycle is targeted at relief.
young people who are outgoing and prefer a powerful bike. The 4. Altering components of the Multiattribute model
ad claims “ Man, machine and nature in perfect harmony. Breathtak- In the earlier lesson we discussed a number of Multiattribute
ing power, unbeatable performance”. models, which have implication for attitude change strategies.
The knowledge function: Human nature is such that indi- To be more precise, these models provide us with additional
viduals prefer to know and understand the people and things insights as to how to bring about attitudinal change:
they are in contact. While product positioning, marketers try to (1). Changing the relative evaluation of attributes
do this and improve the consumers attitude towards their (2) Changing brand beliefs
product or brand by highlighting its benefits over competing
brands. For instance, in a highly competitive market, Ora1-B (3) Adding an attribute, and
toothbrush emphasizes on its ‘indicator’ which will tell the users (4) Changing the overall brand rating
the time when they are required to change the toothbrush. (1) Changing the relative evaluation of attributes
Combining several functions: Since different consumers may Consumer markets can be segmented in the same product
have developed positive or negative attitude towards the same category according to brands that offer different features or
product or service, firms could use a functional frame work for beliefs. For example, Moov, a balm to relieve pain in the back and
examining the consumer attitudes. For instance, Asian paints Iodex to relive pain due to any inflammation or swelling like
have highlighted the usage of their paints to harmonise the sprain etc. another example we could take in this case is when
home coming of the son on the festival day, when the house marketers persuade consumers who prefer one version of the
has been colorfully re-painted with Asian paints. This ad talks product say a professional 35mm camera “Yashika” to shift
of many functions - it highlights that -the product works well their attitudes to another version of the product say ‘ an
(has many colour combinations) (the utilitarian functions), the automatic ready to point and shoot camera”-”Konika”.
second is the inner joy and confidence (because a proper
(2) Changing brand beliefs
welcome can be accorded to the son coming home with the
This calls for changing attitudes of consumers by changing
various colourpaints giving the house a new look) (value
beliefs or perceptions about the brand itself. For example, P &
expression function)
G’s Ariel Microshine detergent claims that this detergent is a
tough cleaner, powerful stain remover, easy to use, unlike the
2. Associating the product with an admired group
other detergents, which only whiten the clothes.
or event
At times attitudes come to be attached to certain groups, social (3) Adding an attribute
events or causes. So marketers could try strategies whereby their This means either adding an attitude that previously has been
product or service comes to be associated with certain events, ignored or one that represents an improvement or technological
social groups or causes. For example, ‘Titan Cup’ is associated innovation. For instance, Initially Bournvita was positioned as
with cricket. Through sponsorship of the deep purple and Bon a superior product to milk i.e., a health builder. Now
Jovi concerts, BPL has established a positive attitude in Bournvita’s advertisement claims it as necessary product or
consumer mind. “Nobody entertains you like BPL” or Godrej health builder containing vital calcium, vitamins and carbohy-
positions itself with positive beauty pageants. CRY greetings drates that is a must for growing children.
cards is associated with a cause, all contributions go to the (4) Changing the overall brand rating
UNESEF. Altering the consumers overall assessment of the brand directly
without attempting to improve or change their evaluation of a
3. Resolving two conflicting attitudes single brand attribute. Usually this strategy is used by using
Marketers also try to take advantage of actual or potential some form of global statement like “ this is the largest selling
conflict between attitudes. At times firms make consumers see brand”. For example, the advertisement of “westar” dual time
that their attitudes towards a brand is in conflict with another watches, from Westar) the world on your watch).
attitude, and then they maybe inclined to change their evalua-
tion of the brand. For example, your mother may be choosing (5)Changing consumer beliefs about competitor’s
a cooking medium, which adds to the taste. And this attitude brands
exists right from the ‘Dalda’ days. However, Marico industries Usually it is seen that the attitude change agent is a well-
created a heart stopping commercial for its ‘Saffola’ cooking oil respected agent authority or peer group. Because the amount of
to resolve the conflicting attitude that ‘Saffola’ oil though attitude change is related to the credibility of the source of the
healthy oil is not particularly tasty one. The advertisements of message. The major purpose of changing attitudes is to
‘Saffola’ was shown in a series of shots, depicting a middle aged eventually change consumer behavior. Thus an understanding
man being rushed to hospital and wheeled into the operation of consumer attitudes towards their product will enable the
room and he suffers a heart attack, while his panic stricken wife marketer to adopt suitable strategies and create a positive image
waits fearfully, drove the message. And there was a voice over or attitude for that matter of their products in the minds of the

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Behavior Can Precede or Follow Attitude For this reason, it is crucial that marketers offer uniformly high-

Formation quality products that allow consumers to perceive themselves as

the reason for the success; that is, “I am competent.”
Cognitive Dissonance Theory Foot-in-the-door technique—the foot-in-the-door technique,
According to cognitive dissonance theory, discomfort or is based on the premise that individuals look at their prior
dissonance occurs when a consumer holds confusing thoughts behavior (e.g., compliance with a minor request) and conclude
about a belief or an attitude object (either before or after the that they are the kind of person who says “Yes” to such
purchase). requests (i.e., an internal attribution).
Postpurchase dissonance occurs after the purchase. Such self-attribution serves to increase the likelihood that they
The consumer is not happy with the purchase—so they will agree to a similar, more substantial request.
adjust their attitudes to conform to their behavior. It appears that different size incentives create different degrees
Postpurchase dissonance is quite normal. of internal attribution that, in turn, lead to different amounts
Attitude change is frequently an outcome of an action or of attitude change.
behavior. It is not the biggest incentive that is most likely to lead to
Dissonance propels consumers to reduce the unpleasant positive attitude change.
feelings created by the rival thoughts. What seems most effective is a moderate incentive, one that is
Tactics that consumers can use to reduce dissonance just big enough to stimulate initial purchase of the brand but
include reduction: still small enough to encourage consumers to internalise their
positive usage experience and allow a positive attitude change to
By rationalizing the decision as being wise.
By seeking out advertisements that support the original
reason for choosing the product. Attributions Toward Others
Every time you ask “Why?” about a statement or action of
By trying to “sell” friends on the positive features of the
another or “others”—a family member, a friend, a salesperson,
a direct marketer, a shipping company— attribution toward
By looking to known satisfied owners for reassurance. others theory is relevant.
Marketers can help reduce postpurchase uncertainty by aiming Attributions Toward Things
specific messages at reinforcing consumer decisions. It is in the area of judging product performance that consumers
Beyond these dissonance-reducing tactics, marketers increasingly are most likely to form product attributions toward things.
are developing affinity or relationship programs designed to Specifically, they want to find out why a product meets or does
reward good customers and to build customer loyalty and not meet their expectations.
In this regard, they could attribute the product’s successful
Attribution Theory performance (or failure) to the product itself, to themselves, to
What does attribution theory say about attitude? other people or situations, or to some combination of these
Attribution theory attempts to explain how people assign
causality to events on the basis of either their own behavior or How We Test Our Attributions
the behavior of others. We as Individuals acquire conviction about particular observa-
tions by acting like “naive scientists,” that is, by collecting
Self-Perception Theory additional information in an attempt to confirm (or discon-
Self-perception theory addresses individuals’ inferences or firm) prior inferences.
judgments as to the cause of their own behavior.
In collecting such information, we often use the following:
In terms of consumer behavior, self-perception theory suggests
that attitudes develop as consumers look at and make judgments Distinctiveness—The consumer attributes an action to a
about their own behavior. particular product or person if the action occurs when the
product (or person) is present and does not occur in its absence.
Internal and external attributions—attitudes develop as
consumers look at and make judgments about their own Consistency over time—Whenever the person or product is
behavior. These judgments can be divided into internal, present, the consumer’s inference or reaction must be the same,
external, and defensive attributions. or nearly so.

Internal attribution—giving yourself credit for the outcomes— Consistency over modality—The inference or reaction must
your ability, your skill, or your effort. be the same, even when the situation in which it occurs varies.

External attribution—the purchase was good because of factors Consensus—The action is perceived in the same way by other
beyond your control—luck, etc. consumers.

Defensive attribution—consumers are likely to accept credit

personally for success, and to credit failure to others or to
outside events.

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Activity 4 7. Consumers who have a high need for cognition are those

Tick on the correct choice who:
1. Attitudes are formed by learning. In terms of classical a. are passive.
conditioning, Oil of Olay, the well established brand, was b. crave information and enjoy thinking.
using the brand strength as the unconditioned stimulus to c. desire the best quality in the products they choose.
introduce Oil of Olay body wash. The unconditioned
d. look for the best value for the money.
stimulus was used to link the new brand to the established
name, resulting in a favorable attitude. The company is
hoping for _____ from the brand name to the new 8. The following type of company is most likely to go after
product. an attitude change market strategy:
a. stimulus recognition a. the industry leader
b. stimulus generalization b. major competitor of the leader
c. attitude expansion c. small start-up business
d. attitude stability d. all of the above

2. Attitudes are formed: 9. Which of the following is one of the attitude change
a. before using the product. strategies that marketers follow?
b. after using the product. a. associating the product with an admired group or
c. when hearing about the product.
b. resolving two conflicting attitudes
d. all of the above
c. changing consumer beliefs about competitor brands
d. all of the above
3. The formation of attitudes is strongly influenced by all the
following except:
a. personal experience. 10. An effective attitude change strategy is changing the basic
motivational function. According to this approach,
b. influence of family and friends.
attitudes can be formed into four functions; which of the
c. mass media. following is not one of them?
d. how long the product has been on the market. a. utilitarian
b. ego-defensive
4. The primary means by which consumers form their c. knowledge
attitudes is through _____.
d. personal experience
a. consumer reports
b. family influences
11. One of the strategies for changing consumer attitudes is
c. personal experience changing the basic motivational function using four
d. direct marketing different functions. Ads for cosmetics and personal care
products acknowledge the fact that people want to protect
their self-images from inner feelings of doubt. This is
5. Direct marketing efforts have an excellent chance of
consistent with which basic motivational functions?
favorably influencing target consumer’s attitudes because:
a. ego-defensive
a. direct marketing is favorably looked upon.
b. knowledge
b. the mass scale of direct marketing makes it a dominant
player. c. utilitarian
c. because the products and services offered are highly d. value-expressive
targeted to the individuals’ needs and concerns.
d. Internet advertising is too cluttered.

6. The closest thing to direct experience influencing attitude

formation is:
a. magazines and newspaper ads.
b. TV commercials.
c. the Internet.
d. direct marketing.

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12. One of the strategies for changing consumer attitudes is Key Terms

changing the basic motivational function using four • The Utilitarian Function
different functions. An example of the _____ function is
• The ego defensive function
for Crest to point out how its new toothbrush is superior
to all other toothbrushes in controlling gum disease by • The value expressive function
removing more plaque. • The knowledge function
a. ego-defensive • Brand beliefs
b. knowledge Article # 1
c. utilitarian Horlicks In A New Avatar
d. value-expressive From a boring nutritional drink, GSK is trying to
position Horlicks as ‘pleasurable nourishment’, by
13. One of the strategies for changing consumer attitudes is launching it in vanilla, chocolate and honey variants.
changing the basic motivational function using four Sucheta Govil, General Manager, Marketing, Nutritional
different functions. An example of the _____ function is Healthcare and Anindya Dasgupta, Marketing Manager, GSK.
for Celestial Seasons to point out that Green Tea is loaded
with antioxidants, which are good for you.
a. ego-defensive
b. knowledge
c. utilitarian
d. value-expressive

14. When marketers try to persuade regular tea drinkers to

“cross over” to becoming herbal tea drinkers, the company
must utilize a strategy that:
a. changes the relative evaluation of attributes.
b. changes brand beliefs.
c. informs consumers that it has added an attribute.
d. changes the overall rating of a brand.

15. When HP challenges the notion that computers do not

have to be difficult to use by stating that their product “is
as simple as duh,” it is altering a component of the
multiattribute model to change attitudes; which strategy is
it using?
a. changing the relative evaluation of attributes
b. changing brand beliefs
c. adding an attribute
d. changing the overall brand rating

16. “The largest selling brand” and “the one all others try to Child: “Horlicks is an old person’s drink and I drink it only because
imitate” are claims used by companies trying to change mama forces me to do so.”
attitudes by using the following strategy: Mother: “My kids drink whatever they feel like, and I wish they
a. changing the relative evaluation of attributes would ask for Horlicks.”
b. changing brand beliefs GLAXO SMITHKLINE’S (GSK) consumer research findings
clearly pointed out that the Horlicks users wanted a change.
c. adding an attribute
They wanted a more spirited and happening drink in interesting
d. changing the overall brand rating flavours, instead of a drab nourishment drink. The 130-year-
old Horlicks was beginning to lose its sheen and with its
growth being flat in the last one year, GSK felt that it was time
to give its Rs 800-crore brand a facelift.
The company recently re-launched Horlicks in three new variants
— vanilla, honey and chocolate — apart from the regular malt.

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152 11.623.3
The new Horlicks formulation is also accompanied by contem- the product.” He says that 70 per cent of the media spend on

porary packaging in hues of bright blue and orange. “We the brand would be in the second half of the year.
wanted to contemporarise Horlicks and make it more relevant. Apart from the new TVC, Daspupta elaborates that the
The brand had begun to look dated and was losing its signifi- company was also going to launch a school contact programme,
cance,” says Sucheta Govil, General Manager, Marketing, which would reach around three lakh school students. Also on
Nutritional Healthcare, and GSK Consumer Healthcare. “We the cards is Activity 2003, a talent hunt programme, targeting
ourselves participated in the research exercise and literally peeped 1.5 million students, across 3,000 schools in eight cities. The
into the kitchen shelves to find out what the consumers were finals of Activity 2003 will be conducted in Bangalore.
looking for, as the expected growth was not happening for
Expressing his views on Horlicks’ new strategy of addressing
Horlicks.” Govil says that the new Horlicks, whose focus is on
kids instead of mothers, Jagdeep Kapoor, Managing Director,
flavours, with its nutritional constituents remaining the same, is
Samsika Marketing Consultancy, says, “Horlicks has always has
the tastiest ever Horlicks. “In fact, Chocolate Horlicks has been
been a mother and child brand and the reason why it has always
rated as the best chocolate drink in milk in the blind consumer
worked so well is because the child relished the taste, and the
mother liked the nutritional values of the product. Therefore,
While Tata Elxsi has designed the product packaging, J. Walter the company should never ignore the mother and only focus on
Thomson has done the pack designing. “We had 12 design the child. The mother is like a gatekeeper, who allows the entry
concepts from JWT India and Badge Consulting, UK, and of the product into the house because of its nutrition values.
finally decided on a JWT design,” says Govil. She claims that The child is only the user.”
the consumer research findings show the new avatar of Horlicks
Kapoor says that the new packaging and the new flavours are
has the highest shelf appeal and maximum visibility.
no doubt exciting, but the company at no point of time should
let the credibility of the brand suffer by positioning it as a kids’
brand. “They should instead contemporarise the brand by
getting a contemporary mother to endorse the brand,” he says.
Concurs an analyst with a leading brokerage, “Horlicks has
always been considered a convalescent brand and a brand
primarily for the elders. By focusing just on children, the brand
is at risk of losing its existing target audience.”
The Horlicks re-launch follows the re-launch of Boost, which
comes under the brown malted drink category. It was re-
launched by GSK late last year with ‘power boosters’, which
include copper and Biotin. The new formulation was also
accompanied with a brand new packaging. Dasgupta says that
post the re-launch, Boost has grown by 11 per cent in the
malted brown drink category and is the leader of the category
Apart from the new flavours and attractive packaging, the brand
with a 14.2 per cent market share.
has also made a complete turnaround as far as its positioning is
concerned. The brand, which used to previously address The white malted category comprises 60 per cent of the overall
mothers, will now address the kids. Says Govil, “Our consumer Rs 1,200-crore HFD market, and Horlicks, along with Junior
research exercise pointed out that pester power played a major Horlicks, is the market leader with a 57 per cent market share.
role in buying decisions. From a HFD product like ours to While 45 per cent of the brand’s sales come from the South,
white-goods such as a computer or a TV, the children play a especially Tamil Nadu, 49 per cent of its sales is from the East,
major role at the entry level of any product.” while the rest is from the North and West put together.
Apart from this, the attitude of the mothers, says Govil, has With this re-launch, Govil hopes that the brand would grow
also changed. “The mothers today are no longer epitomes of this year in the range of 10 to12 percent, and position the brand
patience who would do anything to get their children to have as a pleasurable nutrition experience especially for the children.
healthy and nutritious food. Today’s mothers prefer to give Therefore no more pestering by mums and the kids can have an
their children what they like instead of wasting time and energy option between chocolate, vanilla and honey!
to force their children to have a health drink or a health food.”
The company’s communication strategy, therefore, focuses on
children who have an attitude - an attitude, which is positive,
livewire and spirited. This has been projected in its TVC, which
will be aired across all channels and would also be backed by an
extensive print and outdoor campaign.
Says Anindya Dasgupta, Marketing Manager, GSK, “While the
first phase of the campaign would talk about the re-launch of
Horlicks, the second phase will talk about the new features of

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Points To Remember

Four Basic Attitude Functions

Issues in Attitude Formation
n The Utilitarian Function
n How attitudes are learned n The Ego-defensive
n Sources of influence on attitude Function
formation n The Value-expressive
n Personality factors Function
n The Knowledge

Strategies of Attitude Change

A theory that suggests
n Changing the Basic Motivational Function that a person’s level
n Associating the Product With an Admired Elaboration of involvement during
Group or Event Likelihood message processing is
n Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes Model a critical factor in
n Altering Components of the Multiattribute (ELM)
(ELM) determining which
Model route to persuasion is
n Changing Beliefs About Competitors’ Brands likely to be effective.

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Why Might Behavior Precede Cognitive dissonance
Attitude Formation? that occurs after a
consumer has made a
n Cognitive Dissonance purchase
Behave (Purchase)
Theory commitment.
n Attribution Theory
Consumers resolve
this dissonance
through a variety of
strategies designed to
Form Attitude Form
Form Attitude
confirm the wisdom
of their choice.

A theory concerned
Holds that discomfort or with how people assign
dissonance occurs when casualty to events and
a consumer holds Attribution form or alter their
conflicting thoughts Theory attitudes as an outcome
about a belief or an of assessing their own
attitude object. or other people’s

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Issues in Attribution Theory A theory that suggests

consumers are likely
n Self-perception Theory to accept credit for
– Foot-In-The-Door Technique successful outcomes
n Attributions Toward Others Defensive
(internal attribution)
n Attributions Toward Things and to blame other
n How We Test Our Attributions persons or products for
failure (external

Criteria for Causal Attributions

A theory that suggests n Distinctiveness

Self- that consumers n Consistency Over Time
Perception develop attitudes by n Consistency Over Modality
Theory reflecting on their own n Consensus

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