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Organizing regions can disorganize the physiology

Introduction
Oral leukoplakia a premalignant lesion may be showing dysplastic features, has malignant transformation rates of 3-6% , so it is important to diagnose the dysplastic features in early stage to minimize the malignant transformation rates & development of oral s uamous cell carcinoma!

"ucleolar organizer regions, or "O#s, is the regions formed by chromosomal fragments around which the nucleoli are formed at the final stage of mitosis! "uclear organizer regions has a key role in protein synthesis, & since they have affinity with silver, they were named $g"O#s! %he numbers of $g"O#s in nuclei may reflect their state of activation or proliferation, and malignant potential!

Aims & objectives


%he aim of the study is to evaluate the $gnor activity in leukoplakia &premalignancy' & oral s uamous cell carcinoma patients! (orrelate them in diagnosing features of oral leukoplakia & s uamous cell carcinoma!

Material & methods


) leukoplakia &* oral s uamous cell carcinoma samples were taken & + normal cases were considered as controls! $g"O#,s stained by -laton,s method! %he brown.black dots were counted & the clumped dots were considered to be a single dot! %he number of dots was counted in /00 cells and the average was taken for each case!

Results -

No. o cases + "ormal controls ) oral leukoplakia No. o cases + "ormal controls * O5((

Mean ! "# 1!36 2 0!/33 3!16 2 0!+* Mean ! "# 1!36 2 0!/33 //!33 2 /!33

p values 40!00/

p values 4 0!00/

No. o Mean ! cases "# ) oral 3!16 2 leukoplakia 0!+* * O5(( //!33 2 /!33 No. o cases 1 6ell differentiated O5(( + 7oderately differentiated O5((

p values 4 0!00/

Mean ! "# /0!3/

p values

40!0+
//!*/

#iscussion $
8! 8o 7uzio &/99*' also showed significant increase in $g"O# count! -adovan et al &1000' showed statistically significant increase in $g"O# count in s uamous cell carcinoma patients! $ccording to "! :uler &100+' $g"O# count was found to be a strong proliferation marker $ccording to ; 7anu &1006' $g"O# stain is of value in giving an idea about the tumour aggressiveness! <n our study significantly increasing $g"O# count was found from leukoplakia to O5((, no significant grading difference was seen! %herefore the $g"O# method can be used to provide information on the malignant potentiality in premalignant lesions and aggressiveness of the malignant lesions!

%onclusion $
5ince the tumor mass growth rate is one of the most important factors influencing clinical outcome, it follows that the $g"O# value is a valuable parameter for providing information about the progression of disease

Re erences $
/! ; 7anu ;alue of 5ilver =inding "ucleolar Organiser #egions &$g"O#' in 5 uamous (ell (arcinomas of >pper $ero-digestive %ract 7?$@<, ;ol! 61, "o! 1, 1006 1! -adovani 7orphometric $nalysis of "ucleus and "ucleolar Organizer #egions &"O#s' in %ongue 5 uamous (ell (arcinoma &5((' <nt! ?! 7orphol!1+&3'A393-399, 100*!